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nation.lk ::: - Transitions of a theater translation

nation.lk ::: - Transitions of a theater translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Transitions of a theater translation
By The Nation Sunday, 23 September 2012 00:00 font size Print EmailLingual aspects of Ruwanthi de Chickera’s Kalumaali

Playwright and drama directress Ruwanthi de Chickera’s Kalumaali opened with its English version on September 13 to a full house and enjoyed a near similar fullness of the Lionel Wendt auditorium the following day, debuting the Sinhala version. What is remarkable in this project by the Stages Theatre Group is having performances on successive days as English and Sinhala productions. Thus one is left to wonder which is the original? If there can be one of the two scripts pinned down as the original, ‘language wise’. With no discernable deviations in theme, plot, scene line-up, and techniques of stagecraft, it is safely presumable that Kalumaali being presented as a stage play in two languages, as two separate productions did not in its ‘story essence’ and ‘purpose’ attempt to come out as two separate stories.

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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Berlin School of Mind and Brain: Reciprocity and social cognition

Berlin School of Mind and Brain: Reciprocity and social cognition | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Abstract

Reciprocity and social cognition

Reciprocity is a common feature of much social cognition. For example, when two people attend to the same object simultaneously they can do so merely in parallel or jointly; only the latter of which involves reciprocity. However, traditional accounts of the foundations of social cognition have largely ignored the existence of reciprocity and treated social cognition as a process that rests on observation rather than genuine interaction (e.g., Dennett, 1982; Davidson, 1994; Stich & Nicholls, 2003; Goldman 2006; Rizzolatti & Sinigaglia, 2008). Notable exceptions highlight reciprocity as a key feature of social cognition and joint action (Tomasello et al., 2005; Bratman, 2014). However, the precise nature of this concept has not always been clear, and debates across adjacent fields have remained somewhat disconnected.
In this three-day workshop we will try to clarify the concept of reciprocity and to explore for the first time how the notion of reciprocity can be used to illuminate debates in adjacent fields of cognitive science. In the process we hope to provide answers to a number of important questions such as:

What kinds of reciprocity are involved in different forms of communication and joint action?
How does reciprocity interact with knowledge, learning, and cognitive development?
What can we learn from studying social interaction in non-human primates and humans with psychiatric disorders that involve dysfunctional social interaction?
What role does reciprocity have in social interaction impairments?
How can reciprocity be studied with neuroscientific methods?
This symposium will be organized around six distinct but closely related sessions, each devoted to the role of reciprocity in social cognition:

(1) Intentional communication
(2) Neuroscience of dialogue
(3) Socio-cognitive disorders
(4) Social exchange: insights from computational neuroscience
(5) Perspective-taking
(6) Joint action

Program

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Monday, 23 March 2015
12:45
REGISTRATION
13:15
INTRODUCTION & GENERAL DISCUSSION ABOUT THE CALL OF 'QUESTIONS'
13:45
KEY LECTURE: Richard Moran
15:15
BREAK
Chair: Richard Moore
15:45
JOINT TALK 1
Matthews / Moore
(I) Intentional communication
Comment
Heal
Discussion
Moran
17:30
BREAK
18:00
POSTER & FLASH TALKS & SNACKS
19:30
KEY LECTURE: Julia Fischer
21:00
WELCOME RECEPTION
Tuesday, 24 March 2015
09:00
MORNING COFFEE
Chair: Anna Kuhlen
09:30
TALK 2
Rueschemeyer
(II) Neuroscience of dialog
Comment
Kuhlen
Discussion
Schilbach
11:15
BREAK
Chair: Anna Strasser
11:45
JOINT TALK 3
Crone / Strasser
(III) Disorders
Comment
Schilbach
Discussion
Krüger
13:30
LUNCH BREAK
Chair: Isabel Dziobek
14:30
TALK 4
Montague
(IV) Social exchange: insights from computational  neuroscience 
Comment
Tölch
Discussion
Dziobek
16:15
BREAK
16:45
KEY LECTURE: Natalie Sebanz
18:30
POSTER & FLASH TALKS & SNACKS
Wednesday, 25 March 2015
09:00
MORNING COFFEE
Chair: Steve Butterfill
09:30
TALK 5
Moll
(V) Perspective-taking
Comment
Kovács
Discussion
Butterfill
11:15
BREAK
Chair: Olle Blomberg
11:45
TALK 6
Wong
(VI) Joint action
Comment
Pacherie
Discussion
Blomberg / Butterfill
13:30
BREAK
14:00 - 15:00
FINAL DISCUSSION: Jane Heal
Abstracts of all sessions

(1) Intentional communication

Reciprocity in intentional communication: addressing and acknowledging communicative acts
Recent work on intentional communication has devoted much time to the way in which communicative acts are addressed to an intended recipient. The nature of this address, which is typically performed using ostensive cues, has been supposed to be significant both because it marks a uniquely Gricean feature of human communication (Tomasello, 2008), which distinguishes it from non-human communication, and because some argue that it has been ritualised into an adaptive mechanism for human social learning (Gergely & Csibra, 2006).
Against this consensus, some authors (Moore, 2014; submitted) have sought to show that there is nothing uniquely human about the ways in which communicative acts are addressed to interlocutors; and indeed that such acts of addressing may be a functional pre-requisite of successful communication. However, a rarely noted but correlated feature of communicative acts may be unique to humans: the act of acknowledging that one has been addressed. In this act, which is suppressed in the act of ignoring, one acknowledges and makes oneself culpable for responding to the speaker’s communicative intention. If one acknowledges that one has been addressed by another, and that one has understood this address, then one’s interlocutor may feel entitled to be aggrieved by any subsequent failure to respond appropriately.
In this workshop, we aim to better understand this act of acknowledging communicative intent and its role in the performance of certain illocutionary acts, and to discuss its possible development in ontogeny and phylogeny. We will also discuss the possible ways in which the act of acknowledgement transforms the act of communication from the act of an individual into a species of joint action.

(2) Neuroscience of dialogue

In this session we will consider dialogue as a form of joint activity and the most basic form of language use. One central motivation for investigating language in the context of dialogue is the assumption that language processing is adapted to and shaped by the conversational context. Many aspects of utterances produced in dialog can only be understood when taking into account the context in which they are used (for discussion see e.g., Tanenhaus & Brown-Schmidt, 2007). This includes the actions and characteristics of the participating individuals (for a discussion see e.g., Brennan, Galati, & Kuhlen, 2010). Speaking and listening in a realistic communicative context is likely to engage a special kind of neuro-cognitive processes: Behavioral and neuroscientific studies suggest profound differences in cognitive and neural processing in response to differences in social context (e.g., Brown-Schmidt, 2009; Lockridge & Brennan, 2002; Kourtis, Sebanz & Knoblich, 2013; Kuhlen & Brennan, 2013; Pickering & Garrod, 2004; Rueschemeyer, Gardner & Stoner, 2014; Schilbach et al., 2013). In order to gain a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying language processing in dialog it will be important to investigate language in experimental settings in which actual inter-personal communication takes place.


(3) Socio-cognitive disorders

What can we learn from unsuccessful social interaction?
Many psychopathological disorders lead to general problems in social interaction. Patients seek medical assistance not only because their environment cannot cope with their behaviour, but also because they cannot get on with their environment themselves.
In this session paradigmatic examples of malfunctioning social interaction will be analysed to shed light on the question of when and in what social breakdowns occur. This might, in turn, provide us with a better understanding of certain requirements of social understanding.
A paradigmatic case of a socio-cognitive disorder is autism. However, deficits in social interaction can be shown in many psychiatric illnesses. In such cases  of malfunctioning, it may not be only cognitive deficits (like the absence of a 'Theory of Mind') that lead to those problems. Empirical findings suggest that more basic processes like eye movement behaviour and emotional processes also play a foundational role in successful reciprocal interaction.
In a successful social interaction the protagonists understand each other as a social agents and they feel understood as social agents by the other. In this session we want to examine how the ability to take the other one as a social partner and to experience a reciprocal interaction can be undermined.

Discussion points
- In what processes does our recognition of others as social agents consist? And what is missing in cases where this recognition is absent?
- Are the processes involved in attributing mental states to others mainly highly reflective, or do ‘low-level’ processes also play a role?
- What kinds or ‘low-level’ processes play a role in enabling the smooth functioning of our socio-cognitive interactions, and what roles do these processes play?

(4) Social exchange through the lens of computational neuroscience

Reciprocity requires individuals to represent others’ complex minds, specifically their unfolding beliefs and preferences over the course of dynamic social interaction.  The neuronal underpinnings during social exchange with another mind are, however, only beginning to be understood. Through computational approaches these processes can be quantified in order to specify how sophisticated mental operations are implemented in the brain, and how these neural computations are linked to social behavior. Most notably, modeling hierarchical levels of Theory of Mind during repeated economic exchange and strategic cooperation games has advanced our understanding of how (impaired) social cognition relates to (dysfunctional) reciprocity in healthy individuals and psychiatric
conditions such as borderline personality disorder and autism (e.g. Xiang, Ray, Lohrenz, Dayan, & Montague, 2012; Yoshida, Dziobek, Heekeren, Friston, & Dolan, 2010).
In this session, we aim to discuss the opportunities offered by a computational approach in studying the neurocognitive mechanisms of social reciprocity.


(5) Perspective-taking

The ability to adopt or understand another's perspective---whether spatial, visual or cognitive perspective---is fundamental for many kinds of mindreading and an ingredient in a diverse range of behaviours including navigation, communication, deception and joint action. Theoretically we can distinguish an ability to switch perspectives from an ability to confront perspectives (Perner et al 2002; Moll & Meltzoff 2011). There is also evidence that, when asked explicitly at least, children are able to switch perspectives some time before they can confront perspectives (Moll & Tomasello 2011; Moll et al 2013). By contrast, 18-month-olds appear able to confront perspectives on some measures involving spontaneous responses (e.g. Knudsen & Liszkowski 2012). The distinction between switching and confronting perspectives raises many questions that have hardly been considered. Does reciprocal interaction foster either or both kinds of perspective taking? Does the distinction between switching and confronting perspectives shed light on discrepancies in performance on false belief tasks using different measures (e.g. Low et al 2014)?  When if at all is confronting perspectives automatic?

