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God's word in the King's English | Washington Times Communities

God's word in the King's English | Washington Times Communities | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
FLOWER MOUND, Texas, August 28, 2012 — The translators of the King James Version in 1611 embraced a new dawn of literary revival. Not only did they seek textual fidelity, but they constructed sentences conducive to reading and memorizing. Sensing the original languages were written in the literary style of their age, the translators sought to mirror the nuances of the original languages giving the world an equally compelling masterpiece.
King James instructed William Barlow to formulate the rules that would govern their translation work. There were no rules to govern literary style, only their sense of the style of the age. And, yet the King James Bible translated into a book very suitable for public reading.
The plethora of vernacular translations published in the first half of the sixteenth century testifies to the increased level of spiritual awareness. Most versions were revisions of Tyndale’s New Testament and the work of Miles Coverdale. Biblical scholarship flourished, but the freshness of the English language stagnated. C.S. Lewis remarks, “All the authors were like elderly men.” Period prose had grown drab.
Standing tall among the most revered translators stood Lancelot Andrews, (1555-1626), sermon writer extraordinaire (“an angel in the pulpit”). Appointed director of the First Westminster Company of translators responsible for Genesis through 2 Kings, Andrews’s preaching brought an awaking to spiritual truth abandoned in many areas of the kingdom. Among his notable accomplishments was his memorable sermon at Queen Elizabeth’s funeral.

Read more: God's word in the King's English | Washington Times Communities
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Lionel Richie slams Kanye West's repeated usage of the N-word at BRITs

Lionel Richie slams Kanye West's repeated usage of the N-word at BRITs | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Lionel Richie said it isn't okay for black men to use the N-word.


Lionel Richie slams Kanye West's repeated usage of the N-word at BRITsBy Kristina BustosSunday, Mar 1 2015, 17:57 GMT
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Lionel Richie has blasted Kanye West's 2015 Brit Awards performance for his repeated use of the N-word.

West debuted his newest song 'All Day' at the award show where Richie was in attendance as a presenter. The rapper apparently rehearsed a censored version of the song but changed his mind an hour before the show, reports Mirror. ITV had to mute the performance at times but some N-words were still heard by the viewers.

© WENN / PBI

Lionel Richie performing in Hyde Park


Richie said: "Am I fan of the N-word? Not coming from the 1960s and 70s. Whereas the new world has embraced it. I don't think it's OK for a black man to use the N-word. I don't like it - and I am a black man. I don't think it should be said and become normal."

The legendary singer also said that present-day music industry is "more attention driven" giving West as an example.

"Kanye is giving us the generation shock value," he said. "How he carries on for the next 10 years we will see. The music business is more attention driven, but you have to let it pass. Don't even focus on it. Because what we have going on in the world is so over the top. I mean, who are we fighting?

"There is more hunger and famine in the world today than there was when we did 'We Are The World'."

Earlier today, West revealed the titled of his upcoming album on Twitter. Titled So Help Me God, it will be the rapper's eighth studio album. His last record was 2013's Yeezus.



Read more: http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/music/news/a632300/lionel-richie-slams-kanye-wests-repeated-usage-of-the-n-word-at-brits.html#ixzz3TBgVuvEK 
Follow us: @digitalspy on Twitter | digitalspyuk on Facebook

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Scotland angers European allies over "failing" language policy

Scotland angers European allies over "failing" language policy | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Scotland angers European allies over "failing" language policy

Andrew Denholm
Education Correspondent
Monday 2 March 2015
MINISTERS have come under fire from some of the most powerful countries in Europe over Scotland's school languages policy.

Representatives from Germany, Switzerland and Austria have written to Dr Alastair Allan, the minister for learning, warning that current policies to expand language learning may lead to the "ultimate demise" of German in Scottish schools.
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A Word In Edgewise

A Word In Edgewise | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I love this game! And that says a lot because I don’t play cards, get mostly bored with board games, and you already know of my abysmal performance at Scrabble with mom. I am probably the only person in the world who has never actually gotten up and acted out a charade, and back when Pictionary was all the rage I failed due to insurmountable artistic challenges. But Dictionary (also called Fictionary) is a game I can sink my teeth into and wrap my mind around. Lest you think it’s played by a table of stuffed shirts with coke-bottle eye glasses beneath haughtily raised eyebrows, let me say that playing this game with family and friends has provided some of my life’s greatest moments of suspense and hilarity, to say nothing of the gloat of victory, the ignominy of defeat, etc.

Before I describe the simple rules and play a round with you, I must digress a moment about dictionaries. Are they becoming dinosaurs? I occasionally look up words online because it’s so convenient if I’m already on the computer, but it’s so very cold. I get what I need in the moment but it’s nothing compared to the visual, tactile, and intellectual stimulation of opening a beloved dictionary. It’s like eating a piece of stale bread versus glorying in a whole pan of perfectly baked Saucy’s pizza. (This is what happens while writing when hungry.) Frequent use of a behemoth dictionary also affords fitness advantages, especially in the prevention of osteoporosis. My American Heritage weighs in at over five pounds on the bathroom scale and getting it down from the bookshelf has to qualify as a weight bearing exercise.

