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Bahrain News Agency | GCC Council Condemns Iranian Translation Blunder

Bahrain News Agency | GCC Council Condemns Iranian Translation Blunder | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Jeddah-Sept2(BNA) Foreign Minister Shaikh Khalid bin Ahmed bin Mohammed Al-Khalifa today lauded the GCC ministerial Council for condeming the flagrant tampering committed by the Iranian First TV Channel deliberately replacing Syria by Bahrain in the Persian translation of Egyptian President Mohammed Mursi’ speech in the 16th Non-Aligned Summit, which opened on August 30 in Tehran.

Foreign Minister Shaikh Khalid bin Ahmed bin Mohammed Al-Khalifa gave an account on the flagrant distortion as he attended the 124th session of the GCC ministerial council in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Deputy Foreign minister Prince Abdulaziz bin Abdulla Al-Saud chaired the meeting which was attended by GCC foreign ministers and Secretary General Dr. Abdullatif bin Rashid Al-Zayani.
In a statement issued tonight, the council slammed the irresponsible distorted translation as flouting probity and established norms.
The delegations discussed the General Secretariat’s reports featuring member states’ feedback on moving from the stage of GCC cooperation to the phase of federation.
The session also discussed key regional and international political issues, reiterating firm rejection of the Iranian occupation of the Emirati islands Greater and Lesser tunbs and Abu Musa, affirming the UAE inalienable sovereignty over the three occupied islands as well as its territorial waters.
The council urged Tehran authorities to settle the dispute through negotiations or referral of the case to the International Court of Justice.

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News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Microsoft Translator updated with new languages | Pocektnow

Microsoft Translator updated with new languages | Pocektnow | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
With the branding change that most, if not all Microsoft services received recently, don’t feel odd if this headline doesn’t remind you of the now defunct Bing Translator. Microsoft is now naming everything under its current brand, and these changes even include some hefty updates for some services. Today we learn that Microsoft is adding more functionality to some of its services, and that even includes tools to translate.

Microsoft Translate was recently updated to version 3.2, and the changes include voice support for different versions of English, French and Spanish. These changes include support for the Mexican version of Spanish, and the Canadian version of French, along with English as spoken in Canada, Australia and India. You will also find support for Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and Russian languages.

If you’re like some of us that constantly need a translator on the Go, this will give you more reasons to go the Microsoft route.

Source: Microsoft Translator
Via: Windows Central
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Some Notes on “New Expressions,” by Jacob Ciocci

Some Notes on “New Expressions,” by Jacob Ciocci | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Editor’s Note: We’d been hearing a lot about New Hive over the last year, so when we heard curator Lindsay Howard was working with artists to commission works for the multimedia platform we were very curious. We invited Jacob Ciocci, the latest artist commissioned by New Hive, to discuss his process and work.

*    *    *

“New Expressions,” Jacob Ciocci’s eight-page online commission for NewHive, describes a how-to guide for creating animated paintings. This collection explores the ways in which creativity has been commodified for the masses, as a result of DIY culture, arts and crafts stores, and lifestyle specialists like Martha Stewart. While he embraces a paint-by-numbers-style approach to art-making, Ciocci remains aware of how these recipes, or the digital interfaces that integrate them, influence the creative process. “New Expressions” is viewable on NewHive here, and below is an extended artist statement. —curator Lindsay Howard

*

The following are notes on my commissioned project for NewHive entitled “New Expressions.”

1. Think Outside The Box

I repeat a single phrase across many pages of this project: “Think outside the box.” The box has been a recurring theme for me for over 10 years — a stupid metaphor from an old comic I made in 2001 that I use because of its flexibility and vagueness, and ability to mean different things at different times.

For this project, the phrase refers to a website’s graphical user interface. Although I’m thinking about NewHive specifically, an interface can be any system that has rules; a right and a wrong way to do things, a process that comes with a set of instructions, or a limiting force that one cannot escape. It reminds me of this Philip K. Dick quote, if you replace the word “reality” with “an interface”: “Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn’t go away.”

NewHive is a website that became available to the public earlier this year. It allows users to create rich multimedia websites without having to know HTML or CSS. It’s a powerful tool for creating websites quickly and intuitively. After watching the site for about six months, I started thinking about how the design and interactivity on NewHive communicated certain biases and beliefs, and how that affects the kind of work that’s created on the site. (Of course, even the most open platforms have biases — and it’s these biases, along with the ideology expressed through marketing language, that I often use as raw material when working with any new tool or interface.)

For example, I’ve always been fascinated by how frequently arts and craft terms (such as paintbrushes, scissors, and erasers) are used as metaphors in various digital technologies, from MacPaint to KidPix to Photoshop. They incorporate these familiar icons and images so users adapt more quickly, and to imply that the platform is easy to learn. But the shift in context creates a set of rules that the user must acquaint themselves with whenever they use a new platform. No tool or canvas is truly blank.



(For more on the topic of defaults, I recommend looking at Guthrie Lonergan’s blog post from 2007 comparing default versus hacking technology as it relates to the first and second generations of Net Art.)

2. The Big Box

I’m also inspired by craft stores, such as Michaels and Jo-Ann Fabric and Craft Stores, which specialize in providing resources for seamstresses, scrapbookers, jewelry makers, floral designers, and others. Similar to default preferences or tutorials on the internet, craft stores specialize in providing simple how-to guides for creativity, whether it’s “paint by numbers,” recipes by Martha Stewart, or even branding on a tube of paint — there are biases written into every piece of material. These biases are complex, and partially subconscious: an artist could spend a lifetime reinterpreting and examining these products. While defaults are most strongly tied to digital tools, they’ve actually been used in an analogue way for a very long time …

3. Rules Set You Free

Getting back to the idea of the box …

“New Expressions” (and many of my other rules-based animated paintings) are about exploring biases, defaults, and conventions by setting up my own set of instructions, with the idea that rules can set you free. Similarly to how Puffy Dimensional Fabric Paint or Adobe Illustrator comes with a how-to guide, I create my own arbitrary systems for creating artworks. For this project, that process is outlined below:



The secret behind any kind of creative culture, whether digital or analogue, is the idea that success comes as a result of working within the rules of the interface. I see a connection here to strategies employed by many radical, avant-garde, or experimental artists, such as Sol Lewitt. It could be argued that there’s an essential difference between following someone else’s instructions (Martha Stewart) versus creating your own (John Cage), but the truth is that, because everyone’s inspired by their peers, surroundings, and any other limitations as we create, no creative system is ever truly original or unique.

It seems as if creative people are attempting to create a space where they feel free, by following rules (or multiple sets of interconnected rules simultaneously) such as the rules of minimalism, social practice, hacking, or noise music. The act of refusing rules is itself a kind of rule. I see this last part, the rule of breaking rules or seeking out the unknown or being a creative pioneer, as being the most conventional rule of all — and relating directly to the entrepreneurial spirit of American capitalism (see, for example, the pervasive use of the term ‘disrupt’ by technology companies).

4. New Expressions

The word “expressions” comes from an earlier version of NewHive, which they used to describe web pages that had been created using their toolkit. I think of this term as relating to the Jo-Ann and Michaels mentality described above, which is echoed in phrases like “experience the creativity” (a prompt used in a previous marketing campaign). NewHive, Tumblr, Pinterest, and MySpace could be interpreted as 21st century crafting cultures — even their branding is sometimes aligned with craft culture in various ways, through font, color scheme, and language choices. It’s impossible to create an entirely neutral creative interface, and I’m personally most drawn to sites where users, simply by using the interface, make the rules or conventions of the interface visible.

5. Stuff Floating On Top of Other Stuff

The aesthetic of objects or shapes floating in space or on top of one another is another thread that runs through my visual work. This approach has to do with the tools that are available through digital imaging interfaces: a seemingly infinite number of possible layers, drop shadows, and geometric shapes. I’ve always wondered where this particular set of visual conventions started — it is so weird if you stop and think about it. What are the historical references for layering and stacking, or even for the “polygon” tool? Again, a person could spend their whole life unraveling this story …

Floating shapes might harken back to early 3D imaging where cubes and spheres floated because the software was not able to understand gravity yet, and the shapes were simple because more complex shapes looked awkward in comparison. I imagine that the programmers were referencing 20th century Surrealist painting:



My earliest experiences with these kinds of shapes took place inside of the Trapper Keeper notebooks where I would store my handmade doodles. Trapper Keeper notebooks, similar to NewHive (or MySpace, or Tumblr, or the Mac Interface), were a place to store creations, but were also a branded space built to reinforce or encourage a sense of wonder or infinite creative freedom. Perhaps influenced by Abstract Illusionist painting from that period, or a trickling down of Memphis Design aesthetics, the hardcovers of Trapper Keeper notebooks often featured floating shapes, drop shadows, squiggles, intricate repeating patterns (see: Nathalie Du Pasquier) and a sense of constant motion or accelerating speed: all tropes that soon dominated the visual language of the doodles I created on the inside pages of these books.



6. Making Media Easy

The repeating audio loop in this project comes from this YouTube video entitled “Splatter Painting My Converse” uploaded by Allie Brault. I appreciate this video because it was probably made using iMovie — one of the most iconic media-making tools of our lifetime. For me, making media easy is actually about making media obvious, which is an important component of any creative culture. It’s important to remember that we’re not inventing newer and better ways of doing things, but are instead reconfiguring old ways. An illusion of newness and progress is one of the most pervasive, and ultimately destructive, agendas imaginable.

A telescope does not discover a new continent, a spaceship does not travel to a new planet, a microscope does not discover a new atom, and Facebook is not a new way of connecting. All of these tools take what constitute “reality” and spin it faster and faster inside the centrifuge of human culture and experience, until all of the pieces that make up “reality” are ground up into tinier and tinnier particles, which have the illusion of seeming “new” based on their re-organized attributes. Content is not created — it’s re-configured. Experiences are not new — they’re distortions of themselves. That’s why I love the name NewHive. If there’s one thing that the hive mind of the internet has taught me, it’s that nothing is new.

7. One Final Note

I believe that even the most cutting-edge post-MFA artist out there is “painting by numbers” or “dragging and dropping” their way through a creative system. They follow the rules of their own parameters. It might not be splattering puffy paint or turning on and off Photoshop filters, but navigating complex social relations. They are rules all the same. To put it plainly, every artist’s approach is conventional, which is something I’m starting to see become more clear as the art world gets eaten by popular culture. Of course, this description of the post-MFA artist includes me. I’m not exempt from these systems, in fact: I LOVE THE SYSTEM — I LOVE THINKING INSIDE BOX!!!
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National unity through inter-tribal marriages

National unity through inter-tribal marriages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The end of year is here. It is the Christ­mas season and a holiday period when people make out time to go home to the country sides and villages to see loved ones whom they have been away from in the course of the year. This is also a pe­riod for checking out on prospective brides, traditional marriage preparations as well as the introduction of prospective brides and grooms who may have met each other in the cities or outside their own locality of origin. The would-be brides and grooms would have met each other and fallen in love in the city without the customary search party who are concerned specialists in “hunting” for wives for their sons due for marriage. They met and fell in love based on their appreciation of each other’s desirable traits not minding the dif­ference in tribe. A good percentage of these people chose people of different ethnicity and are about to venture into inter-tribal marriage. They are many of such young men and women today, and most often they have the listening ears of their parents and kindred more than ever before in the rapidly evolving sociocul­tural milleu of Nigeria.

