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Norwegian SEO Translator
A global digital marketing company, based in Victoria is looking for a Norwegian Translator for a two day booking.
Norwegian SEO skilled linguist
Understanding of medical terms (pharma experience to an extent)
Digital savvy, preferably used Google Keyword Planner
Knowledge of using Microsoft Excel
Page titles and meta descriptions need to be written for a Norwegian site
Dates: 12th - 13th August
Pay rate: £20 per hour
Brazilian soccer legend Zico, who's just announced his plans to run for the FIFA presidency, first of all wants a Portuguese interpreter from Goa.
Zico is also coach of the Virat Kohli co-owned FC Goa football team and was the most high-profile coach to join the nascent IMG-Reliance-backed Indian Super League (ISL) last year.
In the first edition of the ISL, the FC Goa team lost out in the semi-final to Atletico De Kolkata in a pulsating, but contentious penalty-shootout. Atletico went on to the win the finals and this season. Perhaps to ensure that language doesn't pose a hurdle to his team's chances, Zico expects the interpreter to be "..a graduate with perfect command over written and spoken Portuguese and English languages."
Here's the ad as it appears in prominent Goa-based publications:
Though Zico's begun his association with Indian football just last year, he's looking to run for the FIFA presidency, just days after former chief Sepp Blatter announced his decision to resign amidst allegations of corruption within the organisation.
Zico was capped 89 times for Brazil and scored 66 goals.
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Switzerland Soccer FIFA Blatter Protest
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Escrita aos 28 anos, a obra mostra Tchékhov tentando criar uma história mais longa que seus contos costumazes
Uma boa narrativa é, muitas vezes, uma das portas de entrada mais estimulantes para uma cultura desconhecida. Mais bonito do que captar a Rússia czarista pelos olhos de um estrangeiro talvez seja olhá-la pelo cotidiano, imenso e tedioso, da viagem de um garoto para estudar em outra cidade. Em A Estepe (A História de uma Viagem) (Companhia das Letras), novela do escritor russo Anton Tchékhov, o leitor percorre o país junto com o garoto Iegóruchka – que vai acompanhado do tio Iván e do padre Khristofor – e suas impressão da vegetação e das pessoas.
Traduzida com fluência pelo escritor Rubens Figueiredo, a história é uma das tentativas do autor russo de compor uma narrativa mais longa. Pouco acontece de extraordinário nesse caminho – Iegóruchka precisa de separar brevemente do tio e passa a ser acompanhado por homens do povo, mujiques; também enfrenta uma tempestade e pega uma gripe. Ao mesmo tempo, estamos mergulhados na compreensão delicada dos valores e das relações materiais da país então, com a sutileza de um olhar familiarizado com a hierarquia mas que ainda vê novidades no cenário das estepes e nas injustiças.
Não há muito o que se dizer sobre a capacidade de Tchékhov de compor, com tão pouco, uma narrativa envolvente. Desde a primeira impressão sobre o tédio na estepe o leitor se vê presente naquela mesma viagem. A Estepe é uma bela novela de formação, com uma sensibilidade que lembra outro clássico, Proust, quando narra seus medos e afetos quando criança – ainda que seu olhar seja menos íntimo e mais social.
Leia um trecho da novela A Estepe, de Tchékov.
Societies, rather than religions possess a culture, says noted poet lyricist Javed Akthar for whom the Urdu language is essentially a secular progressive dialect without being religion specific.
"Islamic culture is a misnomer. Religions don't have a culture but societies have a culture. There is a central Asian culture, an Iranian, a Turkish culture, an Egyptian, an Indian culture... There can by synthesis of cultures like we have in India," Akthar said at a function here late last evening.
"Cultures come from different regions, not religions. So I believe there is nothing like an 'Islamic Culture,' had it been the case it then Saudi Arab would have it the most, which by the way is still looking for a culture," Akthar said.
The poet-lyricist was speaking at a recital session at the India Islamic Cultural Centre here organised by HarperCollins from the book "In Other Words", a translation of his own poetic works in English by Ali Hussain Mir.
"Urdu has no connection with any religion. I can say this with great pride that generally in literature when poems are written – say in Sanskrit, English, Greek or Latin, it is for the deities it for the Gods and then transcends to other topics.
"Urdu is one exception in the world that from the very beginning is anti-religion. It was anti-fundamentalist and anti-puritan," Akhtar said.
Interacting with the audience about the future of Urdu, the Sahitya Akademi winning-scholar expressed concern over the fate of other indigenous languages too, which he said, were not merely a means for communication but also carriers of culture and tradition.
"There was a time when I used to get worried thinking about the future of Urdu. But that doesn't happen anymore. Instead now what bothers me is the future of all Indian languages. Be it Urdu, Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil or any other... Their prevalence and existence is very important for us.
"Language is not a only a vehicle for communication, it carries a culture. Language carries tradition, a sense of continuity and identity. The moment you kill a language you make people rootless and that is what is happening with all our indigenous languages," he said.
Son of well-known Urdu poet and film lyricist Jan Nisar Akhtar and Safia Akhtar, a teacher and writer, Javed Akhtar belongs to a family lineage that can be traced back to seven generations of writers.
The highly respected Urdu poet, Majaz was Akhtar's uncle and the work of Muzter Khairabadi, his grandfather, is looked upon as a milestone in Urdu poetry.
"Urdu has been highly mistreated, I agree, and such a treatment is now being meted out to all other languages too. Urdu, which by its very temperament, has been a very secular, liberal and progressive language but was killed at the altar of the two-nation theory," he said.
Holding the after-effects of the partition responsible for downfall of the language, the veteran film lyricist and screenwriter said Urdu, which belonged to Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab, was subsequently imposed on regions like North West Frontier Province, Pashtun areas (in Pakistan) and along the Bangladesh borders where it didn't belong to.
"But it is people's love that has kept the language alive here," Akthar said.
‘How is language processed in the brain by native speakers of different languages? Is there one brain system for all languages or are different languages subserved by different brain systems? The first view emphasizes commonality, whereas the second emphasizes specificity’.
This is the opening statement of a research article published in the January, 2015 issue of PNAS in which scientists have investigated how our brain processes two very diverse languages: a tonal language (Chinese) and a non-tonal language (English). A group of researchers from China and the UK, led by Jianqiao Ge from Peking University, Beijing, have performed a study on 30 native Mandarin Chinese speakers and 26 native English speakers.
In English and non-tonal languages in general, pitch modulation is used to express emotional information. In contrast, pitch modulation in Mandarin and other tonal languages indicates different words altogether with distinct meanings. For example, the word Bi in Mandarin could mean force, nose, wall or compare, depending on how you pronounce it. Processing Mandarin speech therefore requires a higher degree of mapping tone to lexical meaning as compared to English. The researchers claim these differences between Mandarin Chinese and English change the way the brain’s networks work.