Now, let’s get down to details so we can have some fun. To play the Dictionary Game, you will need five to ten players, paper and pencils or pens of the same color ink, and a good-sized dictionary that all players will agree to use as the reference. Do not under any circumstance use your Scrabble dictionary for, as I alluded to in “The Tower of Scrabble Babble” (A Word in Edgewise, UDJ, 12/3/14), it comes from a different lexical solar system and contains words only known to my mother and long-extinguished ancient civilizations. When it is your turn, the challenge is to choose a word from the dictionary, from your vast vocabulary, or from your secret list, that none of the other players will know the meaning of. You say the word aloud and spell it if necessary. Each player (including you) has a small piece of paper. You write the correct definition on your paper in erudite, zany, minimalist, or primitive language—you decide, but it has to be the correct definition. The other players will each invent a definition (even if one knows the meaning of your word, s/he will still invent) and write it on their paper in the most believable fashion possible. You collect all the papers, shuffle them, number them and, in no particular order, read them aloud as objectively as possible. This is when the hilarity usually starts and sometimes progresses into pig-snorts and loss of control over bodily functions. Then each player (you excluded) will vote on the definition they believe to be the true one. Two points are scored by each person who chooses the correct meaning; players get one point every time someone votes for their phony definition. You can only score during your turn if you stump all the players and none of them votes for the correct definition. The turn to present a new word now passes to the next player…
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If you speak Mandarin, your brain is differen Language is traditionally associated with the left side of the brain. But Mandarin speakers are using the right side.

If you speak Mandarin, your brain is differen Language is traditionally associated with the left side of the brain. But Mandarin speakers are using the right side. | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
We speak so effortlessly that most of us never think about it. But psychologists and neuroscientists are captivated by the human capacity to communicate with language. By the time a child can tie his or her shoes, enough words and rules have been mastered to allow the expression of an unlimited number of utterances. The uniqueness of this behaviour to the human species indicates its centrality to human psychology.

That this behaviour comes naturally and seemingly effortlessly in the first few years of life merely fascinates us further. Untangling the brain’s mechanisms for language has been a pillar of neuroscience since its inception. New research published in the Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences about the different connections going on in the brains of Mandarin and English speakers, demonstrates just how flexible our ability to learn language really is.

Real-time brain networking

Before functional brain imaging was possible, two areas on the left side of the brain, called Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area, had already revealed their importance for language. Victims of stroke or traumatic brain injury to either of these crucial areas on the left side of the brain exhibited profound disabilities for producing and understanding language. Modern theories on connectionism – the idea that knowledge is distributed across different parts of the brain and not tucked into dedicated modules like Broca’s area – have compelled researchers to take a closer look.

For example, language requires real-time mappings between words and their meanings. This requires that the sounds heard in speech – decoded in the auditory cortex – must be integrated with knowledge about what they mean – in the frontal cortex. Modern theories in neuroscience are enamoured with this type of “network” approach. Instead of pinning miracles of cognition to singular brain areas, complex processes are now viewed as distributed across different cortical areas, relying on several parts of the brain interacting dynamically.

Comparing tongues

By six to ten months children have already learned to be sensitive to the basic sounds, known as phonemes, that matter in their native language. Yet different languages differ profoundly in the sounds that are important for communication.

Mandarin Chinese is a tonal language in which the same basic sounds can refer to vastly different things based on the tone with which it is spoken. In a non-tonal language such as English, tone might convey emotional information about the speaker, but indicates nothing about the meaning of the word that is spoken.

Now a group of Chinese researchers, led by Jianqiao Ge at Peking University, Beijing, has found that these differences between Mandarin Chinese and English change the way the brain’s networks work.

The researchers took advantage of the basic differences between Mandarin Chinese and English to investigate the differences between the language networks of native speakers of tonal and non-tonal languages. Thirty native Chinese speakers were matched on age, gender, and handedness (they were all right-handed) with a sample of native English speakers. All participants listened to intelligible and unintelligible speech and were asked to judge the gender of the speaker.

The right side

Both groups of speakers showed activation of the brain’s classic go-to areas for speech – including Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas – on the left side of the brain. But two important differences emerged. The first difference was the operation of the brain networks shared by English and Chinese speakers. English speakers showed stronger connectivity leading from Wernicke’s area to Broca’s area. This increased connectivity was attributed to English relying more heavily on phonological information, or sounds rather than tones.

Two areas on the left hand side of the brain associated with language. OpenStax College/Wikimedia, CC BY


Meanwhile, Chinese speakers had stronger connections leading from an area of the brain called the anterior superior temporal gyrus – which has been identified as a “semantic hub” critical in supporting language – to both Broca’s and Wernicke’s area. This increased connectivity is attributed to the enhanced mapping of sound and meaning going on in people who speak tonal languages.

The second difference showed activation in an area of the brain’s right hemisphere, but only among the Chinese speakers. This brain area, the right superior temporal pole, has been implicated in Chinese tones before but – perhaps more importantly – has until now been considered completely separate from the classic language network in the left hemisphere.

The findings emphasise the importance of developing a bilateral network between the two brain hemispheres to speak and understand languages, particularly for tonal languages like Mandarin Chinese.

New avenues for research

We can expect more such differences to emerge as future research focuses increasingly on non-English speaking participants. Much of what we think we know about human psychology is based on “WEIRD” participants: western, educated university students from industrialised, rich, and developed nations. Other cross-linguistic, cross-cultural, or cross-class differences might emerge as more research develops.

Provocative though the results might be, they raise questions for future research. Tone matters in English, just not to the same extent as in Chinese. For example, think of how your delivery might change the meaning of the question “Where have you been?” to convey suspicion, surprise, curiosity, or jealousy. Language might be among our most important windows to human thought, but research has barely scratched the surface of this complex and curiously unique human ability.

This article was originally published on The Conversation.