Despite the seeming divisive tone of some members of the political class on pages of na­tional dailies, and the tribal leanings of some posts on threads in today’s online community, there is a quiet but steady increase in the pro­cess of integration going on in today’s Nigeria. I think it is spreading hope for a greater Ni­geria just like the Nigerian pop music sector is doing- where musicians are becoming more comfortable featuring other artists of different linguistic groups or outrightly singing in other Nigerian languages in a fusion of linguistic plurality. The bug is inter-tribal marriage and it is spreading fast. Inter-tribal marriages hold even greater promise for the unification of Nigeria because as they say, blood is thicker than water. The burgeoning number of Nige­rians venturing outside of their tribal roots to find love and union is encouraging the gradual ethnic blending that in the long run may help to obliterate the tensions resulting from our some­times sharp ethnic divisions especially when is­sues bordering on sharing of national “cake” or the protection of gained advantages are involved. A few decades back, it was a strange kind of union as relatives armed with their preconceived notions and stereotypes often worked hard to scuttle the marriage of their own to the would-be spouse from the other ethnic group.

A year ago, at the wedding ceremony of my brother in-law, one of the guests, referring to my father-in-law (Dr. Abah Adulugba), noted that his family has become a mini Nigeria be­cause with two previous marriages involving his daughter and son were between a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law from other Nigerian tribes. The wedding ceremony in question was between Oche from the Idoma tribe in Benue State and Imabong, an Ibibio lady from Akwa Ibom State. A cursory look at marriages especially in met­ropolitan cities in Nigeria would prove that in­ter-tribal marriages are fast becoming the norm rather than the exception. Look around your environment and you will surely see people you know who have chosen love above other consid­erations. Those who previously had hard stance against inter-tribal marriages are beginning to be more tolerant of this trend.

A number of factors such as education, mi­gration and religion encourage the trend. When people meet in schools which are important cen­tres of socialization outside their primary func­tions of inculcating knowledge, they understand themselves better due to attendant social interac­tions. Educated people tend to have broadminded approach to dealing with people and issues. The trend is not only limited to the educated people it is permeating all the rungs of the social ladder. So unlike in the past, a good number of people searching for spouses have as their uppermost crite­ria, love and compatibility and no longer tribe.

As people travel out of their villages or tribal domains for education, employment and other en­gagements, they live in metropolitan cities where they share work environment, residential areas and churches with people from diverse ethnic back­grounds, chances are that you may find true com­panionship and love among these people from out­side of your ethnic origin. Sustained interactions cause people to see through the stereotypes that abound among the different groups of Nigerians. Most of the stereotypes and notions about others are actually based on ignorance and are most times totally false. Even if stereotypes are true in some cases, it is important to understand that individual differences exist and this fact, to a large extent, has strengthened the faith in our common humanity since the beginning of time.

Have you found love in another tribe and are bothered about the perceived challenges? Inter-tribal marriages do have challenges and so do intra-tribal or intra-village marriages in all their peculiarities. These challenges most times are the construct of our primordial mentality and thus can be mentally dealt with. Issues such as suspicion and tribal pride (my-tribe-is-better-than-yours behav­iour), language and other cultural differences are some of the challenges that people cite as impedi­ments to inter-tribal marriages. If handled with ma­turity, these issues can be turned into advantages.

More than ever before there are more children of mixed parentage in Nigeria and there will con­tinue to be such increase as Nigerians from various ethnic groups continue to embrace each other in marriages. Are there disadvantages or otherwise in having parents from two divides? One major chal­lenge is the issue of identity which result mainly because of disobedience to the rules of marriage and not necessarily as a result of the ethnic origin of a spouse. It is important to note that a child could learn as many as five different languages be­tween ages one to five. So the issue of language spoken in the home could be managed in a better way instead of the prevailing situation in most inter-tribal marriages where their children speak only English language without adequate knowl­edge of any of the ethnic languages of the par­ents. The relegation of our Nigerian languages may not be totally blamed on inter-tribal mar­riages though, because there are many intra-tribal (Yoruba+Yoruba or Igbo+Igbo) families where English language is the only language spoken. Some actually do not care about their children’s inability to speak their languages; they argue that there are no special advantages in speaking ethnic languages after all English is the formal medium of communication, in all important textbooks in school, the media and all government businesses-legislature, judiciary and executive. Such people argue that many Ni­gerians deploy their tribal languages mainly if they want to keep secrets from, cheat or to abuse another tribe close by. Those involved in inter-tribal marriages and others must view their lan­guages as a medium that carry the nuances of every culture, and as a result, it is important to accommodate it, inter-tribal marriage or not.

It was interesting coming across a young man named Onoja , from the Middle Belt whose flu­ency in the two languages of his parents was quite good. It was like having the bests of two worlds I thought to myself. He reminded me of the thrilling presentations of Chief Bisi Olatilo, the multi linguist and media mogul who could speak the three major Nigerian languages of Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba, this, he deployed to enrich his presentations in the media, making his listeners happy and garnering for himself a massive followership.

.Enekwachi writes from Lagos.
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It took a while for Sondheim’s ‘Into the Woods’ to make it to the big screen, but it was worth the wait

It took a while for Sondheim’s ‘Into the Woods’ to make it to the big screen, but it was worth the wait | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
It’s taken 27 years for Stephen Sondheim’s Broadway musical “Into the Woods” to make it to the screen. But in the expert hands of director Rob Marshall (“Chicago”), the musical mash-up of Grimm’s fairy tales gets a lush and loving screen translation.

The film is perfectly cast. Meryl Streep is clearly having the time of her life as the Witch, in both crone and glamorous incarnations, who sends a childless baker (James Corden) and his wife (Emily Blunt) into the woods to fetch items that will undo a curse that she long ago put on his family.

The genius of James Lapine’s original book of the musical, and the first two thirds of his screenplay adaptation, is how their quest cleverly weaves together beloved fairy tales.

The baker and his wife must find a cow as white as milk – cue Jack, of beanstalk fame (Daniel Huttlestone); a cape as red as blood – cue Little Red You-Know-Who (Lilla Crawford); hair as yellow as corn – cue Rapunzel (Mackenzie Mauzy); and a slipper as pure as gold. In familiar versions, that slipper is glass, but if the shoe fits, you know it belongs to Cinderella (Anna Kendrick).

The stellar cast is rounded out by Christine Baranski, who was born to play Cinderella’s stepmother; Tracey Ullman, a delight as Jack’s long-suffering mother; and you’ve gotta love any film whose credits include: “and Johnny Depp as the Wolf.”

But the breakout surprise of the cast is Chris Pine, who nearly steals the show with comic perfection as Cinderella’s vain, suave Prince.

While the original Broadway production was played with broad satirical strokes that basically mocked the original tales, the greatest strength of Marshall’s film is that the actors play it for truth – which makes their desires and travails that much more compelling.



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Kendrick’s Cinderella is a genuinely conflicted young woman, and Streep’s Witch is movingly protective of her imprisoned daughter Rapunzel. Her song “Stay With Me” is the most vocally demanding number in the film, which Streep pulls off with dramatic aplomb.

The biggest problem with the play, which is diminished, yet still a problem in the film, is its sudden change in tone after the “happily ever after” finale of Act One.

Recent re-imaginings of classic tales have effectively explored what made villains of their villains – such as Broadway’s “Wicked” and the film “Maleficent.” But in an attempt to modernize the vision, the final third of “Into the Woods” has characters suddenly behaving out of character, while some are clumsily dispatched for the sake of pathos that is not dramatically earned.

Fans of the stage play, who adore it warts and all, will most likely adore the film. It’s lively, epic, and gorgeous to look at – and costume designer Colleen Atwood had better make room on her mantel for a fourth Oscar.

Filmgoers who aren’t familiar with the show, and aren’t used to musical soliloquies in movies, may or may not wholeheartedly embrace it. But “Into the Woods” is jam-packed with visual, musical, and comic delights that ultimately sweep away its shortcomings.
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Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series-No 13 (2014): Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: A translation perspectiv Adriana Şerban & Reine Meylaerts

Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies (LANS – TTS) is the journal of the Department of Translators and Interpreters, Artesis University College Antwerp.

No 13 (2014)Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: A translation perspective
Adriana Şerban & Reine Meylaerts
Table of ContentsIntroductionIntroductionPDFReine Meylaerts, Adriana Şerban
ArticlesLa parole aux images, ou Multilinguisme et traduction dans les films de John McTiernanPDFSylvain AgiboustNarratives of Translation and Belonging in Multilingual Performance: The Case Study of 20/20PDFJozefina KomporalyBilingual performance and surtitles: translating linguistic and cultural duality in CanadaPDFLouise Ladouceur« Words are not simple play things! » : L’hétérolinguisme théâtral chez Louis Patrick LerouxPDFNicole NoletteThe power of the treacherous interpreter: Multilingualism in Jacques Audiard’s Un prophètePDFGemma KingThe interpreter as traitor: Multilingualism in Guizi lai le (Devils on the Doorstep)PDFKayoko TakedaYinglish in Woody Allen’s films: A dubbing issuePDFFrédérique BrissetCode-switching and screen translation in British and American films and their Italian dubbed version: a socio-linguistic and pragmatic perspectivePDFSilvia MontiAlfred Hitchcock presents: Multilingualism as a vehicle for… suspense. The Italian dubbing of Hitchcock’s multilingual films.PDFGiuseppe De BonisTranslating French into French: The case of Close Encounters of the Third KindPDFSimon LabateThe translation of multilingual films: Modes, strategies, constraints and manipulation in the Spanish translations of It’s a Free World …PDFIrene De Higes AndinoHow multilingual can a dubbed film be? Is it a matter of language combinations or national traditions?PDFElena Voellmer, Patrick ZabalbeascoaTranslation techniques in voiced-over multilingual feature moviesPDFKatarzyna SepielakStrategies for rendering multilingualism in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearingPDFAgnieszka Szarkowska, Jagoda Żbikowska, Izabela KrejtzThe visual multiplicity of films and its implications for audio description: A case study of the film What Dreams May ComePDFAnna MaszerowskaTo Feast or not to Feast : les défis d’Henry V à la traduction audiovisuellePDFNicolas SanchezMultilingualism in opera production, reception and translationPDFMarta MateoThe reasons for and implications of multilingualism in Une bouteille à la merPDFThomas Buckley
Book ReviewsMartens, D., & Vanacker B. (Eds.) (2013). Scénographies de la pseudo-traduction. Les Lettres romanes, 67(3–4).PDFRonald JennRomanelli, S. (2013). Gênese do processo tradutório. Editora Horizonte : Vinhedo. 181 p.PDFChristiane StallaertBallard, M. (2013). Histoire de la traduction. Repères historiques et culturels. Bruxelles : De Boeck. 234 p.PDFChristine LombezLafarga, F., & Pegenaute, L. (Eds.) (2013). Diccionario histórico de la traducción en Hispanoamérica. Madrid/Frankfurt: Iberoamericana/Vervuert. 515 p.PDFIlse LogieCrezee, I. H. M. (2013). Introduction to healthcare for interpreters and translators. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 338 p.PDFMatilde Nisbeth JensenDancette, J. (2014). Analytical dictionary of globalization and labour – Dictionnaire analytique de la mondialisation et du travail – Diccionario analítico de la mundialización y del trabajo (DAMT).PDFGeorg Löckinger

ISSN: 2295-5739
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‘Tangy, Chewy, Salty’ – a word from the translator with Sarah Irving

‘Tangy, Chewy, Salty’ – a word from the translator with Sarah Irving | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
he watches these shadows forming on the ceiling of her room, the picture emerging from them. In her fantasy, her gaze drifts across the image: those eyes surging with all the pent up desire of a great river in a romantic city like Paris; that nose belonging to a man proud of his origins, rooted in his land; those two cheeks, plump like reddened apples, tempting the onlooker to nibble gently at them; that broad forehead showing beneath the jet-black hair which hangs down to his eyebrows, without overshadowing the radiance of that moon-like face…

Extract from ‘The Whore of Gaza’ by Najlaa Ataallah in The Book of Gaza (Comma Press, 2014), translated by Sarah Irving

Interview by Rebekah Murrell

On the Gazan short story form

The proliferation of the short story form in the region has led to Gaza becoming known as ‘the exporter of short stories and oranges’. What struck you as being uniquely Gazan about the storytelling in the collection?