The classic brain regions associated with lexical speech processing are the Broca’s and Wernicke’s regions found in the left cerebral hemisphere. The corresponding regions in the right hemisphere have been implicated in the emotional speech processing. These findings were made, before real time functional brain imaging such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was possible. Brain autopsies of patients with speech impediments revealed lesions to these regions.
Previously, using fMRI to study the activity of the interconnected brain regions across languages was limited by the huge computational requirements. In this study, Ge and his team used cloud computing to analyse thousands of dynamic causal models to map the flow of activity between the regions involved.
The experimental task exposed the subjects to previously audio recorded intelligible and unintelligible phrases from their native languages. The phrases were voiced by a male and a female who are native speakers. The subjects were required to identify the gender of the speakers.
Two areas on the left hand side of the brain associated with language. OpenStax College/Wikimedia, CC BY http://bit.ly/17VBrvX
The results reinforced previous findings in general speech processing, showing activity in three regions of the left hemisphere namely, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG/Broca’s area), the anterior and the posterior temporal gyri (aSTG and pSTG/Wernicke’s area). The sound signals for both the groups entered the neural system via the pSTG.
However, there are some differences in the nature of the interactivity between the regions. In English speech processing, the pSTG to IFG connection is stronger, whereas the aSTG connections to both IFG and pSTG are stronger in Mandarin speech processing.
Another significant difference is the recruitment of the right hemispherical aSTG by Mandarin speakers, but not by English speakers. The right aSTG has active connections to both the classic left regions in Mandarin speakers.
These findings emphasize the importance of developing a bilateral network between the two brain hemispheres to speak and understand languages, particularly for tonal languages like Mandarin Chinese.
Extending this research to cover another feature called “pitch accent”, associated with certain languages, could increase the comprehensiveness of understanding speech processing. Scandinavian languages and Japanese are examples of pitch accent languages, where stressing on syllables alters the meaning of the word. However, such pitch alterations are restricted to one or two syllables in the word. This differs from fully tonal languages where each syllable has its own tone.
There are more than 7000 different spoken languages currently in use. With advancements in computational capabilities, the time is ripe for the neurolinguistics field to expand cross-language studies to include several languages.
The original paper can be accessed here.
As the needs for ever faster analytics on growing datasets continue to mount, the overwhelming number of projects, startups, and pushes from established companies to find new ways to process and manage data climb as well. While it can be difficult to sort and categorize these efforts, there are a few approaches that stand out.
Among these is a relatively small effort (in terms of the size of the team) that has some rather big backing, including the corporate support from companies like Facebook, Microsoft, Google, and Oracle Labs, which add financial backing to the existing National Science Foundation grant funds. The platform is called Hyracks, and the goal is to provide an accessible data parallel runtime basis for large-scale data processing using standard clusters of shared-nothing commodity nodes.
Both of the leads behind the project, Dr. Mike Carey and Dr. Chen Li from UC Irvine have extensive backgrounds working with large-scale data platforms. Carey, for instance, was a database researcher and manager at IBM Almaden (in addition to various corporate chief architect and engineer roles) and Li is a former visiting research scientist at Google. Both have watched as the limitations of standard relational databases became apparent at scale, and both too witnessed the march of new tools and languages, all aimed at making analytics at large scale more robust—but at the same time, adding more complexity via variability.
While the Hyracks platform itself could command a much more in-depth piece, especially since there are multiple components, one more recently developed piece of the stack caught our eye here at The Platform. This layer is called Algebricks and it is aimed at condensing the many diverse tools that are part of the analytics stack into one via a compiler using a data model-agnostic approach. This sits on top of Hyracks which, at the high level, is a push-based data parallel runtime that is not unlike Hadoop and includes its own scheduler and libraries.
BUFFALO, N.Y. (WIVB) – A new publication called Karibu News is launching.
The weekly publication is intended to connect immigrants to the Buffalo community.
Karibu means “Welcome” in Swahili.
While News 4 crews were at the papers headquarters, it caught the eye of a man walking by. Joseph Nzikamira from Congo said, “This is my language. Karibu. In my language it means welcome. I feel very excited.”
The multilingual publication was created by Rubens Mukunzi.
After coming to the U.S. from Rwanda he noticed it was tough to integrate into society. Soon after he discovered, he’s not the only one.
“When you get here we cannot explain ourselves in English. So I thought I could start a newspaper with different languages because most the newspapers here in Buffalo are in English,” Mukunzi said.
The weekly newspaper will feature various stories in different languages. It will vary depending on the publication. English will always be present, but they will rotate articles in Arabic, Burmese, Somali, Karen, Spanish or Nepali.
“We have such a large refugee and immigrant population that we need to appeal to everybody and we want to integrate that community with the rest of the community,” Sara Ali, the Editor-in-Chief of Karibu News said.
A trial edition of Karibu News launched recently. Its first official publication will be released on August 5.
Karibu newspapers are free and can be found in shops on the East and West Side of Buffalo and downtown.
Indira Gandhi National Open University (Ignou) has opened admissions for its master’s, bachelor’s, PG diploma and diploma programmes in tourism.
Prestigious translation services provider has an excellent opportunity for a Project Manager.
This is a varied, interesting role, covering the co-ordination and monitoring of all stages of the translation process, from receipt of request through to despatch to the client. You will be involved in daily client communication, internal co-ordination and quality checking. Excellent admin, organisation and communication skills are essential, with good IT skills - knowledge of TRADOS highly beneficial. You should have a strong customer focus and ability to build strong client relationships, a background in project management and client contact will be very useful.
The successful candidate will be educated to degree level, with fluency in English plus another Western European language - ideally French, German, Italian or Spanish, or native speaker of a Western European language plus fluency in English.
Starting salary £21,000 per annum. Benefits include non-contributory pension scheme, life assurance, private medical insurance, childcare vouchers, free shuttle bus from local train station.
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Foreign Ministry presents nuclear deal translation to parliament
Tehran Times Political Desk
TEHRAN - Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araqchi has delivered a translation copy of the text of the nuclear deal, officially called the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), to Parliament Speaker Ali Larijani.
Speaking to IRNA on Monday, MP Hossein Sobhaninia, the deputy chief of the Parliament National Security and Foreign Policy Committee, said lawmakers had returned the previous translation of the JCPOA to the Foreign Ministry over what they said were a number of mistakes in the text, calling for a better translation.
The new translation will probably be given to the National Security and Foreign Policy Committee for more examination, Sobhaninia quoted Araqchi as saying.
Up until August 17, 2015, AnyTranscription is offering a 30% discount summer sales promotion to meet the requirements of students on academic transcription.
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The longlist, or ‘Man Booker Dozen’, for the £50,000 Man Booker Prize is announced today, Wednesday 29 July 2015.
