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I wrote the lyrics to Les Miserables while working as the Mail's TV critic - and it changed my life

I wrote the lyrics to Les Miserables while working as the Mail's TV critic - and it changed my life | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
HERBERT KRETZMER: As I sat in my Knightsbridge flat all those years ago, agonising over whether the line about ‘but the tigers come at night’ would work or not, I never dreamed of what Les Miserables would become.
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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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University programs help non-native English speakers learn in new ways : The Antelope

University programs help non-native English speakers learn in new ways : The Antelope | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

To become an official undergraduate student at UNK, some international students go to the English Language Institute (ELI) to improve English usage to a certain level in order to pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).

Shintaro Minami, a freshman from Tokyo, Japan, was in ELI last semester. She said she benefited in many ways. “I could focus on studying English at ELI because of the nice educators, and every class helped me to pass the TOEFL. I can use the skills I learned in ELI for UNK classes,” Minami said. “And also, I could make a lot of friends from many countries.”

The ELI program provides good opportunities for all students including Conversation Tables and Conversation Partners. International students can talk and meet with UNK students in these groups. Then everyone helps and everyone learns.

Diane Longo, ELI coordinator, said, “The ELI program was created and directed by Jerald Fox in the fall of 1997. Nineteen students were enrolled and the program’s goal was to improve reading, writing, listening and speaking skills in English.” ELI has about 50 students this semester from Brazil, China, Columbia, Japan, Mexico, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia and South Korea.
“I like my job,” Longo said. “Because everyone I work with seems very committed to helping young people and reaching the goal, and I like to meet and talk with international people. They are amazing!”

TOEFL has two testing formats that are TOEFL IBT and PBT. TOEFL IBT is an Internet-based test that measures all four skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. A perfect score is a 120, and UNK requires a score of 61 or higher.

Photo by Akiho Someya
The ELI program has a conversation table once a week. During this time, international students can communicate with UNK undergraduate students who are native speakers.

TOEFL PBT is administered in a paper-based format measuring three skills of listening, reading and grammar. A perfect score is a 677, and UNK requires a score of 500 or above.

Though most of the students have taken English language classes for many years, when they get here, it is different and they need more practice. Students can take TOEFL three times, including the placement test when they are in ELI where they are divided into five different levels and take six different classes.

“The class needs to be small so educators can communicate with students very well. During this time, educators work with students and share their information,” Longo said. “Our duty is to help students to become undergraduate students, and of course help them learn English, not only writing and reading, but also speaking fluently and with good pronunciation.”

Photo by Akiho Someya
Students in ELI take a fun group picture during a break in classes. Students are able to meet other international students from all over the globe.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

To become an official undergraduate student at UNK, some international students go to the English Language Institute (ELI) to improve English usage to a certain level in order to pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).

Shintaro Minami, a freshman from Tokyo, Japan, was in ELI last semester. She said she benefited in many ways. “I could focus on studying English at ELI because of the nice educators, and every class helped me to pass the TOEFL. I can use the skills I learned in ELI for UNK classes,” Minami said. “And also, I could make a lot of friends from many countries.”

The ELI program provides good opportunities for all students including Conversation Tables and Conversation Partners. International students can talk and meet with UNK students in these groups. Then everyone helps and everyone learns.

Diane Longo, ELI coordinator, said, “The ELI program was created and directed by Jerald Fox in the fall of 1997. Nineteen students were enrolled and the program’s goal was to improve reading, writing, listening and speaking skills in English.” ELI has about 50 students this semester from Brazil, China, Columbia, Japan, Mexico, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia and South Korea.
“I like my job,” Longo said. “Because everyone I work with seems very committed to helping young people and reaching the goal, and I like to meet and talk with international people. They are amazing!”

TOEFL has two testing formats that are TOEFL IBT and PBT. TOEFL IBT is an Internet-based test that measures all four skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. A perfect score is a 120, and UNK requires a score of 61 or higher.

Photo by Akiho Someya
The ELI program has a conversation table once a week. During this time, international students can communicate with UNK undergraduate students who are native speakers.

TOEFL PBT is administered in a paper-based format measuring three skills of listening, reading and grammar. A perfect score is a 677, and UNK requires a score of 500 or above.

Though most of the students have taken English language classes for many years, when they get here, it is different and they need more practice. Students can take TOEFL three times, including the placement test when they are in ELI where they are divided into five different levels and take six different classes.

“The class needs to be small so educators can communicate with students very well. During this time, educators work with students and share their information,” Longo said. “Our duty is to help students to become undergraduate students, and of course help them learn English, not only writing and reading, but also speaking fluently and with good pronunciation.”

Photo by Akiho Someya
Students in ELI take a fun group picture during a break in classes. Students are able to meet other international students from all over the globe.

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In conversation: ‘Poems come to me in the form of a world’ - Brown Daily Herald

In conversation: ‘Poems come to me in the form of a world’ - Brown Daily Herald | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Pilar Fraile Amador's poetry, widely published in her native Spain, uses words to create and explore surreal spheres of personal and political identity.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The poetry of Pilar Fraile Amador, widely published in her native Spain, uses words to create and explore surreal spheres of personal and political identity. In a bilingual recitation, Lizzie Davis ’15 will open the door to these worlds for English-speaking readers with her translations of Amador’s poetry collections, “Larva Seguida de Cerca” and “Close.” The reading, which will take place in the McCormack Family Theater at 7 p.m. Friday, is part of the Department of Literary Arts’ two-day festival, “Panic Cure: Poetry from Spain in the 21st Century.” Davis and Amador recently sat down with The Herald to discuss their parallel journeys of translation and creation.

 

Herald: Lizzie, what were your main concerns regarding the project?

Davis: My main concern was taking this beautiful, surreal universe created in Pilar’s poems and trying to transfer that so that a non-native speaker could have the experience of that text in English. A lot of it was in the details — tiny grammatical things. In the end, it came down to going on my nerve to recast this light in English that had been cast in Spanish.

 

Herald: And were there any specific places where you went to Pilar for advice?

Davis: I wasn’t in contact with Pilar while I was working on the project. I didn’t want to send her anything until I had something that I was excited about, so I waited until the end to send it to her. Then she gave me her comments. There were a lot.

Amador: Some of the language in the book is very specific, so it is very hard to translate. Some of the language I use belongs to a small region in Spain.

Davis: There was one word that was actually a water bug, but I had thought it was a shoemaker.

 

Herald: Pilar, what are the main themes of the poems in your collections?

Amador: The poems come to me in the form of a world. So for me, it’s kind of difficult because I see the poems from inside-out. But I will say that the main theme of “Larva” is identity — the construction and deconstruction of identity. And the main theme of “Close” would be like community — how do we gather together?

Davis: What drew me to “Larva” is the way it deals with the communication on a subconscious level that exists between human beings — this wellspring from which poetry and all of the arts drink. What I really got from the first section of “Larva” was that there is an individual memory and there is also a collective memory, and the way that those intermix can be very generative.

 

Herald: Pilar, how did you feel when you read the translations for the first time?

Amador: I feel that it’s very surprising the first time you read translations, because it’s like something that used to belong to you doesn’t belong to you anymore. But once you get used to that, it’s very beautiful because you can see how the meaning and the subconscious meaning can be translated into another world. It’s like, “whoa.”

Davis: I think that that was really hard for me to understand because I wanted to be as accurate as possible, but I think there’s something inherently subjective to translating where you’re having this visceral experience and you can’t really separate your own experience of the text from the translation.

 

Herald: Pilar, were there aspects of the poetry you were surprised to see emphasized in the translation?

Amador: This thing that showed up when I read Lizzie’s work was that the poems were becoming younger, lighter. I could see her youthfulness in the poems, and it’s very, very beautiful.

 

Herald: Lizzie, do you feel you developed your own tone in your translation?

Davis: The similarities between Pilar’s poetry and my own poetry made translating a lot of fun. We both move in nondelineated spaces. Her work is very image-driven. It has this multi-vocal timbre to it and it’s very disjointed. I could relate as a writer to what she was doing, but I really tried to keep from leaving a mark. I wanted to honor the beauty of her tone.

 

Herald: Pilar, when you were writing these poems did you have a specific readership in mind?

Amador: Not really. But I was thinking about restoring the things that went wrong in the past times of my country — some kind of poetic justice. I have always felt that there were two or three generations in Spain that were kind of lost to the civil war, so I always have these generations in mind. There are parts in the poems that may speak to those generations.

 

Herald: Lizzie, what was your process in translating?

Davis: My first impulse was to read the entire text. Then I went through and did rough translations so that I could get a deeper understanding. I found there was a line between maintaining the qualities of the original language and allowing those qualities to expand the language of translation. I tried to let the source text push the limits of English. But I wanted to make sure the poems really read as convincing poems on their own, so I thought a lot about recreating syntactical and stylistic elements seamlessly in English.

 

This interview has been edited for clarity and length.

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5 Top Tips For Proofreading

5 Top Tips For Proofreading | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

When you’re writing for your business, you must proofread carefully to make sure no embarrassing mistakes are published. Even if you’re an excellent writer – and not everyone is – you might not be the best typist. Plus, many spell-check programs usually won’t catch errors that are correctly spelled homophones (such as they’re/their/there).

To keep your writing clear and error free, use these 5 easy proofreading tips:

1. Take a break. When you have finished the writing, walk away from it for a while. Sleep on it if you can. When you return with a fresh brain, you will be more alert and can more easily spot typos and other mistakes.

2. Tech first. Before you read it over yourself, turn up the grammar and spell check functions in your word processing program to the most formal settings, and run them. This will eliminate the most egregious errors. Sometimes this can also help fix formatting problems.

3. Print it out. When you have a piece of paper in front of you and are holding a pen to make corrections, it’s more likely you will catch little mistakes here and there.

4. Read it aloud. Sometimes the ideas in your mind don’t come out as clearly on paper as you might like. Reading your work out loud helps you hear confusing grammar errors.

5. Get another set of eyes. Oftentimes, the writer is just too close to the writing to be able to see mistakes that someone else might catch. Ask someone you respect and trust to look for misspelled words, typos, formatting mistakes, and grammatical errors.

The best person to ask to review your work is a professional. When in doubt, contact your Virtual Assistant. She or a member of her team can read through your important business documents and marketing materials and prevent mistakes from going out into the world.

Need editing help? Contact me today!

- See more at: http://sophiezo.com/5-top-tips-for-proofreading/#sthash.z4ibesej.dpuf

Charles Tiayon's insight:

When you’re writing for your business, you must proofread carefully to make sure no embarrassing mistakes are published. Even if you’re an excellent writer – and not everyone is – you might not be the best typist. Plus, many spell-check programs usually won’t catch errors that are correctly spelled homophones (such as they’re/their/there).

To keep your writing clear and error free, use these 5 easy proofreading tips:

1. Take a break. When you have finished the writing, walk away from it for a while. Sleep on it if you can. When you return with a fresh brain, you will be more alert and can more easily spot typos and other mistakes.

2. Tech first. Before you read it over yourself, turn up the grammar and spell check functions in your word processing program to the most formal settings, and run them. This will eliminate the most egregious errors. Sometimes this can also help fix formatting problems.

3. Print it out. When you have a piece of paper in front of you and are holding a pen to make corrections, it’s more likely you will catch little mistakes here and there.

