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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
HACKENSACK – A former jail inmate who is hearing impaired has sued Bergen County, claiming jailers and medical staff violated his rights by failing to address his medical issues.
David Rocco, 47, of Allendale, says staff at the Bergen County Jail and jail healthcare provider, Corizon, failed to provide "appropriate and reasonable auxiliary aids" to ensure the inmate could communicate with his attorneys, family and medical staff.
In addition to deafness, Rocco claims he is a kidney transplant recipient and has other conditions that require him to communicate with others about his treatment and diet.
Rocco, 47, was arrested May 21, 2014 by Allendale police and charged with lewdness, according to the lawsuit, which was filed earlier this month in U.S. District Court.
Electronics giant leaving North Jersey town
The company is heading to Montvale
The lawsuit claims Bergen County and Corizon discriminated against Rocco in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, which states that government entities cannot exclude the disabled from receiving benefits of services, programs or activities.
About two weeks after his arrest, Rocco claims he was transported to the jail "where he was classified and incarcerated without a qualified sign language interpreter present."
The lawsuit claims medical staff treated Rocco "without interpreters and the ability to effectively communicate."
Rocco "remained extremely upset as he struggled to understand what was happening throughout his incarceration," the lawsuit states. "In addition, there were no videophones that plaintiff could use to contact his family or his attorney as all other non-disabled inmates could."
The lawsuit claims jailers and medical staff failed to "provide any reasonable accommodation" for the deaf inmate throughout his incarceration from June 6 to Dec. 12, 2014.
After his arrest, Rocco's sister, Cynthia, along with medical staff at Bergen Hypertension and Renal Associates contacted the jail via fax and letter seeking interpreters for Rocco. The requests were denied, according to the lawsuit.
Banned abortion doc files for bankruptcy
Dr. Steven Chase Brigham lost his New Jersey license in 2014 after performing illegal abortions in Maryland.
The lawsuit claims jail records contain several requests for interpreters but that jailers and medical staff refused or ignored all requests.
In addition to unspecified compensatory and punitive damages, the suit seeks to end the jail's alleged discrimination against "deaf or hard-of-hearing inmates" and to ensure policies and procedures are set in place to accommodate deaf inmates.
Bergen County officials did not respond to requests for comment.
Rocco's attorney, Clara R. Smit of Hamilton, did not return a call seeking comment.
Anthony G. Attrino may be reached at email@example.com. Follow him on Twitter @TonyAttrino. Find NJ.com on Facebook.
Ils sont nombreux, désormais, les romanciers africains à s’emparer du genre policier. Et à entraîner leur lectorat dans les tréfonds les plus sordides de l’âme humaine.
De l’hémoglobine, des disparitions mystérieuses, des flics ripoux et des incorruptibles, des journalistes naïfs et des hommes d’affaires troubles, des femmes audacieuses et des prostituées méfiantes… Pour ce dossier spécial polars, Jeune Afrique vous entraîne à la rencontre de personnages obscurs du Caire au Cap.
Des cœurs tourmentés qui, pour survivre dans les bas-fonds des villes africaines, sont prêts à tout, y compris à pactiser avec le diable et à commettre l’irréparable. Quand l’amoral se mêle au médiocre, l’on sombre facilement dans des tréfonds mortifères, confrontés à ce que l’humain peut avoir de plus bestial en lui. La noirceur de nos âmes ajoutée à nos petitesses et à nos bassesses, à nos ressentiments et à nos rancœurs, peut se révéler l’ingrédient vénéneux d’un cocktail explosif.
Les tares des sociétés africaines dépeintes
Auscultant nos tourments et les tensions qui nous traversent, les écrivains nous donnent à penser notre temps et nos sociétés aux prises avec une histoire violente. Marli Roode, Karin Brynard et Michèle Rowe inscrivent leurs intrigues dans un quotidien sud-africain corrompu par des heurts raciaux hérités d’un passé toujours présent.
Leye Adenle nous dépeint un Nigeria déchiré par une fracture économique, en proie à la persistance de traditions et de pratiques magiques qui en appellent toujours à des sacrifices humains. Parker Bilal évoque les dissensions pouvant exister entre musulmans et Coptes et montre comment politique et religion peuvent faire mauvais ménage.
Le roman policier se fait social, voire politique, sans pour autant perdre de vue ce qui fait le succès de ce genre : des intrigues finement nouées, du suspense et de l’action, le tout dans une écriture efficace, sobre, sans fioritures.
Le roman policier devient alors un prétexte pour faire découvrir les réalités d’un pays, d’une culture
Et c’est peut-être là la principale différence entre les francophones et les anglophones. Alors que ces derniers s’inscrivent dans une veine très anglo-saxonne, influencée par les auteurs de polars américains et britanniques, les premiers travaillent davantage sur la langue, et font du français une langue africaine, à l’instar de Florent Couao-Zotti ou de Janis Otsiemi, quitte parfois à en oublier l’intrigue.
Le roman policier devient alors un prétexte pour faire découvrir les réalités d’un pays, d’une culture. Moussa Konaté faisait, disait-on, des polars ethnologiques. Preuve s’il en est que cette littérature, encore souvent sous-estimée, peut être bien plus qu’il n’y paraît, en ce que ces polars, romans policiers ou thrillers, nous révèlent ce que nous sommes, au plus profond de nous. Un genre qui séduit de plus en plus les auteurs du continent et qui remporte un large succès auprès des lecteurs d’Afrique et d’ailleurs. L’heure du crime a sonné !
At a time when police performance is at the center of a national debate about use of violence and fair treatment, the Criminal Justice Training Center at Napa Valley College is going about the business of trying to produce the ideal law enforcement officer.
An officer needs to be compassionate but also aggressive, a problem solver and a nurturer, says Damien Sandoval, the academy’s director. Most importantly, he said, that same person has to be able to quickly shift gears between those traits.
“You have to be able to … do what is needed at the extreme violent end of the work,” he said, “(and) you have to be able to console, comfort and nurture the people that you’re working for – the community.”
“The person that has the ability to migrate across those two extremes and manage that in their personal lives as well as their professional lives, I think, is the ideal officer,” Sandoval said.
One of the key things Sandoval tries to instill in his students is understanding of other people and their differences.
“Once you’ve been hired and once you’re working in any community, it just behooves you to understand the people you’ll be working with,” he said, “… and be able to accept that they may be very, very different from you and hold very different values.”
Every three months, Sandoval meets with representatives from law enforcement agencies to discuss what their expectations are from the academy. He says that the relationship with the agencies is open and that they discuss issues in the news and around the nation.
“When you see what’s going on with the ‘Black Lives Matter’ movement, when you see what’s going on with the accusations of use of force, you cannot ignore that,” Sandoval said.
These same issues are explored by students in an assignment that requires them to immerse themselves in a culture with which they don’t feel comfortable and that they don’t know much about, Sandoval said.
It all starts with a discussion. The students are asked which group they think their biggest challenge might be with, then they break into groups of three and make contact with people from that group.
For example, recently a group of three white female students visited a predominately black Baptist church, he said. Students are required to attend community events and do three face-to-face interviews with three people from that group whom they didn’t know before. At the end, they have to teach their classmates about what they have learned about that group and how they might work to have a better relationship with them.
Students in the past have visited Sikh temples, mosques, and worked with people in the LGBTQ community and with individuals who are deaf, visually impaired or with other health issues.
Sandoval said that, although students are sometimes apprehensive or worried about the assignment first, they are always glad to have had the experience. Some of them have even stayed in contact with the communities in which they immersed themselves, he added.
“If they can’t do this,” he said, “they can’t pass this program.”
Sandoval hopes that this project and the emphasis on understanding creates a drive in students that will last their entire careers. The clientele and the issues are going to keep changing and officers must continually learn about the communities and the people they’re serving, he said.
Napa’s program focuses on six core competencies:
— interpersonal development
— a desire for self-improvement
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— learning ability
— problem solving
— physical skills
- communication skills
The 22-week, 880-hour programs requires more than the minimum state requirements, he said. The expectation is that the program and the students to be evolving and improving, Sandoval said.
“People with disabilities” and “cultural diversity and discrimination” are required, along with 41 other topics, by the state Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). The minimum total hours of training required for basic training is 664.
Napa Police Chief Steve Potter said that his department is always looking for officers who can interact with people in positive ways.
“This is a very caring, compassionate community, and we just want to be sure that that is the mindset of people coming into the job,” he said. Although the department is always “looking to raise the bar,” he said, the type of officer they are looking for hasn’t changed.
“We’re not looking for a different officer now than before all these things have happened,” he said, referring to recent issues in the news. Instead, Potter said that they search for officers who are reflections of the community and who is a good fit in the community and police department. The department even operates short-staffed sometimes because they don’t want to hire someone who doesn’t have the traits their looking for, he said.