This year’s longlist of 13 books was selected by a panel of five judges chaired by Michael Wood, and also comprising Ellah Wakatama Allfrey, John Burnside, Sam Leith and Frances Osborne. The judges considered 156 books for this year’s prize.
This is the second year that the prize, first awarded in 1969, has been open to writers of any nationality, writing originally in English and published in the UK. Previously, the prize was open only to authors from the UK & Commonwealth, Republic of Ireland and Zimbabwe.
The 2015 longlist, or Man Booker ‘Dozen’, of 13 novels, is:
Author (nationality) - Title (imprint)
Bill Clegg (US) - Did You Ever Have a Family (Jonathan Cape)
Anne Enright (Ireland) - The Green Road (Jonathan Cape)
Marlon James (Jamaica) - A Brief History of Seven Killings (Oneworld Publications)
Laila Lalami (US) - The Moor's Account (Periscope, Garnet Publishing)
Tom McCarthy (UK) - Satin Island (Jonathan Cape)
Chigozie Obioma (Nigeria) - The Fishermen (ONE, Pushkin Press)
Andrew O’Hagan (UK) - The Illuminations (Faber & Faber)
Marilynne Robinson (US) - Lila (Virago)
Anuradha Roy (India) - Sleeping on Jupiter (MacLehose Press, Quercus)
Sunjeev Sahota (UK) - The Year of the Runaways (Picador)
Anna Smaill (New Zealand) - The Chimes (Sceptre)
Anne Tyler (US) - A Spool of Blue Thread (Chatto & Windus)
Hanya Yanagihara (US) - A Little Life (Picador)
Chair of the 2015 judges, Michael Wood, comments:
‘We had a great time choosing this list. Discussions weren’t always peaceful, but they were always very friendly. We were lucky in our companions and the submissions were extraordinary. The longlist could have been twice as long, but we’re more than happy with our final choice.
‘The range of different performances and forms of these novels is amazing. All of them do something exciting with the language they have chosen to use.’
The judges were struck by the international spectrum of the novels, with the longlist featuring three British writers, five US writers and one apiece from the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, India, Nigeria and Jamaica. Marlon James, who currently lives in Minneapolis, is the first Jamaican-born author to be nominated for the prize. Laila Lalami, now based in Santa Monica but born in Rabat, is the first Moroccan-born.
One former winner, Anne Enright, is longlisted. The Irish writer won the prize in 2007 with The Gathering. She is joined by two formerly shortlisted British writers: Tom McCarthy (2010, C) and Andrew O’Hagan (1999, Our Fathers, and longlisted for Be Near Me, 2006). US author Marilynne Robinson has been shortlisted for Man Booker International Prize twice, in 2011 and 2013.
There are three debut novelists on the list: Bill Clegg, Chigozie Obioma and Anna Smaill.
Four independent publishers are on the list, with Garnet Publishing and Pushkin Press appearing for the first time.
The shortlist and winner announcements
The shortlist of six books will be announced on Tuesday 15 September at a press conference at the London offices of Man Group, the prize’s sponsor.
The 2015 winner will then be announced on Tuesday 13 October in London’s Guildhall at a black-tie dinner that brings together the shortlisted authors and well-known figures from the literary world. The ceremony will be broadcast by the BBC.
The leading prize for quality fiction in English
First awarded in 1969, the prize is recognised as the leading prize for high quality literary fiction written in English. Its list of winners features many of the literary giants of the last four decades: from Salman Rushdie to Hilary Mantel, Iris Murdoch to Ian McEwan.
The rules of the prize changed at the end of 2013, to embrace the English language ‘in all its vigour, its vitality, its versatility and its glory’, opening up to writers beyond the UK and Commonwealth. Salman Rushdie commented at the time: ‘I think it's a really great thing that finally we've got an English language prize that doesn't make a distinction for writers who are writing from a particular country.’
Earlier this month the Booker Prize Foundation also announced a change to the Man Booker International Prize, which has become an annual award celebrating fiction in translation. The newly configured prize will focus on the finest in translated fiction published in the UK, and sees an increased annual prize purse of £52,000, which will be split equally between the winning author and translator.
Winning the Man Booker Prize
The shortlisted authors each receive £2,500 and a specially bound edition of their book. The winner will receive a further £50,000 and can expect international recognition. Last year’s winning novel, The Narrow Road to the Deep North by Richard Flanagan, has sold 300,000 copies in the UK and almost 800,000 worldwide.
Following her second win in 2012, Hilary Mantel topped the UK Nielsen BookScan chart with the sales of Bring up the Bodies, her sequel to Wolf Hall which won in 2009. Sales of her winning novels together exceeded a million copies in their UK editions. The BBC’s television adaptation and the theatre adaptations by the Royal Shakespeare Company of both novels have been widely praised. Other winning novels have gone on to have second or third lives as stage and screen adaptations; examples include Schindler’s Ark (directed by Steven Spielberg as Schindler’s List), The Remains of the Day and The English Patient.
Reporters Without Borders is surprised and dismayed to learn that an opposition newspaper editor was placed in pre-trial detention yesterday in Abidjan, although media offences have been decriminalized in Côte d’Ivoire. Joseph Gnanhoua Titi, the publisher and editor of Aujourd’hui, a daily that supports former President Laurent Gbagbo, is being held in Abidjan’s main prison, known as the Maca, on charges of publishing false news and insulting President Alassane Ouattara.
He is charged in connection with an article on 21 July claiming that a report prepared by the French foreign intelligence agency, the DSGE, accused President Ouattara of embezzling development aid, money laundering and illegal asset transfers. No evidence for the authenticity of this claim has been produced. “We call on the Ivorian authorities to respect their own laws and to release Joseph Gnanhoua Titi at once,” said Cléa Kahn-Sriber, the head of the Reporters Without Borders Africa desk.
“As media offences have been decriminalized in Côte d’Ivoire, journalists should not be jailed regardless of what they say in their articles. Legal recourse is available if what they publish is regarded as abusive or defamatory.”
The day before his arrest, Titi was questioned for more than eight hours at the headquarters of the gendarmerie’s department of investigations at prosecutor-general Richard Christophe Adou’s request.
Article 68 of Côte d’Ivoire’s press law says: “The penalty of imprisonment is excluded for press offences.” Article 74 on insulting the president, which was cited by the prosecutor, provides for judicial proceedings but not for pre-trial detention.
And only the National Press Council (CNP) – the entity that oversees and regulates the media – is empowered to impose sanctions on journalists when the press law is violated.
This is the second time that opposition journalists have been jailed for insulting Ouattara since he became president. Three Notre Voie journalists – publisher César Etou, assistant editor Didier Dépri and chief political correspondent Boga Sivori – were arrested in November 2011 and were held for 13 days before being tried and acquitted.