4. Read it aloud. Sometimes the ideas in your mind don’t come out as clearly on paper as you might like. Reading your work out loud helps you hear confusing grammar errors.

5. Get another set of eyes. Oftentimes, the writer is just too close to the writing to be able to see mistakes that someone else might catch. Ask someone you respect and trust to look for misspelled words, typos, formatting mistakes, and grammatical errors.

The best person to ask to review your work is a professional. When in doubt, contact your Virtual Assistant. She or a member of her team can read through your important business documents and marketing materials and prevent mistakes from going out into the world.

Need editing help? Contact me today!

- See more at: http://sophiezo.com/5-top-tips-for-proofreading/#sthash.z4ibesej.dpuf

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GVF Launches Maritime Communications

GVF Launches Maritime Communications | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Lexicon of Communications Terminology to be applied to Communications Solution Provider & Solutions User Dialogues

During the
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Lexicon of Communications Terminology to be applied to Communications Solution Provider & Solutions User Dialogues

During the Informa VSAT 2014 conference in London, the Global VSAT Forum (GVF) announced the launch of its Maritime SatCom Forum (MSF) ‘Glossary’. The document, earlier iterations of which were developed by the Maritime SatCom Forum Working Group of the GVF, has been further developed by the joint-chairs of the MSF, Martin Jarrold, Chief of International Programme Development, GVF, and Roger Adamson, Chief Executive, Futurenautics.

“The ‘Glossary’ comprises a highly comprehensive A to Z of the terminology used on a daily basis by the satellite communications industry in its dialogues with one of its key customer vertical markets” commented Martin Jarrold. Mr Jarrold further remarked that having a working group, such as the MSF, which is focused on the maritime space, is a reflection of the fact that “The technology of communications and the exchange of information it facilitates has undergone a highly-accelerated development, and with such advanced communications the maritime communications service environment has now progressed fully into the broadband age. Against this evolving technology and service backdrop, the MSF has built a strong relationship with InterManager – the international association of ship managers – the Secretary General of which, Captain Kuba Szymanski, has been a constant and forthright advocate of the ‘Glossary’.”

Roger Adamson added, “The development of the ‘Glossary’ was driven by requests from the maritime customer marketplace for a detailed explanation and elaboration of the terminology commonly used by satellite communications solutions vendors, and this document will serve to improve the quality and effectiveness of discussions at the interface of the solutions seller and the solutions buyer.”

Martin Jarrold further commented, “Roger Adamson has previously collaborated with GVF in connection with the GVF-EMP Conference Partnership Broadband Maritime/Maritime Insights Conference Series and brings a wealth of maritime-related experience, as well as background knowledge of satellite communications in the maritime space.”

Following the launch of the ‘Glossary’ during today’s conference proceedings, the GVF, in collaboration with InterManager and Futurenautics, will engage in a continuing programme to disseminate the ‘Glossary’ as a key resource to enhance the future dialogues between the satellite solutions community and the maritime solutions customer environment.

Captain Szymanski commented, “The shipping industry needs more standardisation and I am delighted to see this joint project completed. Our new ‘Glossary’ shows that it is possible to identify and agree on terms to make the industry understandable for all stake holders, with special attention to seafarers who are, ultimately, the end users.”

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First bilingual isiXhosa dictionary in 30 years

First bilingual isiXhosa dictionary in 30 years | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
In a small town just outside East London in the Eastern Cape – the home of the isiXhosa language – leading educational publisher Oxford University Press Southern Africa (OUPSA) continued to boost African languages by launching the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English, the first substantial isiXhosa–English bilingual dictionary to be published since 1985.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

In a small town just outside East London in the Eastern Cape – the home of the isiXhosa language – leading educational publisher Oxford University Press Southern Africa (OUPSA) continued to boost African languages by launching the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English, the first substantial isiXhosa–English bilingual dictionary to be published since 1985.

The launch event, which took place at Prana Lodge in Chintsa East, was attended by a host of prominent academics, education specialists and media. Eastern Cape Education MEC, Mr Mandla Makupula, and Member of Parliament Mr Bantu Holomisa also attended as guest speakers. Chintsa East is about 40 kilometres away from what is now known as Intlambo kaNongqawuse, an area that saw the near ruin of the isiXhosa nation during the cattle killings of 1856–57. It was fitting, therefore, that the launch celebrated the isiXhosa language here, in the heart of Heritage month.

“Oxford has been making up-to-date bilingual dictionaries for South African languages since 2004. Each bilingual dictionary we produce takes at least three years, an extensive team of language and dictionary-making experts and state-of-the-art technological support. The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English had a team of more than 35 experts working on it,” says Steve Cilliers, OUPSA Managing Director.

The investment culminated in a ground-breaking dictionary that boasts a host of features unseen in others before it. The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English is the first of its kind to have been made with a corpus. This means that words were selected based on their frequency in texts such as novels, textbooks, official documents and even transcripts, ensuring that the dictionary reflects the language as it is really spoken today. It is also the first to include words from across the South African curriculum, such as life cycle, photosynthesis and vertex. The result is a modern, up-to-date dictionary that supports learning and teaching in subjects like Natural Sciences and Maths, as well as in the two languages.

“Our ultimate goal is to support education and enable all South African children to fulfil their potential. This may seem like a big task for a dictionary to achieve, but our research indicates that widespread use of bilingual dictionaries really could help children acquire the languages they need to learn, and to succeed, whatever their mother tongue may be. Having real dictionaries in class can help teachers stop being ‘walking dictionaries’ and enable them to spend more time on the subject they’re teaching. We feel confident that they can make a real difference,” continued Cilliers.

Guest speaker at the launch event and Member of Parliament Mr Bantu Holomisa added, “This dictionary will go a long way to promote indigenous languages.”

At the launch, 600 copies of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English were donated to the Nelson Mandela Institute for Education and Rural Development (NMI), an Eastern Cape-based NGO working with rural communities to create text-rich classrooms that promote reading, writing, expression and critical thinking. Ms Xolisa Guzula, Senior Language and Literacy Specialist at NMI, was on hand to accept the donation and commented that it would go a long way in supporting learners and teachers: “Dictionaries are a scarce resource in our schools. The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English will help teachers to standardise meanings as they teach vocabulary, and learners as they engage with difficult texts. They’ll be invaluable in making texts even more accessible in both languages.”

The new Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English is available at leading book retailers at a recommended selling price of R129.95.

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Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics - Oxford Reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics - Oxford Reference | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Authoritative and reliable, this A–Z reference work provides jargon-free definitions for even the most technical mathematical terms. With entries ranging from Achilles paradox to zero matrix, it covers all commonly encountered terms and concepts from pure and applied mathematics and statistics, for example, linear algebra, optimisation, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. In addition, there are entries on major mathematicians and on topics of more general interest, such as fractals, game theory, and chaos.

Almost 200 new entries have been added to this edition, including terms such as arrow paradoxnested set, and symbolic logic. Useful appendices complement the A–Z dictionary and include lists of Greek letters, formulae, and tables of inequalities, moments of inertia, Roman numerals, a geometry summary, trigonometric values of special angles, probability distributions, and many more.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Print Publication Date:
2014
Print ISBN-13:
9780199679591
Published online:
2014
Current Online Version:
2014
DOI:
10.1093/acref/9780199679591.001.0001
eISBN:
9780191759024

James Nicholson, author

Christopher Claphamwrote the first and second editions of this dictionary. Until 1993 he was Senior Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Aberdeen. His publications includeIntroduction to Abstract Algebra and Introduction to Mathematical Analysis.

James Nicholson has a mathematics degree from Cambridge, and taught at Harrow School for twelve years before becoming Head of Mathematics at Belfast Royal Academy in 1990. He lives in Belfast, but now works mostly with the School of Education at Durham University. He is the author of two A-level Statistics texts, two GCSE Mathematics revision guides, and a contributing author for a number of other mathematics textbooks.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Authoritative and reliable, this A–Z reference work provides jargon-free definitions for even the most technical mathematical terms. With entries ranging from Achilles paradox to zero matrix, it covers all commonly encountered terms and concepts from pure and applied mathematics and statistics, for example, linear algebra, optimisation, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. In addition, there are entries on major mathematicians and on topics of more general interest, such as fractals, game theory, and chaos.

Almost 200 new entries have been added to this edition, including terms such as arrow paradoxnested set, and symbolic logic. Useful appendices complement the A–Z dictionary and include lists of Greek letters, formulae, and tables of inequalities, moments of inertia, Roman numerals, a geometry summary, trigonometric values of special angles, probability distributions, and many more.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Print Publication Date:
2014
Print ISBN-13:
9780199679591
Published online:
2014
Current Online Version:
2014
DOI:
10.1093/acref/9780199679591.001.0001
eISBN:
9780191759024

James Nicholson, author

Christopher Claphamwrote the first and second editions of this dictionary. Until 1993 he was Senior Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Aberdeen. His publications includeIntroduction to Abstract Algebra and Introduction to Mathematical Analysis.

James Nicholson has a mathematics degree from Cambridge, and taught at Harrow School for twelve years before becoming Head of Mathematics at Belfast Royal Academy in 1990. He lives in Belfast, but now works mostly with the School of Education at Durham University. He is the author of two A-level Statistics texts, two GCSE Mathematics revision guides, and a contributing author for a number of other mathematics textbooks.

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Le Clavier Cannibale: Raconter l'incendie: Jurgenson entre deux langues

Le Clavier Cannibale: Raconter l'incendie: Jurgenson entre deux langues | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Le bilinguisme peut conduire à d’étranges conclusions. Par exemple, il permet à Luba Jurgenson d’avancer que le syndrome de Sevran-Beaudottes se manifeste de façon exemplaire dans la langue polonaise. Cette assertion vous semble obscure ? Lisez donc Au lieu du péril, son dernier ouvrage paru aux éditions Verdier, et la chose vous paraîtra très vite limpide.