“We’re very selective in who we hire here,” Potter said.
“We don’t need people that can just show up and physically wrestle someone – we want them to have integrity and enforce the law,” said Lt. Chris Carlisle, hiring manager at the Napa County Sheriff’s Office. In Napa Valley, officers are used to settle civil disputes and arguments more often than they are involved in violent struggles, he said, but they still need to be ready for that type of confrontation.
“It’s a constant roller coaster of emotions and mental readiness,” Carlisle said.
Agencies don’t want to hire someone who is there for the wrong reasons, he said. Ultimately, law enforcement officials have the ability to take someone’s life, Carlisle said. Not just anybody can handle that responsibility.
Going through the academy is difficult, he said, and many students drop out or fail. If they do make it through, they still have to do field training, Carlisle said.
“When you get into the field training program, your scenarios are real, you have to perform,” he said. “It’s a very high standard – you have to just be able to get out there and do it.”
“Law enforcement in general has changed significantly in the recent past,” Carlisle said. “A lot of that is driven by national events.”
Recently there has been more focus on crisis intervention training, he said. “A lot of fatal incidents occur because we’re dealing with distraught people,” he said. In order to prepare officers for those scenarios, they must participate in crisis intervention training at the academy as well as with the office that hires them, Carlisle said.
Carlisle said that requirements for officers have changed over the years because of new laws, including the required cultural diversity training. “These officers are continually loaded with new training,” he said.
By Joe Studwell August 26 at 10:00 AM
Joe Studwell is the author, most recently, of “How Asia Works.”
After 18 years at The Washington Post, Frank Ahrens crossed the Rubicon and became a public relations executive for Hyundai Motor Company in Seoul. “I became tired of writing about other people doing things and I wanted to do something of my own,” he tells us, explaining his decision. “Journalists are watchers. Not participants.”
Hired by the U.S.-educated grandson of Hyundai founder Chung Ju Yung to beef up the car business’s international public relations, Ahrens appeared at the outset to have an inside track into one of the largest and most opaque corporations in the world. Not only that, he joined the firm, in 2010, just as Hyundai was rolling the corporate dice by adding millions of units of capacity and attempting to move upmarket to challenge German and Japanese luxury marques such as Lexus, Mercedes and BMW. After 40 years, this was the final developmental push to take the company from “fast follower” (a polite business-school term for quick copier) to the corporate promised land of branded innovator.
In his memoir, “Seoul Man,” Ahrens eschews deep corporate analysis in favor of his personal tale: his self-described midlife crisis, his late marriage and fatherhood, the tradeoffs between making money and nurturing a family, his lack of experience outside the United States, the challenges of cross-cultural management, his yearning for carbonated drinks, along with thin slices of Asian history.
While memoir, of course, suggests the personal, I wish Ahrens had also probed the company where he was one of fewer than a dozen foreigners. The author lived in an international PR silo and learned (and conveys) remarkably little about the firm he worked for or the family that runs it. He met the current boss once in three years. Most of Ahrens’s work involved traveling thousands of miles to international auto shows and improving standards of written English.
"Seoul Man: A Memoir of Cars, Culture, Crisis, and Unexpected Hilarity Inside a Korean Corporate Titan" by Frank Ahrens (HarperBusiness)
Ahrens’s great strength is that he is sensitive to the people around him. He worked hard to win the trust of the team he managed, enduring the endless team-bonding drinking sessions for which Korea is rightly famed — hoesik — and he banged out “Dancing Queen” at the karaoke sessions that followed once everyone was suitably drunk.
Ahrens does a good job of describing the young people with whom he worked in a Korea struggling to move on from a forced collective march of industrialization to a more individualistic and creative economy. This is a society where rebellion is measured by not swapping winter garments for spring clothes on the appointed day, or by small gestures of informality such as corresponding with someone of a different corporate rank by email. One of his charges leaves Hyundai to start a boutique hotel — until recently an unthinkable act of risk-taking.
If his observations of those around him are telling, for this reader the “unexpected hilarity” promised by the subtitle of “Seoul Man” comes from Ahrens’s role as a cypher for the neuroses of middle America, set down, mono-lingual, in a foreign land. He confesses, in contrast to the urbane reputation of Post reporters, to being “a West Virginia provincial.”
Despite the extraordinarily fresh and healthy nature of most Korean food, Ahrens suffered a constant cultural compulsion to visit outlets of Subway, Outback Steakhouse, Tony Roma’s and Burger King. After three years in Seoul, he was pleased by the increasing availability of craft beer and “top-drawer bar food” as one tangible sign of progress.
Ahrens lived, by virtue of his wife’s job with the State Department, on the 620-acre Yongsan military base. When his wife was posted to Jakarta and Ahrens — remaining in Seoul — realized he would lose access to the compound and to tax-free U.S. shopping, he pretty much cleaned out the base’s store, including a shop’s worth of over-the-counter medicines, so concerned was he about the vagaries of life in the “real” Korean world.
The fear of a “medical emergency” for himself, his wife or their newborn was a constant refrain. This fear went stratospheric when wife and baby moved to Jakarta, and Ahrens suffered a debilitating panic attack. As Ahrens tells the story, the reader is supposed to feel for Asians who live without U.S. levels of medical care; but this reader hurt more reflecting on American lives blighted by bourgeois anxiety about what might go wrong when living in the “Third World.”
For a probing look into Hyundai, readers should consider Donald Kirk’s “Korean Dynasty.” It was written by another American journalist who, after years of dogged pursuit, managed to talk not only to Chung Ju Yung at home and at length, but also to most of his siblings and children. It is Kirk’s book that one must read to learn the scandal-filled history of the Hyundai Group and its remarkable founder.
For the ex-pat about to be posted to Korea, “Seoul Man” will be useful and occasionally funny. Ahrens hints at the high social price paid by a society in thrall to the logic of the developmental state. However, this is not a book that asks penetrating questions; Ahrens has left journalism behind.
Translation and Knowledge:From Knowledge Production to Collective Intelligence on the Web
Ajou University, South Korea
12-14 January 2017
1. About the event
- About the Event
- Call for Papers
- Submission and Timeline
Knowledge production and dissemination have long been of interest to scholars from various disciplinary backgrounds. Within the field of translation studies, the role of translation in the production, transmission and transformation of knowledge has been the focus of recent investigations by a number of research groups, including, but not limited to, the organizers of the ‘Circulation of Academic Thought’ Conference held in the University of Graz in 2015 and the research team based at the University of Manchester undertaking the UK’s AHRC-funded ‘Genealogies of Knowledge’ Research Project 2016. The efforts of such groups have initiated an exchange of ideas regarding translation as a form of knowledge-making and the cross-cultural circulation of academic thought. At present, more empirical research is needed to further our understanding of the complex ways in which translation has engaged with the production, evolution, and circulation of knowledge.
This three-day ARTIS training event provides a forum in which established and emerging scholars share their experience in investigating the role of translation in generating and transforming knowledge. The program considers such questions as:
- What are the historical, cultural, and social conditions under which translators and institutions engage in the production, dissemination, and reception of knowledge? What are the ways in which translators have participated in the process of transmitting scientific and expert discourses across linguistic and cultural boundaries?
- How were “foreign” cultural, political, and scientific concepts transmitted, circulated, and received in Asian countries during periods of political, economic, and intellectual transformation?
- Which theoretical strands (e.g. Descriptive Translation Studies, postcolonial studies, cultural studies, sociology of translation, technical translation, media studies) are relevant for studying translation of knowledge? How does our understanding of knowledge-making affect our choice of method for gathering, analyzing, and interpreting empirical data?
- What are the roles of volunteer or non-professional translators in the construction and dissemination of knowledge on the Web? How does our understanding of the interplay between translation and digital culture influence research design?
The lectures and presentations at this training event will address themes, theoretical frameworks, and methodologies related to research on the role of translation as both formative and transformative element in the production and dissemination of knowledge. The program also features workshops on developing competence in research planning and publishing academic papers in international journals.
Lecturers and workshop leaders
- Professor Luis Pérez-González (University of Manchester, UK)
- Professor Judy Wakabayashi (Kent State University, USA)
- Professor Ji-Hae Kang (Ajou University, South Korea)
- Professor Ji-Hae Kang
- Dr. Han-Nae Yu
∧ top2. Call for Papers
We welcome abstracts of no more than 300 words for 20-minute presentations on topics related to the relationship between translation and knowledge from relevant theoretical and methodological perspectives. Proposals are invited from doctoral and early career researchers. Proposals should be accompanied by a biographical note of 100 words.