We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
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Iran gives the green light for internet giants like Google

Iran gives the green light for internet giants like Google | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Iran could allow Internet giants, like Google, to operate in the Islamic Republic if they respect its "cultural" rules. Reuters
Iran could permit Internet giants like Google to operate in the Islamic Republic, if they respect its "cultural" rules, Fars news agency revealed on Sunday (1 March).

Deputy Telecommunications and Information Technology Minister Nasrollah Jahangard told Fars news agency: "We are not opposed to any of the entities operating in global markets who want to offer services in Iran.

“We are not opposed to any of the entities operating in global markets who want to offer services in Iran. We are ready to negotiate with them and if they accept our cultural rules and policies they can offer their services in Iran.”
- Nasrollah Jahangard, Deputy Telecommunications and Information Technology Minister
"We are ready to negotiate with them and if they accept our cultural rules and policies they can offer their services in Iran."

Jahangard added that Iran is even willing to "provide Google or any other company with facilities" required for the organizations to provide services in the region.

According to estimates, forty million people out of a population of 78 million in Iran, are tuned in to the Internet. However, Iranian authorities very regularly block access to social media sites, like Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.

Jahangard told Fars news agency that if sanctions continue against Iran over its nuclear programme, this could "create problems for American companies."

"They are waiting for the international legal conditions to be cleared before they can operate conveniently (in Iran) but other companies outside the US have come forward and started negotiations. Some have accepted the conditions ... technical preparations are underway for them to enter the Iranian market," said Jahangard.

World powers Britain, China, France, Russia, the United States and Germany are in negotiations with Iran to prevent it from developing nuclear weapons in return for a lifting of international sanctions.

A deadline of 31 March is set to draft a political framework for the deal.
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Success of translation service for ethnic minorities speaks for itself

Success of translation service for ethnic minorities speaks for itself | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Hong Kong's only social enterprise that provides interpreters for ethnic minorities in hospitals is a success story many in the hard-nosed business sector would like to emulate.

It was financially sound within its first year - it was launched in 2010 - and now makes a net annual profit of more than HK$500,000.

Hong Kong TransLingual Services was founded by a group of social workers who realised that ethnic minorities were facing formidable language barriers when they sought medical help.

"The ethnic minorities, such as Pakistanis, need to communicate clearly with doctors to let them know what's wrong. And they need to understand doctors' instructions, like how often do they need to take any pills prescribed," said operations manager Ryan Choi Wai-hei.

Choi added that the government's Enhancing Self-Reliance Through District Partnership Programme backed the idea with a HK$700,000 grant in 2010.

Choi said HK$400,000 was spent on purchasing computers and other office equipment, while the remaining HK$300,000 was put aside to pay office staff for two years.

The enterprise now has 90 interpreters who speak 20 languages, including Urdu, Punjabi and Sri Lanka's Sinhala.

They can attend clients' meetings with doctors or talk to the doctors about clients' needs over the telephone. Written translations can also be provided.

The enterprise, which is based in Kwai Chung, is also now providing sign-language interpretation for deaf patients.

The interpreters are paid by the job rather than on a full-time basis - one of the factors that makes the business model sustainable. And their salaries are provided by the Hospital Authority itself rather than the social enterprise.

The authority launched a public tender for a company that could provide interpretation services for its ethnic minorities patients, and TransLingual Services won.

The interpreters charge an hourly rate of HK$300 to HK$800, depending on the urgency and nature of the services, with TransLingual Services taking 40 per cent of the pay.

"One important reason why this has worked for us is that we found an untapped market," Choi said. "For some social enterprises in the restaurant and retail business it can be hard to be sustainable because of high rents. And if you are a small enterprise and unable to make bulk purchases, you're not getting a discount from the supplier," he added.

With a healthy bank balance, Choi said he planned to widen the services in the future.

"Apart from re-investing our profit into our businesses, by providing, for example, further training for interpreters, we also want to widen our services - helping ethnic minorities apply for public housing or social security allowances," he said.

As well as helping the patients, TransLingual Services is also opening up work opportunities for the translators, all of whom initially receive 40 hours of training. They must then pass assessments, judging the accuracy of their translation.

This article appeared in the South China Morning Post print edition as HK$500,000 success story speaks for itself
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Special report: Arabic ‘at risk of becoming foreign language in UAE’ | The National

Special report: Arabic ‘at risk of becoming foreign language in UAE’ | The National | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Teachers are warning against Arabic becoming a foreign language in the UAE. Their concerns come as students are increasingly completing their education with poor speaking and writing skills. In Abu Dhabi public schools, Arabic is said to be the first language but pupils are taught some subjects in English. In private schools, the daily instruction is taught in the language of the curriculum. Teachers suggest that creativity is needed when teaching Arabic to get children enthused about learning the language.


_____________________________________________________________

Contents:

1- UAE students being not fluent in Arabic ‘a worry’

2- Creativity needed when teaching Arabic

_____________________________________________________________

UAE students being not fluent in Arabic ‘a worry’

ABU DHABI // Arabic is in danger of becoming a foreign language as pupils complete their education with poor speaking and writing skills, experts warn.

“We have a generation of students from an Arab background who are not fluent in their mother tongue,” said Mazen Al Sheikh, director of Arabic at the American School of Dubai.

“Actually it’s English that’s their mother tongue. Arabic is becoming a second or third language.”

Dr Muhamed Al Khalil, director of Arabic studies at New York University Abu Dhabi, said pupils leaving school without written Arabic skills was a worry.