 Dans ce livre, l’auteur – écrivain traductrice, co-directrice avec Anne Coldefy-Faucard de la collection « Poustiaki » chez Verdier – s’interroge sur le va-et-vient entre deux langues, en l’occurrence le russe et le français. Née en Union soviétique, Luba Jurgenson a quitté jeune la terre et la langue qui l’avaient vue organiser le monde des mots et des choses ; s’étant réinventée en France et surtout en français, elle a fait de son bilinguisme acquis l’atout d’une vie consacrée à l’écriture (d’abord en russe, puis en français) et à la traduction (on lui doit Gontcharov, Chalamov…). 
Quiconque s’intéresse à la traduction lira ce livre crayon à la main et lumière dans les yeux, tant les intuitions y sont pertinentes et lumineuses. Quiconque s’intéresse à la langue y fera moisson d’expériences fortes et pertinentes. Et si vous avez un corps, ma foi, ce livre vous parlera d’autant, car il relate avec modestie et perspicacité le voyage incessant que fait un corps entre deux langues. Comment naît-on dans une langue ? Comment naît-elle en nous ? Y a-t-il une physique du balbutiement? Luba Jurgenson a éprouvé dans ses gestes le passage d’une langue à une autre et rend compte aussi bien de l’entre-deux vertigineux qui pousse parfois à adopter le silence que de la gymnastique inconsciente qui se produit dans notre cerveau. Avec les écrits de Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt (et ceux George Steiner), c’est sans doute un des textes les plus précis et les plus vivants sur l’apprentissage de la langue comme géographie mentale et purgatoire sensoriel. Le parcours de l’auteur, fait de brisures et de superpositions, d’absences et de retours, éclaire à merveille le sens d’une vie vouée au langage. 
Concernant la traduction, Jurgenson a compris depuis longtemps que la langue nous écrit autant que nous l’écrivons. Traduire, c’est souvent lire, ce qu’elle explicite parfaitement à propos du fameux « premier jet » :
« Je convoque mon aiguilleur mental. L’écriture du premier jet n’est donc rien qu’une lecture, qui peut être plus littérale ou plus élaborée, c’est une question de réglages de vitesse. Je peux choisir de rester plus près du texte initial – et donc, d’aller plus vite – ou de rechercher d’emblée une restitution lus proche de l’autre rive. Ce qui ne présage en rien du résultat final. A ce stade du texte, je ne le vois pas, je suis à l’intérieur, au plus près de la situation de passage, dans ce passage. »
Et d’exposer quelques lignes plus loin ce phénomène inéluctable :
« Plus je vise un premier jet abouti, et plus la tension est grande, je me fais simple auxiliaire du texte : envahie. Dans sa forme extrême, cette tension conduit à mon exclusion totale : le texte me possède alors si complètement que ‘je’ n’y suis plus – il m’a remplacée. »
Bref, un état proche de la transe – transe, transition, passage : traduire c’est, comme écrire, se faire un corps autre au sein d’une langue. Larguer les amarres du ‘je’ et, pour reprendre l’exceptionnelle expression de Luba Jurgenson, « s’ingénie à se manquer à soi-même ».
En 120 pages, l’auteur parvient à « raconter un incendie avec du feu » – autrement dit à faire parler dans et par la langue ce qui se joue dans le mouvement de navette qu’opère quiconque traduit – que ce soit dans sa vie quotidienne, face aux objets, aux souvenirs, au plus profond de ses émois ou dans ses expériences de lecture, au cours de l’acte de traduire et à même la respiration d’être.
___________________

Luba Jurgenson, Au lieu du péril, éd. Verdier, 13€50
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le bilinguisme peut conduire à d’étranges conclusions. Par exemple, il permet à Luba Jurgenson d’avancer que le syndrome de Sevran-Beaudottes se manifeste de façon exemplaire dans la langue polonaise. Cette assertion vous semble obscure ? Lisez donc Au lieu du péril, son dernier ouvrage paru aux éditions Verdier, et la chose vous paraîtra très vite limpide.

 Dans ce livre, l’auteur – écrivain traductrice, co-directrice avec Anne Coldefy-Faucard de la collection « Poustiaki » chez Verdier – s’interroge sur le va-et-vient entre deux langues, en l’occurrence le russe et le français. Née en Union soviétique, Luba Jurgenson a quitté jeune la terre et la langue qui l’avaient vue organiser le monde des mots et des choses ; s’étant réinventée en France et surtout en français, elle a fait de son bilinguisme acquis l’atout d’une vie consacrée à l’écriture (d’abord en russe, puis en français) et à la traduction (on lui doit Gontcharov, Chalamov…). 
Quiconque s’intéresse à la traduction lira ce livre crayon à la main et lumière dans les yeux, tant les intuitions y sont pertinentes et lumineuses. Quiconque s’intéresse à la langue y fera moisson d’expériences fortes et pertinentes. Et si vous avez un corps, ma foi, ce livre vous parlera d’autant, car il relate avec modestie et perspicacité le voyage incessant que fait un corps entre deux langues. Comment naît-on dans une langue ? Comment naît-elle en nous ? Y a-t-il une physique du balbutiement? Luba Jurgenson a éprouvé dans ses gestes le passage d’une langue à une autre et rend compte aussi bien de l’entre-deux vertigineux qui pousse parfois à adopter le silence que de la gymnastique inconsciente qui se produit dans notre cerveau. Avec les écrits de Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt (et ceux George Steiner), c’est sans doute un des textes les plus précis et les plus vivants sur l’apprentissage de la langue comme géographie mentale et purgatoire sensoriel. Le parcours de l’auteur, fait de brisures et de superpositions, d’absences et de retours, éclaire à merveille le sens d’une vie vouée au langage. 
Concernant la traduction, Jurgenson a compris depuis longtemps que la langue nous écrit autant que nous l’écrivons. Traduire, c’est souvent lire, ce qu’elle explicite parfaitement à propos du fameux « premier jet » :
« Je convoque mon aiguilleur mental. L’écriture du premier jet n’est donc rien qu’une lecture, qui peut être plus littérale ou plus élaborée, c’est une question de réglages de vitesse. Je peux choisir de rester plus près du texte initial – et donc, d’aller plus vite – ou de rechercher d’emblée une restitution lus proche de l’autre rive. Ce qui ne présage en rien du résultat final. A ce stade du texte, je ne le vois pas, je suis à l’intérieur, au plus près de la situation de passage, dans ce passage. »
Et d’exposer quelques lignes plus loin ce phénomène inéluctable :
« Plus je vise un premier jet abouti, et plus la tension est grande, je me fais simple auxiliaire du texte : envahie. Dans sa forme extrême, cette tension conduit à mon exclusion totale : le texte me possède alors si complètement que ‘je’ n’y suis plus – il m’a remplacée. »
Bref, un état proche de la transe – transe, transition, passage : traduire c’est, comme écrire, se faire un corps autre au sein d’une langue. Larguer les amarres du ‘je’ et, pour reprendre l’exceptionnelle expression de Luba Jurgenson, « s’ingénie à se manquer à soi-même ».
En 120 pages, l’auteur parvient à « raconter un incendie avec du feu » – autrement dit à faire parler dans et par la langue ce qui se joue dans le mouvement de navette qu’opère quiconque traduit – que ce soit dans sa vie quotidienne, face aux objets, aux souvenirs, au plus profond de ses émois ou dans ses expériences de lecture, au cours de l’acte de traduire et à même la respiration d’être.
___________________

Luba Jurgenson, Au lieu du péril, éd. Verdier, 13€50
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Université: la convention bute toujours sur le mot "coofficialité"à Corte

Université: la convention bute toujours sur le mot "coofficialité"à Corte | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L’Etat refuse de signer le document tripartite qui engage l’avenir de l’université. On y parle de bilinguisme et de contribution de l’institution au projet sur la langue voté par l’assemblée de Corse
Charles Tiayon's insight:


L’Etat refuse de signer le document tripartite qui engage l’avenir de l’université. On y parle de bilinguisme et de contribution de l’institution au projet sur la langue voté par l’assemblée de Corse

La traditionnelle conférence de presse de rentrée de Paul-Marie Romani, s'est déroulée hier au Palazzu Naziunale. Seul face à la presse, le président de l'université de Corse, a tablé son intervention sur trois thèmes à travers, bien sûr, un point sur la rentrée 2014-2015, puis le rappel des dynamiques structurantes, enfin, et surtout, l'évocation du dossier qui fâche, et qui commence à faire monter la moutarde au nez de la communauté universitaire, celui de la convention tripartite 2013-2017, toujours pas signée à ce jour !

Pour ce qui est de la rentrée, c'est chiffres à l'appui, que le président Romani a développé son sujet. Premier constat : les inscriptions sont en constante et forte progression.

Date à date, l'université de Corse enregistre 3.464 inscrits, soit 555 de plus que l'an passé. « Nous devrions largement dépasser le chiffre de la rentrée dernière, à savoir la barre des 4 426 inscrits », a-t-il indiqué.

Certes, il n'y a pas de formations nouvelles ouvertes cette année, car l'offre est stabilisée. Si modification il y a, ce ne sera que lors de la prochaine négociation avec l'État pour une nouvelle période qui débutera en 2017.

En revanche, Paul-Marie Romani faisait remarquer qu'une toute récente enquête de la revue L'étudiant, classe l'université de Corse en 6e position des universités françaises pour la réussite en licence : « La progression sur l'année qui vient de s'écouler est encore plus marquée, puisque nous sommes en tête. »

Le président Romani présentait ensuite quelques grands rendez-vous avec, entre autres, l'inauguration, le 27 septembre, de la fac de Lettres, de langues, de sciences humaines et sociales totalement réhabilitée.

D'autres réhabilitations et extensions sont également programmées pour les années à venir comme Paoli Tech. Rentrée studieuse et dynamique donc, avec à l'esprit« une préoccupation permanente qui est celle de veiller au bien-être de notre communauté et en particulier à la situation précaire de nombreux étudiants ».

Le volet des dynamiques structurantes porte sur la poursuite et l'enrichissement du projet de l'université de Corse à travers notamment la consolidation du socle scientifique et son amplification au niveau internationale.

Le deuxième axe sera d'affirmer la mission de responsabilité sociétale et territoriale de l'université, aussi bien quant à la réussite des étudiants, ainsi qu'au soutien du développement socio-économique du territoire, comme la promotion et la défense des problématiques liées à la langue et à la culture corse.

Enfin, le troisième axe permettra de mettre en œuvre une stratégie patrimoniale à la fois actualisée, innovante, sécurisée et soutenable. Des axes constituant l'épine dorsale du projet de l'université de Corse.

Les mots de la polémique

Le dernier point, et non des moindres, portait donc sur la non-signature de la convention d'application tripartite, retardant la mise en œuvre des projets.

Après une brève genèse des événements, le président Romani pointait du doigt une phrase, 20 mots derrière lesquels l'État se cache pour ne pas tenir ses engagements.

Pourtant cette convention a été élaborée dans le respect de l'autonomie de l'université de Corse, « mais aussi en étroite conformité avec les orientations et dispositifs nationaux, d'une part, et des politiques territoriales, d'autre part ».

Un projet d'établissement accompagné par les moyens que s'engagent à mettre en œuvre l'État et la CTC. Certes l'État a fait un effort en octroyant 44 postes à l'université en juillet dernier, mais a reculé en même temps en refusant de signer la convention pour laquelle ces termes sont la cause de tous ses maux : « L'université souhaite donc à travers la mise en œuvre d'un projet ambitieux de transfert, répondre à la demande sociale de bilinguisme et apporter une contribution au projet de coofficialité voté par l'assemblée de Corse. »

Ces quelques mots de la page 11 de la convention ont donc suffi à jeter l'opprobre sur l'université et sa communauté ! Consternant… Malgré de nouvelles moutures de ce texte, rien n'y fait.

Et la convention n'est pas validée. Certes, l'université de Corse n'est pas aujourd'hui en situation de faillite. Mais cette convention devient urgente, « puisque nous avons déjà perdu deux ans ».

C'est à la fois un sentiment d'incompréhension et de mécontentement qui anime le président Romani et la communauté universitaire. D'ailleurs, un CA extraordinaire sera provoqué très rapidement pour dessiner la stratégie à défendre face l'État, avec le soutien de la CTC et du président de l'exécutif territorial.

0

Tous droits de reproduction et de représentation réservés. © 2012 Agence France-Presse.

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AFP et son logo sont des marques déposées.

M. G. (mgrazi@corsematin.com)




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30 septembre 2014 : The sociolinguistics of aboriginal languages of Australia and the challenges of revitalization: the case of Western Desert languages - Faculté de traduction et d'interprétation ...