∧ top3. Submission and Timeline
- Deadline for abstracts: 15 October 2016
- Notification of acceptance: 5 November 2016
Please send your abstract to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
∧ top4. Registration
- Registration fee: ￦150,000
- Registration period: 5 November – 31 December 2016
∧ top5. Contact
Event contact: email@example.com
Australia's High Commissioner to India, Harinder Sidhu, recently hosted a special screening of the film 'unIndian' starring Australian cricket legend Brett Lee. The film, which premiered last week, is showing in cinemas across India.
IBNA- CEO of Iran’s Book House Institute Majid Gholami Jaliseh said that encouraging booksellers across the country and bringing people closer to bookstores are our most important incentives to support the works of cinema.
Majid Gholami Jaliseh and Afshin Davarpanah
According to IBNA correspondent, director of books and cinema section of Iran’s Young Cinema Society Seyyed Javad Mir-Hashemi and a number of other active members of this society, met Jaliseh on Monday, July 25, 2016.
This meeting which was attended by Deputy of Cultural Research at the Book House Institute Afshin Davarpanah and Director of the Public Relations department of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabai was held at the Book House Institute, and the participants discussed the quality of films with a focus on supporting the provincial bookstores and providing a history of the veteran booksellers throughout the country.
During this event, Jalisseh stressed on the need to use different capacities in the field of books and said: “Since the beginning of my work at this institute, I’ve always believed that we could use the various existing capacities to promote books and reading, and while expressing the problems, remove the concerns and challenges in this area and find ways to fix them.”
Referring to the signing of a cultural cooperation memorandum between the Book House Institute and the Young Cinema Society, Jaliseh added: “One of the notable things that we have contained in this memorandum is to support the production of films with the theme of bookshop. One of the key issues in book industry which had been neglected is the issue of bookstores. As a matter of fact, bookstores are the main base for promoting books and reading in the cities, as bookstores had been established in many of our cities before libraries were bulit there.”
There is no secret to success except hard work and getting something indefinable which we call ‘the breaks.’ In order for a writer to succeed, I suggest three things - read and write - and wait. - Countee Cullen
Knowledge is one of the most excellent purifiers of our mind and intellect. Books are one among many sources of knowledge. By means of the book, we can dwell and live through the mind of another person. It is one of the process of advancing ourselves to the full potential. There is nothing more valuable in life than learning. Learning awakens us, it guides and inspires us. Slowly and steadily, books have led little man to become giant men and redeemers of the society.
True wisdom is beyond books, mind and intellect but books can definitely be the first steps towards attainment of wisdom. Since time immemorial, important facts, knowledge, events and wisdom have been recorded in the book-form. Writing was invented long time before the invention of radio, tv and video recordings. So, the recording information in the form of writing has a long history.
On the other hand, for those who love wisdom, for those that are passionate about truth will naturally incline to the books. There is a foundation of knowledge available in books. This is not to say that books are ready-made formula to our desires and aspirations but there are books available that present methods to lead us to whatever we want. Books like Bhagavad Gita present truth that if practiced can lead us to the absolute truth and enlightenment.
A mortal can become immortal by reading a book. If one is sincere about life and living, there are thousands of books written by men of wisdom for thousands of years available anywhere. In today’s age of internet, millions of books are available to read online. Mostly, our life is determined by what is in our mind. Mind contributes in the formation of our body and being. Person with purified mind and intellect sees a completely different world than a person with impure and lazy mind.
Oldest form of books have been traced to The Ancient Vedas. Vedas are the guides to seekers of spritiual knowledge and enlightenment. With the advancement of civilization, the truth teachers have recorded their knowledge in their books for the benefit of their disciples. Book writings have had a revolutionary impact for thousands of years now. Books like Bible and Bhagavad Gita have continued to guide men. They have created giants like Lincoln and Gandhi. Single Lincoln and Gandhi thus created through the influence of these books have led masses and caused great social and political changes the impact of which we are feeling even to this day.
Of course there is no such source of knowledge and wisdom like tuning to cosmic or universal mind but most of us are unaware of the methods to do so. Until we reach that point books can be of great advantage. Most of the insights that we never had appear upon reading few pages of a book. There is always some truth that we can receive from every book. Our job is to experiment with that truth and find out for ourselves. The truth is always there but once we experiment with it, it becomes a part of our being, our consciousness is advanced.
We are not recommending people to be obsessed about book writing or become a bookworm but we are trying to convey the fact that books are vehicles to the truth, at least few good ones are. We are far better off in picking up a book and reading than indulging ourselves in other useless endeavors.
Every man or woman should attempt to collect their experiences and things they have learnt in the form of a book. They should let their imaginations wander and express in their writings. One never knows the kind of new ideas that will hit us during these endeavors that can possibly change our lives.
After we write something, we tend to reflect on it with different eyes. We never know that our thoughts might have great value for future generations. These days many companies in America and other countries allow writers to publish and market their books for free. This has opened up a new world for aspiring authors.
Society is molded by thoughts. One good book can change the society forever and influence generations to follow. Most of the time it is not what is written in the books but the thought that it provokes in the reader.
Different people are at a varying degree of truth and in their advancement, they relate with different teachers and different books. In their journey, your experiences and knowledge might work as a ladder for some people to the greater truth. On the other hand, if you are living a worthwhile life, you should record your thoughts and understanding for people to enjoy or learn.
Knowledge doesn’t complete us but sharing our knowledge enriches ourselves and others at the same time. It is a duty of every learned person to bless others and what better way can there be in the present time than book writing? Seekers of truths depending upon their understanding will always find the appropriate teacher if they are sincere.
To most of us, we come across the kind of book we need whenever we are looking for that information. Like Emerson said, “The whole course of things goes on to teach us faith. We just have to obey. There is a guidance for each of us.” The cosmos always brings us into situations that are most likely to help us advance and progress in our journey. For such people, books can be friend, father, mother, brother or sister. Books can be a guide and a redeemer.
There is so much to be grateful because illumined seers and enlightened masters have left us so much knowledge in the form of books. Even today we can read what was in their mind and heart. These seers though they have left the body are voluntarily willing to instruct us through their writings and teachings. All we need is an open mind and desire to communicate. Krishna, Buddha, Patanjali and Shiva are equally available to us if we are only sincere.
I don’t know how we would have known about all these personalities if books were not written about them. Books about a person of the past open a completely different world for you and helps us see the world through their eyes. Person like Krishna’s life are of utmost importance if read and understood. Buddha’s teachings if read and applied can lead us to peace of mind and bliss. What other thing can be so valuable?
Even an ordinary person if engages in writing will find this thoughts coming out clearly. He will be able to recollect things he never thought were in his mind. A person is able to understand himself and others better in this way. It is hard to say why some people find joy in writing and reading a book. Some people are just drawn to particular books while some others read only if they happen to come across something they find interesting.
Our own consciousness is the storehouse of unlimited knowledge but until we get in touch with it, we are in need of external sources like books for the attainment of greater wisdom. Books are thus not to be the end but the means to the expansion of our horizons. The ultimate goal is always to come in touch with our own consciousness.
It must be remembered that to guide the less intelligent men in the society, truths can be written in a way that is relatable to them. Men of lower intellect need to be taught in different way than advanced monks and yogis. Truth can not be told but only experienced but even Krishna and Jesus have tried to explain the unexplainable so that we would go deeper to find the truth.
Good books can thus be instrumental in helping men find the absolute truth in themselves that guides and sustains everything. The best book is not the one that has all the greatest philosophies of the world in it but one that can explain us what we have within ourselves and help us find that.
Book that are full of positive ideas and thoughts can largely contribute to the progress of the community in many ways. They can create positive mind among people which automatically leads to people in mode of goodness. People in mode of goodness will always create better families, better society and better world. This kind of ripple effect can continue for hundreds of years.
Watching the Rajinikanth-starrer has a lesson: Don’t watch Hindi-dubbed versions of South Indian potboilers
The first day, first show of on July 22 was filled with frenzy. With the kind of hype the producers resorted to, any film stood the risk of buckling under the weight of expectations. More so, when a
Lu Gusun, professor at the College of Foreign Languages and Literatures of Fudan University and director of Shanghai Translation Association, passed away at the Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine on July 28.
Professor Lu Gusun [File photo]
Born in Yuyao in East China's Zhejiang province, Lu graduated from Fudan University in 1965. He has been teaching there since then. His focus was on English and American literature, and Shakespeare's works in particular.
He was committed to compiling an English-Chinese Dictionary in 1976 and acted as the chief editor for ten years until 1986.
The 15 million-character-English-Chinese Dictionary, published by the Shanghai Publishing House, was the first English dictionary compiled independently by Chinese people.
The dictionary won the First "National Book Award" in 1993 and was later appointed by the United Nations as the official reference for English to Chinese translation.
Lu once said, "Compiling dictionaries is like cooking in the kitchen. Anyone who cannot bear the smell of the kitchen is unable put up with the work of compilation."