(6) Joint action

In the study of action, common coding theories of perception and action and the discovery of mirror neurons suggest that action perception and action planning draw on shared representational resources (see e.g. Prinz 1997; Hommel et al. 2001; Hurley 2008). Traditionally, the dominant view of the human cognitive system has been quite different, with perception and action as input and output systems kept apart by cognition proper. This traditional view suggest a certain picture of joint action: Two people who intentionally do something together, such as carry a table for example, must coordinate their individual actions by way of cognition proper in the form of coordinated planning. Several agents’ actions could the count as a joint action in virtue of being the outcome of, for example, a plan that each is committed to “that they carry the table” (Bratman 2014). However, if perception and action share representational resources, then joint actions could be coordinated more directly via perception-action links, unmediated by high-level cognition and planning (Knoblich and Sebanz 2006; 2008). Recent research in cognitive psychology suggest that this is indeed the case (Sebanz, Knoblich, and Prinz 2003; Tsai, Sebanz, and Knoblich 2011; Vesper et al. 2010; Knoblich, Butterfill, and Sebanz 2011). Perhaps capacities for such low-level joint action coordination ought to be expected if specifically human cognition has been deeply shaped for the purpose of cooperation and joint action (as argued by e.g. Sterelny 2012; Tomasello 2014).
In the joint action session, we will consider what joint action might be in the light of recent empirical and theoretical work in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, as well as look at some potential philosophical implications of this work.

Questions:
•    In what way can common coding of perception and action facilitate or obstruct coordination of joint action?
•    What specific socio-cognitive challenges do agents who act together face?
•    Are there ways of predicting, understanding or influencing the actions of others that are only available in the context of joint action (or more readily available than in non-joint action contexts)?
•    Does engagement in joint action rely on dedicated cognitive processes? Or does it rather mainly rely on the recruitment of cognitive processes that are really ‘for’ individual cognition, perception and action?
•    Do results from psychological research on joint action have implications for social ontology (for the question of whether an action proper can really be joint for example)?
•    Philosophers have tended to think of (intentional) joint actions as outcomes appropriately caused by ‘shared intentions’—is this is helpful way in which to frame theorising and empirical research about joint action?

Participants:
Hong Yu Wong (speaker), Elisabeth Pacherie (respondent), Olle Blomberg (discussant), Steve Butterfill (discussant)

References
Bratman, Michael. 2014. Shared Agency: A Planning Theory of Acting Together. Oxford University Press.
Hommel, Bernhard, Jochen Müsseler, Gisa Aschersleben, and Wolfgang Prinz. 2001. “The Theory of Event Coding (TEC): A Framework for Perception and Action Planning.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (05): 849–78.
Hurley, Susan. 2008. “The Shared Circuits Model (SCM): How Control, Mirroring, and Simulation Can Enable Imitation, Deliberation, and Mindreading.” Edited by Julian Kiverstein and Andy Clark. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1): 1–+.
Knoblich, G, S Butterfill, and N Sebanz. 2011. “Psychological Research on Joint Action: Theory and Data”, February, 1–44.
Knoblich, G, and N Sebanz. 2006. “The Social Nature of Perception and Action.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 15 (3): 99.
Knoblich, Günther, and Natalie Sebanz. 2008. “Evolving Intentions for Social Interaction: From Entrainment to Joint Action.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363 (1499): 2021–31.
Prinz, Wolfgang. 1997. “Perception and Action Planning.” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 9 (2): 129–54.
Sebanz, Natalie, Günther Knoblich, and Wolfgang Prinz. 2003. “Representing Others’ Actions: Just like One’s Own?” Cognition 88 (3): B11–B21.
Sterelny, Kim. 2012. The Evolved Apprentice. MIT Press.
Tomasello, Michael. 2014. A Natural History of Human Thinking. Harvard University Press.
Tsai, JC, N Sebanz, and G Knoblich. 2011. “The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions.” Cognition 118 (1): 135–40.
Vesper, Cordula, Stephen A. Butterfill, Günther Knoblich, and Natalie Sebanz. 2010. “A Minimal Architecture for Joint Action”, February, 1–27.


 
This page last updated on: 12 February 2015
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Pinker's 'Sense of Style' - A window onto the world

Pinker's 'Sense of Style' - A window onto the world | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The second chapter of Steven Pinker's "The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century" (Viking Penguin, 2014) is titled "A window onto the world."

The chapter, as its subtitle says, describes "Classic style as an antidote for academese, bureaucratese, corporatese, legalese and other kinds of stuffy prose."

(For more on Pinker's prologue and first chapter, see previous posts.)

Pinker points out that "Speaking and writing involve very different kinds of human relationship, and only the one associated with speech comes naturally to us."

After describing the immediate reactions we get from spoken communication, Pinker writes:

"We enjoy none of this give-and-take when we cast our bread upon the waters by sending a written missive out into the world. The recipients are invisible and inscrutable, and we have to get through to them without knowing much about them or seeing their reactions. At the time that we write, the reader exists only in our imaginations. Writing is above all an act of pretense."

That's daunting, Prof. Pinker. But reading on helps:

"The key to good style, far more than observing any list of commandments, is to have a clear conception of the make-believe world in which you're pretending to communicate."

He gives examples including a college student "pretending he knows more about his subject than the reader" and "an activist composing a manifesto" to engage an audience's emotions.

Pinker notes that "literary scholars Francis-Noel Thomas and Mark Turner have singled out one model for a simulation while writing for general readers -- essays, articles, reviews, editorials, even blog posts." (Aha!)

Thomas and Turner call this style "classic style," and Pinker suggests that writers should aspire to it.

"The guiding metaphor of classic style," writes Pinker, "is seeing the world. The writer can see something that the reader has not yet noticed, and he orients the reader's gaze so that she can see it for herself. The purpose of writing is presentation, and its motive is disinterested truth."

The reader is competent, Pinker asserts, so the reader does not need to argue. The writer of classic prose needs only present the truth for it to be recognized.

"A writer of classic prose must simulate two experiences," writes Pinker: "showing the reader something in the world and engaging her in conversation."

I'll note here -- conversationally -- that Pinker avoids constructions such as "he or she" by representing the writer and the reader by one gender or the other, changing their jobs (so to speak) regularly.

Pinker points out that showing, as a metaphor, implies something concrete being there to see. That means classic style is not contemplative or romantic, nor prophetic, "in which the reader has the gift of being able to see things that no one else can, and uses the music of language to unite an audience."

Pinker doesn't denigrate those styles. Nor does he disparage "practical style," the plain language of traditional stylebooks such as Strunk & White. There are  uses for all. As Pinker puts it, in practical style "the writer's goal is to satisfy the reader's need."

Classic style, on the other hand, conveys an interesting truth.

"What classic style does," says Pinker, "is explain" (abstractions) "as if they were objects and forces that would be recognizable to anyone standing in a position to see them."

See?

 For more fun with words, stop by the Margaret Serious page on Facebook.
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El diccionario de la RAE recibe una media de 40 millones de consultas al mes

El diccionario de la RAE recibe una media de 40 millones de consultas al mes | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El director de la Real Academia Española (RAE), Darío Villanueva, ha puesto de manifiesto hoy la vigencia de la lengua española en el mundo y el interés que despierta este idioma, y como ejemplo ha señalado que cada mes el diccionario recibe una media de 40 millones de consultas.

Se trata, ha dicho Villanueva, sólo de un ejemplo de la atención que suscita el español en el mundo, donde ya existen 500 millones de personas que hablan el castellano y se ha convertido en la segunda lengua por el número de hablantes nativos después del chino mandarín.

Villanueva, que ha inaugurado hoy en la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) un ciclo de conferencias por el que pasarán directores de las grandes academias de España, ha señalado que el español es la tercera lengua en internet y la segunda en el mundo económico internacional.

Ha asegurado que actualmente la lengua española está radicada en cuatro de los cinco continentes, si bien es cierto, ha reconocido, que la presencia en Asia es pequeña. Pero sigue avanzando y en estos momentos se está constituyendo la academia ecuatoguineana.

El director de la RAE ha asegurado durante su conferencia que el español tiene un potencial cultural enorme y creciente que está muy por encima de estos datos demográficos y estadísticos.

Tras hacer un breve repaso de lo que han sido los 300 años de historia de la Academia, ha realizado una descripción pormenorizada de los trabajos de sus integrantes, que están muy relacionados con la sociedad digital y la sociedad de conocimiento.

En este sentido, ha señalado que se está en un momento "crucial" porque se están modificando muchas cosas y algunas, ha apuntado, "tocan directamente a la línea de flotación de la Real Academia".

Villanueva ha estado acompañado en su intervención por el rector de la UCLM, Miguel Ángel Collado, quién ha agradecido la presencia del presidente de la RAE porque, ha señalado, engrandece a la Universidad regional y constituye una oportunidad única para conocer mucho más aspectos sobre los que trabaja la Real Academia.

La UCLM también tiene previsto recibir en las próximas semanas a los presidentes de las Reales Academias de la Jurisprudencia y Legislación, de la Historia y de Medicina al objeto de que trasladen a la comunidad universitaria la realidad de sus instituciones y de sus respectivos ámbitos de estudio.

El presidente de la RAE, Darío Villanueva, ha abierto este ciclo con la conferencia titulada 'El español de todo el mundo'.
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articles/Improvements made to conditions for migrant workers but critics claim abuses persist

articles/Improvements made to conditions for migrant workers but critics claim abuses persist | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
With all the cultural, sports and real-estate projects launched throughout the United Arab Emirates, there have been persistent protests about the working and living conditions of the men coming from the Indian subcontinent to work in the difficult climate of the region. In a progress report published last month, Human Rights Watch still speaks of “abuses” at the New York University and Louvre Abu Dhabi projects. ”Serious concerns about workers’ rights have not been resolved”, claims the advocacy group, asking for a commitment for ”more serious protection” from these institutions and Saadiyat Island’s developers.
See also:
• Work on Louvre Abu Dhabi goes into overdrive
However, the report tends to mix dates and places. It is not difficult to see the camps along the road in Qatar, where the workers’ conditions look very difficult. There is no doubt the situation in Abu Dhabi was far from perfect a couple of years ago. But the emirate appears to have made a serious effort to address the concern expressed by Western museums and architects.

In 2009, the TDIC built an air-conditioned accommodation village, which we visited on Saadiyat Island. It can house up to 20,000 men. More than 7,000, including all the Louvre’s site workers, are today living in two clusters, which have been renovated after a petition signed by 2,000 residents complained about the quality of food, water leakage, difficulties of transportation and lack of mobile phone coverage.

No accident on the Louvre construction site has been reported yet in spite of the involvement of more than 5,000 people, each working ten hours a day with a one-hour break. Hala Wardé, the architect in charge of the project in situ, says she has seen ”much worse conditions in the housing of immigrant workers in France than here, since the village exists”.

Indians, Pakistanis and Bengalis have separate dormitories, dining areas with food adapted to the different cultures, computer rooms, English classes, libraries, gymnasiums and sporting facilities, television rooms in different languages, laundry facilities, and even an art studio and a mobile phone shop. Posters encourage employees to file complaints when they are not properly treated or paid by contractors; one company was recently sacked for not paying on time. The manager of the village was also changed after the petition and a fight between national groups.