Conférence : The sociolinguistics of aboriginal languages of Australia and the challenges of revitalization: the case of Western Desert languages

Conférence donnée par le Professeur Peter Mühlhäusler, Université d’Adelaide, Australie
Mardi 30 septembre 2014, à 12h15
Salle L208, Bâtiment Landolt (2 rue de Candolle)
Entrée libre
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Salon Expolangues 2015 à la Porte de Versailles

Salon Expolangues 2015 à la Porte de Versailles | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Expolangues revient pour sa 33e édition à la porte de versailles du 5 au 7 février 2015, au programme: 180 exposants, 30 pays et 80 langues à découvrir à travers les univers du salon, et plus de 100 conférences et animations.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Expolangues revient pour sa 33e édition à la porte de versailles du 5 au 7 février 2015, au programme: 180 exposants, 30 pays et 80 langues à découvrir à travers les univers du salon, et plus de 100 conférences et animations.


 

La 33e édition d’Expolangues, du 5 au 7 février 2015, placée sous le patronage du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, du ministère de l’éducation Nationale, du ministère des Affaires Etrangères, du Vice-Président du Parlement Européen et en partenariat avec l’Unesco, s’inscrit une fois de plus, dans une démarche visant à encourager le dialogue interculturel et entend satisfaire de la même manière les visiteurs qui viendront découvrir des cultures et des pays à travers leur patrimoine linguistique.

L’édition 2014 d’Expolangues, avait permis à près de 21 000 visiteurs de rencontrer 180 acteurs du monde des langues (éditeurs, représentants de pays étrangers, institutions...). 80 langues étaient représentées.

Ouvert aux professionnels et au grand public (enfants, étudiants, adultes...),Expolangues permet à tous de s’informer et de découvrir les langues en participant à de nombreuses conférences et animations. Les visiteurs peuvent y rencontrer : les ministères et organismes institutionnels, les ambassades, instituts culturels et instances européennes, les maisons d’édition et librairies spécialisées, les écoles et organismes de formation linguistique, les sociétés de multimédia, les organismes de traduction et d’interprétation. 

Les Univers du salon
Ce rendez-vous, aux dimensions internationales s'articulera autour de 4 grands pôles au sein desquels les visiteurs - professionnels et grand public - pourront trouver les informations qu'ils recherchent :

Parler : Editeurs, librairies spécialisées, ministères, organismes institutionnels, ambassades, instituts culturels, écoles de langues, sociétés de multimédia, organismes de séjours linguistiques, laboratoires de langues, sociétés de traduction et d'interprétation...

Etudier : Ecoles et universités françaises ou étrangères, établissements proposant des programmes d'études à l'étranger (MBA executive...), formation continue...

Travailler : Etablissements publics, entreprises qui recrutent, organismes de coopération...

S'expatrier : Prestataires de services, banques et assurances, offices de tourisme, compagnies aériennes...


Infos pratiques :
Expolangues
Du 5 au 7 février 2015
Paris Expo Porte de Versailles– Pavillon 4.1 

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Director Michael Woodwood brings a new translation of Ibsen classic A Doll’s House to Worthing Connaught Theatre

Director Michael Woodwood brings a new translation of Ibsen classic A Doll’s House to Worthing Connaught Theatre | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A DOLL’S HOUSE Connaught Theatre, Union Place, Worthing, Wednesday, September 24 and Thursday, September 25 Starts 7.30pm, 2pm matinee Thurs, tickets £16/£14. Call 01903 206206
Charles Tiayon's insight:

A DOLL’S HOUSE Connaught Theatre, Union Place, Worthing, Wednesday, September 24 and Thursday, September 25 Starts 7.30pm, 2pm matinee Thurs, tickets £16/£14. Call 01903 206206

 

BACK in July Baroness Hale, the UK's only female Supreme Court judge called for more gender equality across the legal system, adding it would improve the quality of justice.

Director Michael Woodwood says more than 130 years ago Henrik Ibsen was talking about the different view women take on law in his classic play A Doll's House.

“Nora sees saving her husband's life as one of the most important things to do for her family,” he says. “But the law says she can't borrow money or have her own finances. Her own view of the law is slightly different.”

Woodwood is bringing a new translation of the classic play to Worthing next week as part of UK Touring Theatre's second national tour.

Named by the United Nations as the world's most performed play in 2006, A Doll's House follows the apparently naive Nora as she prepares for Christmas with her children and recently promoted bank manager husband Torvald.

When one of Torvald's employees Nils Krogstad is threatened with losing his job after being caught committing fraud he blackmails Nora to use her influence so he can keep his position.

If she doesn't Krogstad says he will reveal the illegal loan Nora obtained from him for an Italian holiday to help Torvald recover from ill-health several years before. As the action unwinds Nora's view of society and her husband is irrevocably changed.

“Nora is one of the great parts for an actress alongside Hedda Gabbler,” says Woodwood, who has cast Felicity Rhys in the lead role, opposite Adam Redmayne as Torvald.

“The play is her awakening of what is happening to her as she tries to hold their relationship together - this slow realisation that she's just a possession and her husband is more concerned about his honour than what his wife has done for him.”

Woodwood's stage design for this touring production is designed to mirror the action of the play.

“We have hanging doors and hanging picture frames with no walls as such,” he says. “The set isn't just fixed in one place - we wanted to give the idea of moving between rooms.

“The house is a metaphor for the marriage - as the house starts to fall apart so does the marriage. The production moves from order into chaos, and the music moves from harmony into disharmony.”

Nora's final act in the play was so shocking to contemporary European society that in one infamous German production leading actress Hedwig Raabe refused to play the role unless Ibsen wrote a different ending. Woodwood believes there is still a taboo today - but A Doll's House reflects a time when a woman had to stay in a relationship as there was no way they could have their own money, property or rights.

“We still live in a man's world and I think a lot of women would agree with that,” he says.

“Even in the western world where a woman's rights are quite well advanced there are still a lot of women who don't get equal pay, and it is men who make the laws.”



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How to Write a Content Marketing Plan in 7 Steps

How to Write a Content Marketing Plan in 7 Steps | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Once you’ve established your business online with a website, it’s time to start advertising to your audience. The Internet is a huge space with vast amounts of pages and information, so it is unl…
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Once you’ve established your business online with a website, it’s time to start advertising to your audience. The Internet is a huge space with vast amounts of pages and information, so it is unlikely that customers will just happen to stumble upon your website and engage with your business. You have to be the one to put it out there and draw customers to your site. The best way to do this is by using a content marketing plan.

Instead of traditional advertisements that tell audiences what to do, the new and better way to attract customers is to show your audiences what to do. To do this, you need to create informative content that shows readers the benefits of your product or service without directly telling them to buy it. Given the growing number of businesses using content marketing plans, this is clearly a very effective way of making your business known and increasing its sales.

So how do you write a content marketing plan?

1. Set a goal

Figure out what it is you’re trying to achieve with your content. Are you trying to get traffic to your site? From what source? How much? How often? Be specific. Once you have an objective in mind with your content marketing plan, you can create content to fit this goal.

Related Resources from B2C
» Free Webcast: Blogging in the Age of Modern Marketers

2. Figure out your audience

There is going to be a certain type of audience you want to reach out to. It’s called your demographic. Before you write your content, make sure you have a clear picture of your ideal customer so you can direct your topics and writing style to this potential reader.

3. Find out what’s popular and trending

Check out what other businesses are doing with their content marketing plans so you can get ideas for your own strategy. Try to figure out the types of articles that most customers are reading, and what kinds of content businesses are publishing to become popular. Then write about relevant topics that will interest your audience.

4. Write a good variety of content

When writing your content, make sure to vary the type of article, the topics, and the medium that you use. With the Web full of fast-paced, interesting content, customers will get easily bored if you constantly publish the same articles. Offering different types of content will attract different types of customers in your demographic and increase your following.

5. Write with SEO in mind

A great way to get your content seen online is to use search engine optimization (SEO) to increase your ranking on search engines. To improve your visibility in searches, use specific keywords and phrases in your content that will direct searches to your website. But please, make sure your content is well written and interesting, because articles will be flagged and punished by search engines if they are stuffed with keywords. Writing and publishing SEO content properly will attract readers to your content while maintaining your website’s integrity.

6. Share on social media

Social media are hubs for news and information and have become a popular way of finding content. To spread your content among all of your customers and reach out to other circles, you need to make sure you have a constant presence on social networks. You can achieve this by publishing your content on multiple platforms.

7. Evaluate metrics and use them to improve

Once you’ve published the content from your content marketing plan, you need to ensure that it’s achieving your initial goal. The best way to figure this out is to look at the metrics, such as how many customers have engaged with your content by taking actions like sharing on social media, visiting your website, or purchasing your product or service. You can then use this information to improve your content marketing plan.

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Translating Emotions—'Lilting' Is a Debut Feature Film

Translating Emotions—'Lilting' Is a Debut Feature Film | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Watching a film that enlists an interpreter to translate most of the dialogue between its two main characters is a tall order for even the most accommodating audiences. But it is the hurdle of communication that propels the drama in director Hong Khaou's feature debut, "Lilting," about an uneasy bond between two strangers who share a common grief but not a common language.

British actor Ben Whishaw plays Richard, a young man mourning the sudden death of his boyfriend and reaching out to his deceased partner's mother, Junn, a Cambodian-Chinese woman living in London who doesn't speak English and had been dependent on her son for everything. "I wanted to examine how somebody like that would cope if her lifeline to the outside world was gone," Mr. Khaou says. Richard's arrival into Junn's life is complicated by the fact that the son, Kai, kept his sexuality hidden from his mother. "Lilting" opens Sept. 26 in New York ahead of a wider release next month.


Leila Wong and Ben Whishaw in 'Lilting' Strand Releasing
Much of the film's dialogue is filtered through the young translator that Richard hires to communicate with Junn, played by veteran Hong Kong actress Cheng Pei-pei, whose credits include "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." That narrative style was a risky dramatic device that had the potential to turn off audiences. "The fear was that it could slow a film down and become monotonous, because in effect you're conveying the information twice," Mr. Khaou says. But he found that the role of the translator helped him by adding awkward moments in the story, such as when the interpreter blurts out her own opinions amid the tensions between Richard and Junn, and by tempering scenes that could have come across as overly sentimental.

The film touches gently on gay themes, but Mr. Khaou says he "didn't want it to become a coming-out story, which we've seen a million times over." He also was determined to avoid the clichéd antics of meanings lost in translation, opting rather for an exploration of how words anchor beliefs.


Director Hong Khaou on set Strand Releasing
"We all know that language and communication can bridge differences and bring about understanding," Mr. Khaou says. "But I think equally it highlights differences so strong and so rooted that we can't forgive, and you have conflict arising out of that."

The interpreter also comes to the aid of an elderly British man who's courting Junn at the retirement home where they both live. But once the couple are able to understand each other, the romance fizzles amid arguments and illuminated misconceptions, as the translator walks the line between peacemaker and intruder.

At yet other points, the interpreter is mute, but Junn and Richard are able to reach each other through their common grief. Says Mr. Khaou, "We're very instinctive," says Mr. Khaou, "We can read emotion very well—it's a language we all are very good at understanding."

The story isn't autobiographical, says the director, but "a lot of it is very personal." Mr. Khaou, whose family is Cambodian-Chinese, was born in Phnom Penh in 1975. They fled Cambodia for Vietnam a few months later as Pol Pot came to power, and in 1983 the family settled in England. Like Junn, his mother speaks Cambodian, Mandarin and a few other Chinese dialects but never learned English. "I was resentful of the fact that she never assimilated," he says. "In my childhood I spent so much time translating for her."