“What concerns us most is the written form of the language but still they have difficulty even speaking in colloquial Arabic.

“They have been exposed to English so much that they find it easier to converse with you in English than switch to Arabic, even colloquially.

“That’s not in all cases but there is a tendency among students, especially those from private schools, and we’re beginning to see this in public schools also.”

In schools regulated by the Ministry of Education – all public schools outside of Abu Dhabi – pupils are taught in Arabic.

In Abu Dhabi public schools Arabic is said to be the first language but pupils are taught maths, science, art and music in English, the Abu Dhabi Education Council says.

Adec’s Arabic Curricula Division is starting projects to boost learning in public schools.

The programmes include “those concerning the adoption of standards for teaching the subject, training teachers through learning outputs and use of various learning resources”, Adec said.

“Adec is committed to the leaders’ directives to give Arabic the attention it deserves, to improve its teaching methods, and to benefit from the methods used in teaching English to better Arabic teaching methods.

“The ACD also issued the parents’ guide to teaching their children the Arabic language in addition to other educational tools.”

In private schools, where Emiratis made up 34.7 per cent of enrolment last academic year, all pupils are required by law to study Arabic and Muslim pupils must take Islamic studies.

But most of the daily instruction is taught in the language of the school’s curriculum.

“If you’re teaching in English in the UAE, you are getting the students to acquire knowledge in English, think about it in English and ultimately to produce it in English, and that effectively turns Arabic into a foreign language,” said Dr Al Khalil.

“Because language is tied to the national identity of a country, and once you turn your own language into a foreign language, it starts impacting your identity and there are so many implications for this.”

A recent report by Dubai’s Knowledge and Human Development Authority found shortcomings in Arabic instruction in private schools.

“Almost three-quarters of schools had shortcomings in Arabic as a first and additional language,” the Inspection of Private Schools 2013-2014 Key Findings report says.

“In some, there was a slight improvement in speaking and listening but little improvement in reading and writing.

“Approaches to teaching and learning in Arabic were too often repetitive and did not motivate or engage students.”
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Producto del consenso, la vigésimo tercera edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española | Diario La Tribuna Honduras

Producto del consenso, la vigésimo tercera edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española | Diario La Tribuna Honduras | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La vigesimotercera edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española (DILE por primera vez) se convierte, en palabras del director actual de esta magna institución, Darío Villanueva, en uno de los tataranietos del Diccionario de Autoridades, primer trabajo de la Real Academia Española –RAE- publicado en seis volúmenes (de 1726 a 1739), llamado así porque cada una de las entradas o lemas va acompañado de textos de autores clásicos españoles que justifican la definición que de esa palabra en cada caso se hacía. Es en 1780 cuando este diccionario se edita en una sola obra, y es a partir de esa fecha que la RAE continúa publicando obras de carácter normativo y también descriptivo tratando los diferentes aspectos de la lengua.

La institución con prestigio por excelencia en temas de la lengua española se instituye bajo el reinado de Felipe V como Real Academia Española en 1714 después de haber nacido, un año antes, en el seno de la sociedad civil por iniciativa del marqués de Villena, Juan Manuel Fernández, producto de las constantes reuniones de personas interesadas, como él, en aportar algo a la cultura y a la lengua española. Es por esto, que la creación de esta obra lexicográfica consecuente con las 22 entregas anteriores se hace en el marco de los 300 años de fundación de la institución.

En 1999 se publica la “Ortografía” de la lengua española con la que se comienza a dar carácter panhispánico a las obras académicas, término que se define como: “adjetivo. Perteneciente o relativo a todos los pueblos que hablan la lengua española” (DRAE: 2001). Será así, como en las siguientes obras trabajarán especialistas de la lengua de los veintidós países de habla hispana que conforman la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (Asale); asociación en la que Honduras desde su incorporación ha sido bien representada y en la que también figura Filipinas y Estados Unidos, estos dos últimos, en donde el idioma español no tiene estatus de idioma oficial, no obstante, goza de una gran vitalidad. Con el trabajo tesonero y loable de la Asale se pretende reflejar la realidad lingüística en su totalidad y no solo la de España como ocurría antes.

El diccionario es un instrumento de consulta, de estudio de la lengua que nos ayuda a estar en contacto con el mundo, relativamente real, por tanto, dominar la lengua a partir del diccionario sería ilusorio, pues es tan vasto como variantes dialectales se presentan; además, es cambiante, ya que viene determinado por el giro que impone la evolución lingüística. Este diccionario, presentado el 16 de octubre en España, es considerado el más americano de todos los diccionarios en la historia de la institución. Valga decir, que esta edición más que ser la más americana, se fundamenta en el consenso de las veintidós academias (veinte americanas, una filipina y la RAE), así como el reconocimiento de la diversidad como garantía de unidad y el objetivo fundamental de trabajar al servicio de esa unidad idiomática. En los nuevos estatutos de la RAE de 1993, casi trescientos años después del antiguo lema fundacional de Limpia, fija y da esplendor, se consideró necesario renovarlo, es así que, el artículo primero de estos, establece en tal sentido, que la Academia “tiene como misión principal velar porque los cambios que experimente la lengua española en su constante adaptación a las necesidades de sus hablantes no quiebren la esencial unidad que mantiene en todo el ámbito hispánico” atendiendo a esta misión el lema institucional es: Fija, limpia y unifica (Real Decreto 1109/1993, de 9 de julio).