I’m not sure how much I’d want to claim a specifically Gazan aesthetic to these stories so much as a particularly Palestinian one. Obviously it occurs in writings from other parts of the world, but to me it feels very Palestinian to have such a matter-of-fact but all-pervasive sense of the place of resistance in everyday life. Ordinary actions often seem to take on extra meaning in this context, and I guess in the Gazan environment that is even more concentrated than for Palestinians in the West Bank and the State of Israel, because the situation in Gaza is so intensified by the population density and the scale of the encirclement and the military attacks. And that also affects internal social relations and individual relationships; perhaps the short story form comes into its own there, because it allows short bursts of that intensity.

 

On translating both group and individual experiences

In a space so densely populated by people and politics, both individual and group psychologies are paramount to the stories written out of it. How did you respond to the writers’ exploration of both the personal and the political?

I think the main issue for me was appreciating the extent to which, in a context like Gaza, the personal and political overlap so much – but also that this is something which is enforced by circumstances, not necessarily because people want it to be like this. To at least some extent, most of us in the West have the luxury of drawing those lines, or if we want to, of politicising the personal in our lives (or not). That’s not the case in a place where ‘politics’ – in the broadest sense, and often the most militarised sense – are there everyday. So in relation to often very nuanced stories like those in The Book of Gaza, which present complex and un-ideological images of life, it’s very much a question of finding ways to respect the implications that choices and statements might have in that environment, where things that might be ‘personal’ become ‘political’ but in potentially unexpected and problematic ways.

 

On getting to know Gaza

The stories undercut the standardised image of Gaza presented in international media, instead detailing the streets, homes, cafés, shops, bedrooms, corridors, cars, and even smells of the region. How important do you think it was to the contributors to present their version of Gaza, to draw a map of Gaza as home?

One of the main things I’ve always heard from Palestinians, whether from Gaza, the West Bank or in ’48 or the Diaspora, is that they’re passionate about wanting to dispel the stereotypes – of terrorists or of poverty and refugees. Gaza is perhaps the most extreme example of that, because we only tend to hear about it in the media when it’s facing another onslaught from Israel. But this is a place that is busy and full and bustling and where people’s spirit survives. That’s not to romanticise the situation, or to claim that there is somehow something especially resilient about Palestinian people, any more than there is really a special British thing called ‘Blitz spirit’. People are resilient and steadfast because they have to be, and I think these stories – full of sex and food and cars and lovers and the beach – just demand that readers respect the people of Gaza in their own particular brand of resilience. For sure, the writers of these stories live the news headlines – the bombings and massacres and horrors – but they also live all the bits in between, the everyday bits, and it’s really clear that that’s what they wanted people to read.

 

On women writers

You translated Najlaa Ataallah’s ‘The Whore of Gaza’, a self-conscious, visceral and affecting exploration of what it is to be a woman in Gaza. What did you find particularly powerful about hearing the female voice in the Gazan short story form?

It was a total thrill to see how many women were in the collection and to translate a story like Najlaa’s. It completely defies all the preconceptions that people might have about women in Gaza, but the twists of the story also defy the preconceptions that the reader might go in with from the title and opening. I think it’s a really psychologically and socially complex story, and I loved the challenge of trying to get that over into English, and the opportunity to show English readerships that Palestinian women writers from Gaza are very much willing to push the boundaries – to write about themes that would be confrontational coming from a British or American writer, let alone one from what most people’s idea of Palestine is.

 

On politics

Do you think The Book of Gaza and other works by Palestinian writers have an important role in the current conflict? Do you think literature can play a part in politics? 

I think it has to, on the level of small-p politics if not big-P politics. One of the biggest problems in the Western grasp of the issue of Palestine has, I think, been the dearth of real Palestinian voices in the media, in literature – anywhere that people can hear them. I defy anyone to read the stories in the Book of Gaza, with their accounts of ordinary people and daily life, and then to watch TV footage of entire blocks of flats in Gaza City being shelled and bombed, and not feel differently for having a sense of who the people are that live in those flats, who are being made homeless and their possessions – all their momentos – destroyed, or who are being maimed and killed. For sure, no government minister is going to stop an arms shipment to Israel for having read The Book of Gaza, but maybe one of their constituents might write a letter or sign a petition. It all goes into the mix.

 

In three words…

Describe the collection in three words.

Tangy, chewy, salty

 

About the translator

Sarah Irving is a writer, translator and editor. Read some of her writing at http://sarahirving.wordpress.com.

 

Read more about The Book of Gaza and its editor Abu Atef Said on the World Bookshelf
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Best Of Language Learning Articles in 2014

Best Of Language Learning Articles in 2014 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This is a compilation of the best language learning articles published in 2014 ranked by the number of social shares.
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'The Interview' Will Stream on YouTube, Google Play, Xbox

'The Interview' Will Stream on YouTube, Google Play, Xbox | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
One day after planning a limited theatrical release for the controversial Seth Rogen comedy The Interview, Sony Pictures Entertainment has announced plans to stream the movie on YouTube Movies, Google Play, Microsoft's Xbox Video and the studio's own dedicated website. The film – which stars Rogen and James Franco as bumbling journalists hired by the CIA to assassinate North Korean leader Kim Jong-un – will be available to rent (for $5.99) and purchase in HD (for $14.99) starting on December 24th at 10 a.m. PST, according to The Hollywood Reporter.

RELATED
How Seth Rogen Sparked an International Incident
"It has always been Sony's intention to have a national platform on which to release this film," said Michael Lynton, Sony Entertainment chairman and CEO, in a statement. "With that in mind, we reached out to Google, Microsoft and other partners last Wednesday, December 17th, when it became clear our initial release plans were not possible. We are pleased we can now join with our partners to offer the film nation-wide today."

Sony previously canceled the film’s Christmas release date, following cryptic terrorist threats from a group called Guardians for Peace – which also claimed responsibility for a massive cyber attack on Sony (one linked by the FBI to North Korea, though denied by the state itself.) 

But the decision to kill The Interview drew widespread criticism from free-speech advocates like George Clooney – and even President Barack Obama, who said, "I think [Sony] made a mistake. We cannot have a society where some dictator some place can start imposing censorship here in the United States." Representative Brad Sherman, a California Democrat and Chairman of the Entertainment Industries Caucus, called on Sony and Lynton to release the film, even suggesting the U.S. Capitol as a venue for a screening. Sony also faced an open-letter petition from a coalition of roughly 250 independent cinemas, urging the studio to release The Interview in honor of free speech. 

"The people have spoken!" Rogen tweeted following the Sony reversal. "Freedom has prevailed! Sony didn't give up! The Interview will be shown at theaters willing to play it on Xmas day!"

"VICTORY!!!!!!!" echoed Franco. "The PEOPLE and THE PRESIDENT have spoken!!!"
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Sinónimos y Antónimos - Diccionario

El mayor diccionario de Sinónimos y Antónimos en lengua Española con más de 35.000 entradas. Incluye también definiciones de los sinónimos y antónimos.
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Ateliers de traduction et d’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com

Ateliers de traduction et d’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dans le cadre de ses activités et sorties sur terrain, le Haut commissariat à l’amazighité (HCA) se déplace en cette fin d’année 2014 à Taghit (wilaya de Béchar), et ce, du 27 au 31 décembre, pour un programme riche et varié traitant du thème de la traduction et de l’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain.
En effet, le Haut commissariat à l’amazighité enchaîne les rencontres et rendez-vous dans le souci de promouvoir et d’enrichir la langue, la culture, l’histoire et la civilisation amazighes. Après la rencontre consacrée au roi Massinissa à El-Khroub (Constantine), le colloque de Batna intitulé “Regards croisés sur les procédés de traduction et d’adaptation en tamazight”, le 9e Salon du livre et multimédia amazigh à Bouira, comme pour clore l’année en beauté, le HCA entame un travail de terrain à Taghit où bon nombre d’ateliers seront consacrés à la recherche et au travail de terrain, sous la houlette des spécialistes et chercheurs. Ainsi, quatre ateliers sont au programme. Il s’agit d’un atelier de traduction sous la direction de Boujema Aziri, d’un autre atelier réservé aux enquêtes sous la direction de Abdnour Hadj Saïd (sous-directeur au HCA).
Le troisième atelier, dirigé par Hamid Bilek, sous-directeur au HCA, sera consacré à la réalisation de planches de bandes dessinées en tamazight.
Le dernier atelier sera réservé à un projet de traduction d’une ERP (planification des ressources de l’entreprise).
Aussi un projet de beau-livre consacré aux Aurès sera-t-il présenté aux présents, aussi bien par son auteur (journaliste et photographe) que par un membre du Haut commissariat à l’amazighité, Ramdane Abdenebi.
La dernière journée sera consacrée à un compte rendu sur le déroulement et résultats des quatre ateliers, ainsi que sur l’annonce des grandes lignes du plan de charge 2015 du HCA.

R. H.
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The Himalayan Times : TOPICS: The texting phenomenon - Detail News : Nepal News Portal

The Himalayan Times : TOPICS: The texting phenomenon - Detail News : Nepal News Portal | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
KEN SUBEDI
Although the same language is used, its forms are varied according to their own spheres. Texting is a new form in writing that has influenced mostly the young learners. While I had given my students homework, some students of grade six had written ‘u’ in place of ‘you’ and ‘ur’ in place of ‘your’. This result came as an influence of science and technology or the development of the internet.

The use of language has changed to short form. The internet is the fastest means of communication. So to convey the messages fast, characters in the language are reduced while sending. In course of time, some full forms generated like ‘asl’ for age, sex, location, HAND for have a nice day, LOL for laugh out loud and so on.

Texting is popular among the young people especially teenagers. They do texting to send SMS and during online chats. Texting is one of the trends in modern communication. Whether texting is harming the languages is a matter of debate. But both pros and cons exist.

Texting primarily affects grammar and spelling as it is idiosyncratic. ‘R u f9’ or ‘u r gr8’ do not follow the rules of spelling whereas ‘cal 2morrow dnt cal nw’ does not follow grammar and punctuation rules. Such use over a long period of time develops into incorrect writing habits. A new study has found that those who text are more likely to fall short in grammar tests. Other shortcuts include dropping non-essential letters, such as changing the word ‘would’ to ‘wud’. The texting habit affects their offline language skills that are important to language development and grammar skills.