Austryn Wainhouse, the translator, writer and publisher who died last
September at the age of 87 in Uzes, France, was the second translator of the erotic French novel, Histoire d'O or Story of O by Pauline Réage. His identity was obscured for many years because the second translator was listed as "Anonymous." All three translations were marred by controversy.
First published in 1954, in French by Jean-Jacques Pauvert and in English by Maurice Girodias, publisher of Olympia Press, O has never been out of print, sold hundreds of thousands of copies and has been translated into over twenty languages. O, which tells a sadistic story of female bondage and sexual perversion, is credited with helping foil the French vice squads and bring erotic French literature to America.
Wainhouse became involved when the first translation by Baird Bryant, a member of the Merlin literary group, was poorly done. Réage was outraged.
Girodias, under pressure from Pauvert and Réage hired Wainhouse, who had already translated the Marquis de Sade. Wainhouse was also an editor of the Merlin literary magazine, which included their leader Alexander Trocchi, Richard Seaver, Christopher Logue and Patrick Bowles.
In 2011, new information surfaced about the "anonymous" translator.
From his seventeenth birthday until 2000, Wainhouse, who was a Harvard graduate, kept detailed journals. In 2014, he died after a long illness. Prior to his death, his wife, Deborah Clayton Wainhouse, known affectionately as "Silver" Wainhouse, introduced me to Austryn and shared his journals with me.
Mary Duncan reading Wainhouse's journals at his desk. 2012
On February 5, 1957, one day before his 30th birthday, Wainhouse began the second English translation of O. The work was "exhausting and slow."
February 8, 1957, "Re-translating The Story of O. Exhausting and slow. Began on the 5th."
He was paid 90,000 francs or approximately $250 dollars by Maurice Girodias, who published it in his Traveler's Companion series, which featured DB's or dirty books, risqué titles and sexual content. Wainhouse noted the work done by Bryant.
His journals also describe his translation work with numerous other prominent writers such as the Marquis de Sade, Jean Cocteau, Pierre Klossowski, Simone de Beauvoir and Georges Bataille. In 1972, Wainhouse won the National Book Award for his translation of Jacques Monod's Chance and Necessity.
For most of his work, Wainhouse used his own name. For the more controversial pieces, such as his earlier translations of the Marquis de Sade's One Hundred and Twenty Days of Sodom, he used his pen name Pieralessandro Casavini
In 1955, pressure to improve the translation and identify the author increased after O won the Prix des Deux Magots, a small but prestigious literary prize.
France's vice squads seized copies of O and questioned Pauvert, Girodias and Jean Paulhan about the identity of Réage. Neither they nor Paulhan, the highly respected editor of Gallimard, who brought the novel to Pauvert, revealed that Dominique Aury or Anne Desclos, (she had two names), was the real author. Aury was also questioned.
Paulhan, who had written the erudite preface to O, had an additional secret. Aury had written O as a series of love letters to him as a ploy to keep him from straying to younger women. Paulhan, who was an admirer of the Marquis de Sade, was intrigued by her sensual letters, which depicted a female version of the Marquis de Sade's themes of bondage and sexual perversion. (And indeed, some claim Fifty Shades of Grey, is a modern interpretation of O).
The Wainhouse edition also had some problems.
In order to thwart the American censors, Girodias changed the title to The Wisdom of the Lash. When the preface by Paulhan was deleted, Girodias blamed it on a drunk printer.
Another change directly affected Wainhouse. The translator was listed as "Anonymous." Was this deliberate, perhaps to avoid paying future royalties, or was it by mutual agreement?
Wainhouse, who wasn't a French citizen, had serious personal concerns. He didn't want to be deported back to the United States, where Joseph McCarthy's senate committee was prosecuting writers and the Korean War was drafting young men. Nor did he want to embarrass his father, who was an American diplomat.
"Anonymous" gave him protection. For many years, "Anonymous" also caused him not to be recognized for one of his most important works.
Wainhouse was finally recognized as the second translator in 1994, when John de St. Jorre revealed his identity in The Good Ship Venus: The Erotic Voyage of Olympia Press. That same year, Dominique Aury admitted she was Pauline Réage, when The New Yorker published St. Jorre's article, "The Unmasking of O."
The questions regarding the translations of O did not stop there. In 1963, Pauvert sold the English rights to Barney Rosset at Grove Press. Pauvert insisted that there be a new, third translation. By this time, Seaver from the Merlin group and a co-translator with Wainhouse on Sade's works, was an editor for Grove. In this capacity, he said he hired Sabine d'Estrée for the third translation. St. Jorre was suspicious and felt Seaver had done it, which Seaver continually denied. The third edition received an excellent review from the New York Times.
Seaver's memoir, The Tender Hours of Twilight (2012), confirmed that while Bryant's French was "limited", the second translation "was much better." Seaver and Wainhouse corresponded about O in 1965, but "Anonymous" was not identified.
Following Seaver's death in 2009, Jeanette Seaver, confirmed that her husband was Sabine d'Estrée, the third translator for O.
In 2013, Wainhouse's archive, which contains his journals, photos, letters and contracts, was placed in the Syracuse University Special Collections Library. Between 1967-1987, Richard Seaver's Grove Press materials were also placed there. Together they provide a valuable history of publishing in the 1900s.
Wainhouse, who had a goal of translating 10 pages a day, wrote "I detest the book." His negative view did not slow him down. He completed O in eighteen days.
References and notes are located at www.pariswriterspress.com. See Interviews and Articles
’ai fait couler beaucoup d’encre à ce sujet, brusquement devenu une problématique dans l’approche de la pédagogie scolaire en Algérie. J’ai aussi largement exprimé mes idées sur la question linguistique à l’école lors des travaux du CSE et de la CNRSE et elles étaient massivement approuvées parce que convaincantes.
En effet, pour être cru, il faut convaincre par une démonstration scientifique, sans plus. Pas de politique en science, surtout qu’il s’agit, ici, d’intelligence de l’enfant algérien. Cependant, bien que puisés des thèses universelles d’acquisition et de développement de l’intelligence chez l’enfant (universel aussi), mes arguments neuroscientifiques n’ont jamais été pris en considération alors que je suis le premier expert en la matière en Algérie. En effet, mon premier doctorat, qui date de 1979, est préfacé par Martinet, publié en ligne sur le site de l’Unité de recherches en neurosciences cognitives, orthophonie, phoniatrie (Urnop).
L’apprentissage est le deuxième moment de la vie après l’acquisition et, en orthophonie (voir l’historique de la fondation en ligne), on soigne les troubles d’acquisition et d’apprentissage, ce qui veut dire que mon expérience dans le secteur ne relève pas de l’improvisation. Sans contingence extrascientifique aucune donc, je vais, objectivement, à ce propos, synthétiser la substance de mes idées à ce sujet car je me sens massivement interpellée par ce que je lis dans la presse, signé par un personnel qui se dit pourtant «spécialiste en sciences du langage». On va graduellement progresser dans la démonstration ensemble et si contradiction il y a, elle sera, elle aussi, située au plan argumentatif scientifique. Aucune subjectivité.