Lu was also a renowned translator in China. He has translated more than 2 million characters and published over 10 translated works including The Young Lions, The Moneychangers, and Prisoner of Second Avenue.
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Governor Awa Fonka chaired the event, calling for culture to be promoted alongside solidarity and development.
Tradition and technology meet in a range of apps and web videos celebrating African heritage and language.
The BBC is rolling out subtitles to live streams on its iPlayer service starting with the desktop.
, a Telugu commentary on the Sanskrit scripture
, penned by religious scholar Kasibhotla Satyanarayana, was released at a function organised by the Aswadana Sahithi Sami
Interpréter n’est pas traduire !
En effet, bien que la profession d’interprète et de traducteur requièrent des compétences semblables, il existe bien une différence entre ces deux activités liées aux métiers des langues et de l’international. Un traducteur et un interprète ont généralement pour rôle de traduire une langue étrangère, vers leur langue maternelle.
La différence majeure entre ces deux métiers se définie par le fait que le traducteur exerce son activité par écrit, alors que l’interprète travaille à l’oral.
Le traducteur utilise notamment des dictionnaires, afin de vérifier l’orthographe des mots ou éventuellement pour améliorer la tournure d’une phrase, voire le sens des mots. Il doit pouvoir produire une version écrite aussi ressemblante que possible du texte originel concerné.
Un traducteur peut aussi bien travailler à partir d’un enregistrement vocal, qu’à partir d’une lecture de texte ou de tous autres supports écrits devant être traduit, tels des documents officiels, notices d’utilisation, lettres, romans, ou encore pour des slogans publicitaires.
L’interprète qui exerce à l’oral, doit quant à lui, écouter un discours issu d’une langue étrangère, puis le traduire de vive voix.
La réactivité d’un interprète fait partie de sa qualité première pour réaliser une traduction orale quasi simultanée. Ne disposant pas de temps pour vérifier le sens d’un mot, un interprète se doit de maîtriser parfaitement la langue étrangère qu’il doit traduire, tout en étant particulièrement réceptif.
L’interprète permet donc d’établir un échange entre des personnes ne possédant pas la même langue, voire ni la même culture. Il sert de lien entre des interlocuteurs désirant se comprendre au moment de leur conversation, ou notamment lors d’échanges commerciaux internationaux.
On retrouve plusieurs types d’interprétation, comme l’interprétation consécutive, qui consiste à assimiler un discours avant de le traduire à l’oral. D’autres interprètes proposent également la traduction du langage des signes, ou encore la traduction de droit international qui requière un vocabulaire spécifique.
Coté formation, un étudiant traducteur s’entraîne à analyser un texte de langue étrangère, puis le traduit en le reformulant dans sa langue maternelle.
Un étudiant interprète s’entraîne, quant à lui, à comprendre et analyser le plus rapidement possible, un texte dicté oralement. Il apprend également à organiser son contenu de manière efficace, afin d’optimiser la qualité de ses devoirs rendus.
Sachez qu’une équipe de traducteurs techniques assermentés pour les travaux complexes, vous propose de prendre en charge votre projet de traduction. Qu’il s’agisse de traduire une langue populaire ou bien rare, retrouvez des experts compétents prêts à traduire et à reformuler vos textes, même les plus difficiles.
Lors d’une conférence qui s'est déroulée pendant le congrès annuel SHARP à la BnF, Shirley Fortier, traductrice et chercheuse à l’Université de Sherbrooke au Canada, a fait part de ses réflexions sur le rôle et le statut du traducteur, en tant que « passeur et ponceur ». En constatant les erreurs qui subsistent trop souvent dans les éditions des versions originales des textes, elle plaide pour une revalorisation du rôle du traducteur au sein du processus éditorial, notamment en tant que correcteur.
BnF (ActuaLitté / CC BY-SA 2.0)
Shirley Fortier travaille à l'Université de Sherbrooke au Canada, sous la codirection des professeurs Patricia Godbout et David Leahy, associés au programme de Littérature canadienne comparée. Le rôle du traducteur
On attend généralement des traducteurs « qu’ils ne se fassent pas trop remarquer » et qu’ils soient « invisibles », déplore la chercheuse canadienne. D'autant plus que la notion de fidélité au texte est toute relative : fidélité à la lettre ou à l’esprit de l’auteur ? Dans sa traduction vers le français de A Map to the Door of No Return, de Dionne Brand (éd Vintage Canada, 2001), son contrat stipule qu’« aucun changement ne doit être fait sans le consentement de Dionne Brand ».
Or, certaines modifications sont inévitables parce qu'elles sont liées au transfert linguistique. Lorsque l’auteur amalgame deux expressions, comme « once in a blue while » (un mélange de « once in a blue moon » et de « once in a while »), le traducteur est obligé de faire preuve de créativité, qui sera forcément différente.
Traduire et corriger
D’autres changements s’imposent du fait des erreurs présentes dans le texte original. A Map to the Door of No Return est parsemé de fautes d’orthographe et typographiques (notamment dans les toponymes), d’incohérences en tous genres, d’erreurs factuelles et historiques. « De qui relève le repérage de telles erreurs ? Comment ont-elle pu se glisser dans l’ouvrage publié ? Au nom de quoi le traducteur devrait-il à son tour les laisser passer ? », se demande la traductrice canadienne.
D’autant plus qu’au Canada, le traducteur est souvent le « dernier rempart ». Il y a certes des réviseurs qui interviennent dans le processus d’édition, mais ils se concentrent le plus souvent du côté de la norme, qu’il s’agisse de revoir une ponctuation étrange ou de répétitions qu’ils peuvent trouver maladroites alors qu’elles ont été voulues par l’auteur, et de là, par le traducteur...
Corriger les textes pragmatiques
« La plupart des traductologues et des traducteurs s’entendent sur le fait que la démarche du traducteur de textes pragmatiques lui impose de ne pas reproduire les fautes de langue ou de logique commises par le rédacteur », résume Shirley Fortier. D’après la traductologue canadienne Candace Séguinot, « la correction du texte fait partie intégrante du processus de traduction. »
Pour Jean Delisle, historien de la traduction, « si le traducteur a le devoir évident à l’égard du texte de départ, il en a un aussi envers le futur lecteur de sa traduction. Par le regard neuf qu’il porte sur le texte, le traducteur participe à l’élucidation du sens et à l’amélioration de sa formulation. »
Et dans la sphère littéraire ?
La traduction de textes littéraires est plus délicate : si certaines fautes devraient être corrigées, il ne faudrait pas non plus que le traducteur polisse « les aspérités qui relèvent du style de l’écrivain, de sa poétique, de son projet d’écriture. »
Dans son ouvrage intitulé Les Métiers de l’édition, Bertrand Legendre estime que l’accompagnement de l’auteur dans les maisons devrait être assuré par les secrétaires d’édition, chargés de vérifier les informations. Or, certains spécialistes considèrent que ces détails ne sont pas à leur charge... « Il reste très fréquent que l’on pense pouvoir se dispenser de certaines étapes parce que l’on est pressé, parce que l’on connaît bien l’auteur, autant de raisons qui incitent à passer immédiatement à la phase de fabrication proprement dite, en envoyant des propositions sans avoir travaillé ni même lu le manuscrit en profondeur », regrette-t-il.
Bertrand Legendre pense que le correcteur ne devrait pas se contenter de débarrasser le texte de ses fautes de langue et des coquilles, mais qu'il devrait également « vérifier les dates, confronter à d’autres sources les données fournies par l’auteur, demander à celui-ci d’expliquer les variations, repérer les contradictions éventuelles. » Revalorisation du rôle du traducteur
« Il serait souhaitable que le traducteur jouisse d’un statut qui lui permette de se substituer momentanément à l’éditeur, au directeur littéraire, au correcteur, en bref à ces acteurs qui en première ou en deuxième ligne, auraient dû repérer les erreurs flagrantes et les incohérences », renchérit Shirley Fortier.
Ce droit doit être revendiqué par le traducteur, « lui qui est forcément un lecteur très attentif », et qui plus est, « attentif à l’œuvre dans son entièreté ». À ce titre, le traducteur serait ce « lecteur modèle » décrit par Umberto Eco, qu’il définit comme le lecteur « capable de coopérer à l’actualisation textuelle de la façon dont lui, l'auteur, le pensait et capable aussi d’agir interprétativement comme lui a agi générativement ».
(Matthew, CC BY 2.0)
Il faut ainsi « donner voix au chapitre » au traducteur et « cesser de le confiner constamment à la marge dans le processus d’édition », plaide Shirley Fortier. Une revalorisation qui devrait, dans l'idéal, aller dans le sens d'une rémunération à la hausse et d'une baisse de la précarité du milieu.