The texters have problems in switching between techspeak and the normal rules of grammar that result in poor grammar choices in formal writing. There is another school of thought that supports texting and opines that text messaging inspires creativity to play with language. It is a good thing to make language and writing more fun. We believe that texting and instant messaging adds to our culture and language instead of diminishing them.

My view regarding texting is different. We have to make sure we learn the correct spelling and grammar as well as develop correct writing skills before engaging in the text lingo.

Once we develop these basic skills, we will be able to differentiate between formal writing and text lingo. I think that a strong English foundation is needed before we start texting. Don’t we shorten other things in writing? ‘Etc.’ instead of ‘et cetera’, ‘8th’ instead of ‘eighth’, ‘Dr’ instead of ‘doctor’, ‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘pm’, ‘am’ etc. Texting is just taking it a step further to save time.
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In 2015, It's Time To Turn Words Into Action

In 2015, It's Time To Turn Words Into Action | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I recently received a vintage dictionary from a former colleague. Whether it was a thoughtful gift or a subtle hint to boost my vocabulary, it coincided (ironically) with what the advertising industry needs to accomplish in the year ahead.
2014 was a year defined by words. Heated discussions surrounded the right approach to programmatic, the growth of multiplatform ad buys and the evolution of digital to be more than just online.

In the midst of the wall of words, however, was a notable dearth of action. Terminology was refined and definitions were debated, but if industry progress is defined by measurable achievements, then as much as we hoped the industry would change in 2014, much actually stayed the same.

As we look toward 2015, can we finally expect the level of progress that all of us have clamored for? The answer depends on whether the words of this coming year will turn into action, and whether that action will generate demand. With that in mind, here are three words — and more importantly, their definitions — that need to change.

1. Programmatic

Programmatic was without a doubt the most discussed and debated topic in advertising this year. (The Association of National Advertisers even went as far as to vote it the 2014 Marketing Word of the Year.) In 2015, the idea of programmatic will evolve from efficiently selling remnant and direct response, to the development of common mechanisms for selling a range of inventory more effectively.

While conversations about the topic will become more focused, we are not likely to see a common set of automated technology platforms. The definition of programmatic must be tweaked to focus on technologies to automate fragmented media buying and include audience targetability – something still limited to an elite club of media companies who control consumer data.

As with ad buys, the industry will need to define a standard system of measurement that can help us determine what works and what doesn’t when it comes to programmatic.

2.  Ad Buy

Multiplatform deals are by no means a new conversation topic in the industry, but will 2015 be the year that agencies demand fully integrated media buys that blend linear and digital components from order to delivery to invoice? Or will multiplatform remain yet another topic to contemplate. 

Without a standard measurement to support a range of distribution outlets (TV, OTT, online), television and digital will continue to be mere line items within deals that lack the ideal amount of synergy.

A specifically defined – and widely accepted – system of measurement, coupled with true agency demand, will be the driving force behind finally turning multiplatform from a concept into a reality.

3.  Media Company

The media landscape is rapidly changing, and with more anticipated mergers and other deals on the way, the services that a media company provides will extend far beyond the traditional concepts of programming and distribution. And thus their needs for selling and delivering advertising. 

Media companies will be defined by their ability to connect consumers across devices, provide data-rich insights into consumer behavior and provide services that include not only linear distribution but digital. The definition of “media company” will, without question, have the most marked impact on 2015.

Looking Ahead

Ultimately, 2015 is a year in which true demand must be created, big risk must be pursued and conversations will need to progress into actions. This combination of demand, risk and action will lead to industry change, and only then will definitions evolve into practice.

Without these three inputs, 2015 will be another year of heavy dialogue without much noticeable change.
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Group aims to ‘master’ public speaking | www.mpacorn.com | Moorpark Acorn

Group aims to ‘master’ public speaking | www.mpacorn.com | Moorpark Acorn | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Seven years ago, after seeing an ad in the Acorn for an upcoming meeting of the newly formed Moorpark Toastmasters Club, Dan Waldman decided to take a chance and attend.

The meeting changed his life.

A self-described introvert, the 56-year-old real estate agent said he was scared to death of standing up and speaking in front of people, but the experience of his first few speeches as a member of Toastmasters transformed the way he communicated with others.

“There were words in me that wanted to come out and I couldn’t express myself,” Waldman said. “I felt like my opinion didn’t matter until I started to speak for myself.”

Toastmasters International is a nonprofit organization that was developed in 1924 by Dr. Ralph C. Smedley.

The organization now has more than 10,500 Toastmasters clubs and over 200,000 members in about 90 countries.

The clubs follow general guidelines that teach members how to prepare and deliver public speeches. A good opening, a solid middle and a good closing are speech essentials.

Toastmasters provides a supportive environment for those who want to learn how to speak in a professional setting. The idea is borne out of the fact that those who speak well have greater success in all walks of life.


The club works.

“I saw a guy come in that was very shy like me,” Waldman said. “He could barely talk when he got in there; now he is able to give public speeches.”

Waldman became president of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club in 2012 and is now a division governor for Toastmasters International. He monitors 25 clubs in Southern California.

This year the Moorpark Chamber of Commerce named him ambassador of the year for his dedicated work in Toastmasters.

Barbara Orechoff is a founding member of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club and met Waldman when he came to his first meeting.

“Dan has turned completely around, and (Toastmasters) really made him blossom,” Orechoff said. “He was very quiet at first and now he is more like a renaissance man.”

In addition to giving prepared presentations, members practice impromptu speeches on random topics.

Waldman said learning how to speak publicly over the last seven years has been more of a transformation than an education for him.

“It is an emotional experience for me, not intellectual,” he said. “The butterflies in your stomach don’t necessarily go away, but you get them trained.”

Waldman said it doesn’t matter what the speech is about—the important thing is to get the ideas together in logical order. Even so, the most experienced speech maker can feel they’ve left something out.

“There are three speeches you give: the one you planned to give, the one you actually give and the one you wish you had given, on the way home,” he said.

Numbers at the Moorpark club fluctuate, and there are currently 14 members. Waldman encourages people to stop by—no reservation is needed.

“Whether it’s someone like me that struggles with public speaking or someone who just wants to hone their speaking skills, all are welcome,” he said.

The next meeting of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club will be 7 p.m. Wed., Jan. 7 at the Moorpark Chamber of Commerce office, 18 E. High St.
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'Near-miss' students offered second chance at university boot camp

'Near-miss' students offered second chance at university boot camp | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
"The emphasis is on writing skills, critical thinking, self-directed learning analytical skills, just really a top of skills they already have to set them up for success in higher education," Mr Payne said.

It just gives them a second chance - these are students who always expected to go to university, they were on track to go to university and for whatever reason, they missed out on their ATAR.
Phil Payne
He rejects the idea it meant the university was dumbing down.

"It's not about lowering standards, we're actually raising our standards, we've raised our ATAR over the past couple of years but, at the same time, we're providing every assistance to students to get them to that standard and set them up for success," he said.

If the students do not work, they do not pass.

"They have to achieve a pass mark of 60 per cent minimum and if they do so, that will enable them to have direct entry, semester one next year into the vast majority of our courses," said Mr Payne.

"It just gives them a second chance - these are students who always expected to go to university, they were on track to go to university and for whatever reason, they missed out on their ATAR.

"Because we're committed to giving students every opportunity to progress to higher education, we thought this was a program that would meet a specific demand."

The university allocated 80 places for the program and expects it to be popular when exam results are published at the end of the year.

Murdoch's Access Programs manager Gael Gibbs said the idea behind the program was to provide students with an intensive grounding in university life to get them used to being on campus and the tertiary approach to learning and teaching.

Mr Payne said they want to see capable students reach their potential.

"The last thing we want to happen is for a bright, able student to think they've missed out and think they'll never go on to higher education because of disappointing results which could be for any reason - they might have just had an off day on the exams," he said.
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The Messy Minds of Creative People | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network

The Messy Minds of Creative People | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

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Creativity is very messy.

According to one prominent theory, the creative process involves four stages:  preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. This is all well in good in theory. In reality, the creative process often feels like this:



Or this:



The creative process– from the first drop of paint on the canvas to the art exhibition– involves a mix of emotions, drives, skills, and behaviors. It’d be miraculous if these emotions, traits and behaviors didn’t often conflict with each other during the creative process, creating inner and outer tension. Indeed, creative people are often seen as weird, odd, and eccentric.

Over the years, scientists have attempted to capture the personality of creative people. But it hasn’t been easy putting them under the microscope. As psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who has interviewed creative people across various fields points out, creative people “show tendencies of thought and action that in most people are segregated. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an “individual,” each of them is a “multitude.”

So how can we possibly bring order to the messy minds of creators? A new paper offers some hope. Psychologists Guillaume Furst, Paolo Ghisletta and Todd Lubart present an integrative model of creativity and personality that is deeply grounded in past research on the personality of creative people.

Bringing together lots of different research threads over the years, they identified three “super-factors” of personality that predict creativity: Plasticity, Divergence, and Convergence.

The Super-Factors of Personality

Plasticity consists of the personality traits openness to experience, extraversion, high energy, and inspiration.* The common factor here is high drive for exploration, and those high in this super-factor of personality tend to have a lot of dopamine– “the neuromodulator of exploration“– coursing through their brains. Prior research has shown a strong link between Plasticity and creativity, especially in the arts.

Divergence consists of non-conformity, impulsivity, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness. People high in divergence may seem like jerks, but they are often just very independent thinkers. This super-factor is close to Hans Eysenck’s concept of “Psychoticism“. Throughout his life, Eysenck argued that these non-conforming characteristics were important contributors to high creative achievements.



Finally, Convergence consists of high conscientiousness, precision, persistence, and critical sense. While not typically included in discussions of creativity, these characteristics are also important contributors to the creative process.

The researchers found that Convergence was strongly related to Plasticity. In other words, those who were open to new experiences, inspired, energetic, and exploratory tended to also have high levels of persistence and precision. The common factor here is most likely high energy. Perspiration and inspiration feed off each other, leading to even higher energy levels.

Nevertheless, these three super factors were at least partially distinct. For instance, those with high openness to experience and inspiration weren’t necessarily rebellious, impulsive, critical, or motivated to achieve.

Stages of Creativity

Critically, these three super-factors differed in importance depending on the stage of the creative process. While it’s true that the creative process is messy, scientists have at least put some order on things by agreeing on two broad classes of processes that work in cooperation to lead to high levels of creativity: Generation and Selection.

Generation consists of idea production and originality. During this stage, it’s crucial to silence the inner critic and imagine lots of different possibilities. This stage is all about quantity of ideas.

Generation is necessary but not sufficient for creativity, however. Selection helps make the ideas not only novel, but also valuable to society. The Selection stage involves processes such as criticism, evaluation, formalization, and elaboration of ideas. As Furst and colleagues note, “The ultimate goal of Selection is thus to form a coherent final product by providing a constant check during its development.”

Looking at the super-factors of personality, the researchers found that Plasticity and Divergence were most strongly related to the Generation stage of creativity. In contrast, Convergence was most strongly related to Selection. This makes sense, considering that creativity involves both processes relating to novelty and processes relating to usefulness. Indeed, the researchers found that the interaction of Generation and Selection was associated with both the intensity and achievement of everyday creative activities.**

But hold up, you may say. How can creativity be associated with all of these things: openness to experience, inspiration, high energy, impulsivity, rebelliousness, critical thinking, precision, and conscientiousness? Isn’t that contradictory?