Reunida la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua en Burgos, se acordó que se incorporarían a esta vigésimo tercera edición del diccionario, los americanismos nuevos que no estuvieran en el DRAE y que fueran compartidos, al menos, por tres países según el Diccionario de Americanismos (DA) -obra cumbre de la Asale publicada en 2010- en este sentido, correspondió a cada academia hacer una revisión y ratificar con documentación fehaciente esa presencia, más una revisión de las marcas americanas según la información que se envió desde la RAE. En este trabajo, obviamente, tuvo su aporte la Academia Hondureña de la Lengua -AHL- a cargo de la comisión nombrada por el director, hombre de las letras y acucioso investigador Marcos Carías zapata, esta comisión fue encabezada por los académicos María Elba Nieto y Ramón Hernández acompañados del grupo de becarios de la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (Aecid).

En palabras ofrecidas durante la presentación del diccionario en España, el experto en lengua americana, el incansable secretario de la Asale Humberto López Morales, dijo que “la participación constante, entusiasta –casi infantil ese entusiasmo- de las academias americanas ha sido un pilar fundamental para esta magnífica obra”. Destacamos, entonces, que la variante del español de América es parte del enriquecimiento de la lengua, y es lo que ha permitido con su vasto número de hablantes –superando a España con creces- que sea la segunda lengua más hablada en el mundo, con 500 millones aproximadamente, la segunda más usada en el ámbito laboral y la tercera más usada en la tecnología, llevándose el segundo lugar de lengua más usada en las redes sociales como Facebook y Twitter (Instituto Cervantes: 2014).

Las novedades de esta edición van desde lo histórico como obra académica, pasando por la incorporación de un nada despreciable número de voces americanas hasta la modificación o innovación de su estructura física y de las entradas (palabras, lemas) cambios en su forma externa como interna (macroestructura – microestructura), entre otras. La institución ha venido proporcionando estas novedades en un sinfín de entrevistas, las que también se consultan en su sitio virtual, entre ellas, que tiene más de 5 mil palabras en comparación con el anterior de la 22ª. edición de 88,400 es decir, 93.111 artículos o entradas en su totalidad. Ha crecido en 200 mil acepciones, – cada uno de los significados del lema que incluyen la definición y la categoría gramatical y, en algunos casos ejemplos y marcas de uso – lo que equivale en estadísticas a que una palabra tiene más de dos conceptos. Duplica las entradas del Diccionario de Autoridades que tenía unas 40.000 este a la vez cuadriplicaba las entradas del magnífico diccionario de Sebastián de Covarrubias de 1611, primer diccionario de la lengua española titulado “Tesoro de la lengua castellana”. Más de la mitad de las entradas ha sufrido alguna modificación de algún tipo.

El número de acepciones que tienen alguna marca americana es de 18,712. En los que se incluye una abundante representación de usos específicos de cada país, convenientemente marcados. En cuanto a la marcación geográfica, a partir de esta edición se utiliza la marca «Am.» (América) para aquellas acepciones con uso atestiguado en catorce países americanos o más. Las marcas «Am. Mer.», «Am. Cen.» y «Ant.» se ponen a las acepciones cuyo uso se documenta, respectivamente, en los nueve países de América Meridional, en los seis de América Central y en los tres de las Antillas. Se ha introducido, además, la marca «EE. UU.» para los Estados Unidos de América para recoger sus voces propias.

En cuanto al aspecto físico, es un libro con un formato nuevo, ni tamaño grande como los primeros ni pequeño como el anterior, un tamaño particular (18x 26 cm) con una tipografía novedosa en un papel semibiblia lo que ha permitido que quepan los 93 mil artículos en un solo tomo (una de las presentaciones disponibles, la otra versión popular es de dos tomos). En otras palabras, estamos ante una presentación innovadora a la altura de los tiempos para facilitar su manejo y portación; ocupa un total de 2,376 páginas.

Este diccionario refleja, entonces, la situación que ocupa la lengua española en toda su dimensión, acercándose como creación lexicográfica a un modelo reconstruido de lengua, una aproximación al uso. La RAE al nacer del pueblo como institución, se debe, en principio, al pueblo, es así como se registran voces de los diferentes niveles; refirmando lo anterior basta recordar las palabras del Premio Nobel de Literatura, el hispanoamericano Octavio Paz (mexicano), en su ponencia «Nuestra lengua» en el I Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Española en Zacatecas de 2007: “El lenguaje está abierto al universo y es uno de sus productos prodigiosos, pero igualmente por sí mismo es un universo. Si queremos pensar, vislumbrar siquiera el universo, tenemos que hacerlo a través del lenguaje, en nuestro caso, a través del español. La palabra es nuestra morada, en ella nacimos y en ella moriremos; ella nos reúne y nos da conciencia de lo que somos y de nuestra historia; acorta las distancias que nos separan y atenúa las diferencias que nos oponen” (Instituto Cervantes: 2007).

Para finalizar, presento “para muestra un botón” de lo que encontraremos en esta novedosa obra, consultadas en el diccionario y en el sitio virtuales de la Academia.