Un rôle qui dépend du genre concerné
Le genre de l’ouvrage conditionne aussi bien le travail des correcteurs que les attentes des lecteurs. Le livre de Dionne Brand a été catalogué comme une autobiographie, et pourtant le texte s’appuie sur une base historique et factuelle indéniable. « Si on avait eu affaire à un historien, on aurait peut-être agi différemment », avance Shirley Fortier, en constatant que la dimension fictionnelle semble l’avoir emporté sur l’exactitude des faits.
Une rupture du « pacte référentiel » qui lie l’auteur et le lecteur, si l’on se rapporte auPacte autobiographique de Philippe Lejeune, qui considère que les genres autobiographiques ne sont pas étrangers à la chronique et à l’histoire sociale et politique. Et pourtant, « même quand le pacte référentiel est mal tenu, cela peut avoir un intérêt pour le lecteur », estime la traductrice. Cela peut en effet nous renseigner sur la nature du filtre qu’impose l’auteur à la réalité.
La traductrice canadienne Patricia Claxton est plus catégorique : l’exactitude des références est inhérente au « contrat civil », qui doit permettre aux canadiens anglo-saxons de prendre connaissance de la littérature québécoise. « Même dans les œuvres de fiction, les références aux personnes et aux lieux réels devraient être correctes », ce qui a pu l’amener à corriger la référence à une promenade matinale reliant Nice à Saint-Tropez dans l’un des ouvrages qu’elle a traduits.
Corriger, mais pas trop
Shirley Fortier penche en faveur de la visibilité du traducteur : « il faut que je me repositionne, que j’assume mes propres interventions et que je me rende visible. »Le processus de traduction lui-même est souvent peu linéaire : « tout projet de traduction – pragmatique ou littéraire – suppose de nombreux mouvements d’aller-retours entre le texte lui-même, les sources documentaires, les sources terminologiques etc. » Elle modère toutefois son intervention dans les textes : « il faut que je résiste à la tentation d’aller trop loin dans la correction. »
Le risque serait en effet de polir le texte au point de lui enlever son originalité. C’est du moins la position du traductologue Antoine Berman, qui déplore le fait que les traducteurs tendent à homogénéiser et à « unifier sur tous les plans le tissu de l’original alors que celui-ci est originairement hétérogène ».
Collaborer avec l'auteur
« J’ai conscience que je devrai en venir à la négociation avec l’auteur ou avec ses représentants de toutes ces corrections que j’aurai faites », déclare Shirley Fortier, bien qu’elle avoue hésiter à aborder la question des erreurs auprès de Dionne Brand, de peur d’instaurer une atmosphère de défiance.
« Malgré que ces aspérités du texte me fassent constamment sortir de l’œuvre,créent vraiment une distance et un obstacle au dialogue réel avec l’auteur, il y a une espèce de dialogue virtuel qui s’est installé parce que toutes ces aspérités sont des moments où je peux entrer dans le processus créatif de l’auteur, dans sa façon de réfléchir à son histoire personnelle, à l’histoire universelle », conclut-elle.
Le multilinguisme entre créativité littéraire et traduction (Fès) Information publiée le 27 juillet 2016 par Romain Bionda (source : Younès EZ-ZOUAINE)
Le 28 août 2016
La Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza (Fès/Maroc)
Appel à communications
La Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza (Fès/Maroc)
8 et 9 décembre 2016
Nous ne saurons faire le tour de la notion de texte que si nous référons à ce qu’en dit Roland Barthes, à savoir qu’il est « l'entrelacs d’un tissu. » En effet, tout texte est constitué des discours et des paroles qui, en le traversant, véhiculent des points de vue divergents et hétérogènes. En revanche, sans prendre comme allant de soi l’idée selon laquelle la théorie du texte, telle que l’a thématisée et imposée le structuralisme, conditionne le rapport des auteurs aux langues et langages qu’ils tiennent, il est attesté par la réalité des œuvres mêmes qu’une langue monolingue et « pure » est une invention moderne, comparable en cela aux mythes tout aussi indispensables que fondateurs de l’Etat-nation et de « la territorialisation. »
Loin aussi de vouloir problématiser la question du multilinguisme exclusivement dans son rapport à la créativité littéraire et à la traduction, nous croyons que la texture des œuvres est beaucoup plus éloquente que ne l’établit communément la théorie littéraire. Les univers fictifs ne nous arrivent-ils pas souvent dans une langue post-babélienne ? Disons-le tout de suite : l’unité et l’homogénéité des langues d’écriture est un artefact politico-théologique. La parole sacrée n’est-elle pas censée être « pure » de toute souillure langagière ? C’est dire que l’Etat-nation cherche à faire coïncider la Carte (linguistique) et le Territoire et ce, au mépris de tout esprit de la nuance et de la finesse. Dans ce sens, toute théorie du texte ne devrait pas passer sous silence la multiplicité des langues, des langages, des parlers, des dialectes, des idiomes et des jargons, lesquels investissent la parole (profane?) du romancier, du dramaturge et du poète (entre autres sujets parlants) et réorientent leur saisie des réalités subjectives et objectives.
La mise à contribution d’autres langues (et d’autres langages) ou tout au moins la mise en échec de l’illusion de l’étanchéité des langues les unes par rapport aux autres constituent quelques-unes des tâches incombées aux littérateurs. Ce faisant, la conscience théorique et politique des écrivains les a depuis toujours conduits à briser les bordures linguistiques imposées par les institutions, à la fois politiques et littéraires, et ont, tout à la fois, pressenti et contrecarré les volontés qui consistent à imposer au monde réel des barrières linguistiques et imaginatifs. En effet, Pétrarque, Shakespeare, Molière, Nabokov, Cioran, Garry, Tsvetaieva, Beckett, Khatibi, entre autres, n’en sont pas des moindres.
Aussi la cartographie des genres littéraires permet-elle de faire état d’une dynamique multilingue inscrite dans leurs schémas génériques. Depuis les études de Bakhtine et ses disciples, la problématique multilingue semble définir suis generis le genre romanesque. Nous ne concevons de roman, depuis Rabelais et Cervantès, qu’à partir de la notion de dialogisme qui, loin d’être confinée et attachée seulement à l’idée de l’intertextualité, véhicule une métaphysique du genre romanesque en tant qu’espace de passage des différents discours sociaux.
Par ailleurs, ne faut-il pas faire référence à une caractéristique originelle, et partant, essentielle de l’art dramatique, à savoir son recours aux différents langages ? Tout critique donc est acculé à considérer le texte théâtral dans sa nature dramaturgique comme étant un ensemble d’idiomes, de paroles, de discours, d’interférences culturelles et linguistiques, de voix off et in, de code switching, de traduction intra et extra-linguale, de jeu sur les références linguistiques et sur leurs connotations culturelles, de recours aux jargons et aux parlers régionaux, de niveaux (ou de registres) de langue, de mise à contribution des langues étrangères, etc.
Cependant, au-delà du constat de l’omniprésence du multilinguisme dans les œuvres littéraires, nous voudrions nous interroger aussi sur sa théorisation par les écrivains et les critiques. Dans ce contexte, nous faisons état d’œuvres qui ont axé leur esthétique sur l’idée de la diversité linguistique dans leurs textes. Osons même pousser le débat jusqu’à prétendre pouvoir dégager des poétiques basées sur la problématique du multilinguisme. Des poétiques qui mettent en avant l’écriture multingue et qui l’érigent en principe de l’écriture. Pensons, dans ce sens, à l’œuvre réflexive de Khatibi, de Beckett, à l’ensemble de la littérature canadienne, aux écrits théoriques de Derrida et de Glissant.
Enfin, la problématique traductologique devrait être mise à contribution afin d’apporter plus de lumières à notre questionnement sur le multilinguisme. La traduction et son rapport à la diversité linguistique dans un texte littéraire permettra de jauger les œuvres en fonction de la théorisation et de la pratique qu’elles présentent de la question du multilinguisme.
Axes de réflexion possibles (liste non exhaustive) :
L’état de lieux des recherches portant sur le multilinguisme; Le multilinguisme et les problèmes de la traduction ; La problématique multilingue et ses rapports aux œuvres littéraires ; Les connotations politiques et culturelles du multilinguisme ; La créativité littéraire et les différentes formes du multilinguisme.
Bibliographie sélective :
Franchir le mur des langues in Jeu. Revue de théâtre, sous la direction de Philippe Couture et Christian Saint-Pierre, n° 145 (4).
Derrida Jacques, Le monolinguisme de l’autre ou la prothèse d’origine, Paris, Galilée, 1996.
Khatibi, Abdélkebir, Amour bilingue, Fata Morgana, 1983.
René Agostini, Théâtre poétique et/ou politique, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2011.