Which brings us back to the beginning of this article. Creativity involves many different stages. Those who are capable of reaching the heights of human creative expression are those who have the capacity for all of these characteristics and behaviors within themselves and are flexibly able to switch back and forth between them depending on the stage of the creative process, and what’s most adaptive in the moment.

I told you creativity is messy.

Happy New Year! Thanks for supporting Beautiful Minds in 2014. Look out in 2015 for more insights on intelligence and creativity as well as a new book on the latest science of creativity, co-authored with Carolyn Gregoire.


© 2014 Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved


* It should be noted that the researchers measured “extraversion”using the Big Five framework. Under this framework, extraversion consists of a collection of traits associated with high sensitivity to environmental rewards, including positive emotions, sociability, enthusiasm, novelty seeking, assertiveness, and self-confidence. This finding does not mean that introverts are less likely to be creative. In fact, research suggests that the sociability component of extraversion is not as strongly linked to creativity as the other components of extraversion. If anything, research shows that the capacity for solitude is essential for optimal creativity. The facets of extraversion that seem to be most crucial to creativity are those associated with high energy, novelty seeking, positive emotions, and assertiveness.

**Interestingly, selection alone was not related to creativity. In particular, they found that people who were really good at Selection showed reduced levels of creativity if their Generation skills were low. Therefore, Generation skills are essential to creativity, and while generation skills may compensate for lower levels of Selection ability, the highest levels of Selection in the world may not be able to help you create if you have very low Generation ability.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Andrea Kuszewski and Carolyn Gregoire for bringing those alternative conceptualizations of the creative process to my attention.

About the Author: Scott Barry Kaufman is Scientific Director of The Imagination Institute in the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania. Follow on Twitter @sbkaufman.
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Website Localization: 7 Handy Tips For The Enterprise Website

Website Localization: 7 Handy Tips For The Enterprise Website | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Is your company thinking about doing business outside the United States? Making your website relevant to potential customers in foreign markets will be an important step in marketing your product or service internationally.

When you think about international websites, the first thing that comes to mind is translation.

So I turned to Blake Dozier and Ignacio Garcia from Ingenuiti, a Virginia Beach, Virginia based company that specializes in eLearning translation and localization for international companies. Ingenuiti is a fellow program partner in Virginia’s VALET program for companies that want to export their products or services.

Importance of Website Localization to International Business Development
Now, you may think that your website should be your last priority when thinking about international business development. Dozier, though, offers a different opinion. “Your company website is critical to your international business development success — even more important than your print collateral.”

Because your website is available 24/7, more eyes will be on your website that could possibly earn you business or sales meetings. This means that you need to make your website relevant to people on those countries. Here are 9 website localization best practices that you need to keep in mind.

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1. Update your English website first.

“Make sure your English website meets your target audience’s goal first,” says Dozier. “If your website doesn’t first meet the informational needs of your target customers in America, it won’t work in foreign markets, either. You will waste a lot of money if you decide to change the English version after translations have already started, because you’ll have to pay for changes in multiple languages. Consider globalizing your English website, which is where you’d make it relevant for people around the world. You can do this by including multicultural images and avoiding images or phrases that might be irrelevant or offensive in other cultures.”

2. Localize your website, don’t just translate it.

It’s important that you know your target geography before you translate. Localizing your website means that you’re focusing on a specific region or culture, not just a language.

“Companies need to be careful because you have to make sure the translation applies to the country you’re localizing for. For example, if you’re trying to sell in Mexico and translate your website into Spanish, you have to make sure you’re translating into Mexican Spanish. If you translate into European Spanish, you’ll alienate the Mexican market you’re trying to reach,” advises Garcia.

3. Know the difference between website translation and TEP.

Companies need to be careful when getting translation. What you actually need is ‘translation, editing and proofreading,’ called ‘TEP.’ This kind of website translation isn’t specific to website translation, but affects the quality of the translation you’ll get. Dozier says, “You get what you pay for. Beware of ultra low translation rates that include translation only. It is important to make sure you are comparing apples to apples when it comes to quotes for translation. The scope of work should include translation, editing, and proofreading.”

4. Get one language right.

“If you’re going to take the time and money to translate your website for international audiences, it’s better to do one language right than to have several languages and not get them right. If you translate your website, it has to be correct and accurate or you’ll lose credibility with that audience,” says Garcia. “Allocate your budget toward quality translations of less languages if necessary rather than going with the lowest cost provider to fit more languages in the budget. It’s not worth making all of the language versions look bad just so you have more languages.”

Occasionally we see companies use Google Translate to translate their websites, but this can actually be detrimental to their international business development efforts. “Websites that use Google Translate take the risk that the translation will sound unnatural, or even worse, be completely unreadable. If you’re serious about doing business internationally, you should have your website translated by a native speaker of that language,” adds Dozier.

5. Translate your navigation menus.

Garcia advises, “You need to be careful that you not only translate the content like a blog post or a new page, but also your navigation menus. It’s difficult for a person to navigate a website when the content is translated but the menus are in English.”

6. Choose the right photos.

Dozier advises companies to think about imagery on web pages they translate as well, saying that making your website culturally relevant is important, too. “Many cultures don’t have dogs as pets, so the picture on your website of a family with a dog should be replaced. If you use stock photos of people on your website, they should look like people in the countries that you’re hoping to develop business in.”

“Also, not all countries are as progressive as the United States when it comes to gender and racial issues, so any photography or videos you use on your website should be sensitive to that.”

7. Create a new, separate website for a target country for the best customer experience.

“If you are going to go to the trouble to customize images and content on your localized website, you may as well grab a different URL in your target country (like a .de address for Germany) and build a new website just for that country instead of just translating your existing website. Translating and localizing your existing website can take nearly as much effort as creating a new, dedicated website, and this can help your search engine optimization, too,” adds Garcia.

In summary, preparing your website for international business development efforts requires a lot more thought than simply translating the words on the website.
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Radio Prague - La vie rêvée de Dagmar Halasová

Radio Prague - La vie rêvée de Dagmar Halasová | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
C’est à Brno que nous vous emmenons pour cette nouvelle émission
spéciale à l’occasion de Noël. Dans un de ses vieux et beaux
quartiers
résidentiels de la capitale morave, appelé le quartier Masaryk, vit
Dagmar Halasová, philologue, traductrice et auteur de plusieurs livres.
Son beau-père,
František Halas, compte parmi les classiques de la poésie tchèque du
XXe
siècle, tandis que son mari, l’historien...
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French translation of Obama's inaugural speech ~ English to French translation

French translation of Obama's inaugural speech ~ English to French translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

I’ve read the French translations of Obama’s inaugural speech in Le Monde and Libération. They are very different and on the whole, I prefer the one in Le Monde: it is generally more sympathetic to Obama’s style. Compare Libé’s “Nous pouvons faire tout cela et nous le ferons” et Le Monde’s “Tout cela, nous pouvons le faire. Et tout cela, nous allons le faire.” for “All this we can do. All this we will do.” Le Monde’s translation isn’t more literal: it uses the same stylistic device, called anaphora, which repeats words at the beginning of the sentence to emphasize the determination and the unshakeable will of the speaker (an epiphora repeats the words at the end of a sentence). Unfortunately, I haven’t got time for an in-depth analysis, but I thought I’d offer the two translations of my favourite passage, as well as mine. This isn’t a translation competition: translating is a wonderful way to truly understand a text and I felt like grappling with this moving passage and sharing the result with you. Also, it’s interesting to see that three different translators arrive at three different translations. Feel free to offer your French translation in the comments.

Source
For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus — and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace.

Le Monde (Ariane Corbin-Favier)
Car nous savons que notre patrimoine bigarré est une force, et non une faiblesse. Nous sommes une nation de chrétiens et de musulmans, de juifs, d'hindous et d'athées. Nous sommes façonnés par toutes sortes de langues et de cultures venant de tous les coins du monde. Et parce que nous avons goûté le brouet amer de la guerre civile et de la ségrégation, et parce que, de ce chapitre sombre de notre histoire, nous sommes sortis plus forts et plus unis, nous ne pouvons pas ne pas croire que les vieilles haines cesseront un jour, que les sentiments d'appartenance disparaîtront, que le monde deviendra plus petit, que notre humanité commune va se révéler et que l'Amérique doit jouer le rôle qui lui revient en inaugurant une nouvelle ère de paix.

Libération (AFP)
Nous savons que notre héritage multiple est une force, pas une faiblesse. Nous sommes un pays de chrétiens et de musulmans, de juifs et d’hindous, et d’athées. Nous avons été formés par chaque langue et civilisation, venues de tous les coins de la Terre. Et parce que nous avons goûté à l’amertume d’une guerre de Sécession et de la ségrégation (raciale), et émergé de ce chapitre plus forts et plus unis, nous ne pouvons pas nous empêcher de croire que les vieilles haines vont un jour disparaître, que les frontières tribales vont se dissoudre, que pendant que le monde devient plus petit, notre humanité commune doit se révéler, et que les Etats-Unis doivent jouer leur rôle en donnant l’élan d’une nouvelle ère de paix.

My translation
Car nous savons que, loin d’être une faiblesse, notre patrimoine pluriel est une force. Nous sommes une nation de chrétiens, de musulmans, de juifs, d'hindous et de non croyants. Nous sommes le fruit du brassage de cultures et de langues originaires des quatre coins de la planète. Et parce que nous avons connu l’amertume de la guerre civile et de la ségrégation et que nous avons survécu, plus forts et plus unis, à ce chapitre sombre de notre histoire, nous ne pouvons nous empêcher d’être convaincus que les haines ancestrales s’éteindront un jour, que les lignes de démarcation s’effaceront, que les peuples se rapprocheront et que l’évidence de leur humanité commune éclatera aux yeux de tous ; et que l'Amérique sera au centre de l’avènement d’une nouvelle ère de paix.

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MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language

MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Building a moderately complex Web page requires understanding a whole stack of technologies, from HTML to JavaScript. Now a researcher from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has wrapped these technologies into a single language that could streamline development, speed up performance and better secure Web sites.

The language, called Ur/Web, provides a way for developers to write pages as self-contained programs. It incorporates many of the most widely used Web technologies, freeing the developer from working with each language individually.

“I think this is a language with potential broad applicability to reduce costs of Web development in many different settings,” said Ur/Web’s author, Adam Chlipala, an MIT computer science assistant professor. “It brings some well-ad understood software engineering advantages to aspects of the Web that have been handled in more ad hoc ways.”

Chlipala will present his work next month at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.

Developing a Web site requires understanding a range of different languages, as well as how they interact.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) offers basic formatting for the Web page, but there is a whole range of adjoining Web technologies that are usually deployed as well: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) provides a way to modify the look of a Web page, and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) structures data for additional processing and classification. JavaScript provides the foundation for writing the business logic for user interactions. And if data is stored in a database, a developer will need to know SQL (Structured Query Language) as well.

Ur/Web encapsulates all the capabilities of such Web development tools within a single language, which is compiled into machine executable code.

Because Ur/Web code is compiled, it can be substantially more efficient to run than code from commonly used Web development languages, Chlipala said.

“In Ur/Web, everything is based on transactions, where a single client request is handled by what looks like an uninterrupted execution of a single function,” Chlipala said. “The language implementation has optimizations in it to support running many requests in parallel, on real servers. But the programmer can pretend everything is a transaction and think in a simpler concurrency model.”