Que fait l’enfant de 0 à 6 ans ? Il joue. Les tenants des sciences du langage appellent cette phase «l’acquisition», autrement dit, l’enfant «traite» cognitivement, par son intelligence personnelle, les faits d’environnement social. Il donne son «sens» à la vie, il crée son monde.
Piaget (père fondateur de la psychologie du développement) parle, sans distinguer l’enfant chinois de l’enfant suisse ou kabyle — la science est universelle, elle n’est pas raciste — d’expérience, de résolution de problèmes de 4 à 8-10 ans.
Il raisonne, il acquiert la faculté d’abstraction. Il décrit alors, chez tous les enfants du monde, la fonction hypothético-déductive. L’enfant pose l’hypothèse qu’il va faire un bonhomme de neige, il l’imagine, il analyse neige, nez rouge, yeux noirs…, il en fait une synthèse et en déduit une «thèse», il crée de l’idée. Puis il argumente d’autres hypothèses et passe tout son temps à créer des thèses toujours nouvelles. Ces activités ludiques développent son propre espace-temps.
Donc l’oral, le langage, la daridja permettent à l’enfant de structurer son espace-temps (droite, gauche, hier, demain…). Sa structuration spatio-temporelle, en constant développement, développera alors ses capacités d’abstraction. Il pose des questions, il pense, il s’imagine une multitude de choses qui n’existent pas, au point qu’«encombré par trop de thèses», il devient même instable. Cette période d’«acquisition» est donc très vulnérable : il ne faut pas orienter l’enfant qui crée sa propre orientation, il faut le laisser libre de jouer et de construire ses thèses comme il l’entend. Pas de structuralisme où on lui apprend à ânonner des mots, des structures phrastiques stupides qu’il connaît déjà, qui vont donc l’empêcher de créer ses propres «idées».
Pas de matraquage : l’enfant est doué d’une formidable curiosité, il recherche la nouveauté, toujours la nouveauté, la nouveauté qui le remplit de joie. Il «découvre», grâce à l’expérience, qu’il fait partie du monde environnant. Il cherche et résout des difficultés. Ces difficultés qui feront toute sa vie. Un exemple trivial : vous achetez à votre enfant une poupée que vous avez payée très cher. Sitôt qu’il voit celle de sa cousine, il hurle jusqu’à la lui prendre, fut-elle toute vieille. La nouveauté le séduit, il la recherche. C’est plutôt son contraire, l’habituel, le routinier, qui le traumatise !
Déjà deux implications pratiques sont issues de cette démonstration :
1. l’école universelle n’est pas traumatisante pour l’enfant si elle lui apporte du nouveau. Ce nouveau s’appelle la liberté d’abstraction, de créer et de construire ses expériences créatives.
2. le nouveau à l’école, c’est la langue. A 6 ans, l’enfant passe à autre chose : il quitte le langage pour accéder aux règles de l’écrit qui, purement abstraites, sont au nombre de deux : la cohérence et la cohésion. La langue, autrement dit le texte d’auteur consacré, est intéressant pour l’enfant de 6-10 ans, justement parce qu’il porte l’abstraction, suscite l’imagination, la curiosité de l’enfant, l’hypothèse et l’argumentation liées au raisonnement. Cela s’appelle la motivation par le schéma actanciel : dans le texte, quelque chose «va se passer», l’enfant attend cette chose… il va lui-même la créer dès qu’il lit ou écoute un conte.
Dans la phrase de l’oral, autrement dit le langage d’avant 6 ans, rien ne se passe, l’enfant n’a rien à traiter, elle est la même pour tous les enfants. «Atini lkora», «khoud lbaloun»… ne suscitent aucun traitement cognitif chez l’enfant, c’est du concret, du quotidien qui sert à l’enfant à structurer son espace-temps, prérequis cognitif de l’accès à l’écrit. Or, celui qui a 20/20 n’a pas 02/20, chacun a sa propre intelligence et ses propres thèses (de mathématiques, de physique, de philosophie…).
Or, encore, la psychologie génétique enseigne qu’à 4 ans, l’enfant acquiert justement le schéma narratif, il faut donc lui raconter des histoires qui vont aiguiser ses sens cognitifs et il peut alors créer de merveilleuses thèses qui subjuguent son entourage ! Or enfin, Piaget préconise pour tous les enfants du monde : «Mettez l’enfant en interaction positive et son intelligence se développera, quel que soit son milieu social.» L’élève intelligent d’aujourd’hui fera la société intelligente de demain. A 6 ans, l’interaction positive pour l’enfant (ne voyons que ce qu’il aime à cet âge), c’est la langue porteuse d’abstrait à rechercher, à construire, défaire et reconstruire, c’est l’écrit dans ses règles abstraites.
Cliquez donc avec moi sur ce lien que j’ai pris à l’instant, au hasard, dans Google : http://www.cndp.fr/crdp-creteil/telemaque/document/bibli-references.htm. Ce tableau indique le nombre d’œuvres littéraires absorbées par l’élève français : des dizaines. La colonne de droite indique «C1/C2/C3» : ce sont les trois cycles (paliers) de l’école française de 6 à 11 ans. En France, d’où est importé le LMD, on gave l’élève de livres, de pièces de théâtre, de poésies ; on n’enseigne pas le patois tout simplement parce qu’il a déjà été acquis : l’enfant refuse ce qu’il sait déjà, il est vorace en matière de nouveauté.
La structuration spatio-temporelle se développe depuis le cri de la naissance jusqu’à la fin de la vie, elle prend des aspects différents en fonction de l’âge. Selon la norme universelle, l’enfant de 4 à 8 ans commence à raisonner et à résoudre des problèmes et si on le fait régresser, lorsqu’il a 9 ans, vers l’espace-temps propre à la tranche d’âge de 2 à 3 ans, on compromettra alors certainement son développement normal et il sera retardé. Il marche à un an et s’il fait ses premiers pas à 3 ans, c’est qu’il est handicapé par un retard psychomoteur. Ainsi en va-t-il du cognitif ; si on lui donne la phrase de l’oral à 7 ans, alors qu’il l’a déjà acquise à 18 mois, ce sera alors une grave régression forcée. Il sera un retardé mental.
Ce sont les thèses d’acquisition universelles qui l’enseignent et non des bribes de propos lancés à l’emporte-pièce, sans référence à des thèses ni démonstrations. Pour s’auto-soutenir, on évoque alors, sans en donner d’explication scientifique ni les sources, au risque d’être non crédible, ceci : les neurosciences, le cognitivisme, l’Unesco… édictent…
L’enfant ne peut pas apprendre sans langue. L’apprentissage, de 6 ans jusqu’à la fin de la vie, poursuit le stade d’acquisition. Et c’est la langue et non le dialecte qui véhicule le savoir abstrait, la civilisation, la culture et la science. Les revues sont écrites en français, en anglais ou en arabe classique et non en daridja.