Gasquet, Axel et Suarez, Modesta, Ecrivains multilingues et écritures métisses : l’hospitalité des langues, Actes du colloque international de Clermont-Ferrand, 2-4 décembre 204.
Durrans, Stéphanie, (Se) construire dans l’interlangue : perspectives transatlantiques sur le multilinguisme, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2015.
Anokhina, Olga et Rastier, François, Ecrire en langues : Littérature et plurilinguisme, 2015.
Caprile, Jean-Pierre, Contacts de langues et contacts de cultures, 1978.
Modalités de soumission des propositions de communication
Pour proposer une communication, en fonction des axes proposés ou pour d’autres axes, prière d’envoyer un résumé anonyme d’une page (avec quelques éléments bibliographiques), sur une autre page les indications personnelles : nom et prénom, grade universitaire, institution de rattachement.
Adresse de contact :
Date limite des propositions de communications : 28 août 2016
Réponse du comité d’acceptabilité : 6 selptembre 2016
Envoie définitif des articles : 30 octobre 2016
Réponse définitive sur la base des articles rédigés : 6 novembre 2016
Dates du colloque : le Jeudi 8 et le vendredi 9 décembre 2016.
Langues du colloque :
- Le français
La possibilité d'une publication des actes de la journée d’étude, après sélection des articles par un comité de lecture, est envisagée.
Le comité d’organisation prendra en charge l’hébergement et l’ensemble de la restauration, petit-déjeuner et pause-café inclus.
Le déplacement est à la charge des intervenants.
Coordinateurs du colloque :
Younès EZ-ZOUAINE (Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza)
Hassan BANHAKEIA (Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Nador)
RESPONSABLE : Younès EZ-ZOUAINE et Hassan BANHAKEIA
URL DE RÉFÉRENCEhttp://fpt.usmba.ac.ma/
ADRESSELa Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza (Fès/Maroc)
MOVING to a big city to study can be a daunting experience.
International House welcomes students into a safe, supportive and friendly community of young people from 39 countries around the world.
International House is a residential college for Australian and overseas students who are studying at the University of Melbourne and nearby tertiary institutions.
The college caters for students who want to experience other cultures, make friends with like-minded students and encounter broader opportunities and new experiences.
Founded on the concept of Fraternitas — a fellowship of young people united together across cultural and national boundaries — International House nurtures personal growth and empowers students to be open-minded and accepting.
“I chose to live at International House because I wanted to experience life outside of rural Victoria,” said Meagan McDonald, a second year International House student studying Science at the University of Melbourne.
Homely: A student room at International House.
“When I first visited on Open Day, it was the dining hall filled with flags from nearly 40 different countries that made me decide I wanted to live at IH. I was excited to meet people from all over the world and hear about their lives and their experiences.”
Since starting at IH, Meagan has had the opportunity to be involved in sporting, cultural, performance and leadership activities, including a stint as coeditor of the IH student newsletter The IH Globe.
At International House, students pursue their personal interests, meet new people from all over Australia and settle into a community that supports them in their educational and personal endeavours.
Staff are assisted by a team of tutors and residential assistants who are committed to providing a safe and inclusive environment.
At the core of the pastoral care program are 16 tutors who provide support, offer advice and act as mentors. Four senior students trained as residential assistants complement the program, as does an on-call counsellor and three trained Fair Treatment Advisors. International House provides living facilities and catering.
Imagine being in a courtroom and not being able to understand what is being said. That's the important role interpreters play and Las Vegas courtrooms are in need of them.
Some courts may use language lines if they can't find an interpreter and Clark County District Court reports assistance with more than 90 foreign languages, but there is a need for more people who can translate.
Las Vegas may be a city where you can hear multiple languages on the Strip, in the suburbs and even at court.
"You have to come prepared for whatever is going to show up," said interpreter Consuelo Cisneros.
She has been a court certified Spanish interpreter for 16 years in Clark County.
"I decided to look into it because of the flexible schedule," Cisneros said. "I could tend to my children and work in interpreting and it's been very fulfilling. Now I do it because I love the job."
But Cisneros has moved toward the private sector translating for businesses and conferences because she says the pay is better than the $40 an hour she'd earn in court which offers more unreliable freelance hours.
"It does present a challenge to earn a living exclusively as a court interpreter," she said.
And there aren't enough interpreters. Nevada Judiciary has set up workshops to reduce the shortage.
Currently there are 88 certified Spanish interpreters listed in the state of Nevada and another four who speak other languages.
They've all gone through what Cisneros describes as thorough testing.
There are 10 interpreters for 13 other languages statewide who are described as "registered" since the same testing in not available for those languages.
In Clark County alone, there were nearly 34,000 reported requests for interpreters in the past year.
"I think where the link is weak is with institutions to identify that they have that need," said Sylvia Lazos, who is a professor at UNLV's Boyd School of Law.
Nevada courts point out that although the U.S. Constitution does not specifically guarantee the right to translation in court, the courts have interpreted that the right is guaranteed through the Fifth and Sixth Amendments.
"We want folks to have the same kinds of outcomes as much as possible regardless of who they are, what their last name is or what their zip code is," Lazos said.
She believes that is not always happening and insists a court proceeding should be delayed if an interpreter is not available.
"It's so fundamental to the system of justice that it's something that we need to pay attention to," she said.
"For people who are limited English, it is, it is one of the awesome guarantees of the American justice system," said Cisneros.
The I-Team started looking into this issue after hearing of concerns about some family court cases moving forward without interpreters, but Clark County District Court spokeswoman Mary Price issued the following statement: "The court has received no indication or complaint that hearings requiring the use of interpreters are proceeding without interpreter assistance; and, the court encourages anyone who has experienced otherwise to report the issue to court administration."
The first Esperanto textbook was published on July 26, 1887, by its inventor L.L. Zamenhof
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Over 1,000 speakers of Esperanto have been expected to gather this week at the 101st World Esperanto Congress in Slovakia to celebrate Tuesday as the 129th anniversary of the “birth” of the language, as July 26, 1887, marked the publication of the first Esperanto textbook by L.L. Zamenhof. The Polish doctor created the language, which is essentially a set of roots that can be turned into words with certain endings that create different parts of speech.
Though Esperanto can be seen as something of a punchline today, its origins can be found in serious world-historical matters.
Zamenhof identified the need for a “neutral tongue,” as TIME once called it, while growing up in Bialystok in northeastern Poland, home of a mostly Jewish population and a few main ethnic groups that were not communicating. Humphrey Tonkin, the former president of the University of Hartford and the Universal Esperanto Association who currently represents the latter at the United Nations, explains that while Zamenhof was in medical school in Moscow in his 20s, his world changed: “The czar gets assassinated, Jews are accused of carrying out the assassinations, and there’s a whole round of pogroms in Russia that eventually spread westward into Poland.”
The wave of anti-Semitism underscored Zamenhof’s thinking that the world needed a single language that would make it possible for people to bridge gaps of religion or ethnicity. Meanwhile, technological developments like the telegraph meant that people from vastly different backgrounds were suddenly in closer contact than ever. “It’s also a period when the first international organizations get created, like the Universal Postal Union and Universal Telegraphic Union,” Tonkin says. “[It was] an earlier wave of globalism that destroyed with the rise of nationalism in the beginning of the 20th century.”
Considering that context, the language’s structure was strategic. Even though a Yiddish-based grammar would have been a natural choice for appealing to the Eastern European Jews who had inspired him, Zamenhof based his new tongue on the Romance languages. “He picked a language structured like Latin because Latin had prestige and Yiddish had none,” Tonkin says. The name Esperanto — meaning “one who hopes” — comes from the pseudonym under which the Jewish doctor published the textbook during a period of severe censorship of Jews in the Russian empire, but also because (in a soap-operatic twist) “he couldn’t use his own name because his father was one of the censors who censored Hebrew and Yiddish works.”
Get your history fix in one place: sign up for the weekly TIME History newsletter
Esperanto wasn’t the first invented language of its time. A German Catholic priest tried to make “Volapük” catch on seven years earlier, but it died out because, “he didn’t want anyone else to make decisions about it,” says Arika Okrent, linguist and author of In the Land of Invented Languages. “Zamenhof just said, ‘Here it is,’ and he didn’t meddle with what people started doing with it.'”
Partly because Zamenhof let the language grow naturally, Esperanto is now said to be spoken in over 120 countries, boasts a Wikipedia site with more than 230,000 articles and has 465,000 signups on language-learning app Duolingo.
But Esperanto also had another reason to succeed: though other invented languages of the era were designed for practical purposes—to further scientific collaboration or assist with trade, for example—its pie-in-the-sky aims had immediate and broad appeal. And, Okrent says, that appeal has endured even as Esperanto has failed to become a widely spoken, everyday language.