Artículos nuevos

alfombrilla -2ª. acepción-. 1. f. Alfombra pequeña que se coloca normalmente en el interior de un coche o en los cuartos de baño.

antidopaje. 1. adj. Dep. Destinado a evitar, detectar o controlar el dopaje. Ley antidopaje.

audioguía (De audio- y guía). 1. f. Dispositivo electrónico portátil de uso individual que, a través de grabaciones, proporciona información en la visita a una exposición, paseos turísticos, etc.

blog. (Del ingl. blog). 1. m. Sitio web que incluye, a modo de diario personal de su autor o autores, contenidos de su interés, actualizados con frecuencia y a menudo comentados por los lectores.

bloguero, ra.1. adj. Perteneciente o relativo a los blogs o a los blogueros. 2. m. y f. Persona que crea o gestiona un blog.

bluyín. (Del ingl. amer. blue jean) 1. m. Am. pantalón vaquero.

chat. (Del ingl. chat; propiamente ‘charla’). 1. m. Inform. Intercambio de mensajes electrónicos a través de internet que permite establecer una conversación entre dos o varias personas. 2. m. Inform. Servicio que permite mantener conversaciones mediante chats.

chatear. 1. intr. Inform. Mantener una conversación mediante chats.

cuentacuentos. 1. com. Persona que narra cuentos en público.

discapacitar.1. tr. Dicho de una enfermedad o accidente: Causar a una persona deficiencias físicas o psíquicas que impiden o limitan la realización de actividades consideradas normales.

dron. (Del ingl. drone). 1. m. Aeronave no tripulada.

empatizar. (Del ingl. empathize). 1. intr. Sentir

empatía. No empatizan CON el grupo.

emplatar. 1. tr. Colocar la comida en el plato de cada comensal antes de presentarlo en la mesa. U. t. c. intr. El cocinero emplata colocando la guarnición en un lado.

energizante. (Del part. act. de energizar). 1. adj. Que proporciona energía (? poder para obrar) Acción

energizante. Apl. a una sustancia, u. t. c. s. m.

espanglish. (Del ingl. Spanglish, fusión de Spanish ‘español’ y English ‘inglés’). 1. m. Modalidad del habla de algunos grupos hispanos de los Estados Unidos, en la que se mezclan, deformándolos, elementos léxicos y gramaticales del español y del inglés.

globalizante. (Del part. act. de globalizar). 1. adj. globalizador.

híbrido, da. adj. (4. Acepción) Mec. Dicho de un motor y, por ext., de un vehículo: Que puede funcionar tanto con combustible como con electricidad. U. t. c. s. m.

iluminado, da. adj. (3. acepción) Dicho de una persona: Que, sin atender a razonamientos, cree estar en posesión de la verdad absoluta. U. t. c. s. incentivador, ra. 1. adj. Que incentiva. Medidas incentivadoras.

jonrón. (Del ingl. home run). 1. m. Am. En el béisbol, jugada en que el bateador golpea la pelota de tal manera que le permite hacer un circuito completo entre las bases y ganar una carrera.

liberar. tr. (4a. acepción) Eliminar las restricciones operativas de un teléfono móvil con una determinada compañía telefónica.

margarita. f. (7a. acepción) Cóctel preparado con tequila, licor de naranja y zumo de lima o limón, normalmente servido en una copa con el borde escarchado con sal, normalmente servido en una copa con el borde escarchado con sal. U. t. c. m.

monoparental. 1. adj. Dicho de una familia: Que está formada solo por el padre o la madre y los hijos.

mundializar. 1. tr. Hacer que algo alcance una dimensión mundial. U. m. c. prnl.

ochomil. 1. m. Dep. En alpinismo, montaña de 8000 m o más de altura.

okupa. (Acort. de ocupante, con k, letra que refleja una voluntad de transgresión de las normas ortográficas). 1. adj. jerg. Dicho de un movimiento radical: Que propugna la ocupación de viviendas o locales deshabitados.

okupar. (De ocupar, con k, letra que refleja una voluntad de transgresión de las normas ortográficas). 1. tr. jerg. Tomar una vivienda o un local deshabitados e instalarse en ellos sin el consentimiento de su propietario. “Un centenar de personas okupó un edificio vacío”. U. t. c. intr.

papamóvil. 1. m. coloq. Vehículo acristalado y blindado que emplea el Papa en sus desplazamientos entre la multitud.

reorientar. 1. tr. Cambiar la dirección de algo. Reorientar el tráfico. U. t. en sent. fig. Reorientar la política internacional. U. t. c. prnl.

rescatista. 1. com. Persona que se ocupa del rescate de víctimas en un siniestro.

sushi. (Voz jap.). 1. m. Comida típica japonesa cuyo ingrediente principal es el arroz hervido, que se sirve en porciones pequeñas y con acompañamientos diversos.

tableta. f. (4a. acepción) Dispositivo electrónico portátil con pantalla táctil y con múltiples prestaciones.

tutorizar. (De tutor e -izar). 1. tr. Ejercer una tutoría sobre los alumnos de un curso o asignatura. El profesor atiende a las características de cada alumno que tutoriza.

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Natural world words removed from children's dictionary for computer and internet terms

Natural world words removed from children's dictionary for computer and internet terms | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Natural world words removed from children's dictionary for computer and internet terms

By Gloucestershire Echo  |  Posted: March 01, 2015


A dictionary

Comments (1)
Blackberry is in, but blackberry is out.

The new edition of the Oxford Junior dictionary has deleted a whole host of words, many of them related to the natural world and the environment to make room for technological terms.

Children will no longer be able to look up the spelling and meaning of words like blackberry, ash, beech, minnow. And also taken out are heraldic words such as coronation, duchess, emperor, duke, monarch and minister.

Replacing them are a whole host of terms from the virtual world of computers and the internet: block-graph, blog, MP3 player, database and attachment. Oh, and celebrity.

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According to Vineeta Gupta, who heads children’s dictionaries at Oxford University Press, changes in the world are responsible for changes in the book. “When you look back at older versions of dictionaries, there were lots of examples of flowers for instance,” she said. “That was because many children lived in semi-rural environments and saw the seasons. Nowadays, the environment has changed.”