"Lilting," which unfolds in a series of present-day scenes and flashbacks, began as a play written by Mr. Khaou more than a decade ago. The original title was "Lilting to the Past," but the name was shortened when producers didn't warm to it. "I think it is a beautiful word," he says, calling the title a poetic interpretation of the film's linguistic tones and rhythmic structure.


Peter Bowles and Pei-Pei Cheng in a scene from 'Lilting' Strand Releasing
The play was never produced and he put it away until an opportunity opened a few years ago to make a micro-budget
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Watching a film that enlists an interpreter to translate most of the dialogue between its two main characters is a tall order for even the most accommodating audiences. But it is the hurdle of communication that propels the drama in director Hong Khaou's feature debut, "Lilting," about an uneasy bond between two strangers who share a common grief but not a common language.

British actor Ben Whishaw plays Richard, a young man mourning the sudden death of his boyfriend and reaching out to his deceased partner's mother, Junn, a Cambodian-Chinese woman living in London who doesn't speak English and had been dependent on her son for everything. "I wanted to examine how somebody like that would cope if her lifeline to the outside world was gone," Mr. Khaou says. Richard's arrival into Junn's life is complicated by the fact that the son, Kai, kept his sexuality hidden from his mother. "Lilting" opens Sept. 26 in New York ahead of a wider release next month.

Leila Wong and Ben Whishaw in 'Lilting' Strand Releasing

Much of the film's dialogue is filtered through the young translator that Richard hires to communicate with Junn, played by veteran Hong Kong actress Cheng Pei-pei, whose credits include "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." That narrative style was a risky dramatic device that had the potential to turn off audiences. "The fear was that it could slow a film down and become monotonous, because in effect you're conveying the information twice," Mr. Khaou says. But he found that the role of the translator helped him by adding awkward moments in the story, such as when the interpreter blurts out her own opinions amid the tensions between Richard and Junn, and by tempering scenes that could have come across as overly sentimental.

The film touches gently on gay themes, but Mr. Khaou says he "didn't want it to become a coming-out story, which we've seen a million times over." He also was determined to avoid the clichéd antics of meanings lost in translation, opting rather for an exploration of how words anchor beliefs.

Director Hong Khaou on set Strand Releasing

"We all know that language and communication can bridge differences and bring about understanding," Mr. Khaou says. "But I think equally it highlights differences so strong and so rooted that we can't forgive, and you have conflict arising out of that."

The interpreter also comes to the aid of an elderly British man who's courting Junn at the retirement home where they both live. But once the couple are able to understand each other, the romance fizzles amid arguments and illuminated misconceptions, as the translator walks the line between peacemaker and intruder.

At yet other points, the interpreter is mute, but Junn and Richard are able to reach each other through their common grief. Says Mr. Khaou, "We're very instinctive," says Mr. Khaou, "We can read emotion very well—it's a language we all are very good at understanding."

The story isn't autobiographical, says the director, but "a lot of it is very personal." Mr. Khaou, whose family is Cambodian-Chinese, was born in Phnom Penh in 1975. They fled Cambodia for Vietnam a few months later as Pol Pot came to power, and in 1983 the family settled in England. Like Junn, his mother speaks Cambodian, Mandarin and a few other Chinese dialects but never learned English. "I was resentful of the fact that she never assimilated," he says. "In my childhood I spent so much time translating for her."

"Lilting," which unfolds in a series of present-day scenes and flashbacks, began as a play written by Mr. Khaou more than a decade ago. The original title was "Lilting to the Past," but the name was shortened when producers didn't warm to it. "I think it is a beautiful word," he says, calling the title a poetic interpretation of the film's linguistic tones and rhythmic structure.

Peter Bowles and Pei-Pei Cheng in a scene from 'Lilting' Strand Releasing

The play was never produced and he put it away until an opportunity opened a few years ago to make a micro-budget film (at £120,000, $195,000) through Film London Microwave, which supports first-time feature filmmakers. "Everybody was on minimum wage, and Ben did this for next to nothing," Mr. Khaou says.

Mr. Whishaw, whose roles include John Keats in Jane Campion's "Bright Star" and Q in the James Bond flick "Skyfall," says of joining the project, "I love the film because it had no commercial agenda at all," he says. "It was just about telling this quite delicate story, and I felt it was something that had this freshness and sincerity about it." Of the risk of little financial gain, he adds, "I just wanted to take that chance."

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Book review: England and Other Stories - Life & Style - NZ Herald News

Book review: England and Other Stories - Life & Style - NZ Herald News | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Yes, as the title says, there is a story called England in this collection, but you might say England is the only story here. England, the English and a certain Englishness. - New Zealand Herald
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Yes, as the title says, there is a story called England in this collection, but you might say England is the only story here. England, the English and a certain Englishness.

There's Charlie, the high-rise worker who - joke - went up in the world, all the way from Wapping to Blackheath, making his fortune working on the shining towers that transformed London's docks into Docklands.

There's Vangeli the barber, who snips and thinks about the thoughts going through the skull beneath his fingertips. "In a barber's they pay to stare at their own faces, and you see what goes on when they do."

There's Jimmy, whose story begins, irresistibly, "When I was a small boy we had a neighbour called Mr Wilkinson, who was a weirdo."

Twenty-five stories, some just a few pages, generally set in the approximately-now, with a few excursions into the past.

Mostly, they're about "ordinary" people, doing the things most of us do, and facing crises that are no less shattering, just because they happen to everyone.

Regret and the prospect of death feature strongly, but so do touches of sly humour.

The effect is like eavesdropping in a crowd, hearing a snatch of conversation, or one side of an argument, then moving on. These are not stories that come to a neat and tidy conclusion, with a clever ending and a capital-M message. Like life, in other words.

And Swift - author of the Booker Prize-winning Last Orders and the magical Waterland - is nothing if not a superb craftsman, able to slip more information into a sentence than many writers can jam into a page.

Perfect, then? Not quite. A couple of the stories from the distant past don't quite fit, but there's a bigger issue here. It's that Englishness thing. Throughout, the mood is of reticence, soldiering on, things unspoken, passions unexpressed, the depths beneath still waters. Are the English still like this? Maybe, but it often seems a very long way from the shouty, self-obsessed 21st century.

In fact, modernity is oddly absent. Hardly anyone uses a mobile phone, no one browses the web, there's no Twitter, no Facebook. In fact, there's very little about these stories that couldn't have been written decades earlier.

Perhaps that's the point - the more things change, etc - but it's hard to escape the feeling that Swift is writing about the England in which he came of age (he's 65) rather than today. He does it beautifully, but it still feels like another country.

England and Other Stories
by Graham Swift
(Simon & Schuster $37)

NZ Herald

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Reading in all forms will help youngsters

Reading in all forms will help youngsters | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

"Emergent literacy skills" are skills that babies, toddlers, and preschoolers need to learn so that they are ready for reading and writing when they start school. These skills include vocabulary, book-handling skills, story-telling skills, scribbling and drawing, recognizing print and understanding what it is for, and singing and rhyming.

When you read with your child every day, you are helping your child to develop strong emergent literacy and language skills. It can also help teach them about story structure, sequencing, and rhyming.

How you read makes a difference too. Don't just read the words.

Pause a lot to notice what your child is interested in and to talk about the pictures and the story. Ask questions like; Who is in this story? What is the problem? What will happen next? Read the same story many times and talk about different things each time. Point out the words and the pictures. Make sound effects and funny voices.

Children can learn lots of new words from books. They also learn to listen in a way that TV and computer games can never teach. Remember too that you are a role model for your child; if you read and show that you care about reading, your child learns that reading is important.

Children who are read to are more likely to pick up books themselves and read for themselves. We want children to love books, so never force your child to read. Books with flaps and things to touch and move can be great for reluctant

readers. Reading aloud to children is the single most important activity for laying the foundation for literacy and learning. But rhymes, poems, songs, crayons, clay, painting, menus, and signs can play a role as well.

The key is for you to share these activities with your child and talk about them.

Read to your child! Talk to your child! Then read and talk some more! You will be setting your child up for success at school and in life.

If you are concerned about your child's speech and language development, call the Language Express Preschool Speech System at 1-888-503-8885/613-283-2742. A speechlanguage assessment can identify your child's strengths and needs, and can help you prepare your child for success in communicating, reading and writing. For more information, check out www.language-express.ca.

Language Express Preschool Speech and Language Services

Charles Tiayon's insight:

"Emergent literacy skills" are skills that babies, toddlers, and preschoolers need to learn so that they are ready for reading and writing when they start school. These skills include vocabulary, book-handling skills, story-telling skills, scribbling and drawing, recognizing print and understanding what it is for, and singing and rhyming.

When you read with your child every day, you are helping your child to develop strong emergent literacy and language skills. It can also help teach them about story structure, sequencing, and rhyming.

How you read makes a difference too. Don't just read the words.

Pause a lot to notice what your child is interested in and to talk about the pictures and the story. Ask questions like; Who is in this story? What is the problem? What will happen next? Read the same story many times and talk about different things each time. Point out the words and the pictures. Make sound effects and funny voices.

Children can learn lots of new words from books. They also learn to listen in a way that TV and computer games can never teach. Remember too that you are a role model for your child; if you read and show that you care about reading, your child learns that reading is important.

Children who are read to are more likely to pick up books themselves and read for themselves. We want children to love books, so never force your child to read. Books with flaps and things to touch and move can be great for reluctant

readers. Reading aloud to children is the single most important activity for laying the foundation for literacy and learning. But rhymes, poems, songs, crayons, clay, painting, menus, and signs can play a role as well.

The key is for you to share these activities with your child and talk about them.

Read to your child! Talk to your child! Then read and talk some more! You will be setting your child up for success at school and in life.

If you are concerned about your child's speech and language development, call the Language Express Preschool Speech System at 1-888-503-8885/613-283-2742. A speechlanguage assessment can identify your child's strengths and needs, and can help you prepare your child for success in communicating, reading and writing. For more information, check out www.language-express.ca.

Language Express Preschool Speech and Language Services

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Not all languages are equal in SA - Crime & Courts | IOL News | IOL.co.za

Not all languages are equal in SA - Crime & Courts | IOL News | IOL.co.za | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Cape Town - The constitution does not require the “simultaneous and equal use” of all 11 official languages for all purposes, according to findings by the Equality Court.

Judge Bennie Griesel handed down a judgment on Wednesday in which he dismissed an application to get all the legislation of Parliament published in all official languages.

The current practice is to publish national legislation in only two official languages.

The application was lodged by North West attorney Cerneels Lourens, who has also been described as a language activist, in his latest court bid for recognition of the “official status” of all 11 official languages.

He contended that the current practice undermined the official status of the other official languages and elevated English to the status of a “super official language”.

Lourens said the judgment was “disappointing”, claiming that his case had been misinterpreted.

An application for leave to appeal would be lodged soon.

In his judgment, Judge Griesel said that if equal treatment of all official languages for all purposes were intended, one would have expected to find clear provision to that effect.

Instead, the constitution provided that all official languages “must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably”.

“Furthermore, the constitution does not require the simultaneous and equal use of all 11 languages for all purposes,” wrote Judge Griesel.

The constitution, he said, expressly permitted the use of only two official languages for certain purposes, thereby “sanctioning (by necessary implication) ‘discrimination’ against the other nine official languages”.

“This raises the question, to which (Lourens) has been unable to furnish a persuasive answer, as to why the position should be different when it comes to national legislation.