“Esperanto people were drawn to this vision of world harmony,” she says. “The ideals kept it going through subsequent decades where it became clear that it wasn’t going to work in the way most people thought it would.”
Le 2 juin 2016, Catherine Pollard, Secrétaire générale adjointe chargée du Département de l’Assemblée générale et de la gestion des conférences (DGACM), a signé à Tanger (Maroc), au nom de l’ONU, un mémorandum d’accord avec l’École Supérieure Roi Fahd de traduction de l’Université Abdelmalek Essaadi. Le mémorandum permettra d’organiser une coopération dans le domaine de la formation de traducteurs et d’interprètes ayant les compétences requises pour travailler pour l’Organisation. Cette école est ainsi devenue le vingt-troisième membre du réseau d’établissements d’enseignement supérieur qui travaillent avec l’ONU dans le cadre du Programme de collaboration avec les universités du Département.
À la cérémonie de signature du mémorandum d’accord, Mme Pollard a souligné l’importance du multilinguisme, valeur fondamentale de l’ONU, et rappelé que cette valeur ne peut être préservée qu’en s’efforçant de recruter le personnel linguistique le plus qualifié.
Le Programme de collaboration avec les universités vise à resserrer la coopération entre les établissements d’enseignement supérieur et l’ONU afin de former des étudiants appelés à être recrutés dans les services linguistiques des organisations internationales. Plus concrètement, il s’agit d’aider les candidats potentiels à se préparer aux examens et concours de recrutement de personnel linguistique organisés par l’ONU, notamment en les sensibilisant aux compétences particulières recherchées.
Ce Programme a été lancé en 2007 par le DGACM pour remédier à la pénurie d’interprètes de conférence et de traducteurs constatée au niveau mondial, ainsi que pour mieux faire connaître les possibilités d’emploi offertes aux services linguistiques de l’ONU.
Pour plus d’informations sur les activités de formation et de diffusion du Département, veuillez consulter le site Web consacré aux services linguistiques : languagecareers.un.org.
The Cubs are in the process of hiring a new translator for Aroldis Chapman, sources said, trying to smooth things over after a rocky introduction to Chicago that left the superstar closer feeling frustrated by his portrayal in the media.
Chapman told Comcast SportsNet Chicago’s Siera Santos that he requested a new translator on Thursday, while a Cubs official said the team had made the offer earlier this week, responding to all the negative coverage from a press conference that made a bad first impression and national headlines for the wrong reasons.
The Cubs understood trading for Chapman – who began this season serving a 30-game suspension under Major League Baseball’s domestic violence policy – would immediately spark controversy.
But the Cubs still didn’t seem completely prepared for the moment, or quite as thorough as advertised, watching Chapman look disengaged on Tuesday, not remembering anything specific about what chairman Tom Ricketts had told him over the phone about off-the-field conduct – a precondition that president of baseball operations Theo Epstein sold as an essential part of the deal with the New York Yankees.
With a large group of reporters gathered before a Cubs-White Sox game, Chapman sat in U.S. Cellular Field’s visiting dugout next to Henry Blanco, the quality-assurance coach and former big-league catcher who’s approved under the new joint program between MLB and the players’ union that requires every team to have a full-time, Spanish-speaking translator this year.
Blanco has built-in credibility and communication skills after playing for 11 different teams across 16 big-league seasons, but he found himself in a difficult position, given the sensitive nature of the questions and what’s at stake for a World Series favorite and an image-conscious organization.
Chapman later did a one-on-one interview in Spanish with ESPN’s Pedro Gomez. The team’s public-relations department circulated that transcript, with Epstein saying Chapman had been nervous and something got lost in translation.
But the damage had been done, with a visibly upset Chapman initially refusing to speak to the media on Wednesday night after making a spectacular debut in a Cubs uniform, unleashing 13 pitches from his left arm that registered at least 100 mph on the big Wrigley Field video board.
It became an awkward scene after what was supposed to be a feel-good 8-1 victory over the White Sox, creating a new tension in a laid-back clubhouse. Chapman showered, listened to his associates and ultimately agreed to two minutes of questions, with catcher Miguel Montero becoming his translator.
“What I’m trying to do right now is to really build a relationship with this guy so he starts trusting me,” manager Joe Maddon said. “I believe once that occurs, I’m really going to be able to understand exactly what he’s about and what he’s thinking.
“I know there’s been some reticence or pushback regarding him to this point. However, understand where he’s coming from right now. We don’t know him. He doesn’t know us. And he really doesn’t even know the language.”
Chapman – who grew up in Cuba and is now in his seventh season in the big leagues – should be motivated to acclimate given the possibility of a World Series ring and a big free-agent contract this winter.
“I’ve spoken to him only once, at length, just trying to get him to relax,” Maddon said, “(and) have him understand me and what we’re all about here.
“As we all develop better relationships with him, the conversation’s going to flow a lot more easily and you’re going to maybe get the kind of information you’re looking for. But to put myself in his shoes, coming into a new venue, a new city, new everything, it’s a pretty heavy moment to immediately be scrutinized that way. I can almost understand why it’s been difficult for him.”
I met Jen Calleja, Translator in Residence at the Austrian Cultural Forum London (ACF) (she’s also a poet and musician), on Twitter. I was so interested to see there was someone else with the same job title that I just reached out. I went to one of her events at the ACF to meet her in person. Jen is so eloquent about translation and thinks so deeply about what she does that I just had to interview her about her role – and many other things.
MD: How did you end up being the Translator in Residence at the ACF?
JC: I’ve been the acting editor of New Books in German for nearly two years, and when I finished the first year, the ACF asked me if I’d be interested in helping with the literary aspect of their programme. I helped find a group of poets who would be commissioned to write on contemporary Austrian fashion. Because of that first project I’d ended up translating one of the Austrian writer’s pieces and then suggested that we make it a residency. They wanted me to continue organising literary programming for them and I thought: wouldn’t it be great if the events were translation-focused? So they would often entail a British contemporary creative as well as an Austrian creative to root Austrian literature in the British scene and I’d get to translate some work. The ACF were amazing and said yes. So far, I’ve organised half a dozen or more events, some very ambitious, some author conversation events. Basically it happened because I asked.
MD: It’s the role of the bridge between cultures par excellence, isn’t it? You’re working in an institution which wants to bring Austrian literature to a London audience and you’re a translator, so you know both sides of the scene.
JC: Because I’m partially in the poetry or writing scene as well, it feels perfect: I can invite people I’m aware of. I had Joanna Walsh in conversation and poets likeAmy Key and Alex MacDonald. But then there were people who have never really experienced an institution’s cultural project before. When I did an exhibition of multimedia translations of a story by Anna Weidenholzer, many people involved were filmmakers, musicians and artists that I knew from being around creatives. It’s a perfect melding of all my lives.
MD: Do you think a translator is well-placed to work with an institution that wants to promote its national literature somewhere else?
JC: Yes, I think especially now that we’re becoming a lot more visible in the literary scene, translators are in the perfect position because we are the bridge between the foreign literature and the British scene. Many institutions need a bit of a helping hand when it comes to revving up their literary programming and also making it the impetus to try and teach people about translation, because there’s still a huge gap in the knowledge about that.
MD: Would a position of a Translator in Residence work with an institution that’s aim isn’t promoting literature from another country?
JC: I was just thinking the other day how great it would be to be a Translator in Residence at an art gallery. Especially working from the position that just communicating is translation and that when you’re transforming an art form into another art form, that’s translation. Visual art could be seen as a visual translation of ideas or concepts. Also thinking about how translation has affected art and translated literature and essays and manifestos have affected artists – that’s something that doesn’t really get discussed.
MD: Do you find that your work makes people more aware of what translation is? Have you heard from people who were surprised or found it newly interesting?
JC: There were two specific examples of people who have come to events but also people who I’ve had conversations with about translation. One was a friend of mine – I explained to him how, when translating, you have to alter the text, and he was furious, said that’s immoral and that you should “just translate” it. Also, at a conference I said that you always translate into a context, for example if you’re translating a book for a British literary publisher, then in some way you are translating it into a context, both temporal and there’s genre and a social context – British literariness is not the same as German literariness. Someone said: “No, that’s wrong, as a translator you don’t make that decision, you “just translate” a text”. I love this idea of “just translating” – you don’t touch it, you just take it from this box and put it in this box. But I sent my friend a lot of podcasts and articles about it, and he came back to me and said: “I now understand”. As a translator, you’re always explaining to people what translation is. During the multi-media translation event (with the Weidenholzer short story that I translated into English, and then commissioned a 30-second video, tape-loop sound work and photography from) I gave a brief talk about why this is like literary translation. It’s their personal voice; viewing that translator as a voice that has been told a story and is further communicating it in a way that they personally can. Someone came up to me after the event and they’d had the lightbulb moment: “Now I know!” It’s just the simple thing of explaining that if a hundred translators translate a story, their versions would be very similar, but there would also be vast changes in how it would come out, what would stand out. It’s the same with any reading of any text.