Since 2011, the TDIC has been monitored by an independent auditor, PricewaterhouseCoopers. More than 1,000 workers have been interviewed in their native languages for its 2014 report. The auditors underline difficulties, such as insufficient toilets but note that all the workers now have regular contracts, valid permits, electronic payments of their salary and have regained possession of their passports. Some situations stay “complex”, admits the auditing firm, an allusion to recruitment fees. These are prohibited but 90% of workers claim they have paid fees, possibly worth several months’ salary. If they have any proof, the TDIC ensures they are paid back. But most workers have no evidence as they paid agents in their home countries who are beyond the emirate’s power.
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Language Magazine » Blog Archive » Using Smart Technology to Preserve Aboriginal Languages

Language Magazine » Blog Archive » Using Smart Technology to Preserve Aboriginal Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Like the United States, Australia has no official language but is largely monolingual in English. However, before the 18th century the country was home to over 350 Aboriginal languages. To this day about 70 of these languages have survived and all except roughly 20 are highly endangered. In response to this, the New South Wales (NSW) Government created a plan for Aboriginal affairs in 2013. Called OCHRE – opportunity, choice, healing, responsibility, empowerment – the plan aims to support more Aboriginal students in their schools and communities, especially through the teaching of
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Cornish language could fade into obscurity after funding cut

Cornish language could fade into obscurity after funding cut | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There are fears the Cornish language could fade into obscurity, as the organisation that promotes it faces closure.
The Government has said it will not fund the Cornish Language Partnership or MAGA beyond the current programme which ends on March 31.
The organisation was set up in 2005 to promote and develop the Cornish language.
It works in partnership with Cornwall Council and local schools.
In a statement Cornwall Council said: "We have written to the government to express our concerns about this situation and have confirmed that unless funding can be identified we will be forced to close the MAGA office.
Related Articles
 
Europe's most endangered languages 21 Nov 2014
Cornish language makes a comeback 21 May 2008
Endangered languages: the return of Cornish 09 Dec 2010
Why the Cornish are different 24 Apr 2014
"We are currently in negotiation with the Government on this matter and expect a response imminently.
As a consequence of this funding uncertainty, staff in the Cornish Language team are currently in a process of consultation around the future of their posts but we have tried to wait until the last possible moment to take further action."
Claire Moody, South West Labour MEP said: "The Cornish language is a vital part of the heritage of Cornwall and it's very important that we preserve it, and hopefully encourage it.
"Without this funding right now, there's an uncertain future for it, and if a language goes that's it, you can't resurrect it without a huge amount of effort."
This time last year Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg announced that the Cornish Language Partnership was set to receive £120,000 in funding to "keep the language alive".
The Cornish dialect was named last year as one of 24 European languages in danger of dying out.
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Sophocles gets uneven update in Cutting Ball’s ‘Antigone’

Sophocles gets uneven update in Cutting Ball’s ‘Antigone’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
“Remember, we’re women,” Ismene tells her sister, Antigone.
Her warning, coming minutes into the new Cutting Ball Theater production of “Antigone,” reminds the title character – and the audience – who holds the power in postwar Thebes.

As the second offering in its season-long exploration of injustice, the company’s take on Sophocles’ tragedy is a stark portrayal of a woman against the system – although its impact is often blunted by uneven directorial choices.

This “Antigone,” which unfolds in a brisk 90 minutes, has a lot going for it. Mounted following the company’s two-week residency at Poland’s Grotowski Institute, it boasts a new translation by Daniel Sullivan and an often fluid staging directed by Paige Rogers.


Rogers employs a mix of dance, chant and ritualized movement to outline the play’s central dilemma: when Antigone vows to give her brother, Polyneices, a proper burial, she risks everything. King Kreon, having announced that Polyneices died a traitor, has decreed that anyone who buries him will be put to death.

The production keeps the eight-member cast, draped in dark colors, in constant motion on Michael Locher’s spare set, with Heather Basarab’s lighting drawing the eye toward the action of the moment.

The use of movement is effective in some scenes, distracting in others. The cast vocalizes well, although the chorus effect – lines delivered by the ensemble in unison – grows wearying. The singing, in folk songs and lullabies, enhances the drama, but an interlude inexplicably set to “How Are Things in Glocca Morra?” simply halts the dramatic flow.

Sullivan’s translation re-casts Sophocles’ text for 21st century theatergoers. That’s both its novelty (at one point, Antigone taunts Kreon by calling him a “bean counter”) and its principal challenge. The script’s lofty language and contemporary idioms don’t always cohere.

Performances are similarly uneven. The finest moments belong to Elissa Beth Stebbins’ indelible Chorus Lead, Hannah Donovan’s tender Ismene, and Paul Loper’s articulate Tiresias. Emma Crane Jaster makes the most of her comic scene as a Sentry.

In the title role, Madeline H.D. Brown summons Antigone’s strength, but not quite enough of her character’s grief. Jason W. Wong’s one-note Kreon misses the king’s ruthlessness, and Wiley Naman Strasser lacks definition as Haemon. Tim Green is a stolid Sentry.

By the end, the implications of Ismene’s warning are hauntingly clear. But the production simmers where it should burn. Despite flashes of intensity, this “Antigone” never quite achieves tragic grandeur.

REVIEW

Antigone

Presented by Cutting Ball Theater

Where: Exit on Taylor, 277 Taylor St., S.F.

When: 7:30 p.m. Thursdays, 8 p.m. Fridays, 2 and 8 p.m. Saturdays, 5 p.m. Sundays; closes March 29

Tickets: $10 to $50

Contact: (415) 525-1205, www.cuttingball.com
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Los 50 ebooks gratis más descargados en Project Gutenberg - Librópatas

Los 50 ebooks gratis más descargados en Project Gutenberg - Librópatas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El ebook ha ayudado a recuperar muchos libros que el paso del tiempo había hecho olvidar, especialmente porque cualquiera puede distribuir los textos que ya han entrado en dominio público y hacerlo gratis. Los lectores – ante la idea de la gratuidad – se sienten bastante tentados a hacerse con esos ebooks y a leerlos, descubriendo así muchos clásicos olvidados.

Una de las principales plataformas para descubrir ebooks libres de derechos de autor es Project Gutenberg, que es una muy completa base de datos de textos del pasado (de todo tipo: desde libros muy populares hasta clásicos completamente olvidados). La plataforma, eso sí, es rica sobre todo en textos en inglés y las demás lenguas no están tan bien surtidas. El site, si se lee con fluidez en inglés, es una de las mejores plataformas para encontrar ebooks gratis y sus listas de descargas una de las mejores maneras de descubrir cuáles son los ebooks gratis más descargados de la red.

La lista está basada en los títulos más descargados del último mes: novelas, aunque también textos filosóficos, son los más recurrentes y Jane Austen es la gran favorita. Aún así, entre los 50 ebooks gratis más descargados también es posible encontrar alguna que otra rareza.

1. Pride and Prejudice, de  Jane Austen. Posiblemente la historia más popular de las escritas por Austen, que sigue los pasos de las hermanas Bennet en su búsqueda de marido.

2. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, de Mark Twain. Otro clásico muy conocido de la literatura del XIX.

3. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, de Lewis Carroll. Seguimos con clásicos: las aventuras de Alicia en el País de las Maravillas son uno de los textos habituales que todo el mundo tiene como referencia.

4. The Yellow Wallpaper, de Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Aquí entramos en los libros más desconocidos y la lista de clásicos olvidados (o no mainstream) que iniciativas como esta ayudan a dar a conocer. El relato no es de los más populares en castellano de las letras estadounidenses, aunque es considerado uno de los textos primeros de la literatura feminista. Salió en enero de 1892 en una revista y cuenta la historia de una mujer que pasa el verano en una habitación recuperándose de una depresión. 

5. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,  Mark Twain. Otro clásico de Twain.

6. Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka. No es el original en alemán el que se cuela en la lista de los ebooks más descargados. Se trata de una traducción al inglés.

7. Frankenstein; Or, The Modern Prometheus, de Mary Shelley. La historia del monstruo creado por el hombre y su desesperado creador decidido a destruirlo es uno de los clásicos de la literatura de ciencia ficción.

8. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, de Arthur Conan Doyle.

9. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, de Frederick Douglass. La historia está considerada una de las obras más representativas de los testimonios de esclavos estadounidenses del siglo XIX y es uno de los más populares (y no debe ser confundido con  12 años de esclavitud, el testimonio de Solomon Northup, que se hizo famoso por la película).

10. The Prince, de Niccolò Machiavelli. Otra traducción al inglés de un clásico de otra literatura.

11. A Tale of Two Cities, de Charles Dickens. Un tanto sorprendente que esta sea la obra de Dickens más descargada ( y que el escritor no entre en el top 10).

12. The Importance of Being Earnest: A Trivial Comedy for Serious People, de Oscar Wilde. Aunque cuando se piensa en libros en dominio público se suele pensar siempre en autores del XIX o de siglos anteriores, lo cierto es que muchos grandes nombres más recientes (siglo XX incluido) también están ya en dominio público, como puede ser el caso de Wilde.

13. Ulysses, de  James Joyce. Joyce entró no hace mucho en dominio público.

14. Grimms’ Fairy Tales, de Jacob Grimm y Wilhelm Grimm. Una traducción al inglés de una de las versiones del XIX de los cuentos de hadas de los Grimm.

15. The Picture of Dorian Gray, de  Oscar Wilde.

16. Moby Dick; Or, The Whale, de Herman Melville

17. Beowulf. Este poema épico medieval lleva mucho tiempo en dominio público… aunque en este caso lo que se descargan los lectores es un traducción al inglés de 1896.

18. The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, de Vatsyayana. Es una edición en inglés de 1883 que deja claro que es “para circulación privada únicamente”. 

19. A Doll’s House, de  Henrik Ibsen. Nueva traducción al inglés de un clásico.

20. Les Misérables, de Victor Hugo. No os dejéis engañar por el título. No es la versión en francés, sino una traducción estadounidense de 1887.

21. Jane Eyre: An Autobiography, de Charlotte Brontë. La edición de 1887, con el prefacio firmado por Currer Bell.

22. Dracula, de Bram Stoker

23. Great Expectations, de Charles Dickens

24. A Modest Proposal, de  Jonathan Swift. El libro más descargado no es, curiosamente, Los viajes de Gulliver, sino un ensayo satírico que publicó en 1729 sobre cómo salvar la economía de Irlanda (¡vendiendo los niños de los pobres como comida a los ricos!)