The 10,000 words and phrases in the junior dictionary were selected using several criteria, including how often words would be used by young children.

Words taken out:

Coronation, duchess, duke, emperor, empire, monarch, decade, carol, cracker, holly, ivy, mistletoe, dwarf, elf, goblin, abbey, aisle, altar, bishop, chapel, christen, disciple, minister, monastery, monk, nun, nunnery, parish, pew, psalm, pulpit, saint, sin, devil, vicar.

Adder, ass, beaver, boar, budgerigar, bullock, cheetah, colt, corgi, cygnet, doe, drake, ferret, gerbil, goldfish, guinea pig, hamster, heron, herring, kingfisher, lark, leopard, lobster, magpie, minnow, mussel, newt, otter, ox, oyster, panther, pelican, piglet, plaice, poodle, porcupine, porpoise, raven, spaniel, starling, stoat, stork, terrapin, thrush, weasel, wren.

Acorn, allotment, almond, apricot, ash, bacon, beech, beetroot, blackberry, blacksmith, bloom, bluebell, bramble, bran, bray, bridle, brook, buttercup, canary, canter, carnation, catkin, cauliflower, chestnut, clover, conker, county, cowslip, crocus, dandelion, diesel, fern, fungus, gooseberry, gorse, hazel, hazelnut, heather, holly, horse chestnut, ivy, lavender, leek, liquorice, manger, marzipan, melon, minnow, mint, nectar, nectarine, oats, pansy, parsnip, pasture, poppy, porridge, poultry, primrose, prune, radish, rhubarb, sheaf, spinach, sycamore, tulip, turnip, vine, violet, walnut, willow

Words put in:

Blog, broadband, MP3 player, voicemail, attachment, database, export, chatroom, bullet point, cut and paste, analogue.

Celebrity, tolerant, vandalism, negotiate, interdependent, creep, citizenship, childhood, conflict, common sense, debate, EU, drought, brainy, boisterous, cautionary tale, bilingual, bungee jumping, committee, compulsory, cope, democratic, allergic, biodegradable, emotion, dyslexic, donate, endangered, Euro.

Apparatus, food chain, incisor, square number, trapezium, alliteration, colloquial, idiom, curriculum, classify, chronological, block graph.
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District hopes to add 2 dual-language programs next year

District hopes to add 2 dual-language programs next year | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
District hopes to add 2 dual-language programs next year
By Pamela Johnson
Reporter-Herald Staff Writer

POSTED:   03/01/2015 02:23:20 PM MST


Truscott Elementary School kindergartners Angel Ruiz Castillo, 6, left, Zane Wiik, 5, center, and Tuesday Beard, 6, right, work as a team to build a castle with geoblocks on Friday at the Loveland school. The Thompson School District is considering offering a dual immersion program at Truscott next year. (Jenny Sparks / Loveland Reporter-Herald)
Two local elementary schools could offer a program next year in which students are taught in two languages — an option said to help all-around learning and ultimately turn out a group of fully bilingual young adults with an edge in increasingly global job markets.

The Thompson School District Board of Education will be asked this month to vote on adding a dual immersion program in kindergarten at Truscott and Cottonwood Plains elementary schools. The students enrolled in the program would be taught their lessons in Spanish for half of the day and in English for the other half of the day.

If you go

What: The Thompson School District Board of Education will consider whether to add two dual immersion programs to kindergarten offerings in the fall.

When: March 4 (proposal introduced) and March 18 (vote on the idea). The board meets at 6 p.m.

Where: Thompson School District headquarters, 800 S. Taft Ave.

The program would follow the students through the different grades, so by the time they reach higher education, they would be fully fluent and literate in both languages.

"We hear about bridging the achievement gap, and one of the ways it's happening is dual immersion," said Toni Theisen, Loveland High School language teacher who is spearheading the effort in Thompson.
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Autism and the Difficulties of the Autistic Society in Iran - Tehran Times

Autism and the Difficulties of the Autistic Society in Iran - Tehran Times | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I first came to know autism when I decided to write my MA thesis in Linguistics on the speech disorders of the autistic children, and as a result entered their society through research. During my presence at special schools for autistic children in the two cities of Shiraz and Mashhad in Iran, I came to know about the shortcomings from which they were suffering both at school and home. Since there is not much public information about the autistic children and their difficulties in Iran, I thought it would be informative for the public to know about some of my experiences with these children and their difficulties so that due attention could be paid to them.
 
What is autism?
Autism is a complex, multi-faceted disorder which affects neurodevelopment during the early stages of life and for many lingers throughout adulthood. Inherent features, to name but a few, include difficulties or deficits in communication, social interaction and cognition, and person-to-person behavioral coordination and recall. Autism impacts the affected individual, his/her family, and in some cases the localized community. Among the factor that can contribute to autism are heredity and genetics as well as biological, biochemical, and environmental factors such as air pollution, use of certain medicines, nicotine and alcohol during pregnancy, and also exposing of the children to these damaging factors during the early stages of their lives.
 
In order that the autistic children’s speech and communication, social interaction and cognition, and person-to-person behavioral coordination be improved, they need improving measures such as speech pathology, occupational therapy, play therapy, music therapy, art therapy and medical therapy; treatments that can be undertaken together or individually at public or private school and clinics. All of these methods can increase the children’s power of communication, improve their social behavior, and boost their self-confidence. These therapies can also help autistic children make safe and helpful contact with their therapist as well as with other people.
 