In addition to potentially lessening the cognitive burden for developers, Ur/Web’s top-down approach offers some safety mechanisms that could make Web sites more secure.

The language prohibits unintended interactions among different page elements. With this limit in place, embedded code for supplying ads could not interfere with a calendar widget elsewhere on the page, for example.

Also, like traditional programming languages such as C and Java—and unlike Web languages such as JavaScript—Ur/Web is strongly typed. This means all variables and functions must conform to a preset data type, which limits the ability of an attacker to send maliciously formatted data through a Web form. Ur/Web also supports variable scoping, or the ability to limit where a variable can be called within a program.

The language does have a potential downside. For the average Web developer, Ur/Web could require a “very steep” learning curve, Chlipala admitted. It is what is known as a functional programming language, a style of programming that treats programs as a series of functions, which can be computationally more efficient but harder to learn for a programmer versed in more widely used procedural or object-oriented languages.

Chlipala compared Ur/Web to Haskell, a functional programming language considered esoteric by many programmers yet loved by a dedicated community that praises its computational functionality.

Chlipala is one of a number of MIT researchers who have been pushing the frontiers of software programming languages of late. Another MIT researcher is designing a language called Sketch that can automatically complete sections of code for a program being written. Another MIT effort, dubbed Stack, is designed to identify parts of code that compilers routinely disregard but that nonetheless could be useful.
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New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
What difference is there between being repelled, being repulsed, being disgusted and being offended? Not much, perhaps, but consider the scene: Anna Karenina has taken a sip of coffee and raised her eyes to look at Vronsky, her lover, who is watching her. After hundreds of pages of love, lust, passion, fear, exhilaration, disappointment, exhaustion, aggression and, probably most important, jealousy, they are having their final fight. Leo Tolstoy is describing Anna ascribing an emotion to a man whose love she needs so desperately that she is convinced he has stopped loving her. Consider also this: When she lifted her coffee cup, she extended her pinkie away from it — a precious gesture that signals just how far this domesticated, miserable Anna has come from the glamorous young woman she was at the beginning of the novel; she made a sound with her lips — and she realized this when she lifted her gaze and saw Vronsky looking at her. She saw the most painful thing a woman can see: a lover who is turned off by her physical being.

Photo

In the classic translation by Constance Garnett, “she saw clearly that he was repelled by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound made by her lips.”

In the popular 2000 translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, she “clearly understood that he was disgusted by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound her lips made.”

In a new translation by Rosamund Bartlett, she “understood clearly . . . that he was repulsed by her hand, her gesture, and the sound she made with her lips.”

And in another new translation, this one by Marian Schwartz, she “clearly realized that he found offensive her hand, her gesture and the sound she was making with her lips.”

Surprisingly, all the translators ruled that the part of Anna’s anatomy that she believed repelled, repulsed, disgusted or offended Vronsky was her hand and not her arm, though the Russian word ruka can mean either. I happen to think Tolstoy is writing about the arm — one of those two full arms that were so beguilingly set off by the black gown Anna wore to the ball in Part 1, Chapter 22, when she and Vronsky fell in love. Now, in Part 7, Chapter 25, when Anna lifts her coffee cup, the full arm, the pinkie gesture and the noisy lips form a tragic triangle. On the subject of the lips, the two newer translations hew closer to the original Russian on the issue of the intentionality of the sound that Anna thinks annoys her lover: Tolstoy makes it clear that it is Anna making a sound with her lips, not her lips making an involuntary sound. Like the extended little finger, this is a habit that Vronsky may once have found charming — in fact, he may still, for, Anna’s jealousy and fears notwithstanding, he still loves her — but she thinks he no longer does.

What does she think he feels? If he is offended, he is making — or she thinks he is making — a sort of private social commentary on her provincial-aristocracy ways. If Vronsky is repulsed or disgusted, he is — or Anna thinks he is — having a visceral reaction to her very ways of being. If Anna thinks he is repelled, then perhaps she has a fleeting awareness of pushing Vronsky away. To decipher what Tolstoy wanted to say, the translator has to devise an interpretation of Tolstoy’s narrative voice in “Anna Karenina.”

Continue reading the main story


This is an exercise millions of native Russian readers of the novel perform several times in a lifetime. Teenage girls read the novel as melodramatic; adult readers of both genders begin to perceive irony — its amount seems to vary from reading to reading. The author’s sympathies, too, invariably appear to shift between characters with every reading; this, combined with ironic distance that is always contracting and expanding, makes the book endlessly rich — and endlessly difficult for the translator, who can never hope to keep pace with the author. How earnest, ironic, condescending, moralistic and simply funny a Tolstoy should the translator inhabit? Perhaps the only way to render Tolstoy’s variable voice is to continue producing ever-varying translations. The two new translations bring the number of published English-language versions to at least nine — or 10, if one considers the fact that Constance Garnett’s translation was significantly revised by Leonard J. Kent and the great Russian prose stylist Nina Berberova in 1965. Of these, Garnett’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s versions have enjoyed the tightest grip on the market, though it can be argued that neither came by its reputation on the basis of literary merit alone: Garnett for decades had a virtual monopoly on translating Russian classics, and Pevear and Volokhonsky sold hundreds of thousands of copies after their translation was chosen by Oprah Winfrey for her television book club. Winfrey, however, had not read the book and chose this particular translation out of consideration of convenience only: It was the most recent and therefore the most widely available at that moment.

The Tolstoy of Garnett (one of the few translators to have met the author in person, and the only one of those whose work is still read as current) is a monocled British gentleman who is simply incapable of taking his characters as seriously as they take themselves. Pevear and Volokhonsky, a Russian-American husband-and-wife team, created a reasonable, calm story­teller who communicated in conversational American English. Rosamund Bartlett, a longtime scholar of Russian literature and culture and a biographer of both Tolstoy and Chekhov, creates an updated ironic-Brit version of Tolstoy. Marian Schwartz, Bartlett’s distinguished American competitor who has translated a great variety of Russian authors, has produced what is probably the least smooth-talking and most contradictory Tolstoy yet.

Schwartz begins by giving the most literal rendition to date of one of the greatest first lines in the history of the novel.

“Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Garnett.

“All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Bartlett made the exact same choice of words.

Here, meanwhile, is Schwartz: “All happy families resemble one another; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Photo

In her introductory note Schwartz explains her decision: “The first half of this now famous saying is often translated using the word ‘alike.’ The sentence thus rendered becomes aphoristic: ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.’ It is a tidy package, but not the package Tolstoy wrote. Tolstoy said not that happy families are ‘alike’ (odinakovye) but rather that they ‘resemble’ one another (pokhozhi drug na druga). By not using the expected word in that first half, Tolstoy makes the reader take a second look and points to a more complicated opinion about those happy families.”

Continue reading the main story
There are two problems with this argument. One, the Russian word odinakovye would not be the expected word at all in this sentence — indeed, it would be jarring there. Two, odinakovye actually means “same,” while the English word “alike” is more often used to mean not identical but precisely very similar — it is indeed the best word to express the Russian phrase “resemble one another.” But Schwartz’s larger point is well taken: Tolstoy’s writing is indeed remarkable for its purposeful roughness, the use of repetition and the obsessive breaking of clichés to force the reader to consider the meaning of each word and phrase. “Beginning with Garnett,” Schwartz writes, “English translators have tended to view Tolstoy’s sometimes radical choices as ‘mistakes’ to be corrected, as if Tolstoy, had he known better, or cared more, would not have broken basic rules of literary language.”

Fourteen years earlier, in their own translators’ note, Pevear and Volokhonsky quoted Vladimir Nabokov, who wrote of a particular case of repetition that it is “characteristic of Tolstoy’s style with its rejection of false elegancies and its readiness to admit any robust awkwardness if that is the shortest way to sense.” Pevear and Volokhonsky conclude: “In previous English translations such passages have generally been toned down if not eliminated. We have preferred to keep them as evidence of the freedom Tolstoy allowed himself in Russian.” The differences between these two translations, in other words, stem not from a difference in goals or attitudes toward Tolstoy’s style but from differences in the ways the translators actually read the text.

Bartlett, for her part, quotes Chekhov, Tolstoy’s contemporary: " ‘Have you ever paid attention to Tolstoy’s language?’ Chekhov once said to a friend; ‘enormous sentences, one clause piled on top of another. Do not think this is accidental, that it is a flaw. It is art, and it is achieved through hard work.’ ” Bartlett writes, “This translation seeks to preserve all the idiosyncrasies of Tolstoy’s inimitable style, as far as that is possible, including the majority of his signature repetitions, so often smoothed over by previous translators, his occasional use of specialized vocabulary . . . and his subtle changes of register, as in those instances where the introduction of an almost imperceptible but unmistakable note of irony is concerned.” But though Bartlett shares Schwartz’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s understanding of Tolstoy’s intentions — and their appraisal of previous translation efforts — she proposes that Tolstoy was “often a clumsy and occasionally ungrammatical writer, but there is a majesty and elegance to his prose which needs to be emulated in translation wherever possible. Tolstoy loved the particular properties of the Russian language, but he would not have expected them to be reproduced exactly in translation. . . . The aim here, therefore, is to produce a translation which is idiomatic as well as faithful to the original, and one which ideally reads as if it was written in one’s own language.”

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The opposition between the ideal of producing a translation that reads as though the original had been written in the language and one that has an accent, like a Russian character speaking English in a Hollywood movie, is an old one, and convincing arguments have been made on both sides of the debate. In this case, Bartlett, like Pevear and Volokhonsky before her, appears to be on the side of those who aim for idiomatic English, while Schwartz prioritizes formal equivalence. In reality, though, it is Bartlett who sometimes introduces an awkwardness that is absent in the original. In Chapter 25 of Part 7, for example, as Anna and Vronsky initiate their final fight, Vronsky reads from a telegram: “Few hopes.” In Russian, just as in English, hope can be used as either a count or a noncount noun, and Tolstoy in this case opts for the more common noncount option, which would have sounded more idiomatic in translation as well: “Little hope,” just as Schwartz has it. A few lines later, when Vronsky tells Anna she needs a divorce from her estranged husband, she responds, in Schwartz’s version, “Clarity is not in the form but in the love.” Bartlett has her say, “Clarity is not a matter of form but of love,” introducing an error of syntax that is absent in the original. And neither of the new translations compares to Pevear and Volokhonsky’s in its ability to match the pitch and intonation of one of the novel’s most important scenes.

But while Schwartz seems to have a better ear for the Russian, her translation is often in the end less readable than Bartlett’s. At the very beginning of the book, in the second paragraph, where Tolstoy describes his first unhappy family, that of Anna’s brother, Bartlett gets tripped up by the use of tenses in Russian and writes, “The wife had found out that the husband was having an affair with the French governess formerly in their house.” Schwartz has “The wife had found out about her husband’s affair with the French governess formerly in their home” — this is an accurate reflection of the ambiguity of the sequence of verb tenses that makes Russian very different from English, as well as the ambiguity characteristic of all such discoveries: Neither the wife nor the reader can possibly know whether the affair is over.