25. Steam, Its Generation and Use, de Babcock & Wilcox Company. Una de esas joyas desconocidas que se pueden encontrar entre los libros libres de derechos de autor. Es un manual de 1919 sobre el vapor y sus aplicaciones industriales.

26. Leaves of Grass, de Walt Whitman

27. The Iliad de Homero. ¿Tendrá algo que ver la aparición de este título en la lista con la fiebre que viven en Estados Unidos por encontrar la primera edición (sí, sabemos que no es realmente posible) del libro como regalo después de que apareciese en la última película de Jennifer López?

28. The Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri  en una edición con ilustriaciones de Gustave Doré

29. The Awakening, and Selected Short Stories, de Kate Chopin. También es uno de esos relatos escritos por una mujer de importancia en la historia. Está considerado uno de los primeros textos de narrativa feminista (es de 1899) y es una de las primeras historias en tratar el tema del deseo sexual femenino de forma no condescendiente.

30. Dubliners de James Joyce

31. Siddhartha, de Hermann Hesse, traducido por internautas.

32. Emma, de Jane Austen

33. Gulliver’s Travels, de Jonathan Swift

34. Wuthering Heights, de Emily Brontë

35. The Count of Monte Cristo, de Alexandre Dumas, en una traducción de 1888 y con ilustraciones

36. The Republic, de Platón, en lo que parece una traducción reciente

37. Sense and Sensibility , de Jane Austen, de la edición de 1811

38. Peter Pan, de J. M. Barrie, aunque basado en una edición reciente (1991)

39. Treasure Island de Robert Louis Stevenson, en una edición ilustrada.

40. The Romance of Lust: A Classic Victorian erotic novel, Anónimo. Otro de esos libros extraños y desconocidos que ocupan las listas de ebooks que el dominio público hace que la gente lea. La novela erótica no es un género nuevo (la primera en inglés se considera a Fanny Hill y es de 1748) y en la época victoriana se produjeron muchos títulos. Este fue publicado en los años 70.

41. The Jungle, de Upton Sinclair. No es de las obras más populares en España de las letras estadounidenses del siglo XX pero ver de que va hace que parezca muy interesante. El escritor, que ganó el premio Pulitzer, emplea como base para esta historia sus investigaciones como periodista para un reportaje sobre la industria alimentaria. Se publicó en 1906 (antes había salido como serial en un periódico socialista) y fue un éxito de ventas.

42. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, de Robert Louis Stevenson

43. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus de Ludwig Wittgenstein, una edición de 1922

44. Prestuplenie i nakazanie, de Fiodor Dostoyevsky. A pesar del título es una edición en inglés de Crimen y castigo.

45. Heart of Darkness, de Joseph Conrad

46. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African de Olaudah Equiano. Otra muy interesante rareza: Fue publicado en 1789 y es uno de los libros que más influyeron a favor de la causa abolicionista. Olaudah Equiano, también conocido como Gustavus Vassa, era un hombre africano que fue capturado y vendido como esclavo. Robert King, un cuáquero, lo compró y le enseñó a leer antes de dejarle comprar su libertad. Estas son sus memorias.

47. A Study in Scarlet de Arthur Conan Doyle

48. Songs of Innocence, and Songs of Experience de William Blake

49. Leviathan de Thomas Hobbes

50. The Hound of the Baskervilles de Arthur Conan Doyle
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Game of languages

Game of languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
“Game of Thrones” linguist David Peterson, creator of the Dothraki language featured in HBO’s “Game of Thrones,” presented “Conlangs: The art of language invention” Tuesday on campus. Peterson began creating languages in 2000 and has created languages for TV shows and movies including “Game of Thrones,” “Defiance,” “StarCrossed” and “Thor 2,” as well as creating multiple languages for personal use. He also authored the book “Living Language: Dothraki.” In 2007, he helped establish the Language Creation Society, of which he is still a member.
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Joshua Fishman, Yiddishist and Linguistics Pioneer, Dies at 88 – The Arty Semite

Joshua Fishman, Yiddishist and Linguistics Pioneer, Dies at 88 – The Arty Semite | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Joshua Fishman, Yiddishist and Linguistics Pioneer, Dies at 88
By Jordan Kutzik

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A version of this piece appeared in Yiddish here.

Sociolinguist, Yiddish scholar and advocate for endangered languages Joshua (Shikl) Fishman died March 1 in New York. He leaves behind his wife of more than 60 years Gella Schweid-Fishman, three sons, nine grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. He is predeceased by his sister, the Yiddish poet Rukhl Fishman (1935-1984).

Fishman was born on July 18, 1926 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Jewish immigrants from Ukraine and Bessarabia. His father Aaron Fishman was a staunch Yiddishist who would ask the young Shikl every evening: “What did you do today for Yiddish?” At the age of four he began his Yiddish education in the Workmen’s Circle schools of Philadelphia. He would often accompany his father when he went knocking on the doors of nearby houses in an effort to convince Jewish neighbors to send their children to Yiddish afternoon schools. While a student at Olney High School in Philadelphia he also studied at the city’s Yiddish high school and ran the Peretz Youth Club, which published the first version of the youth-oriented Yiddish-language magazine Yugntruf, which is still published today.

As a teenager Fishman befriended the future linguist and Yiddish scholar Uriel Weinreich and his brother Gabriel, who were then recent arrivals from Vilna. During a visit to the Weinreichs’ home in New York their father Max Weinreich, then director of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, invited Fishman to attend a YIVO conference. It would mark the beginning of Fishman’s decades-long association with YIVO and he would remain close to Uriel and Max Weinreich personally and professionally for the rest of their lives.

After earning a bachelor’s degree in history and an master’s degree in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania, Fishman studied Yiddish with Max Weinreich at YIVO. In 1951 he began working as a psychologist for the Jewish Educational Committee of New York. That same year he married his wife Gella (née Schweid). In 1953 he received a doctorate in social psychology from Columbia University, at which point several prominent Yiddishist organizations tried to recruit him to be their education director. Fishman, however, set his sights on wider horizons and would soon blaze his own trail in academia. In 1958 he taught the very first class in sociology of language at the City Universy of New York. The field, which today is so closely associated with Fishman’s work that he is often referred to as its “father,” investigates the influences of language on a society. (The closely related field of Sociolinguistics investigates the influences of a society on its languages.)

That same year Fishman began working as a professor of human relations and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1960 until 1988 he was professor of psychology and sociology at Yeshiva University, as well dean of the university’s Ferkauf Graduate School of Social Sciences and Humanities. After becoming professor Emeritus in 1988 he regularly taught at Stanford University as a visiting professor of education and linguistics as well as at many other universities throughout the United States, Israel, the Philippines and Holland.

Fishman’s output was famously prodigious: He published more than 100 books and 1,000 articles throughout his long career, among them important collections of groundbreaking research and theoretical monographs which laid the foundation for several subfields of sociolinguistics. His work on endangered and minority languages was especially close to his heart: He formulated a series of step-by-step guides to help speakers of endangered languages conserve and revive their mother tongues. He received the Linguapax prize in 2004 in recognition of his work on behalf of threatened languages and was an honorary member of the Royal Academy of the Basque Language.

Despite his myriad academic activities as a professor, author and the editor of numerous scholarly publications, Fishman always remained active in the field of Yiddish Studies. In 1965 he published a pioneering work on Yiddish in America and in 1981 the massive 800-page collection of scholarly articles in Yiddish and English on Yiddish sociolinguistics, “Never Say Die” appeared under his editorship. He wrote a decades-long column on sociolinguistics for the Yiddish-language journal Afn Shvel and published a large number of articles in the Forverts on minority languages, the sociolinguistic state of Yiddish and bilingualism, and other topics. Fishman, along with his wife Gella, also directed the Aaron and Sonia Fishman Foundation for Yiddish Culture which supports programs that teach Yiddish to young people.
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www.eng.24.kg - Kyrgyzstan » National testing in 2015 to be held only in Kyrgyz and Russian languages

www.eng.24.kg - Kyrgyzstan » National testing in 2015 to be held only in Kyrgyz and Russian languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
National testing in 2015 to be held only in Kyrgyz and Russian languages
04/03/15 08:53, Bishkek – 24.kg news agency, by Darya PODOLSKAYA
National testing in 2015 will be held only in Kyrgyz and Russian languages, the Ministry of Education and Science said to 24.kg news agency.

According to it, the Uzbek language is excluded from the test tasks. In 2014, recall, 50 students passed the National testing in Uzbek (based on previously submitted applications). In the south, however, in 91 schools classes are held in the Uzbek language.

Recall, National testing in Kyrgyzstan will be held approximately on May 19 and 23.


URL: http://www.eng.24.kg/community/174795-news24.html
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NETS contributes to global road safety with free employer guide available in 21 languages

NETS contributes to global road safety with free employer guide available in 21 languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
VIENNA, Va.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- The NETS’ Comprehensive Guide to ROAD SAFETY™ is now available, free of charge, in 21 languages at www.trafficsafety.org. The Guide was initially launched in English last year as part of the Network of Employers for Traffic Safety’s (NETS) mission to assist employers in advancing global road safety. The document is designed to aid employers with fleets of any size at various stages of road safety program development, including those who are preparing to initiate a program, in the early stages of policy and program development or managing more mature road safety management systems and interventions.

NETS’ Comprehensive Guide to Road Safety™ was written by members of NETS’ Board of Directors, drawing from their companies’ road safety best practices. The guide also draws from information gathered by NETS’ STRENGTH IN NUMBERS® Road Safety Benchmark members, representing more than 100 companies with fleet operations in 153 countries. The Guide supports the goals of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, 2011-2020, a global World Health Organization-led initiative to improve road safety around the world.

“Making roads safer is a major global mission. NETS is grateful to The Coca-Cola Company, a NETS Board of Directors member, for translating the Guide from English into 20 additional languages,” said Jack Hanley, Executive Director of NETS. “Employers in most parts of the world now have a tool kit for contributing to the goals set by The Decade of Action for Road Safety. Through employers, the Guide has the potential to reach more than 50 percent of the world’s population.”

In addition to English, the Guide is available free of charge in the following languages: Arabic, Burmese, Chinese, French, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Japanese, Khmere-Cambodian, Lao, Malay, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili, Tagalog, Tamil, Thailand, Turkish and Vietnamese. It is supported by appendices with model policies and implementation tips and complements NETS’ two other signature programs—its annual STRENGTH IN NUMBERS® Road Safety Benchmark Program and the annual Drive Safely Work Week™ campaign.



About NETS

NETS is a 501(c) 3 organization, a partnership between the U.S. federal government and the private sector. Board members include Abbott, AmeriFleet Transportation, Chubb Group of Insurance Companies, The Coca-Cola Company, Hess Corporation, Johnson & Johnson, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group, Monsanto Company, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Group, Shell International Petroleum Company B.V. and UPS. In addition, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) serve as federal liaisons to the board of directors. Established in 1989, NETS’ programs and services are dedicated to improving the safety of employees, their families, and members of the communities in which they live and work by preventing traffic crashes that occur on-and-off the job.



Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS)

Jack Hanley, 314-680-3293

jhanley@trafficsafety.org

Source: Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS)

Copyright: Copyright Business Wire 2015
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I Have Seen The New Face of Search and It Is Not Google

I Have Seen The New Face of Search and It Is Not Google | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I Have Seen The New Face of Search and It Is Not Google

BY ALEX ISKOLD · MARCH 4, 2015
COOL TECH, LIFESTYLE, MOBILE, OP-ED, TECH
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I’ve seen the new face of Search, and it ain’t Google. What is it you ask?

It is a text message.

Wait, what? A text message?! Alex, this really makes no sense?! Ah, but it does. Read on, and you will see why…

The Rise of Mobile

The rapid rise of mobile is wiping out desktop. At least for consumers, their phones have become the way they experience Internet. Mobile is not the new web: it is the only web. And it is very different.

Mobile is beautiful precisely because it affords so little. It already gave us the simplicity of scroll, and the swipe, but its biggest gift to us, a whole new way to search is just around the corner.

The Google Standard

We are so used to Google search, its interface and format, that we rarely question it these days. After all, it always gives us the answer, right? Whatever thing you are looking for, just type it into browser bar (you don’t even need to go to Google.com) and voila — 10 links, or so called the answer.

But why is it 10 links, and how can an answer to every single question be found in 10 links?

Imagine if, in real life, someone would ask you a question, and your reply would be — here, the answer would be inside these 10 links. Absurd!

When people talk to each other, they arrive at “the answer” by means of a conversation. I ask you a question, you reply, you clarify, I might follow up, and then you reply again.

A question in real life is a conversation that leads to an answer.

The Text Messaging

The email has long being hailed to be the killer app for the web, but on mobile, there is a new king. It is Text Messaging, and we are all addicted to it. We love the form, we love the speed, we love our emoji.

Lets face it, the feeling that we get when typing a text message – that silly, quick, fun and instantly gratifying thing – is the feeling that we never had typing on regular computer keyboard.

Email is always work; text messaging is always fun.

But beneath all the fun and emoji silliness, we’ve been evolving something groundbreaking and profound. We’ve created a simple format for quick conversations. We created a new way to ask questions, and receive an answer via computer that is a lot closer to how people do it in real life.

By using Text Messaging, we have been playing an iterative Q&A game. And this is a pretty big deal.

Enter the New Kind of Search

Now imagine that instead of a Google text field or browser bar, you get a familiar Text Messaging interface and you can ask questions. Here is what happens next:

You will ask questions in the natural form, like you do in real life.
Your questions will be naturally compact, because you are used to compact forms of text messaging, but they won’t be one word or one phrase, like we type into Google. You still can have typos, and missing punctuation.
This format naturally lends itself to the conversation. That is, you don’t expect 10 links – you expect a human response. And you expect to respond in response to this response, and so on.That is, you expect a conversation.
‘The answer’ will be things/objects/places, and links will become secondary. The answer will be one or two or three things, but not 10 things. The choice will be naturally added via a conversation and iteration, not by pushing 10 links on the user upfront.
You won’t be able to tell the difference between a person or machine replying to you. This is where all the amazing AI stuff (looking at you, Amy) is going to come handy and will really shine.
You won’t think of this as search anymore, but as your command and control for all the things you need – tasks, purchases and of course, good old search. It will be like Siri, except it will be based on text, and have a lot more capabilities. And it will actually work great. (No offense Siri, but you have a ways to go.)
Once this new world order is in place, you will quickly forget how Google worked. Phrase based search and 10 links will become the things of the past. You will quickly get used to, and will love the human way to search. Via a Text Message.

For early hints of what is to come, check out Magic and Cloe.

What do you think? Do you believe that Search will stay the same on Mobile or change?
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Low blood pressure linked to faster cognitive decline

Low blood pressure linked to faster cognitive decline | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
For older people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, low blood pressure might be linked to faster mental decline, according to a study.

There is not much data on blood pressure in people with cognitive impairment, said lead author Dr. Enrico Mossello of the University of Florence in Italy. This study is the first to suggest that cognitive declines might happen faster in older people on blood pressure medicine whose systolic pressure – the top number – is low, he said.

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Between 2009 and 2012, Mossello and his co-authors analyzed 172 older people. Most had dementia; about a third had only mild cognitive impairment. Almost 70 per cent were taking medication for high blood pressure.

The researchers recorded participants’ blood pressure and their performance on a mental test. They repeated all the measurements six to 18 months later – by which time mental function had declined for the whole group, on average, and disability had increased.

The researchers divided participants into three groups based on daytime readings of systolic blood pressure, which is the “120” of a healthy “120 over 80 millimeters of Mercury” blood pressure reading.

People in the lowest third of systolic blood pressure scores (below 128 mm Hg) had bigger decreases on their mental performance tests than those in the middle and high blood pressure groups, according to results in JAMA Internal Medicine.

When the researchers took blood pressure medications into account, only those on the medications who also had lower blood pressure experienced more cognitive decline.

Naturally low blood pressure may not be harmful, but these results suggest that excessive lowering of blood pressure with antihypertensive drugs seems to affect cognition negatively, Mossello said.

“The idea has crystallized that all high blood pressure is bad,” said Dr. Rudolf Westendorp of the faculty of health and medical sciences at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

“The dogma is that blood pressure should always be below 140/85, but that is simply not true,” said Westendorp, who co-authored an editorial accompanying the new research.

Frail older people experience more dizziness on standing because blood pressure drops below a minimum that keeps the brain oxygenated, he said.

“Many have tripped or collapsed with often fatal consequences,” he said. “That’s why doctors should taper blood pressure lowering medication when older patients develop this type of symptoms and prevent these unwanted side effects.”

This does not mean that high blood pressure is better, Mossello stressed. He said patients should never stop their blood pressure medication until a doctor orders it.

“There are many dementia patients with high blood pressure, hopefully treated, who will experience blood pressure decrease in the course of the disease and need attention to have their therapy adjusted and avoid overtreatment,” Mossello said.

He emphasized that daytime blood pressure readings were more predictive than office readings. People may get nervous at doctors’ offices, which falsely increases their blood pressure readings.

“Probably systolic blood pressure values between 130 and 145 are fine for most older patients with dementia,” he added.
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Audiencia contra capitán del Da Dan Xia no ha iniciado por falta de traductor

Audiencia contra capitán del Da Dan Xia no ha iniciado por falta de traductor | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A pesar de que Wu Hong, capitán del buque Da Dan Xia, ingresó a las 9 de la mañana a la sala 10 del complejo judicial de la Plazoleta Benkos Biohó, donde fue presentado ante el juez 12 penal de control de garantías para la legalización de su captura, la audiencia no ha iniciado por falta de un traductor luego de que un representante del consulado chino no fuera autorizado para cumplir esta función. (Lea aquí: Avanza audiencia en contra del capitán del barco Da Dan Xia de China)

Wu Hong, que fue detenido luego de un allanamiento en la embarcación de bandera china donde se encontraron 100 toneladas de pólvora, 99 bases de proyectiles y 3.000 cajas con cartuchos de artillería sin su respectiva documentación; podría quedar en libertad en las próximas horas por vencimiento de términos si no se legaliza su captura.

De presentarse esta situación, el capitán podría pedir refugio en el Consulado de China o abandonar el país sin responder por los presuntos delitos de tráfico de armas, al menos de que se profiriera una nueva orden de captura en su contra para volver a iniciar el proceso jurídico en su contra. (Lea aquí: Capturan al capitán del barco chino que transportaba material bélico)

Según informó la Fiscalía, se trabaja para lograr la incautación del material bélico que se encontró en el buque Da Dan Xia, que se encuentra en la bahía de Cartagena, al igual que su inmovilización para que no abandone aguas nacionales.

A esta hora, las autoridades judiciales continúan en la búsqueda de un intérprete para llevar a cabo la audiencia; supuestamente, un estudiante asiático que habla mandarín a la perfección se presentó ante el juez para servir de traductor, pero no fue aceptado por no llevar consigo ningún tipo de documentación.

El Universal conoció que, en los últimos minutos, un nuevo intérprete llegó a la audiencia pero esta volvió a ser suspendida luego de que informara que desconoce la traducción de algunas palabras técnicas y términos legales.

Sobre el tema, el Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores de China afirmó que "la nave llevaba suministros militares ordinarios para Cuba; no había materiales sensibles a bordo. La cooperación no viola las leyes y regulaciones chinas, y tampoco las obligaciones internacionales con las que China está comprometida". (Lea aquí: China dice que el barco detenido en Cartagena llevaba material militar ordinario)
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Barberá dice que la palabra 'caloret' existe y ve la polémica generada "desproporcionada" - 20minutos.es

Barberá dice que la palabra 'caloret' existe y ve la polémica generada "desproporcionada" - 20minutos.es | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La alcaldesa de Valencia, Rita Barberá, ha defendido este martes que la palabra caloret que usó durante su intervención en la Crida, con la que arrancan los actos falleros, existe y ha instado a acudir a diccionarios y algunos textos legales para verlo. Asimismo, ha considerado "exagerada y desproporcionada" la polémica surgida tras su discurso.

"Caloret existe. La palabra es que existe. Si vais al diccionario y determinados textos legales caloret existe. Así que no sé también quién se ha pasado de listo", ha indicado la primera edil respecto al uso que hizo de este término.

La responsable municipal se ha referido a este asunto tras visitar la remodelación del Polideportivo de La Rambleta, preguntada por la opinión que le merece que alguien haya registrado la marca caloret. "No tengo ni idea del tema ése. Alguien me dice por ahí que los derechos los tengo yo y ése es un tema del que si se ocupa alguien se ocupará mi familia. Yo no me ocupo de nada de eso", ha expuesto.

Así, Rita Barberá ha agregado que no tiene "ni idea" de ese asunto y ha pedido que no se le haga "ningún caso" porque no ha entrado en ese debate. "No me hagan ningún caso en el tema ese porque no hemos entrado a debatir el tema ése", ha aseverado.

Por otro lado, respecto a la polémica abierta por el uso de caloret ha declarado que le parece "exagerada y desproporcionada". No obstante, ha señalado que "es evidente es que en Fallas los valencianos son así, socarrones" y que "le sacamos punta a todo"
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When It Comes to Innovation, Here are 7 Mistakes People Make

When It Comes to Innovation, Here are 7 Mistakes People Make | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Many entrepreneurs fail to leverage innovative ideas in their business. They want to grow their business and offer products with a competitive edge but neglect techniques and systems that generate a flood of valuable ideas. As an innovation strategist, my job is to help clients avoid falling prey to one of these common mistakes.