“The inevitable conclusion is that, to the extent that the practice of publishing national legislation in only two official languages may be discriminatory, such discrimination is fair,” the judgment read.

Lourens had also levelled a line of attack against the joint rules of Parliament, to which the speaker of the National Assembly had provided (in court documents) a comprehensive explanation as to why English was used as the predominant language in which Parliament conducted its business, said Judge Griesel.

Among the reasons was that all parliamentarians understood English.

Judge Griesel found that there was no constitutional or statutory duty on any of the respondents – among them the Speaker, the chair of the National Council of Provinces and the minister of arts and culture – to publish or translate all national legislation in all official languages.

To the extent that publication of legislation in only two official languages “may be discriminatory”, he said, such discrimination was fair in terms of the Equality Act. He made a similar finding in relation to the joint rules of Parliament permitting the use of only two languages.

No order was made as to legal costs.

leila.samodien@inl.co.za

Cape Times

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Cape Town - The constitution does not require the “simultaneous and equal use” of all 11 official languages for all purposes, according to findings by the Equality Court.

Judge Bennie Griesel handed down a judgment on Wednesday in which he dismissed an application to get all the legislation of Parliament published in all official languages.

The current practice is to publish national legislation in only two official languages.

The application was lodged by North West attorney Cerneels Lourens, who has also been described as a language activist, in his latest court bid for recognition of the “official status” of all 11 official languages.

He contended that the current practice undermined the official status of the other official languages and elevated English to the status of a “super official language”.

Lourens said the judgment was “disappointing”, claiming that his case had been misinterpreted.

An application for leave to appeal would be lodged soon.

In his judgment, Judge Griesel said that if equal treatment of all official languages for all purposes were intended, one would have expected to find clear provision to that effect.

Instead, the constitution provided that all official languages “must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably”.

“Furthermore, the constitution does not require the simultaneous and equal use of all 11 languages for all purposes,” wrote Judge Griesel.

The constitution, he said, expressly permitted the use of only two official languages for certain purposes, thereby “sanctioning (by necessary implication) ‘discrimination’ against the other nine official languages”.

“This raises the question, to which (Lourens) has been unable to furnish a persuasive answer, as to why the position should be different when it comes to national legislation.

“The inevitable conclusion is that, to the extent that the practice of publishing national legislation in only two official languages may be discriminatory, such discrimination is fair,” the judgment read.

Lourens had also levelled a line of attack against the joint rules of Parliament, to which the speaker of the National Assembly had provided (in court documents) a comprehensive explanation as to why English was used as the predominant language in which Parliament conducted its business, said Judge Griesel.

Among the reasons was that all parliamentarians understood English.

Judge Griesel found that there was no constitutional or statutory duty on any of the respondents – among them the Speaker, the chair of the National Council of Provinces and the minister of arts and culture – to publish or translate all national legislation in all official languages.

To the extent that publication of legislation in only two official languages “may be discriminatory”, he said, such discrimination was fair in terms of the Equality Act. He made a similar finding in relation to the joint rules of Parliament permitting the use of only two languages.

No order was made as to legal costs.

leila.samodien@inl.co.za

Cape Times

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Hey, AP Stylebook, I'll give you another chance

Hey, AP Stylebook, I'll give you another chance | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Let no one say that the editors of the Associated Press Stylebook are a pack of mossbacks.  A couple of years ago, they (admittedly somewhat tardily) acknowledged that hopefully is no...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Let no one say that the editors of the Associated Press Stylebook are a pack of mossbacks. 

A couple of years ago, they (admittedly somewhat tardily) acknowledged that hopefully is no more objectionable as a sentence adverb than sadly or mercifully.

Then they abandoned the bogus over/more than distinction, to the wailing and rending of garments by copy editors so inured to the tribal dialect journalese that they no longer recognize standard English when they see it. 

So I continue to entertain hope for the stylebook. Now, at the time of year the editors begin to meditate on revisions, I, freely, generously, and open-handedly, repeat some suggestions for the improvement of the book. 

The verbs entry is troublesome in that it covertly gives aid and comfort to the writers who misguidedly object to split infinitives and what journalists imagine to be "split verbs." All it says explicitly is to "avoid awkward constructions," a piece of advice that might well be included in many entries. But it casts a shadow over the split infinitive, and it suggest that the imagined error of inserting an adverb between the auxiliary and main verb is a genuine solecism. 

It is long past time for the AP Stylebook to acknowledge that ordinary split infinitives ("to always insist") and adverbs between the auxiliary and main verb ("have always insisted") are perfectly idiomatic standard English. 

The who, whom entry could also stand a little work.* The entry opens, "Who is the pronoun used for references to human beings and to animals with a name," which is perfectly unobjectionable. But it leaves room for the superstition that who is the only option in referring to people, that that is illegitimate.

Rather, that may be used to indicate a person whose identity is unknown ("the man that robbed the bank") or a group (Isaiah 9:2's "The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light"). Garner's Modern American Usage says flatly, "Is it permissible to say people that, or must one say people who? The answer is that people that has always been good English, and it's a silly fetish to insist that who is the only relative pronoun that can refer to humans." 

Should the editors come to see a great light, a little revision of these two entries could enlighten many more. 

But should they continue to walk in darkness, I will be back next year. 

 

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Get hired as a transcriptionist | Komando.com

Get hired as a transcriptionist | Komando.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Industries from around the world are always looking for transcriptionists. If you don't know, transcription is listening to audio or video and writing down everything anyone in the...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Industries from around the world are always looking for transcriptionists. If you don't know, transcription is listening to audio or video and writing down everything anyone in the video says.

One of the biggest uses is for the medical field. You'd be transcribing doctor's voice notes and medical information.

However, transcriptionists are needed across plenty of other industries, and even for Hollywood. You can find out more about the industry and what you'll need to become a transcriptionist on the website.

Or maybe you want someone to transcribe an interview or voice memo that you've left for yourself. Daily Transcription has variable rates and a massive number of transcriptionists ready to type up everything you say.

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Kenya to host Africa's biggest convention centre

Kenya to host Africa's biggest convention centre | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Ministry of Tourism has announced plans to build Africa's biggest convention centre as it seeks to diversify tourism products.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The Ministry of Tourism has announced plans to build Africa's biggest convention centre as it seeks to diversify tourism products. The facility to be called Bomas International Conference and Exhibition Centre will sit on a 82-acres at the current Bomas of Kenya grounds. The centre will have a 15,000 capacity exhibition space, 10,000-delegate capacity conference centre, five luxurious hotels with a total capacity of 2,000 beds, presidential pavilions, VIP pavilions, fully furnished apartments, coffee shops and business centres among others. The hotels will range from 2-star to 7-star and will cater for all categories of exhibitors and conference tourists. South Africa's Cape Town International Convention Centre ( CTICC) is the biggest in Africa. Kenya is using CTICC and London's World Travel Market Centre as benchmarks as the country seeks to attract business travellers in its bid to achieve a target of about three million tourists annually by 2017. The Bomas centre will be strategically placed, 11 kilometres from the city centre and just a stone's throw away from Nairobi National Park. See also: Sh58m to boost seven tourism sites in Kisumu Tourism Cabinet Secretary Phyllis Kandie said development of the centre offers a central plank of how the sector intends to go forward in the medium and long term. The ministry is also seeking partners to help build another exhibition and conference centre in Mombasa. "We need to go big on convention and conference tourism. We also need to make more hay out of cultural tourism and you will see more cultural festivals in partnership with the counties as well," she said. Bomas CEO Ahmed Quresh said construction will begin next year, adding that the private sector will partner with the State to fund the project. He said they haven't estimated the cost as this will be determined once consultants have been brought on board but sources in the ministry say the project may cost Sh50 billion.
Read more at: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000135429/kenya-to-host-africa-s-biggest-convention-centre

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Amazon's Kindle app gains support for iOS 8, copy-paste and in-app translation -- AppAdvice

Amazon's Kindle app gains support for iOS 8, copy-paste and in-app translation -- AppAdvice | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Amazon has updated its Kindle app for iOS 8.
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Laure Prouvost, lost in translation

Laure Prouvost, lost in translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Récompensée du Turner Prize l’an passé, l’artiste française voit s’ouvrir sa première...
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UDC et PS pourraient s’accorder pour sauver le français en primaire

UDC et PS pourraient s’accorder pour sauver le français en primaire | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Si les cantons alémaniques ne veulent enseigner qu’une langue étrangère, «ça doit être une langue nationale», jugent les conseillers nationaux Peter Keller et Jean-François Steiert
Charles Tiayon's insight:

La Confédération doit-elle intervenir pour empêcher que les cours de français ne disparaissent des écoles primaires des cantons de Thurgovie, de Nidwald ou de Lucerne? Les parlementaires fédéraux sont divisés et la Commission du National dédiée à l’éducation a décidé de repousser sa décision au mois d’octobre.

En attendant, les discussions se poursuivent dans les couloirs du parlement, et des députés des deux partis les plus représentés sous la Coupole – l’UDC et le PS – seraient sur le point de se mettre d’accord pour éviter une intervention fédérale et un possible vote populaire.

Priorité à une langue

Comme le rapportait vendredi le Tages-Anzeiger , Jean-François Steiert (PS/FR) et Peter Keller (UDC/NW) auraient trouvé un «consensus minimal», bien qu’ils ne partagent pas la même vision de l’enseignement des langues. Le compromis? Que les cantons qui le souhaitent soient autorisés à n’enseigner qu’une seule langue étrangère au primaire. A condition que celle-ci soit l’une des langues nationales. Le français serait ainsi sauvé, alors que le compromis de 2004, qui impose deux langues étrangères, volerait en éclats.

Les deux hommes, qui siègent à la Commission de la science, de l’éducation et de la culture du National, sont tous deux référents pour leur propre parti en matière de langues. «Nos partis disposent de 13 voix sur 25 à la commission, et la proposition de donner la priorité à une langue nationale au primaire a été déposée avec notre collègue PDC Kathy Riklin et le soutien d’autres groupes. Il pourrait donc y avoir une majorité», commente Jean-François Steiert.

Ladite commission se réunit les 9 et 10 octobre pour plancher sur la question et auditionner les directeurs cantonaux de l’instruction publique. «Nous pourrions déjà prendre une décision formelle à cette date ou attendre l’avis de la Conférence des directeurs de l’instruction publique (CDIP) fin octobre», poursuit le conseiller national.

Si elle adopte ce compromis, la commission rallierait le camp des associations cantonales d’enseignants, qui se sont prononcées – à titre provisoire ce mois, avant le vote définitif en novembre – pour le maintien d’une seule langue étrangère en primaire, précisant qu’il devait s’agir d’une langue nationale.

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RFI : nouveaux sites en Russe et en Vietnamien

RFI : nouveaux sites en Russe et en Vietnamien | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ces sites présentent une ergonomie entièrement repensée et modernisée pour faciliter l’écoute de la radio en ligne ainsi que de tous ses journaux et programmes en rattrapage. Le nouveau mode de navigation vertical et horizontal, fluide et intuitif, s’adapte à tous les supports et simplifie l’accè...
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La RAE mantiene al valencià como variedad del catalán pese a la presión del Consell

La RAE mantiene al valencià como variedad del catalán pese a la presión del Consell | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Coincide con el criterio que maneja la AVL en su ‘Diccionari’ que generó polémica. La definición que propone en su nueva edición conserva la unidad de la lengua
Charles Tiayon's insight:

La polémica está servida. El Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE) mantiene su definición de valenciano como variedad del catalán en su avance de la edición del 2014. Y ello a pesar de que el Consell reclamó a la institución que revisara su definición para ajustarla al ordenamiento jurídico que establece el Estatut, en plena polémica con la Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL) porque su Diccionari también mantenía el criterio de la unidad de la lengua.