Je me souviendrais toujours du livre (l’unique) intitulé Aqra’ wataâllem, un livre traumatisant que mes enfants me ramenaient, rempli de structures phrastiques débilitantes, voire abrutissantes. J’ai très vite compris que la langue n’existait pas à l’école algérienne et que donc leur apprentissage était menacé. Consciente, j’ai pu contourner la gravité du problème, conseillant à tous les parents de donner de la lecture à leurs enfants et de recourir à la littérature enfantine dans n’importe quelle langue. L’intitulé de ce livre est, en lui-même, une grossière antinomie : «La taâlloum bidoun lissen !» Sinon, qu’on me dise ce que l’enfant a appris après avoir répété comme un perroquet «el oummou filmatbakhi wel’abou filmektèbi»…
Dans ce livre, l’oral est tout simplement traduit en arabe classique : tchina est dit burtouqala. Or, ce n’est pas de la langue, ce n’est pas du texte avec son auteur, sa période, dans sa typologie et dans son genre ; c’est du langage, c’est de l’oral, c’est de la daridja… Aujourd’hui, remarquez, mieux : on nous propose de reculer, la phrase de l’oral n’a même plus besoin d’être traduite, on va la livrer telle quelle, orale, daridja, à l’état pur. Au moins là, la démarche est plus franche et plus économique, on n’aura plus besoin (à moins que je me trompe !) d’imprimer ni d’éditer chaque année, à fort budget, le livre Aqra’ wataâllem…
Ainsi, pas de langue, donc pas d’abstrait et donc pas de projection dans le futur. Pas de futurs chercheurs porteurs d’hypothèses : l’âge cognitif d’acquisition de la thèse (4-10 ans) est donc sacrifié en Algérie. En conclusion, il faut gaver l’enfant de langue à l’école : la si langoureuse et si mystérieuse poésie kabyle, les énigmatiques fables de La Fontaine ou le bel arc-en-ciel des poèmes arabes, c’est cela qui motive l’enfant, c’est cela qu’il aime.
J’ai posé la question à nos autorités dans un article paru dans Liberté il y a plus de 15 ans ; je la leur repose, qu’ils me le permettent, aujourd’hui : «Pourquoi donc aucun de vous ne m’a jamais demandé comment j’ai procédé pour arabiser toute une science médicale, l’orthophonie, qui, dans le monde entier, y compris en pays arabes, est enseignée en français, en anglais ou en allemand ? J’ai pourtant fait toutes mes études, depuis le primaire jusqu’aux deux doctorats français, en français et en anglais.» Il n’y a qu’à voir les thèses publiées en ligne sur notre site, dans des thématiques de pointe, que les arabisants ne maîtrisent pas : thèses de phoniatrie, d’audiophonologie, d’acoustique clinique, de phonétique orthophonique, de neurolinguistique… soutenues depuis les années 1990.
Alors, en voici la réponse parce que si elle ne m’a jamais été posée, c’est qu’elle ne le sera pas. Les deux règles, cohérence et cohésion, suggestives de synthèses d’idées et de thèses, m’ont, en effet, été apprises en français et comme ce sont des règles abstraites, elles sont alors aisément transférables à toutes les langues du monde (le berbère, le chinois, l’arabe, l’allemand…), car là, ce n’est qu’une question de lexique, de signifiant et de traduction.
Je signale le fait que mes docteurs arabisants commettent souvent des fautes d’idéation, morphosyntaxiques et de style, en arabe, que je ne commets pas. Ils ont beaucoup de mal à écrire un abstract ou des références bibliographiques correctement. En effet, dégager, grâce à la cohérence d’idées classées en principales et satellites dans un texte, chercher les arguments du propos qu’il contient est un processus cognitif d’abstraction commun à toutes les langues du monde. C’est la raison pour laquelle j’ai dit plus haut «dans n’importe quelle langue».
L’abstrait c’est l’hypothèse de travail, laquelle ne sera réalité qu’une fois vérifiée ; c’est la science, objet d’autonomie intellectuelle et économique. La structuration spatio-temporelle qui en permet la création est synonyme d’autonomie ; autonomie = bonheur = sérénité.
Et un pays importateur n’est pas autonome : l’être humain normal n’aime pas dépendre d’autrui, il est alors frustré, malheureux et peut même devenir violent. Pour l’heure, nous importons les thèses et le fruit du cognitif des pays du Nord, parce que les thèses algériennes sont très précocement, préventivement donc, compromises dans leur développement naturel, un peu comme on tue l’œuf dans sa coque.
En effet, en psychologie, tout est genèse à tranche d’âge précise ; l’âge de la «thèse» de l’enfant algérien est brisé puisqu’il est reporté à celui du lycée ; il est alors trop tard.
La pédagogie scolaire est donc une affaire de spécialistes en psycholinguistique, en psychologie cognitive et en neurosciences, triple domaine duquel j’ai puisé ces quelques concepts, sur lesquels je pourrais revenir en expliquant, cette fois, comment l’aphasie — ou perte, à des degrés différents, selon le lieu, la nature et la topographie de la lésion cérébrale — du double processus acquisition-apprentissage, à travers une déstructuration spatio-temporelle, visible à travers tout le comportement depuis le phonème jusqu’au geste, en passant par le mot, la phrase, le récit et le texte, le tout sans exclure la mélodie de la parole, est construite à l’école algérienne. A ceci près qu’il n’y a pas de lésion cérébrale. Les troubles rencontrés chez la plupart de nos jeunes sont des troubles fonctionnels, occasionnés par sa pédagogie.
Le prix Pierre-François Caillé de la traduction, décerné par la Société française des traducteurs (SFT) avec le concours de l’École supérieure d’interprètes et de traducteurs (ESIT), sera remis le 4 décembre 2015. Le jury vient d’annoncer sa sélection pour la phase finale.