1. Believing innovation is too costly.
Innovation does not need to be a complicated, time-consuming activity. Learning a system for identifying and developing innovative ideas takes a bit of time, but it can create huge returns in the form of new products or features. Once you and your team understand the process for creating a return on investment, generating creative ideas will become a daily habit in your business.

Related: 5 Tests to Figure Out If Your Business Idea Has Legs

2. Waiting to get bigger.
Waiting until your business reaches a particular size is a common mistake. Small businesses can often innovate better and faster than larger companies. This speed and flexibility allows small businesses to get new products to market faster and position themselves as a market leader.

3. Thinking that innovation is not relevant to their industry.
Many people have the mistaken belief that innovation is just for technology-based companies. This is just not the case. Businesses in any industry can apply innovative ideas to grow their revenue and develop a strong position in their market. Recent business articles discuss innovation plans for companies in the food, banking, and clothing industries. Use this common pitfall to your advantage. Create your own innovation system to jump ahead of your competitors.

Related: Don't Let the Fear of Your Idea Being Stolen Hold You Back

4. Failing to involve the entire team.
Every person in your organization has unique experiences and perspectives on different aspects of the business. However, many business leaders limit the company’s innovation activities to a few people, such as product developers or founders. Although these people are important, this approach may fail to identify valuable ideas.

People outside the product development area have an advantage when developing ideas, because they are not limited by “the way things have always been done.” Instead, they freely approach problems from different perspectives and do not limit their thinking to existing company products or systems.

5. No system for identifying innovative ideas.
Successful businesses have a system for identifying creative ideas. Since many innovations solve problems or fill market gaps, the innovation process starts by finding opportunities to develop creative solutions. Many new ideas are incremental changes, not revolutionary new products.  

Identify problems, unmet needs and market gaps, then let your team create ideas that address those issues. Schedule these activities to maintain the continual creation of new ideas.

6. Not evaluating ideas thoroughly before making decisions.
Identifying new ideas is an important activity. But, you must evaluate the ideas and take action to implement the best ones that allow your business to grow. When evaluating ideas, get input from people in different parts of the business. I recommend an “innovation evaluation team” that includes input from sales, marketing, customer service, product development and manufacturing personnel. Remember to obtain input from consultants as well as employees. Each person has different expertise and offers a different business viewpoint. This diversity helps identify the most valuable ideas to pursue.

7. Failing to celebrate innovation.
Innovation does not have to be boring! If you have not worked with an innovative company, you may not understand that creativity can be fun, and that the more you celebrate creativity the more innovative your company will become. Reward creative thinking and celebrate those who submit great ideas that help the business grow. Schedule innovation contests, brainstorming sessions and other activities that encourage innovative thinking throughout your company.

Related: 13 Critical Traits of Successful Inventors
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Innovation Excellence | 15 Surprising Discoveries About Learning

Innovation Excellence | 15 Surprising Discoveries About Learning | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
What are some of the most encouraging known facts about learning? From taking a walk to learning a new language, there are countless things we can do to improve the way we learn. Below we list fifteen steps toward a better brain:

1. Laughter boosts brain function.

Pam Schiller and Clarissa A. Willis, both PhD authors, speakers, and curriculum specialists, note that laughter not only increases one’s capacity to remember the humour, but also provides a feeling of security and contentment, both of which enhance learning and retention.

2. Personality is more important than intelligence.

Recent research at Griffith University has found that personality is more important than intelligence when it comes to success in education. Dr Arthur Poropat from Griffith’s School of Applied Psychology has conducted the largest ever review of personality and academic performance. He based these reviews on the fundamental personality factors (Conscientiousness, Openness, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion) and found Conscientiousness and Openness have the biggest influence on academic success.

Dr Poropat says educational institutions need to focus less upon intelligence and instead pay more attention to each student’s personality.

“With respect to learning, personality is more useful than intelligence for guiding both students and teachers,” Dr Poropat said. “In practical terms, the amount of effort students are prepared to put in, and where that effort is focused, is at least as important as whether the students are smart.”

Dr Poropat said the best news for students is that it’s possible to develop the most important personality traits linked with academic success.

Personality does change, and some educators have trained aspects of students Conscientiousness and Openness, leading to greater learning capacity.

3. You can improve your memory with one simple technique.

A learning technique that maximises the brain’s ability to make and store memories may help future students, say UC Irvine neurobiologists.

Christine Gall, Gary Lynch, and colleagues found that mice trained in three short, repetitious episodes spaced one hour apart performed best on memory tests. The mice performed poorly on memory tests when trained in a single, prolonged session–which is a standard K-12 educational practice in the U.S.

It’s been known since classic 19th century educational psychology studies that people learn better when using multiple, short training episodes rather than one extended session. Two years ago, the Lynch and Gall labs found out why. They discovered a biological mechanism that contributes to the enhancing effect of spaced training: brain synapses encode memories in the hippocampus much better when activated briefly at one-hour intervals.

“This explains why prolonged ‘cramming’ is inefficient — only one set of synapses is being engaged,” said Lynch, professor of psychiatry, human behaviour and anatomy, and neurobiology. “Repeated short training sessions, spaced in time, engage multiple sets of synapses. It’s as if your brain is working at full power.”

4. To be good at science, be good at art.

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have become part of educational vernacular, as colleges, universities and other institutions strive to raise the profile of the areas of study and the number of graduates in each field.

Now a project from the University of Houston College of Education Urban Talent Research Institute encourages the incorporation of creative endeavors to attract more and better STEM students.

“The federal government considers STEM natural sciences, while the National Science Foundation includes social sciences,” he said. “Supporting STEM education should also mean increasing the quality of the graduate. That is where STEAM comes in.”

STEAM takes STEM efforts and incorporates art (the “A” in STEAM is for “Art”). Young’s research focuses on how to incorporate creativity into STEM education with the implication that doing so will increase the quality of STEM graduates. He says STEM studies are about problem solving, and creative endeavors are exercises in problem solving.

“When an artist is painting, he is trying to solve a problem — how to express what is being felt. He experiments with colors, technique and images the same way a scientist or engineer experiments with energy and signals,” he said. “There is more than one way information can be taught just like there is more than one way problems can be solved.”

“Creative thinking and problem solving are essential in the practice of math and science,” he adds. “Incorporating art into math and science will not only help students become more creative and better problem solvers, it will help them understand math and science better.”

5. Choosing a complex career protects your brain later in life.

People whose jobs require more complex work with other people, such as social workers and lawyers, or with data, like architects or graphic designers, may end up having longer-lasting memory and thinking abilities compared to people who do less complex work, according to research published in Neurology.

“These results suggest that more stimulating work environments may help people retain their thinking skills, and that this might be observed years after they have retired,” said study author Alan J. Gow, PhD, of Heriot-Watt University and the Centre for Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Epidemiology in Edinburgh, Scotland. “Our findings have helped to identify the kinds of job demands that preserve memory and thinking later on.”

For the study 1,066 Scottish people with an average age of 70 had their memory and thinking abilities tested at the University of Edinburgh. The tests looked at memory, processing speed and general thinking ability. Researchers also gathered information about the jobs participants held. The job titles were assigned scores for the complexity of work with people, data and things. For example, complex jobs might involve coordinating or synthesising data, while less complex jobs might involve copying or comparing data. In terms of working with others, more complex roles might involve instructing, negotiating or mentoring, while less complex jobs might involve taking instructions or helping.

The study found that participants who held jobs with higher levels of complexity with data and people, such as management and teaching, had better scores on memory and thinking tests. The results remained the same after considering IQ, years of education, and the lack of resources in the environment the person lived in.

6. Bilingual brains process information better.

Speaking more than one language is good for the brain, according to new research that indicates bilingual speakers process information more efficiently and more easily than those who know a single language. The benefits occur because the bilingual brain is constantly activating both languages and choosing which language to use and which to ignore, said Northwestern University’s Viorica Marian, the lead author of the research and a professor in the department of communication sciences and disorders in the School of Communication. When the brain is constantly exercised in this way, it doesn’t have to work as hard to perform cognitive tasks, the researchers found.

“It’s like a stop light,” Marian said. “Bilinguals are always giving the green light to one language and red to another. When you have to do that all the time, you get really good at inhibiting the words you don’t need,” she said.

fMRI scans showed that “monolinguals had more activation in the inhibitory control regions than bilinguals; they had to work much harder to perform the task,” Marian said.

Other research suggests efficient brains can have benefits in everyday life. For example, bilingual children tend to be better at ignoring noise and other distractions than children who speak one language.

“Inhibitory control is a hallmark of cognition,” said Marian. “Whether we’re driving or performing surgery, it’s important to focus on what really matters and ignore what doesn’t.”

The fact that bilinguals are constantly practicing inhibitory control could also help explain why bilingualism appears to offer a protective advantage against Alzheimer’s and dementia, said Marian.

7. Reminiscing can help boost brain function.

New research led by Cornell University neuroscientist Nathan Spreng shows for the first time that engaging brain areas linked to so-called “off-task” mental activities (such as mind-wandering and reminiscing) can actually boost performance on some challenging mental tasks. The results advance our understanding of how externally and internally focused neural networks interact to facilitate complex thought, the authors say.

“The prevailing view is that activating brain regions referred to as the default network impairs performance on attention-demanding tasks because this network is associated with behaviors such as mind-wandering,” said Spreng. “Our study is the first to demonstrate the opposite: that engaging the default network can also improve performance.”

Spreng and his team developed a new approach in which off-task processes such as reminiscing can support rather than conflict with the aims of the experimental task. Their novel task, “famous faces n-back,” tests whether accessing long-term memory about famous people, which typically engages default network brain regions, can support short-term memory performance, which typically engages executive control regions.

While undergoing brain scanning, 36 young adults viewed sets of famous and anonymous faces in sequence and were asked to identify whether the current face matched the one presented two faces back. The team found participants were faster and more accurate when matching famous faces than when matching anonymous faces and that this better short-term memory performance was associated with greater activity in the default network. The results show that activity in the default brain regions can support performance on goal-directed tasks when task demands align with processes supported by the default network, the authors say.

“Outside the laboratory, pursuing goals involves processing information filled with personal meaning– knowledge about past experiences, motivations, future plans and social context,” Spreng said. “Our study suggests that the default network and executive control networks dynamically interact to facilitate an ongoing dialogue between the pursuit of external goals and internal meaning.”

8. Higher vocab increases cognition.

Some people suffer incipient dementia as they get older. To make up for this loss, the brain’s cognitive reserve is put to the test. Researchers from the University of Santiago de Compostela have studied what factors can help to improve this ability and they conclude that having a higher level of vocabulary is one such factor.