En el avance de la 23ª edición que se puede consultar en la web de la RAE (ver foto adjunta), la definición de valenciano aparece como “artículo enmendado”. Según la “redacción propuesta”, valenciano es una “variedad del catalán, que se usa en gran parte del antiguo reino de Valencia y se siente allí comúnmente como lengua propia”. Es la misma definición que aparecía en la anterior edición, la vigésimo segunda. Lo único que ha variado es que ha desaparecido la acepción sexta, como “parte baja de las perneras del pantalón que se vuelve hacia afuera y hacia arriba”.

En junio del 2013 el grupo parlamentario popular presentó una proposición no ley en Les Corts instando al Consell a dirigirse a la RAE para que en la próxima edición del Diccionario “se reconozca al valenciano su categoría de lengua o idioma propio de los valencianos, que se habla en la mayor parte de la Comunidad”.

Mientras, el Consell espera que la AVL mueva ficha, en su apuesta por el diálogo y el consenso para convencer a la institución reconocida en el Estatut para que modifique su definición de valenciano, que en la edición on line sigue siendo lengua románica hablada en la Comunitat, Illes Balears, departamento francés de los Pirineos orientales, Principado de Andorra, franja oriental de Aragón y l’Alguer, lugares donde recibe el nombre de catalán.

En ambos casos la edición en papel todavía no ha salido. La de la RAE llegará a las librerías en la segunda quincena de octubre.

Este periódico intentó ayer contactar con la RAE, pero no facilitaron ninguna aclaración respecto a esta definición. H

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Léxico criminal

Léxico criminal | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

La incorporación a la lengua común de vocabulario especializado es un fenómeno corriente que no alarma las conciencias y que constituye uno de los procesos de cambio semántico más elocuentes. Hoy cualquiera puede sufrir un “trauma”, tener o no tener “poder adquisitivo”, vivir una experiencia “kafkiana” o “dantesca” e incluso dar un “salto cuántico” sin necesidad de ser psicoanalista, economista, crítico literario o físico, y desde luego sin sentirse coartado por el hecho de que esos creativos ámbitos técnicos sean el origen del término que de una forma ya tan “natural” dice y disfruta. Este tipo de vocabulario sumamente culto, sin embargo, no revela necesariamente cierta cultura, o ciertas lecturas, sino pura receptividad a la transmisión “de oídas”: del mismo modo que para decir que uno es “honesto” en vez de “honrado” o “sincero” no hace falta saber inglés (honest), para sufrir un “trauma” no hace falta tener ni la más remota idea de quién era Freud.

Desde el punto de vista estilístico, parece conveniente, sin embargo, que uno sepa cuándo está aplicando un tecnicismo, más que nada para no crear connotaciones indebidas. Hay que ver si realmente el tecnicismo está vulgarizado (en el sentido objetivo del término) y, por tanto, encaja bien o no en el nivel lingüístico que hayamos elegido. Recuerdo que una vez recibí una traducción de un libro de finales del XIX en la que se había traducido por “una preadolescente” la expresión inglesa a girl in her first teens. Le pedí a la traductora que por favor no convirtiera al autor, lego en esas lides, en un psicólogo y descartara ese tecnicismo abrumador que, por lo demás, resultaba anacrónico en un texto del XIX. Y otra vez le pedí a otro traductor de una novela del mismo siglo que no tradujera por favor engross the attention por “monopolizar la atención” como proponía, sino por “llamar”, “atraer”, “ganarse” o incluso “cautivar”, verbos libres de asociaciones económicas al igual que el verbo inglés original.

Si, en este último caso, no se hubiera tratado de un texto del XIX es muy posible que “monopolizar la atención” hubiese funcionado perfectamente, porque hoy, en una combinación como ésa, el uso continuado ha borrado ya de nuestro pensamiento el significado y el carácter técnico de la expresión. De estos procesos de neutralización quisiéramos hablar un poco hoy.

Parece conveniente que uno sepa cuándo está aplicando un tecnicismo, para no crear connotaciones indebidas

Pues un caso flagrante de olvido de los orígenes es el vocabulario penal, ejemplo fehaciente de que ciertos ámbitos siniestros están muy activos en nuestra conciencia y, a la vez, de que la lengua es capaz de neutralizar hasta lo más terrible. “So pena de descomunión” decía Alfonso X en su Primera partida (1256-1263) (Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, Madison, 1995, fol. 43R); “so pena de quinientos maravedís”, proclamaban las Ordenanzas del Concejo de Gran Canaria de 1531-1555 (Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1974, p. 98). Y hoy Lluís Llongueras dice tranquilamente:

“… era imposible parar [el coche], so pena de quedarse atascado” (Llongueras tal cual, Planeta, Barcelona, 2001, p. 248).

Con los siglos han variado las penas, y sin inmutarnos hemos ido rebajándolas, alejándonos benéficamente de ellas. Hasta el punto, a veces, de volvernos insensibles a su mismo significado, porque ya me dirán ustedes qué significa so pena de aquí:

“Añadió que no se le ocurriera subir esas escaleras, jamás:
–Jamás, so pena de que vengas a decirme que eres médico. Y yo no bajaré mientras tú estés abajo y sigas siendo un contable de pacotilla” (Dulce Chacón, La voz dormida, Alfaguara, Madrid, 2002, p. 90).

¿Es posible que la autora se haya hecho un lío con “a menos que”?

Las acepciones “duras” y “blandas” del vocabulario penal suelen coexistir pacíficamente, sin que su polisemia ocasione dramáticas escisiones en la psique del hablante. Hoy ya no es frecuente ver la palabra reo en sentido figurado, como en esta sentencia tremenda de Juan de Valdés: “… el que come, i bebe indignamente, es reo de lo que come, i de lo que bebe” (Comentario o declaración familiar y compendiosa sobre la primera epístola de san Pablo… (1557), S. E., Madrid, 1856, p. 212). Ni siquiera lo es en versión diluida, como cuando Miguel Asín Palacios, en La escatología musulmana en la Divina Comedia (1919), acusaba a alguien de “reo de negligencia en la investigación” (Instituto Hispano Árabe de Cultura, Madrid, 1961, p. 275). En cambio, el tipo que está preso en la cárcel y el que es preso de alguna pasión o turbulencia conviven perfectamente en nuestra lengua, sin que uno nos recuerde al otro.

La historia del preso figurado es antigua en español: hay ya un “presode amor” en el Bursario (1425-1450) de Juan Rodríguez del Padrón (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 1984, p. 127), un “preso de espanto” en el Cancionero de Estúñiga (1407-1463) (Alhambra, Madrid, 1987, p. 111) y un “preso de hiebre [fiebre]” enArboleda de los enfermos (1455-1460) de Teresa de Cartagena (Real Academia Española, Madrid, 1967, p. 72). Hoy seguimos presos de múltiples contingencias, y ya no todas ellas malas:

preso de un nuevo regocijo” (Álvaro Pombo, El metro de platino iridiado(1990), Anagrama, Barcelona, 1993, p. 35).

preso de un placer indescriptible” (José Luis Najenson, Memorias de un erotómano y otros cuentos, Monte Ávila, Caracas, 1991, p. 34).

“… embriagado de amor, impaciente soñador por ser preso de tu calor” (Juan Ubago López, Cartas de amor, Entrelíneas, Madrid, 2005, p. 17).

Preso convive también y hasta se confunde con presa, aunque su origen sea un accidente gramatical distinto: presa viene de prensa, la forma neutra plural del participio de prendere (preso viene de la forma masculina singular, prensus) y su sentido literal es ‘acción de prender’ o ‘cosa prendida’ (“o robada”, añade el DRAE). Se ve muy bien en este pasaje de la Gran crónica de España, III (1376-a1391), de Juan Fernández de Heredia:

‘Preso’ convive también y hasta se confunde con ‘presa’, aunque su origen sea un accidente gramatical distinto

“… et entro en tierra de moros et corrieron muyto, et sacaron grant presade uacas, de yeguas, de ouellas, de moros et moras catiuas” (Universidad de Zaragoza, 2003, fol. 263V).

Esta forma de botín no tarda mucho en volverse inmaterial. Ya en La Celestina (c1499-1502) hay “presa de amor” (Crítica, Barcelona, 2002, p. 315), y “presa de la amorosa fuerça” en Las sergas del virtuoso caballero Esplandián (a1504) de Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo (Universidad de Zaragoza, 2004, fol. 107R): ser presa de este sentimiento fue un tópico literario en los siglos XVI y XVII. Las otras pasiones están ya documentadas en las Poesías (1585-a1643) de Juan de Salinas: “presade cruda rabia” (Castalia, 1987, p. 220).

Hoy seguimos siendo presa (“presas”, dicen algunos, como si el sustantivo fuera contable) de ansiedades varias, siempre intensas y en su mayoría desagradables, pero no solo:

“Sonia se tocaba las partes en donde él la besó presa de pasión” (Jordi Sierra i Fabra, Manicomio, ATE, Barcelona, 1977, p. 218).

presa de un entusiasmo infantil” (Damián Alou, Una modesta aportación a la historia del crimen, Anagrama, Barcelona, 1991, p. 141).

presa de su insaciable curiosidad” (Augusto Roa Bastos, Vigilia del Almirante, 1992, Alfaguara, Madrid, p. 22).

Un verbo interesante asociado desde antiguo a todo tipo de crímenes escometer: “cometió crimen por el qual fue sentençiado a muerte” (Castigos e documentos para bien vivir ordenados por el rey Sancho (1293), IV, Indiana University Publications, Indiana, 1952, p. 40). No solo, por supuesto, se cometen crímenes de sangre, sino también errores, pecados, disparates, tonterías y –¡me encanta!–, en los antiguos tratados de retórica, figuras literarias. Sobre la figura retórica llamada expolitio o expolición, decía Juan de Herrera en sus Comentarios a Garcilaso(1580):

Un verbo interesante asociado desde antiguo a todo tipo de crímenes es ‘cometer’

“Esta figura se comete cuando variamos en un mismo lugar la sentencia misma con unas y otras palabras, o cuando le atribuimos muchas palabras de casi una misma significación” (Gredos, Madrid, 1972, p. 484).

Estos octosílabos de sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, pertenecientes a susVillancicos (1676-1692), nos resultan sumamente incitantes:

“Como Reina, es bien [que la Virgen] acete [acepte]
la antonomasia sagrada
que como a tal le compete;
y hoy, al Cielo trasladada,
la metáfora comete.”
(FCE, México-Buenos Aires, 1952, p. 14.)

Pero este uso tan curioso por el que de algún modo se vinculan las metáforas a los delitos es sin duda muy especializado y ya casi nadie –lástima– se acuerda de él. El uso común está tan ligado al léxico penal que, cuando no aparece cometer, suplantado vulgarmente por el omnipresente realizar, nos sentimos autorizados a reclamar su presencia:

“… medios para derrocar a líderes políticos extranjeros, incluida la capacidad para realizar asesinatos” (“La CIA”, Excelsior, 13/IX/96).