Les traducteurs qui restent en lice sont les suivants :
Marie-Anne de Béru, pour sa traduction de l’anglais (États-Unis) de Will le Magnifique (Stephen Greenblatt, Flammarion)
Anne Cohen-Beucher, pour sa traduction de l’anglais (États-Unis) de DJ Ice (Love Maia, Alice Editions)
Mariana Cojan Negulescu, pour sa traduction du roumain de L’Anonyme flamand (Constantin Mateescu, Editions Le Soupirail)
Etienne Gomez, pour sa traduction de l’anglais (Afrique du Sud) de Un voyage à Arras, vie et mort d’Isaac Rosenberg (Shaun Levin, Christophe Lucquin Editeur)
Sophie Hofnung, pour sa traduction de l’espagnol (Argentine) de Pierre contre ciseaux (Inés Garland, Editions Arlé)
Michelle Ortuno, pour sa traduction de l’espagnol (Espagne) de La véritable histoire de Matias Bran (Isabel Alba, La Contre Allée)
Gwilym Tonnerre, pour sa traduction de l’anglais (États-Unis) de Le petit déjeuner des champions (Kurt Vonnegut, Editions Gallmeister)
Gwilym Tonnerre, pour sa traduction de l’anglais (États-Unis) de Dieu vous bénisse, monsieur rosewater (Kurt Vonnegut, Editions Gallmeister)
Souvenez-vous : en 2014, le jury a distingué Jean-Christophe Salaün pour La Femme à 1000º (Hallgrímur Helgason, Presses de la Cité) qu’il a traduit de l’islandais.
Et si vous profitiez de vos vacances pour en lire un ou plus, et nous donner votre avis ? Écrivez-nous à email@example.com.
Cape Town - Southern Africa's Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, specifically - are the only countries in the world where the original 'click languages' are still spoken today?
Non-pulmonic consonants, aka click consonants, are embedded in South African culture and language, and visitors to our country can't help but fall in love with these iconic sounds when visiting.
Speakers of these beautiful 'click languages' live mostly in the Kalahari and Richtersveld regions in South Africa and Namibia.
One of the most popular cultural 'click-language' songs, Miriam Makeba's Click Song, is but one of the examples. Check it out here:
As cool as it looks to know and use these click sounds, it's not always easy to know how to pronounce and use them.
That's why we've found this handy and informative guide to making the iconic 'click consonants'.
The video, posted to YouTube by Artifexian, shows viewers how to pronounce the five principal clicks, where clicks originally come from, who on the globe speaks the click languages, why clicks arose in human language and how clicks spread across the world.
Be warned, though: You might look (and sound) like a fool trying to pronounce these sounds - but that's okay, go ahead and give it a try.
Wits has made a lot of progress on paper on the issue of recognizing African indigenous languages. However what is on paper seems hard to be translated to practice. The view that African indigenous languages must receive recognition similarly to English has recently remain a frozen subject not only by Wits but by many institutions. This raise concerns about the status of South African ‘mother tongue’ languages and their worth. It further questions the role of the institutions in embracing all South African languages.
Like any other tools of colonialism English was a strategy that was used by the colonizers to shape the world of the colonized (Thiong’o, 1986). This meant that the colonized would have to abandon their own world, perceived inferior and adopts the colonizer’s world. It also explains how indigenous languages were sidelined by institutions and then English became this giant bully of African indigenous languages till today.
Historically in South Africa, English entered into mainstream around 1814 (Reagan, 1988). This was when the British took control of the Cape administration. This period resulted to the developments which then advanced to language policies and then English adopted as the medium of communication. This period required Black South Africans to read, learn and communicates in English.
Indeed it contributed to the stunting of the development of indigenous African languages (Wits University language policy survey, 2014). And it was through this tireless efforts by institutions that English was enhanced to dominate the natives’ languages. For that reason, institutions like Wits also have a huge task to ensure that indigenous African Languages receive the same recognition as English today.
Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach is a Rio Salado custom edition. Author: Jane Rice. ISBN:0-536-55250-9. CD included. Bought new and used once. Has minimal sings of wear. No writing or...
By the Rev. Walter B. Klockers | 0 comments
For the makers of dictionaries there is a process of making room for new words. They do so by discarding some words that have become obsolete in their minds.
Each word on the chopping block is examined thoroughly because there is the possibility that such an old word may have taken on new meaning. When this happens, it can extend the life of that word.
I'd like to present to you three words that I feel could stand for some revisioning.
I remain hopeful for the possibility of a greater number of Christians to be counted among those "stewards who thirst for righteous prosperity."
For those who attend church, "stewardship" may simply be equated with money, always money it seems.
However, what I mean by "stewardship" is "a caring way of life." Such a steward is one who lives out this reality every day.
One definition for "righteous" is "morally upright and virtuous." A person who practices this may fall into the trap of regarding themselves as a cut above others spiritually and deserving God's bountiful blessings.
However, what I mean by the word "righteous" is simply "the right way." A person who practices this is focused outward, concerned about others, and does not represent the notion of "purification through separation."
One definition for "prosperity" is "wealth, comfort and luxury." As such, a prosperous person may look upon themselves as being a cut above others because of what they believe they possess.
However, what I mean by the word "prosperity" is "a good outcome." I'm describing a person who embraces the ministry of looking outward for the benefit of society and not primarily themselves.
I've heard it said: "Don't blame the world for being darkness; blame the church if it stops being light."
My prayer: "If I have allowed my views to narrow, and the light of Christ has dimmed, may it now be rekindled and fully restored within me. May I once again see Jesus as the suffering servant who came to serve - so that I may, once again, do the same. Amen.
Words can be powerful things. I believe those that bless us into service are the most powerful of all.
Christine has a passion and interest in sociology and gender studies, and a master's degree in American studies.
In this lesson you willl learn about the relationship between animal cognition and human cognition. You will discover how some animal species demonstrate surprising abilities. You will also learn to avoid jumping to conclusions when it comes to understanding animal behavior.
Communicating a Memory
You're out in the woods one day and find the most fantastic treehouse you've ever seen. You make note of where you are and then head back home to tell your friends.
Your friends really want to see this treehouse. But you're too tired to go back, so you tell them how to find it. To do this, you could use many different methods. You might direct your friends to the spot using a compass or GPS, or you could recall your memory of landmarks and the travel-distance and time to the structure. Your friends set off into the woods in search of the treehouse. Since you've done a good job of explaining its location, they find it without a problem.
As a human being, this type of communication is considered a hallmark of what makes us unique. You just transferred complex information using your memory, a spatial map of the landscape, and a sense of time. Even if you relied solely on GPS, you are using a tool that the activity of human brains has created.
Do animals have similar abilities to remember this kind of information, to solve these types of problems, and to communicate their ideas to others in their species? In this lesson, we'll consider some research on animal cognition to help us answer this question.
What is Cognition?
What is cognition, anyway?
When describing human cognition, we typically consider how human beings think, learn, and recall information.
Sometimes the ability to reason is included in this term. Reasoning is often involved in tasks that require comparison and the ability to recognize the relationship between two or more things or ideas.
Consider, for instance, trying to buy a new cell phone. The salesperson tells you that the silver phone is more expensive than the blue one. Then, he mentions that the red cell phone is more expensive than the silver one. You can then reason that this means the red cell phone is also more expensive than the blue one. (You may have to take a moment to read that again!)