But in her drive to convey the full and complete meaning of every word, Schwartz weighs the paragraph down with detail: She has the children “racing through” the house “like lost souls” while for Bartlett they are “running about the house as if lost.” The Russian word poteryanniye indeed suggests that the children are spiritually rather than physically lost, but this exactitude creates the distracting image of souls rushing at breakneck speed, in no way implied by Tolstoy. Schwartz indicates that the cook quit the day before, “during the midday meal,” while Bartlett translates the meal simply as “dinner.” Technically, Schwartz is right because Russians consume the meal in question later than Americans would have lunch and earlier than they would have dinner — around the time, in fact, when British people would have tea. But the Russian obed is the most important meal of the day, which is why Bartlett’s “dinner” accurately conveys the meaning of the cook’s insult, if not the timing of the walkout.

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But let us consider the first line again. Did Tolstoy actually mean that all happy families are alike while each unhappy family enjoys its own form of misery? The structure of the book seems to affirm this view: It tells the stories of many unhappy families and only one happy one, as though the one happy family could represent all the families that are just like it. On second look, however, it turns out that all unhappy families are very much alike — decimated by unfaithfulness, jealousy and lack of trust that work in predictable ways — while the one happy family develops in unpredictable, fascinating detail. Did Tolstoy mean to start the reader off with a false assertion to make his moral point all that much more clearly, or is this reader reading too much into the apparent paradox? The answer colors the reading of much of the text that follows.

Take Part 7, Chapter 15, in which Kitty, the wife in the book’s sole happy family, gives birth to a son — an event the anticipation of which is described in excruciating detail: Kitty even goes weeks past her due date. In Bartlett’s version, her husband’s first encounter with the baby goes as follows: “As he gazed at this tiny, pathetic creature, Levin tried vainly to find some signs of paternal feeling in his heart. He felt only disgust for it.”

Schwartz’s image of Levin is essentially the same as Bartlett’s: “Levin gazed at this tiny, pitiful being and made vain efforts to find in his heart some signs of fatherly feeling toward it. All he felt for it was revulsion.”

In both of these translations, Levin’s fears, described over hundreds of preceding pages, have been realized: For all his efforts at building the perfect family, he cannot rise to the challenge of fatherhood — he is undeserving of happiness, just as he suspected. The ending of the chapter therefore cannot redeem him. Bartlett: " ‘Look now,’ said Kitty, turning the baby towards him so that he could see it. The wizened little face suddenly wrinkled up even more, and the baby sneezed.

“Smiling and barely able to hold back tears of tenderness, Levin kissed his wife and went out of the dark room.

“What he felt for this little creature was not at all what he had expected. There was nothing jubilant or happy about this feeling; on the contrary, it was an agonizing new fear. It was the consciousness of a new area of vulnerability. And this consciousness was indeed so agonizing at first, and the fear that this helpless creature might suffer so intense, that he failed to notice the strange feeling of absurd joy and even pride he experienced when the baby sneezed.”

Russian uses the same pronouns for both animate and inanimate objects, so Bartlett’s choice of “it” for the baby serves to underscore Levin’s failure to relate to the baby in a way that is absent in the original. Schwartz uses “him.” She also uses the word “emotion” where Bartlett has “tenderness”; “anticipated” rather than “expected”; “cheer” and “joy” over “jubilant” and “happy”; “terror” rather than “fear”; and “senseless” rather than “absurd.” None of these distinctions, however, change the narrative: Levin appears to be failing, and the birth of the baby is likely the point at which this family, too, starts on its path to failure.

Pevear and Volokhonsky, in their 14-year-old translation, rendered Levin’s initial reaction to the baby not as disgust or revulsion but as squeamishness. And that changes everything.

ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Rosamund Bartlett
847 pp. Oxford University Press. $29.95.
ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Marian Schwartz
754 pp. Yale University Press. $35.
Masha Gessen’s seventh book, “The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy,” will be published in April.
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New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
What difference is there between being repelled, being repulsed, being disgusted and being offended? Not much, perhaps, but consider the scene: Anna Karenina has taken a sip of coffee and raised her eyes to look at Vronsky, her lover, who is watching her. After hundreds of pages of love, lust, passion, fear, exhilaration, disappointment, exhaustion, aggression and, probably most important, jealousy, they are having their final fight. Leo Tolstoy is describing Anna ascribing an emotion to a man whose love she needs so desperately that she is convinced he has stopped loving her. Consider also this: When she lifted her coffee cup, she extended her pinkie away from it — a precious gesture that signals just how far this domesticated, miserable Anna has come from the glamorous young woman she was at the beginning of the novel; she made a sound with her lips — and she realized this when she lifted her gaze and saw Vronsky looking at her. She saw the most painful thing a woman can see: a lover who is turned off by her physical being.

Photo

In the classic translation by Constance Garnett, “she saw clearly that he was repelled by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound made by her lips.”

In the popular 2000 translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, she “clearly understood that he was disgusted by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound her lips made.”

In a new translation by Rosamund Bartlett, she “understood clearly . . . that he was repulsed by her hand, her gesture, and the sound she made with her lips.”

And in another new translation, this one by Marian Schwartz, she “clearly realized that he found offensive her hand, her gesture and the sound she was making with her lips.”

Surprisingly, all the translators ruled that the part of Anna’s anatomy that she believed repelled, repulsed, disgusted or offended Vronsky was her hand and not her arm, though the Russian word ruka can mean either. I happen to think Tolstoy is writing about the arm — one of those two full arms that were so beguilingly set off by the black gown Anna wore to the ball in Part 1, Chapter 22, when she and Vronsky fell in love. Now, in Part 7, Chapter 25, when Anna lifts her coffee cup, the full arm, the pinkie gesture and the noisy lips form a tragic triangle. On the subject of the lips, the two newer translations hew closer to the original Russian on the issue of the intentionality of the sound that Anna thinks annoys her lover: Tolstoy makes it clear that it is Anna making a sound with her lips, not her lips making an involuntary sound. Like the extended little finger, this is a habit that Vronsky may once have found charming — in fact, he may still, for, Anna’s jealousy and fears notwithstanding, he still loves her — but she thinks he no longer does.

What does she think he feels? If he is offended, he is making — or she thinks he is making — a sort of private social commentary on her provincial-aristocracy ways. If Vronsky is repulsed or disgusted, he is — or Anna thinks he is — having a visceral reaction to her very ways of being. If Anna thinks he is repelled, then perhaps she has a fleeting awareness of pushing Vronsky away. To decipher what Tolstoy wanted to say, the translator has to devise an interpretation of Tolstoy’s narrative voice in “Anna Karenina.”

Continue reading the main story


This is an exercise millions of native Russian readers of the novel perform several times in a lifetime. Teenage girls read the novel as melodramatic; adult readers of both genders begin to perceive irony — its amount seems to vary from reading to reading. The author’s sympathies, too, invariably appear to shift between characters with every reading; this, combined with ironic distance that is always contracting and expanding, makes the book endlessly rich — and endlessly difficult for the translator, who can never hope to keep pace with the author. How earnest, ironic, condescending, moralistic and simply funny a Tolstoy should the translator inhabit? Perhaps the only way to render Tolstoy’s variable voice is to continue producing ever-varying translations. The two new translations bring the number of published English-language versions to at least nine — or 10, if one considers the fact that Constance Garnett’s translation was significantly revised by Leonard J. Kent and the great Russian prose stylist Nina Berberova in 1965. Of these, Garnett’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s versions have enjoyed the tightest grip on the market, though it can be argued that neither came by its reputation on the basis of literary merit alone: Garnett for decades had a virtual monopoly on translating Russian classics, and Pevear and Volokhonsky sold hundreds of thousands of copies after their translation was chosen by Oprah Winfrey for her television book club. Winfrey, however, had not read the book and chose this particular translation out of consideration of convenience only: It was the most recent and therefore the most widely available at that moment.

The Tolstoy of Garnett (one of the few translators to have met the author in person, and the only one of those whose work is still read as current) is a monocled British gentleman who is simply incapable of taking his characters as seriously as they take themselves. Pevear and Volokhonsky, a Russian-American husband-and-wife team, created a reasonable, calm story­teller who communicated in conversational American English. Rosamund Bartlett, a longtime scholar of Russian literature and culture and a biographer of both Tolstoy and Chekhov, creates an updated ironic-Brit version of Tolstoy. Marian Schwartz, Bartlett’s distinguished American competitor who has translated a great variety of Russian authors, has produced what is probably the least smooth-talking and most contradictory Tolstoy yet.

Schwartz begins by giving the most literal rendition to date of one of the greatest first lines in the history of the novel.

“Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Garnett.

“All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Bartlett made the exact same choice of words.

Here, meanwhile, is Schwartz: “All happy families resemble one another; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Photo

In her introductory note Schwartz explains her decision: “The first half of this now famous saying is often translated using the word ‘alike.’ The sentence thus rendered becomes aphoristic: ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.’ It is a tidy package, but not the package Tolstoy wrote. Tolstoy said not that happy families are ‘alike’ (odinakovye) but rather that they ‘resemble’ one another (pokhozhi drug na druga). By not using the expected word in that first half, Tolstoy makes the reader take a second look and points to a more complicated opinion about those happy families.”

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
There are two problems with this argument. One, the Russian word odinakovye would not be the expected word at all in this sentence — indeed, it would be jarring there. Two, odinakovye actually means “same,” while the English word “alike” is more often used to mean not identical but precisely very similar — it is indeed the best word to express the Russian phrase “resemble one another.” But Schwartz’s larger point is well taken: Tolstoy’s writing is indeed remarkable for its purposeful roughness, the use of repetition and the obsessive breaking of clichés to force the reader to consider the meaning of each word and phrase. “Beginning with Garnett,” Schwartz writes, “English translators have tended to view Tolstoy’s sometimes radical choices as ‘mistakes’ to be corrected, as if Tolstoy, had he known better, or cared more, would not have broken basic rules of literary language.”

Fourteen years earlier, in their own translators’ note, Pevear and Volokhonsky quoted Vladimir Nabokov, who wrote of a particular case of repetition that it is “characteristic of Tolstoy’s style with its rejection of false elegancies and its readiness to admit any robust awkwardness if that is the shortest way to sense.” Pevear and Volokhonsky conclude: “In previous English translations such passages have generally been toned down if not eliminated. We have preferred to keep them as evidence of the freedom Tolstoy allowed himself in Russian.” The differences between these two translations, in other words, stem not from a difference in goals or attitudes toward Tolstoy’s style but from differences in the ways the translators actually read the text.

Bartlett, for her part, quotes Chekhov, Tolstoy’s contemporary: " ‘Have you ever paid attention to Tolstoy’s language?’ Chekhov once said to a friend; ‘enormous sentences, one clause piled on top of another. Do not think this is accidental, that it is a flaw. It is art, and it is achieved through hard work.’ ” Bartlett writes, “This translation seeks to preserve all the idiosyncrasies of Tolstoy’s inimitable style, as far as that is possible, including the majority of his signature repetitions, so often smoothed over by previous translators, his occasional use of specialized vocabulary . . . and his subtle changes of register, as in those instances where the introduction of an almost imperceptible but unmistakable note of irony is concerned.” But though Bartlett shares Schwartz’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s understanding of Tolstoy’s intentions — and their appraisal of previous translation efforts — she proposes that Tolstoy was “often a clumsy and occasionally ungrammatical writer, but there is a majesty and elegance to his prose which needs to be emulated in translation wherever possible. Tolstoy loved the particular properties of the Russian language, but he would not have expected them to be reproduced exactly in translation. . . . The aim here, therefore, is to produce a translation which is idiomatic as well as faithful to the original, and one which ideally reads as if it was written in one’s own language.”