MD: There’s still some distrust when it comes to translation. To an extent, the role of a Translator in Residence is to soothe that distrust, in more ways than one. On the one hand you’re getting people used to the fact that translation is not a lie, and on the other – you’re fighting distrust between cultures by showing that there are things that can resonate with you even though they’ve been written by an Austrian or a Polish writer. We engender trust, don’t you think?
JC: Absolutely. I also always think of the translator as a storyteller. You pass along a story and as a storyteller and a human you always bring your own life, background and personality into that. You can’t avoid it. The problem with the mainstream conception of translation is that people want you to stay out of it, which is impossible. You can’t take the translator out of the translation. If you’re translating a story about family, you can’t really forget your own family. The way that you tell it and the emphases you’re putting on its different parts would definitely be your own impulses and motivations.
MD: As a Translator in Residence you’re also made even more visible – that’s interesting, because, as you say, translators are expected to stay out of it. You chair the discussions, you choose what and how you want to present.
JC: Yeah, you’re elevated to the same position as the writer. It used to be that you didn’t really have a Translator in Residence position at all, because you were seen as a sort of an admin person, and now it’s really acknowledged that you are doing a form of creative writing and it takes a lot of creative power. I recently translated a children’s book and I asked: “What kind of editorial process will we go through?” and the editor said it was already edited in German, so we wouldn’t have to have an editing process. I think that really explains that people don’t understand that it’s a creative process.
MD: You also choose what you make visible to others. I think this process of selection and being an expert on the foreign literature that you bring to people’s attention is very interesting.
JC: You’re really right: we read a lot of books from that literature, we’re aware of what’s going on in that scene, we’re also great editors, we know so much. There’s an acknowledgement: “Well, you know best, so we ask you who you think is the most interesting”. I get the impression from a lot of your events that there’s a political aspect to it. Is that something you’ve done consciously?
MD: I was just going to ask you that. The answer is definitely. For many reasons Polishness as seen abroad is becoming more and more narrow. It’s because Polishness is defined increasingly narrowly in Poland; the zeitgeist is such that you have to tick certain boxes to be considered a true Pole. I have this incredible opportunity to show a different kind of Polishness: to show diversity, dissent, women’s voices, migrant voices. It’s a privilege to work with Free Word because their politics mesh so well with mine. Applying for the job I said that I see this role as rooting for the underdog. In a linguistic sense, in a political sense…
JC: For me it’s different, because German and Polish are in different realms in terms of popularity and perception in England, but I’m definitely of the opinion that translation is a form of activism in terms of forming that cultural bridge that is so necessary, whether people want it or not. I had a project where we brought over two Austrian writers to come and spend time in London and to write about it. What they wrote could be perceived as negative: they found London to be brash, ugly, loud, dirty and Londoners to be very stressed, which is not wrong. Through translation we can find the way in which we’re connected, and see we have a lot of similarities. I brought together Joanna Walsh andCarolina Schutti – Carolina had written a book about domestic violence and child abuse. Those topics are prevalent in our own writing in Britain. And with both those things, in the negative and in those points of connection, what you’re getting is part critique and part connection and you can’t have one without the other.
Especially now, in light of Brexit, I feel we have to talk about Europe; it’s like Britain doesn’t want the critique any more, they can’t take the fact that things can be done differently, they don’t have the dialogue. That’s why translation can be an act of activism. In her amazing piece for the New Statesman Stephanie Boland says that when you engage with foreign cultures you have to translate yourself. If you speak more than one language, if you’re part of two different cultures or if you get a perspective of someone from a culture outside of your own, you see the world you live in – that you take for granted – in a different light and you can understand that things aren’t rigid, that they’re fluid and can change. It’s like a constant reflection – if you don’t have a mirror, you just exist in a bubble. Doing translation events, getting people to meet foreign writers and read foreign texts is so important socio-politically. And on a minor level it’s been really important for me to be in a visible role, to learn how to talk about my subject. It made me think in a much more focused way about what I do, taught me not to scurry away from being in a public role, because that’s so important in terms of communicating and educating.
MD: We’ve been talking about people wanting the translator to only be a transparent pane of glass that you can see the text through. It takes courage to sit on the stage and not think about whether your hair looks weird. I found I really enjoy it.
JC: You have to really embrace the platform. And especially because translation is predominantly bodied by women and yet women being visible in terms of the arts and literature and having a regular platform is really important. That women can talk about that subject and make the most of it. A lot of my events have been women-focused.
MD: So have mine. In terms of the political aspect, I think what we’re there to do is to foster change. I’ve been trying to do that within the business as well – I had two events that were a bit inward-looking. One was about translators’ contracts, which, again, aimed to make the little voice stronger and help translators be more confident about negotiating.
JC: It’s definitely still a submissive role in that power dynamic.
MD: The other event that I saw in a political sense was the bilingual translation discussion at the Literary Translation Centre at the London Book Fair. I wanted to make people think about it again. Does it necessarily always need to be true that you can only translate into your “native” language?
JC: I’m fascinated with this new awareness of bilingual and multilingual writers. Even though being a literary translator is still quite a rare thing, the reason why I love having the foreign author there, as well as the translator (in many cases me), is that someone always gets forgotten in this equation; sometimes it’s the author, because maybe they’re not 100% fluent in English. In terms of the event, I am in the power role, because I am the translator.
MD: That’s an interesting reversal, isn’t it?
JC: Sometimes when you’re translating that balance is shifted. In many cases I’ve felt like I’ve been in a dominant role, but now that the translator is becoming an icon I think the people getting forgotten are the multilingual writers. Literary translation is going through a massive revolution, but there still hasn’t been enough of a focus on multilingual writers and they’re getting side-lined because maybe English isn’t their first language. That’s going to become more of a focus over time: writers writing bilingually, not just in English or in one of their languages, but those who don’t presume that the reader only reads English. I’m fascinated by this idea. I’d love to see books written by bilingual German-English writers that are written half in English, half in German, for people – who do exist – who can do both, across all languages. That would reflect the kind of reality that we’re living in. We’re not living in a monolingual culture. I’d love to write a book like that one day, but I don’t feel comfortable writing in German yet.
MD: It’s such a banal thing to say, but the more languages you have, the more worlds you belong to. Then it becomes easy to accept that there isn’t just one thing – like in translation. There isn’t just one correct version.
JC: If you’re a translator, if you’re multilingual or move across different scenes or mix with all kinds of people, you feel a connection to everything. You don’t worry about your self, your identity, your integrity, you don’t feel like you need to have it. You’re connected and in communication with other people. It enriches your life.
MD: Someone may be reading this and wondering how to become a Translator in Residence. Any advice?
JC: I was inspired by International Translation Day – there was a workshop about residencies. Someone said: “Just ask institutions! They might not fund you, you might have to find your own funding, but one of the best ways is to go off-track and just find somewhere”. If you’re good friends with an institution or a gallery that knows you from another aspect of your life, get in touch with them and forge your own route. With me it’s completely flexible and I was lucky enough that they do give me a fee to organise an event, I have free rein and I get paid theTranslators Association rates for the translations. Think of it as a great opportunity in terms of people you could meet, personal development and your confidence. It’s a chance to educate people, which will make translators’ lives a lot easier, and to encourage more people to go into translation and languages.Deborah Smith, who’s now a superstar – one of the best things that came out of her winning the Man Booker was her saying that she didn’t start learning Korean until she was in her early twenties. Many people who don’t know a foreign language were amazed and inspired by this. You can learn a language at any point in your life.
MD: We’re coming back to that political aspect: translating stories – however you want to understand the process of translation – is now very needed.
JC: We really do. Even with understanding what’s going on now in terms of the EU crisis. I’ve been able to access foreign media, see other perspectives. It’s so important to hear other people’s voices. You never know, there might be a story out there in Chinese that would change your life.
Popular RPG online, "MU Online" será lançado de forma oficial no Brasil. Além de contar com formas de pagamento facilitadas por meio dos canais da Level Up - os jogadores poderão utilizar cartões de débito, crédito e boletos bancários para compras -, o jogo também ganhará textos em português.
"MU Online" foi lançado em 2003 e é um game que continua popular por aqui, especialmente por ter um conteúdo aprimorado ao longo desse tempo. Ele é gratuito para jogar.
Outro jogo que chegará oficialmente ao país é "Continent of the Ninth", popularmente conhecido por "C9". O conteúdo desse RPG, porém, não foi localizado para a chegada ao Brasil, mas os jogadores também passarão a ter mais facilidade na hora de realizar compras dentro do game, assim como passará a acontecer com "MU Online".