Do animals also have this cognitive ability to reason? Do they have the other cognitive abilities to remember, learn, and even teach one another? Let's dig into this controversial and fascinating topic.
Examples of Animal Cognition Research
It's time to talk about Alex. Alex is a famous African grey parrot who was a central figure in the research of biologist Irene Pepperberg. This parrot was taught to categorize objects through extensive training. He was even able to respond to questions like ''What is the same? '' and ''What is different? '' between two objects of distinct color or shape. That's a pretty talented bird!
African grey parrots may have the capacity to learn how to categorize and compare qualities of objects.
Although this is not typical behavior for your average grey parrot, Alex was able to demonstrate abilities in the lab that were not expected, until they were attempted. This is important, because it questions our assumptions about the cognitive limitations of certain species. It also appears to demonstrate a similarity between cognition in humans and grey parrots (because both are able to use a form of categorization).
In the wild, we can also find impressive examples of memory and communication in non-human animals. Honeybees, for example, are believed to perform a type of dance along with sound and odors to transfer details about the location of food. Imagine that instead of telling your friends where the treehouse was located, you could use a waggle dance to get your point across?
Honeybee communication about the location of food raises questions about their cognition.
Research also suggests that the scrub-jay (a type of bird) is able to recall information about what type of food it has stored and, even more impressively, when it stored it. Some researchers have wondered whether these birds are able to experience a form of mental time travel that humans use when we try to remember where we put the pretzels after we got home from the grocery store and how long ago that was.
Some researchers hesitate to make such claims of similarities between humans and other animals. They warn that the cognitive abilities of humans and other species are quite distinct, even when it appears that we are thinking in similar ways.
For instance, cognitive researchers Thomas Suddendorf and Janie Busby point out that there may be simpler explanations to explain how scrub-jays are able to plan and recall information about their food storage. They advocate that we explore these possibilities rather than assume the birds use the mental time travel that we do.
In fact, when considering animal cognition, researchers are very concerned about our tendency to anthropomorphize. When we anthropomorphize, we think about animals having the same qualities as human beings, even when it's not clear that their functioning or processing works the same way.
This post will look at some free online tools that every student should know about. It looks at resources that the student can rely on for research, and also those resources that he or she should never use or quote from.
PROGRESS EQUALS CHANGE
Our schools core curriculums might still be the same as they were ten years ago, but the way they are taught keeps progressing. Technology has played a key role in this. We have college and high school classes that are taught partially or entirely online, and we can watch lecturers without being there in person via livestream.
KEEPING UP WITH TECHNOLOGY
Statistics show that more than 80% of high schools are online, while colleges exceed 80%. This means that course work, timetables and assignments are often posted and submitted online. Being tech savvy and being connected to the right online resources are now requirements for a student to maintain above average scores.
ONLINE RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS TO AVOID
It is important to note that while Google and Wikipedia are a wealth of information, they are not credible sources when it comes to scholarly materials. This is because for Wikipedia, the content can be altered by virtually anyone despite their credentials, and with Google, one is given virtually any information so long as it is most viewed or searched for.
YouTube is also not a platform to use when looking for educational information unless one is pursuing a fashion design or art class where erroneous information and mistakes are encouraged and seen as part of the learning curve. One can instead use Google scholar where all articles and journals are peer reviewed.
This means that any information you get has been proofread by other professionals and hence can be deemed credible.
FREE ONLINE TOOLS FOR WRITING
Most writing interfaces such as Microsoft word and notepad have an inbuilt spell check capability. This is important, as there is nothing worse than an essay riddled with grammatical errors and wrongly spelt words.
One can also have access to online dictionaries to ensure proper usage of vocabulary, especially since most inbuilt dictionaries (such as thesaurus) have limited words. One of the most reliable online dictionaries, the Oxford dictionary, can be accessed from its homepage. This free online tool will help the student understand words better and use them in the correct context.
It is important for a student to have an online translator, especially since it is almost a requirement to be proficient in more than two languages. One should be able to use the online translators to complete foreign language assignments.
The plagiarism checker is another free tool that can be accessed online. This is an important online tool, as it checks the authenticity of any written essay and helps the writer put citations where he or she might have forgotten.
Coming up with a thesis or an essay title is the hardest, but most essential part of any essay a student may be required to write. There is a free online resource known as the essay generator http://essaytopicgenerator.com. What it does can be deduced from the title, but its efficacy far exceeds expectations.
The good thing is one does not need to download it or feed registration details into the system to access it. All one has to do is provide the keywords that he thinks should be in his title, choose the topic type and subject area and the tool will do the rest. The topic type and subject area are selected from a preset list.
I believe that the essay generator tool will be to students what the wheel is to engineers, as it helps with the most crucial part of any students work: the generation of a field and title to work on. Once this is accomplished, the rest of the pieces automatically fall in place.
OTHER ONLINE TOOLS FOR STUDENTS
Many other free online tools such as Twiddla and Scribblar are accessible to students. These two tools encourage online group work and information sharing. It is, however, very important to note that the student still has to use his or her discretion to choose what to research, what to use or not use and what to consider as useful information.
David Cameron's comments about a "swarm" of refugees make a big insinuation.
No ano em que comemora duas décadas de existência, a Editora da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Eduel) é destaque no cenário nacional. Desde 2005, já são mais de 600 títulos publicados e lançados com a proposta de disseminação da pesquisa acadêmica. Uma média de 30 títulos por ano. Hoje, a Eduel investe na oferta de livros pela internet.
Somente a aposta no selo infantojuvenil, que começou em 2009, já rendeu a publicação de 220 livros, valorizando o conteúdo educativo de cunho pedagógico direcionado às crianças. Outra novidade é o lançamento, em setembro, de títulos no formato e-book, que também serão disponibilizados em plataforma de alta tecnologia.
"Trabalhamos em projetos que vão posicionar a Eduel um patamar à frente de editoras universitárias de outras instituições", afirma o diretor da Eduel, Luiz Carlos Migliozzi, professor do Departamento de Letras Vernáculas e Clássicas, do Centro de Ciências Humanas (CCH).
Ele aponta que o mercado de livros acadêmicos é o setor que mais cresce dentro do segmento e-book. "É uma ferramenta útil para o professor pesquisador, um recurso que facilita a busca por citações, informações e dados", justifica Luiz Carlos.
Com foco na difusão do conhecimento gerado pela produção científica, tecnológica, artística e cultural das comunidades universitária e externa, a editora encara o desafio de manter o ritmo de lançamentos, sem abrir mão da qualidade editorial.
"O papel da Eduel é fundamental para o fomento e desenvolvimento da pesquisa acadêmica. Por isso, com uma parceria com a Gráfica da UEL, que vai contar com um parque totalmente digitalizado, pretendemos tornar mais rápida a impressão de títulos já lançados, suprindo as demandas por mais exemplares", informa o diretor.