‘Cognitive reserve’ is the name given to the brain’s capacity to compensate for the loss of its functions. This reserve cannot be measured directly; rather, it is calculated through indicators believed to increase this capacity.

A research project at the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) has studied how having a wide vocabulary influences cognitive reserve in the elderly.

As Cristina Lojo Seoane, from the USC, co-author of the study published in the journal Anales de Psicologia (Annals of Psychology), explains: “We focused on level of vocabulary as it is considered an indicator of crystallised intelligence (the use of previously acquired intellectual skills). We aimed to deepen our understanding of its relation to cognitive reserve.”

The research team chose a sample of 326 subjects over the age of 50: 222 healthy individuals and 104 with mild cognitive impairment. They then measured their levels of vocabulary, along with other measures such as their years of schooling, the complexity of their jobs, and their reading habits.

They also analysed the scores they obtained in various tests, such as the vocabulary subtest of the ‘Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale’ (WAIS) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

“With a regression analysis we calculated the probability of impairment to the vocabulary levels of the participants,” Lojo Seoane continues.

The results revealed a greater prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in participants who achieved a lower vocabulary level score.

“This led us to the conclusion that a higher level of vocabulary, as a measure of cognitive reserve, can protect against cognitive impairment,” the researcher concludes.

9. Taking a walk improves creativity.

When the task at hand requires some imagination, taking a walk may lead to more creative thinking than sitting, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

“Many people anecdotally claim they do their best thinking when walking,” said Marily Oppezzo, PhD, of Santa Clara University. “With this study, we finally may be taking a step or two toward discovering why.”

While at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Education, Oppezzo and colleague Daniel L. Schwartz, PhD, conducted studies involving 176 people, mostly college students. They found that those who walked instead of sitting or being pushed in a wheelchair consistently gave more creative responses on tests commonly used to measure creative thinking, such as thinking of alternate uses for common objects and coming up with original analogies to capture complex ideas.

Students who walked in another experiment doubled their number of novel responses compared with when they were sitting. The 40 students in this experiment were divided into three groups: One sat for two sets of tests but moved to separate rooms for each set; another sat and then walked on a treadmill; and one group walked outdoors along a predetermined path.

To see if walking was the source of creative inspiration rather than being outdoors, another experiment with 40 participants compared responses of students walking outside or inside on a treadmill with the responses of students being pushed in a wheelchair outside and sitting inside. Again, the students who walked, whether indoors or outside, came up with more creative responses than those either sitting inside or being pushed in a wheelchair outdoors.

“While being outdoors has many cognitive benefits, walking appears to have a very specific benefit of improving creativity,” said Oppezzo. Read more about the benefits of walking on learning.

10. Struggling to remember can be a good thing.

Making mistakes while learning can benefit memory and lead to the correct answer, but only if the guesses are close-but-no-cigar, according to new research findings from Baycrest Health Sciences.

“Making random guesses does not appear to benefit later memory for the right answer, but near-miss guesses act as stepping stones for retrieval of the correct information — and this benefit is seen in younger and older adults,” says lead investigator Andree-Ann Cyr, a graduate student with Baycrest’s Rotman Research Institute and the Department of Psychology at the University of Toronto.

“These results have profound clinical and practical implications. They turn traditional views of best practices in memory rehabilitation for healthy seniors on their head by demonstrating that making the right kind of errors can be beneficial. They also provide great hope for lifelong learning and guidance for how seniors should study,” says Dr. Nicole Anderson, senior scientist with Baycrest’s Rotman Research Institute and senior author on the study.

11. You can control nature vs. nurture.

Were Albert Einstein and Leonardo da Vinci born brilliant or did they acquire their intelligence through effort? No one knows for sure, but telling people the latter — that hard work trumps genes — causes instant changes in the brain and may make them more willing to strive for success, indicates a new study from Michigan State University.

The findings suggest the human brain is more receptive to the message that intelligence comes from the environment, regardless of whether it’s true. And this simple message, said lead investigator Hans Schroder, may ultimately prompt us to work harder.

“Giving people messages that encourage learning and motivation may promote more efficient performance,” said Schroder, a doctoral student in clinical psychology whose work is funded by the National Science Foundation. “In contrast, telling people that intelligence is genetically fixed may inadvertently hamper learning.”

In past research by Stanford University psychologist Carol Dweck, elementary students performing a task were either praised for their intelligence (“You’re so smart!”) or for their effort (“You worked really hard!”) after correct responses. As the task became harder, children in the first group performed worse after their mistakes compared to the group that had heard effort was important.

The MSU study, which appears online in the journal Biological Psychology, offers what could be the first physiological evidence to support those findings, in the form of a positive brain response. “These subtle messages seem to have a big impact, and now we can see they have an immediate impact on how the brain handles information about performance,” Schroder said.

12. Being a “genius” requires hard work, not talent.

The University of Pittsburgh’s Joel Chan and Christian Schunn used multiple hours of transcripts of a professional engineering team’s “brainstorming” sessions and broke down the conversation systematically, looking for the path by which thought A led to thought B that led to breakthrough C.

“We want to understand the nature of cognitive limitations,” Schunn says. “Why do we get stuck (on an idea), what kinds of things get us unstuck, and why do they work?”

What they found in the sessions they studied is that new ideas didn’t spring fully formed after massive cognitive leaps. Creativity is a stepwise process in which idea A spurs a new but closely related thought, which prompts another incremental step, and the chain of little mental advances sometimes eventually ends with an innovative idea in a group setting.

Channeling Thomas Edison’s dictum that genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration, Schunn concludes that “inspiration creates some perspiration.”

So, thus far, the lesson seems to be that if you’re not making creative progress, don’t wait for a bolt from the blue; keep talking to your peers, and keep sweating

13. You can improve your learning by expecting to share it with others.

When compared to learners expecting a test, learners expecting to teach recalled more material correctly, they organised their recall more effectively and they had better memory for especially important information,” said lead author John Nestojko, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in psychology in Arts & Sciences at WUSTL.

The study, published recently in the journal Memory & Cognition, is based on a series of reading-and-recall experiments in which one group of students is told they will be tested on a selection of written material, and another group is led to believe they are preparing to teach the passage to another student. In reality, all participants were tested, and no one actually engaged in teaching.

Findings suggest that simply telling learners that they would later teach another student changes their mindset enough so that they engage in more effective approaches to learning than did their peers who simply expected a test.

“When teachers prepare to teach, they tend to seek out key points and organise information into a coherent structure,” Nestojko said. “Our results suggest that students also turn to these types of effective learning strategies when they expect to teach.”

The study suggests that instilling an expectation to teach may be a simple, inexpensive intervention with the potential to increase learning efficiency at home and in a formal learning environment.

14. To boost critical thinking, practice giving explanations.

Asking children to come up with explanations — even to themselves — enhances their cause-and-effect learning abilities, according to new psychology research from The University of Texas at Austin.

The study, published in the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, shows that young children who come up with explanations while learning are able to connect new ideas with prior cause-and-effect knowledge. By forming their own generalisations, learners can more efficiently understand novel information, says Cristine Legare, associate professor of psychology and lead author of the study.

“The way children gather evidence through exploration and understand it through explanation provides insights into the development of scientific reasoning,” Legare says. “This strategy can help young children harness their potential for scientific reasoning and improve their critical thinking skills.”






15. Your brain changes when you have an idea.

A new University of British Columbia study identifies an important molecular change that occurs in the brain when we learn and remember.

Published this month in Nature Neuroscience, the research shows that learning stimulates our brain cells in a manner that causes a small fatty acid to attach to delta-catenin, a protein in the brain. This biochemical modification is essential in producing the changes in brain cell connectivity associated with learning, the study finds.

In animal models, the scientists found almost twice the amount of modified delta-catenin in the brain after learning about new environments. While delta-catenin has previously been linked to learning, this study is the first to describe the protein’s role in the molecular mechanism behind memory formation.

“Brain activity can change both the structure of this protein, as well as its function,” says Stefano Brigidi, first author of the article and a PhD candidate Bamji’s laboratory. “When we introduced a mutation that blocked the biochemical modification that occurs in healthy subjects, we abolished the structural changes in brain’s cells that are known to be important for memory formation.”

previously posted on informED image credit: crazy inventor image from bigstock
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INTERSECT: A Newsletter about Interpreting, Language and Culture

INTERSECT: A Newsletter about Interpreting, Language and Culture | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Happy International Mother Language Day
Well. Technically this special day came last week on February 21. But whatever your mother language is, did you tweet in it?
 
Global Voices launched a campaign to have you do just that, Tweet in Your #MotherLanguage. The reason behind the campaign: we have about 7,000 living languages in the world, and only a few are on the Internet. Twitter, for example, has about 85% of its tweets going out in just eight languages.
 
The goal last week for International Mother Language Day was to have people tweet in their mother languages all day long. Still waiting to hear results: meantime, the campaign platform is available in eight languages.
 
P.S. People tweeted by adding the hashtag #MotherLanguage and then another hashtag with the language, for example, #Lakota or #Yoruba.
 

Multilingual Robots Hit Japan
This isn't science fiction. A hotel is about to open in the Huis Ten Bosch theme park in Nagasaki that will have 72 rooms starting at $60 per night--and 10 humanoid robots will staff it.
 
The robots will blink and breathe. They will make eye contact, notice your body language and speak "fluent" Chinese, Japanese, Korean and English. In addition they can check you in, make coffee, clean your room and even carry your bags. Oh, and deliver your laundry.
 
The $64 million question is... Can they interpret?
 
This robot hotel opens July 17. If you go, send us pix.


February 27, 2015
IN THIS ISSUE
Happy International Mother Language Day
Multilingual Robots Hit Japan
Book(s) of the Week
On the Calendar
Get a Free Online ASL Dictionary
CCC Corner
Culture & Language Press
QUICK LINKS
CCC News and Trainings
The Voice of Love
Intersect Back Issues 
AIIC
AILIA
ATA
CCHCP
CCHI
CFI 
CHIA
Critical Link
DiversityRX
DVTA
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InterpretAmerica
InTrans Books
NAJIT
NBCMI
NCATA
NCI
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RHIN
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TAALS 
TAHIT
CONTACT US

Address:
Cross-Cultural Communications
10015 Old Columbia Road
Suite B-215
Columbia, MD 21046

Phone: 410.312.5599

Email: Click here


               




BOOK(S) OF THE WEEK
Caring for Patients from Different Cultures, 5th edition
Geri-Ann Galanti
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015
 
February has been quite the month for hot-off-the-press books on cultural competence.
This well-known book, now available both in print and as an e-book (and soon to be an audible book) has a treasure trove of 300 case studies that illustrate cross-cultural conflicts or misunderstandings. It includes examples of "culturally competent health care."
 