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The opposition between the ideal of producing a translation that reads as though the original had been written in the language and one that has an accent, like a Russian character speaking English in a Hollywood movie, is an old one, and convincing arguments have been made on both sides of the debate. In this case, Bartlett, like Pevear and Volokhonsky before her, appears to be on the side of those who aim for idiomatic English, while Schwartz prioritizes formal equivalence. In reality, though, it is Bartlett who sometimes introduces an awkwardness that is absent in the original. In Chapter 25 of Part 7, for example, as Anna and Vronsky initiate their final fight, Vronsky reads from a telegram: “Few hopes.” In Russian, just as in English, hope can be used as either a count or a noncount noun, and Tolstoy in this case opts for the more common noncount option, which would have sounded more idiomatic in translation as well: “Little hope,” just as Schwartz has it. A few lines later, when Vronsky tells Anna she needs a divorce from her estranged husband, she responds, in Schwartz’s version, “Clarity is not in the form but in the love.” Bartlett has her say, “Clarity is not a matter of form but of love,” introducing an error of syntax that is absent in the original. And neither of the new translations compares to Pevear and Volokhonsky’s in its ability to match the pitch and intonation of one of the novel’s most important scenes.

But while Schwartz seems to have a better ear for the Russian, her translation is often in the end less readable than Bartlett’s. At the very beginning of the book, in the second paragraph, where Tolstoy describes his first unhappy family, that of Anna’s brother, Bartlett gets tripped up by the use of tenses in Russian and writes, “The wife had found out that the husband was having an affair with the French governess formerly in their house.” Schwartz has “The wife had found out about her husband’s affair with the French governess formerly in their home” — this is an accurate reflection of the ambiguity of the sequence of verb tenses that makes Russian very different from English, as well as the ambiguity characteristic of all such discoveries: Neither the wife nor the reader can possibly know whether the affair is over.

But in her drive to convey the full and complete meaning of every word, Schwartz weighs the paragraph down with detail: She has the children “racing through” the house “like lost souls” while for Bartlett they are “running about the house as if lost.” The Russian word poteryanniye indeed suggests that the children are spiritually rather than physically lost, but this exactitude creates the distracting image of souls rushing at breakneck speed, in no way implied by Tolstoy. Schwartz indicates that the cook quit the day before, “during the midday meal,” while Bartlett translates the meal simply as “dinner.” Technically, Schwartz is right because Russians consume the meal in question later than Americans would have lunch and earlier than they would have dinner — around the time, in fact, when British people would have tea. But the Russian obed is the most important meal of the day, which is why Bartlett’s “dinner” accurately conveys the meaning of the cook’s insult, if not the timing of the walkout.

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But let us consider the first line again. Did Tolstoy actually mean that all happy families are alike while each unhappy family enjoys its own form of misery? The structure of the book seems to affirm this view: It tells the stories of many unhappy families and only one happy one, as though the one happy family could represent all the families that are just like it. On second look, however, it turns out that all unhappy families are very much alike — decimated by unfaithfulness, jealousy and lack of trust that work in predictable ways — while the one happy family develops in unpredictable, fascinating detail. Did Tolstoy mean to start the reader off with a false assertion to make his moral point all that much more clearly, or is this reader reading too much into the apparent paradox? The answer colors the reading of much of the text that follows.

Take Part 7, Chapter 15, in which Kitty, the wife in the book’s sole happy family, gives birth to a son — an event the anticipation of which is described in excruciating detail: Kitty even goes weeks past her due date. In Bartlett’s version, her husband’s first encounter with the baby goes as follows: “As he gazed at this tiny, pathetic creature, Levin tried vainly to find some signs of paternal feeling in his heart. He felt only disgust for it.”

Schwartz’s image of Levin is essentially the same as Bartlett’s: “Levin gazed at this tiny, pitiful being and made vain efforts to find in his heart some signs of fatherly feeling toward it. All he felt for it was revulsion.”

In both of these translations, Levin’s fears, described over hundreds of preceding pages, have been realized: For all his efforts at building the perfect family, he cannot rise to the challenge of fatherhood — he is undeserving of happiness, just as he suspected. The ending of the chapter therefore cannot redeem him. Bartlett: " ‘Look now,’ said Kitty, turning the baby towards him so that he could see it. The wizened little face suddenly wrinkled up even more, and the baby sneezed.

“Smiling and barely able to hold back tears of tenderness, Levin kissed his wife and went out of the dark room.

“What he felt for this little creature was not at all what he had expected. There was nothing jubilant or happy about this feeling; on the contrary, it was an agonizing new fear. It was the consciousness of a new area of vulnerability. And this consciousness was indeed so agonizing at first, and the fear that this helpless creature might suffer so intense, that he failed to notice the strange feeling of absurd joy and even pride he experienced when the baby sneezed.”

Russian uses the same pronouns for both animate and inanimate objects, so Bartlett’s choice of “it” for the baby serves to underscore Levin’s failure to relate to the baby in a way that is absent in the original. Schwartz uses “him.” She also uses the word “emotion” where Bartlett has “tenderness”; “anticipated” rather than “expected”; “cheer” and “joy” over “jubilant” and “happy”; “terror” rather than “fear”; and “senseless” rather than “absurd.” None of these distinctions, however, change the narrative: Levin appears to be failing, and the birth of the baby is likely the point at which this family, too, starts on its path to failure.

Pevear and Volokhonsky, in their 14-year-old translation, rendered Levin’s initial reaction to the baby not as disgust or revulsion but as squeamishness. And that changes everything.

ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Rosamund Bartlett
847 pp. Oxford University Press. $29.95.
ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Marian Schwartz
754 pp. Yale University Press. $35.
Masha Gessen’s seventh book, “The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy,” will be published in April.
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Translator Jobs | joblife.co.za

Translator Jobs
You are viewing the Latest Translator Job Listings for December 2014  Page 1
Sub Editor
Media24 - Cape Town, Western Cape
Media24 Weekly Magazines have a vacancy for an Afrikaans translator and copy editor. The candidate will be based in Johannesburg or CPT....
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Japanese Translator
Digital Outsource Services - South Africa
This is a very exciting role within our Translations Department at Digital Outsource Services. Operating within the e-commerce industry, we provide world
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Speak More Then One Language? Translators Needed Urgently
Johannesburg, Gauteng
Our translator jobs require tasks to be done such as:. If you can speak English, and at least one other language, we have translator jobs available for you....
from: Gumtree ZA - 4 days ago
Integration Manager Praekelt Foundation
Praekelt Foundation - South Africa
Praekelt Foundation’s mission is to use open source technologies to deliver essential information and inclusive services to millions of people around the world
from: Omidyar Networks - 9 days ago
Speak More Then One Language? Translators Needed Urgently
Cape Town, Western Cape
Our translator jobs require tasks to be done such as:. If you can speak English, and at least one other language, we have translator jobs available for you....
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Job Vacancies At Hg Construction Limited
HG Construction Limited - South Africa
As part of our ongoing recruitment exercise, we welcome applications from suitably qualified candidates in the fields of Management, Administration, Science,...
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German Proofreader Wanted
Pretoria, Gauteng
German proofreader wanted to proofread English to German translation of Finance & IT procedures. Requirements: Must be a native German speaker or have German
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Looking For English-chinese Translator - Urgent!
Johannesburg, Gauteng
Urgently looking for a English-Chinese translator. If you have the correct skills in translation and have a proven track record in such a practice please email...
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German Translator Needed NEW
Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape
Need a German translator for 5 January...
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Technical Team Leader / Operations Manager
Maverick Recruitment Solutions - Durban North, KwaZulu-Natal
The COO will be responsible for being the translator between the technical and business teams to ensure that all team members are working towards one end goal....
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Simultaneous translations at 31C3 « CCC Event Weblog

Simultaneous translations at 31C3

31C3 is getting closer, and the translation team is once again at the ready to translate all German talks into English, and also a selection of English talks into German.

You can listen in on the streams by either selecting the appropriate stream, or by changing the stream audio channel (if your player allows). If you are on the Eventphone DECT network, you can dial in to various streams: 8011 for Saal 1, 8012 for Saal 2, 8014 for Saal G, and 8016 for Saal 6.

Call for translators

If you are multilingual and fluent in German and English, please consider joining the translation team. Simply send an email to “translate-subscribe(at)lists.ccc.de” and mail a quick intro to the mailing list after subscribing. Also sign up as a translation angel at theEngelsystem.

Don’t be shy. If you are uncertain whether your English or German is good enough, chances are that you’ll do just fine. If we believe you might be struggling, we will talk it over, no harm done. So please, take this chance and help us bring C3 to an even wider international audience.

For more information, you can contact us on Twitter @c3translate or via mail to translate(at)lists.ccc.de (after subscribing).

See (and possibly hear) you at 31C3!

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In the world of books

In the world of books | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The more the publisher works invisibly, the more successful a book becomes, says Aleph founder David Davidar

Publishing house Aleph hosted an evening recently to celebrate the publication of its new book “A Clutch of Indian Masterpieces”, and the year’s last.

Celebrating the occasion, Aleph founder David Davidar was in a mood to look back at the entity he put together two years ago. “When I decided to come up with Aleph, I questioned myself, Why did I want to start an independent company when I could work for someone else. I realized that with Aleph, I could give each and every novel the kind of attention and time it needs. Though I always had a knack for publishing, I had to find a partner since I wanted to work on lesser number of books and give out better quality and I found my partner in Rupa Publications.” He always knew that “writing is a very subjective matter and no author can be perfect.”

“Aleph works on it and publishes only 20 to 25 books a year,” he said.

So what would he call the secret behind a successful book? Davidar was categorical there, “The more a publisher works invisibly, the more successful a book becomes.”

The recently published “A Clutch of Indian Masterpieces” is a collection of 39 short stories.. It covers a wide spectrum of literary masterpieces that reflect the diversity and range in our story-telling tradition. It has works of Rabindranath Tagore to that of a 21st Century writer,Kanishk Tharoor. From folklore, romance and myth to stories based in small towns and cities, it has a wide range between its covers. “I have always known that I loved writing and was into journalism initially. I got into publications accidently when I joined Penguin as a founding member,” said Davidar, also the author of three novels. Wishing upcoming authors would invest greater effort into their writing, Davidar stated, “Writers should always take risks with writing. They should go beyond autobiographies.”

“What makes a story great is that the readers want to read it over and over again and it leaves an indubitable mark on their mind.”

Aleph’s upcoming publication, “The Patna Manual of Style” would most likely be the first in its 2015 list. Penned by Siddharth Chowdhury, the book is expected to come outthis February. It would comprisenine short stories and would connect Patna with Delhi. Siddharth, an author of four other novels, was awarded The Man Asian Literary Prize in 2009.

“Every fictional work is influenced by one’s personal experiences. In a way, it is an autobiography,” said the author present at the event.

”Writing is a blessing and one can write great stories and come up with fresh ideas it comes to him or her naturally,” he added.
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Rare first-edition copy of Jane Austen’s Emma for sale in York with £100k price tag

Rare first-edition copy of Jane Austen’s Emma for sale in York with £100k price tag | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
THERE are few shops in York city centre where you can walk in with £100,000 in your pocket and leave with just one Christmas present and no change.
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