“Las dos mujeres […] realizaron el robo el pasado día 14” (“Detenidas dos mujeres por robar un cheque en blanco en un geriátrico”, El Mundo Baleares28/IV/09)

“… las milicias cristiano falangistas realizaron violaciones, degüellos y ejecuciones en grupo” (Ussama Jandali, “Vals con Bashir”, En Lucha,mayo 2009).

“… el desfalco que realizaron el ex presidente del Palau, Fèlix Millet, y su mano derecha, Jordi Montull, rebasa los 30 millones de euros” (“El desfalco del Palau de la Música supera ya los 30 millones de euros”, El País26/II/10).

Lo dejamos aquí por hoy. En una próxima entrega, seguiremos explorando nuestra familiaridad con el mundo del hampa y sus castigos, y nos veremos involucrados en otros crímenes perpetrados, con cierto número de interfectos.

https://www.facebook.com/Lenguylit?ref=hl
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Charles Tiayon's insight:

La incorporación a la lengua común de vocabulario especializado es un fenómeno corriente que no alarma las conciencias y que constituye uno de los procesos de cambio semántico más elocuentes. Hoy cualquiera puede sufrir un “trauma”, tener o no tener “poder adquisitivo”, vivir una experiencia “kafkiana” o “dantesca” e incluso dar un “salto cuántico” sin necesidad de ser psicoanalista, economista, crítico literario o físico, y desde luego sin sentirse coartado por el hecho de que esos creativos ámbitos técnicos sean el origen del término que de una forma ya tan “natural” dice y disfruta. Este tipo de vocabulario sumamente culto, sin embargo, no revela necesariamente cierta cultura, o ciertas lecturas, sino pura receptividad a la transmisión “de oídas”: del mismo modo que para decir que uno es “honesto” en vez de “honrado” o “sincero” no hace falta saber inglés (honest), para sufrir un “trauma” no hace falta tener ni la más remota idea de quién era Freud.

Desde el punto de vista estilístico, parece conveniente, sin embargo, que uno sepa cuándo está aplicando un tecnicismo, más que nada para no crear connotaciones indebidas. Hay que ver si realmente el tecnicismo está vulgarizado (en el sentido objetivo del término) y, por tanto, encaja bien o no en el nivel lingüístico que hayamos elegido. Recuerdo que una vez recibí una traducción de un libro de finales del XIX en la que se había traducido por “una preadolescente” la expresión inglesa a girl in her first teens. Le pedí a la traductora que por favor no convirtiera al autor, lego en esas lides, en un psicólogo y descartara ese tecnicismo abrumador que, por lo demás, resultaba anacrónico en un texto del XIX. Y otra vez le pedí a otro traductor de una novela del mismo siglo que no tradujera por favor engross the attention por “monopolizar la atención” como proponía, sino por “llamar”, “atraer”, “ganarse” o incluso “cautivar”, verbos libres de asociaciones económicas al igual que el verbo inglés original.

Si, en este último caso, no se hubiera tratado de un texto del XIX es muy posible que “monopolizar la atención” hubiese funcionado perfectamente, porque hoy, en una combinación como ésa, el uso continuado ha borrado ya de nuestro pensamiento el significado y el carácter técnico de la expresión. De estos procesos de neutralización quisiéramos hablar un poco hoy.

Parece conveniente que uno sepa cuándo está aplicando un tecnicismo, para no crear connotaciones indebidas

Pues un caso flagrante de olvido de los orígenes es el vocabulario penal, ejemplo fehaciente de que ciertos ámbitos siniestros están muy activos en nuestra conciencia y, a la vez, de que la lengua es capaz de neutralizar hasta lo más terrible. “So pena de descomunión” decía Alfonso X en su Primera partida (1256-1263) (Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, Madison, 1995, fol. 43R); “so pena de quinientos maravedís”, proclamaban las Ordenanzas del Concejo de Gran Canaria de 1531-1555 (Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1974, p. 98). Y hoy Lluís Llongueras dice tranquilamente:

“… era imposible parar [el coche], so pena de quedarse atascado” (Llongueras tal cual, Planeta, Barcelona, 2001, p. 248).

Con los siglos han variado las penas, y sin inmutarnos hemos ido rebajándolas, alejándonos benéficamente de ellas. Hasta el punto, a veces, de volvernos insensibles a su mismo significado, porque ya me dirán ustedes qué significa so pena de aquí:

“Añadió que no se le ocurriera subir esas escaleras, jamás:
–Jamás, so pena de que vengas a decirme que eres médico. Y yo no bajaré mientras tú estés abajo y sigas siendo un contable de pacotilla” (Dulce Chacón, La voz dormida, Alfaguara, Madrid, 2002, p. 90).

¿Es posible que la autora se haya hecho un lío con “a menos que”?

Las acepciones “duras” y “blandas” del vocabulario penal suelen coexistir pacíficamente, sin que su polisemia ocasione dramáticas escisiones en la psique del hablante. Hoy ya no es frecuente ver la palabra reo en sentido figurado, como en esta sentencia tremenda de Juan de Valdés: “… el que come, i bebe indignamente, es reo de lo que come, i de lo que bebe” (Comentario o declaración familiar y compendiosa sobre la primera epístola de san Pablo… (1557), S. E., Madrid, 1856, p. 212). Ni siquiera lo es en versión diluida, como cuando Miguel Asín Palacios, en La escatología musulmana en la Divina Comedia (1919), acusaba a alguien de “reo de negligencia en la investigación” (Instituto Hispano Árabe de Cultura, Madrid, 1961, p. 275). En cambio, el tipo que está preso en la cárcel y el que es preso de alguna pasión o turbulencia conviven perfectamente en nuestra lengua, sin que uno nos recuerde al otro.

La historia del preso figurado es antigua en español: hay ya un “presode amor” en el Bursario (1425-1450) de Juan Rodríguez del Padrón (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 1984, p. 127), un “preso de espanto” en el Cancionero de Estúñiga (1407-1463) (Alhambra, Madrid, 1987, p. 111) y un “preso de hiebre [fiebre]” enArboleda de los enfermos (1455-1460) de Teresa de Cartagena (Real Academia Española, Madrid, 1967, p. 72). Hoy seguimos presos de múltiples contingencias, y ya no todas ellas malas:

preso de un nuevo regocijo” (Álvaro Pombo, El metro de platino iridiado(1990), Anagrama, Barcelona, 1993, p. 35).

preso de un placer indescriptible” (José Luis Najenson, Memorias de un erotómano y otros cuentos, Monte Ávila, Caracas, 1991, p. 34).

“… embriagado de amor, impaciente soñador por ser preso de tu calor” (Juan Ubago López, Cartas de amor, Entrelíneas, Madrid, 2005, p. 17).

Preso convive también y hasta se confunde con presa, aunque su origen sea un accidente gramatical distinto: presa viene de prensa, la forma neutra plural del participio de prendere (preso viene de la forma masculina singular, prensus) y su sentido literal es ‘acción de prender’ o ‘cosa prendida’ (“o robada”, añade el DRAE). Se ve muy bien en este pasaje de la Gran crónica de España, III (1376-a1391), de Juan Fernández de Heredia:

‘Preso’ convive también y hasta se confunde con ‘presa’, aunque su origen sea un accidente gramatical distinto

“… et entro en tierra de moros et corrieron muyto, et sacaron grant presade uacas, de yeguas, de ouellas, de moros et moras catiuas” (Universidad de Zaragoza, 2003, fol. 263V).

Esta forma de botín no tarda mucho en volverse inmaterial. Ya en La Celestina (c1499-1502) hay “presa de amor” (Crítica, Barcelona, 2002, p. 315), y “presa de la amorosa fuerça” en Las sergas del virtuoso caballero Esplandián (a1504) de Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo (Universidad de Zaragoza, 2004, fol. 107R): ser presa de este sentimiento fue un tópico literario en los siglos XVI y XVII. Las otras pasiones están ya documentadas en las Poesías (1585-a1643) de Juan de Salinas: “presade cruda rabia” (Castalia, 1987, p. 220).

Hoy seguimos siendo presa (“presas”, dicen algunos, como si el sustantivo fuera contable) de ansiedades varias, siempre intensas y en su mayoría desagradables, pero no solo:

“Sonia se tocaba las partes en donde él la besó presa de pasión” (Jordi Sierra i Fabra, Manicomio, ATE, Barcelona, 1977, p. 218).

presa de un entusiasmo infantil” (Damián Alou, Una modesta aportación a la historia del crimen, Anagrama, Barcelona, 1991, p. 141).

presa de su insaciable curiosidad” (Augusto Roa Bastos, Vigilia del Almirante, 1992, Alfaguara, Madrid, p. 22).

Un verbo interesante asociado desde antiguo a todo tipo de crímenes escometer: “cometió crimen por el qual fue sentençiado a muerte” (Castigos e documentos para bien vivir ordenados por el rey Sancho (1293), IV, Indiana University Publications, Indiana, 1952, p. 40). No solo, por supuesto, se cometen crímenes de sangre, sino también errores, pecados, disparates, tonterías y –¡me encanta!–, en los antiguos tratados de retórica, figuras literarias. Sobre la figura retórica llamada expolitio o expolición, decía Juan de Herrera en sus Comentarios a Garcilaso(1580):

Un verbo interesante asociado desde antiguo a todo tipo de crímenes es ‘cometer’

“Esta figura se comete cuando variamos en un mismo lugar la sentencia misma con unas y otras palabras, o cuando le atribuimos muchas palabras de casi una misma significación” (Gredos, Madrid, 1972, p. 484).

Estos octosílabos de sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, pertenecientes a susVillancicos (1676-1692), nos resultan sumamente incitantes:

“Como Reina, es bien [que la Virgen] acete [acepte]
la antonomasia sagrada
que como a tal le compete;
y hoy, al Cielo trasladada,
la metáfora comete.”
(FCE, México-Buenos Aires, 1952, p. 14.)

Pero este uso tan curioso por el que de algún modo se vinculan las metáforas a los delitos es sin duda muy especializado y ya casi nadie –lástima– se acuerda de él. El uso común está tan ligado al léxico penal que, cuando no aparece cometer, suplantado vulgarmente por el omnipresente realizar, nos sentimos autorizados a reclamar su presencia:

“… medios para derrocar a líderes políticos extranjeros, incluida la capacidad para realizar asesinatos” (“La CIA”, Excelsior, 13/IX/96).

“Las dos mujeres […] realizaron el robo el pasado día 14” (“Detenidas dos mujeres por robar un cheque en blanco en un geriátrico”, El Mundo Baleares28/IV/09)

“… las milicias cristiano falangistas realizaron violaciones, degüellos y ejecuciones en grupo” (Ussama Jandali, “Vals con Bashir”, En Lucha,mayo 2009).

“… el desfalco que realizaron el ex presidente del Palau, Fèlix Millet, y su mano derecha, Jordi Montull, rebasa los 30 millones de euros” (“El desfalco del Palau de la Música supera ya los 30 millones de euros”, El País26/II/10).

Lo dejamos aquí por hoy. En una próxima entrega, seguiremos explorando nuestra familiaridad con el mundo del hampa y sus castigos, y nos veremos involucrados en otros crímenes perpetrados, con cierto número de interfectos.

https://www.facebook.com/Lenguylit?ref=hl
https://twitter.com/LenguayL

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