The author is a medical anthropologist and Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
 
For details about the book, click here.

ON THE CALENDAR
ATA Deadline for Proposals Comes This Monday
 
The 56th annual conference of the American Translators Association (ATA) is by far the biggest conference for interpreters and translators on the continent.
 
The deadline for proposals is Monday, March 2. There is a video on the call for proposals site about how to submit a winning proposal. Small wonder. ATA receives hundreds of proposals each year. Winning a speaking slot at ATA is competitive. Prepare.
 
The conference itself will be held November 4-7, 2015 in Miami, Florida. Hope to see you there!

Get a Free Online ASL Dictionary

Did you ever want to know how to say love at first sight in ASL? 
 
Then look at this : an online searchable English-ASL dictionary with videos of interpreters showing you how to sign. What a terrific resource. Show your kids!

CCC CORNER

CCC--Home of the PROFESSIONAL Interpreter
 
CCC Launches a Blog: THE INTERPRETER'S VOICE
 
CCC has a blog--and surprise, Marjory Bancroft isn't writing it!
 
Mónica Giamo is a CCC employee (our Communications Specialist) who also practices as a freelance interpreter in the small, delightful town of Frederick Maryland. Her blog, The Interpreter's Voice, will follow her life as a professional interpreter in medical, educational and other settings.
 
The joys. The pain. The insanity. The humor.
 
Mónica's first post, Like Mother, Like Daughter, shows you how she is following in her mother's footsteps. Multigenerational interpreters. How cool!
 
We welcome guest bloggers by the way. The more we hear from practicing interpreters, the more fun the blog will be. If people don't understand us, it's our job to help them!
 
The Community Interpreter® Comes Back in April
 
It's hard to believe but spring IS coming. Hang in there!
 
Meantime, don't forget to register for the nation's #1 program for community interpreting, delivered right here in its birthplace: Columbia, Maryland. The Community Interpreter® is the premier 40-hour certificate program that prepares you to interpret for medical, educational and/or social service settings.
 
Of course, if you're interested in medical terminology, cultural competence, how to work with an interpreter, a two-day simultaneous workshop and our all-time winner, the Training of Trainers for The Community Interpreter®-- you will want to see our spring-summer training calendar.
 
Join us. We can't wait to see you!

CULTURE & LANGUAGE PRESS
For a LOOK INSIDE all our publications visit our sister website: thecommunityinterpreter.com and go to Books and Products.





For more information about Cross-Cultural Communications, please go to our website at: www.cultureandlanguage.net

For more information about The Community Interpreter®, please go to our website at: www.thecommunityinterpreter.com

Sincerely,

Marjory A. Bancroft

Marjory A. Bancroft, Director
Cross-Cultural Communications, LLC
10015 Old Columbia Road, Suite B-215
Columbia, MD 21046
Phone: 410.312.5599, Fax: 410.750.0332
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EVA: What’s on Telly for the Visually Impaired

EVA: What’s on Telly for the Visually Impaired | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
[chewabledrapery] has certainly used his Raspberry Pi for good. His girlfriend's grandfather is growing more visually impaired as time goes on. He likes to watch telly, but has trouble reading the o...
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What Marvel characters are called in other countries

What Marvel characters are called in other countries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Superheroes must have great names, so we just know they’re super right off the bat.

But sometimes those names get a little lost in translation when publishers ship them abroad.

Having “Pokember” swing into action doesn’t quite have the same ring to it as Spider-Man. Likewise, “The Green Buffoon” isn’t exactly a supervillain you’re likely to take too seriously on introduction.

Manchester-based artist James Chapman publishes weekly “international sound” comics, where he has some fun with sounds in other languages. This week he turned his hand to Marvel Characters In Other Countries, and this was the delightful result:


Image by James Chapman
“Some of these are from the comics and some are from the movies,” Chapman explained. “They change their names more often than they change into their costumes.”

We like the literal vibe of “Laser Eye”, but the general consensus on the web is that “Blunderbuss” is actually a much better name for Rocket Raccoon. And Chapman’s getting a few extra tip-offs, too, leading to this winner today:


Image by James Chapman
If you like that, Chapman also has a book on Etsy with a similar vibe, Soundimals: An illustrated guide to animal sounds in other languages.

You can also keep up to date with Chapman’s work on his Tumblr.
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Lost In Google Translation: A Walk Through Bensonhurst With Google's New App - Bensonhurst's News Blog

Lost In Google Translation: A Walk Through Bensonhurst With Google's New App - Bensonhurst's News Blog | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Carmen Molina Tamacas

Editor’s note: Neighbor and Salvadorian journalist Carmen Molina Tamacas sometimes contributes articles about Bensonhurst’s growing Central American community. She recently took a walk through Bensonhurst with the new Google Translate Word Lens App and wrote about it for Cromo, the tech magazine of the Uruguayan newspaper El Observador. Below is an authorized translation:

When it comes to learning a new language, a dictionary is like a faithful friend, ready to resolve our doubts and questions at a moments notice.

The translation experience has been revolutionized with Google Translate, which recently released a new and improved version of its mobile app, allowing user to “visually translate” signs into any language. Google’s new Word Lens technology, allows users to simply scan a street sign, and immediately it is overlaid with text in the language of their choice.



We tested the new feature on a walk through Bensonhurst – which is densely populated by many different immigrant and cultural groups – and found that Google Translate is more like a funny, confused friend with very poor grammatical skills.

Armed with an iPhone 5S, we toured two of the most important business sectors: Bay Parkway and 86th Street, where there are pharmacies filled with Russian products, Kosher bakeries, Chinese, Vietnamese and Turkish restaurants, an occasional McDonald’s or Burger King, Chinese-owned discounts stores, beauty salons attended by Indian beauticians, and traditional restaurants from Central America.

The feature is intended to help tourists and travelers with traffic signals, but with English-to-Spanish translation, we got into grammatical trouble because words have multiple meanings, Spanish has a different syntactical order. An amusing example was an English sign reading “No wet bills. It will jam in the machine” which was translated awkwardly with the Spanish equivalent for “jelly,” mermelada, instead of jam.



Another nonsensical translation resulted when we turned the app towards a more complicated sign announcing that all forgotten clothes will be donated.



In general, we found that the fewer words a sign had, and the more directly it was scanned, the more favorable the outcome was, but sometime the app can be a little bit too ambitious when it detects a letter. For example, when the phone was pointed at the “P” on the machine parking meters, the app overlays immediately wrote Papá, Dad in Spanish.

For parking lot signs at 86th Street, Google Translate applies the translation literally, and the result is unclear and out of order in Spanish.



Similarly, near Bay Parkway and 77th Street a there was a “Hard Hat Area,” a term which sounds confusing in Spanish. Perhaps a better translation would have been “Area of mandatory helmet use,” but at least the app succeeded in placing the accent on the capital letter Á – which is mandatory in Spanish.



We had better luck trying to decipher signs in Chinese and Russian, and in some cases, the results were quite revealing. For example, a Chinese sign on one gate displayed an important message that translated in Spanish to, “No trespassing. Offenders will be brought to justice.”



Later, along 86th Street, we found ourself standing in front a cabinet full of undecipherable inscriptions. Though the translation produced by Google made little sense, we could make out the words “in and out medicine” and discern that it was an internal medicine facility for both adults and children. We found similar clues in translations obtained from phrases in Russian and Hebrew.

But despite its limitations, we found Google Translate to be helpful in breaking down cultural barriers, offering us glimpses into Bensonhurst’s diverse communities, and hints of neighborhood dynamics that would otherwise go unnoticed.
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Ancient Massive Migration Resulted in Modern European Languages

Ancient Massive Migration Resulted in Modern European Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe some 4,500 years ago left their traces in the DNA - and possibly the languages - of modern Europeans, according to a new study.

Over three billion people speak languages of the Indo-European family that spans across Europe as well as Central, Western and South Asia. The exact reason as to why these languages are related has been widely debated.

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The findings of a recent study suggest some of these Indo-European languages now spoken in Europe are a result of a mass migration from Eastern Russia.

"This new study is the biggest of its kind so far and has helped to improve our understanding of the linguistic impact of Stone Age migration. Using genome-scale data from more than 90 ancient European people, ranging from [3,000 to 8,000] years old, we were able to trace these people's origins," said co-first author Wolfgang Haak, from the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD).

Among the shifts in the genetic make-up of ancient Europeans they found was that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders that lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.

Researchers identified two key population replacements that took place in Europe during the Stone Age, the first of which was the arrival of farmers in what is now Turkey.

Andrew Garrett, a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley, said it was significant the mass migration occurred at a time some models had previously identified for Indo-European expansion.

"This large migration almost certainly had lasting effects on the languages people spoke," Haak said.

The findings challenge the popular theory that all modern Indo-European languages in Europe came from the first farmers in Anatolia over 8,000 years ago. The research has yet to solve the exact origin of Indo-European languages spoken across Eurasia, but researchers believe the answers are within reach.

The findings were published in the journal Nature.
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Ten tips for working with translators and interpreters

Ten tips for working with translators and interpreters | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ten tips for working with translators and interpreters | Entrepreneurship | International | Bdaily UK | Business News
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DNA Study Backs Theory of Massive Steppe Migration | Sci-Tech Today

DNA Study Backs Theory of Massive Steppe Migration | Sci-Tech Today | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Frank Jordans
PUBLISHED:
MARCH
04
2015

A wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe some 4,500 years ago left their trace in the DNA -- and possibly the languages -- of modern Europeans, according to a new study.
Scientists discovered evidence of this Stone Age migration by analyzing DNA of 69 people who lived across Europe between 8,000 and 3,000 years ago.

Among the shifts in the genetic make-up of ancient Europeans they found that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders who lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.

This injection of DNA indicates "a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery," concluded the researchers, led by David Reich of Harvard Medical School.

Such a large-scale influx would likely have affected not just the DNA but ancient cultures as well. Although genes can't determine what people spoke, the researchers argue that their findings could influence the debate about the origins of Indo-European tongues that form the basis of modern languages such as English, German and Russian.

Linguists have long debated whether Indo-European languages came to Europe with farmers migrating from the Middle East or some other group, such as the Yamnaya.

"Major language replacements are thought to require large-scale migration," said the authors of the study, which was published Monday by the journal Nature. "Our results make a compelling case for the steppe as a source of at least some of the Indo-European languages in Europe."

Andrew Garrett, a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study, said it was significant that the mass migration occurred at a time some models had previously identified for Indo-European expansion.

"It fills in a significant piece of a big and interesting puzzle," said Garrett.
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