The autistic children in Iran are only partially supported by the government and society. There are no “foundations for special diseases and disorders” allocated to these children. As a result, the autistic children in Iran are rarely provided with the necessary facilities for their therapy and improvement, whether at school or home. I will enumerate some of the shortcomings with regard to the care for and improvement of the autistic children in Iran in the following.
 
Speech pathology
 
Speech pathology studies the nature of language and speech disorders, and also develops the methods of diagnosis and therapy for these disorders. Autistic children need the services of a speech pathologist, but there are not enough therapeutic sessions for them at school. In order to improve their speech and language, they need to attend about three or four therapeutic sessions per week given the severity or weakness of their speech and language disorders. However, they are only given a twenty-minute session per week. As a consequence, their speech will not improve.
 
Occupational therapy
 
Occupational therapy is a method of skillful therapy which helps damaged people regain or obtain their basic mental and physical abilities such as use of hands for the different activities of everyday life. The occupational therapist helps autistic children to improve some of their skills such as writing, putting their clothes on, moving around safely in society, communicating with other people, and a host of other personal and social skills. Although occupational therapy is important for autistic children, there aren’t enough therapeutic sessions for them at school; and it is to be mentioned that at some schools there is no occupational therapist at all.
 
Play therapy
 
As well as being one of the effective methods for the child’s mental/social development and evolution, playing is an efficient method for curing a number of mental disorders in children. Using playing methods in order to cure the mental disorders of the child is called play therapy. In this method, a playing situation is employed to make contact with autistic children so that they can release their hysteria and make emotional and intellectual contact with their instructor. But play therapy, as a therapeutic method, follows a set of specific principles without the consideration of which it won’t be effective. The games that are typically used in this kind of therapy need special safe rooms and specialized instructors. However, the rooms that are allocated to play therapy at most schools in Iran aren’t safe and suitable; and neither is the time allocated to each autistic child enough for their improvement.
 
Music therapy
 
Music therapy is a highly effective method for the improvement of the speech of autistic children who typically demonstrate weak or severe deficiencies in their verbal behavior. Music therapy can in a systematic way improve the speaking abilities of the autistic child. Music can specially be helpful in curing the autistic children’s auditory problems because it strengthens their auditory comprehension. Nevertheless, in the schools that I visited there weren’t any programs for music therapy, due to two reasons: first, there is no budget allocated for such kind of a treatment; second, there are few therapists specialized in this field in Iran.
 
Art therapy
 
Art therapy is one of the most successful methods for curing autistic children all over the world. As it activates the emotional and communicative sensors of autistic children, art therapy is generally useful for the improvement of their five senses, specially their visual sense. But again, like music therapy, there is a shortage – or even lack – of budget and specialists for this method of therapy at schools in Iran.
 
Medicine Therapy
 
Although there is yet no special medication for curing autism, specialists usually use specific medicines in order to relieve the autistic children of their seizures, temporary periods of unconsciousness, body convulsions, unusual movements, or staring spells.  If autistic children don’t receive that kind of medication, it can cause severe seizures in them. Most of the medicines used for this purpose, which are also used for other mental disorders with similar symptoms, are special and expensive. As a result, it is difficult and sometimes even impossible for most of the autistic children’s families – who are usually from the lower ranks of society and have economic shortcomings – to provide them with the necessary medication.
Economic problems of the autistic children’s families.
 
The majority of the therapeutic methods that I mentioned in this article are expensive. While the families of the autistic children, like any other families, are classified in the three levels of “poor, ordinary, and rich”, most of the families that I came to know proved to be poor. Consequently, these families can’t even provide their children with their most vital necessities such as nourishment, clothing and stationery. This economic disability prevents these families from having access to the better services of the private centers for autistic children. As the facilities and programs in public schools in Iran prove inadequate and insufficient, autistic children never get any appropriate cure and training, and therefore always remain disabled.
Conclusion.
 
Autistic children are not necessarily devoid of any ability. While it is not advisable for the parents of autistic children to expect their kids to be on the same level of learning with an ordinary kid, it is a fact that autistic children have special talents that can be utilized in order to improve their general condition. For instance, most autistic children have a special talent in art, and if this talent is improved in them, they can even be better artists than a typical child. However, this is impossible unless necessary and sufficient facilities are provided for these children, both at school and home. By improving their talents, autistic children can have better lives both as individuals and members of society. Helping these children will release them from the prison in the making of which they themselves had no hand.

By Zahra Azizi 
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Langues étrangères enseignées par des étrangers : "Il faut sans doute réformer ce système" - leJDD.fr

Langues étrangères enseignées par des étrangers : "Il faut sans doute réformer ce système" - leJDD.fr | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Langues étrangères enseignées par des étrangers : "Il faut sans doute réformer ce système"
INTERVIEW -  Sébastien Sihr, secrétaire général du SNUipp-FSU (syndicat majoritaire dans le premier degré). Il revient sur le rapport confidentiel qui remet en cause l'enseignement des langues étrangères au primaire.

Paru dans leJDD
Sébastien Sihr est secrétaire général du SNUipp-FSU. (Eric Dessons/JDD)

Est-il normal que des cours de langues et de cultures soient dispensés au sein de l'école par des enseignants étrangers?
Ces cours proposés seulement à partir du CE1 ne sont qu'optionnels et se font généralement après l'école. Ils sont encadrés par une directive européenne et des accords bilatéraux. Gardons-nous de tout parallèle avec ceux donnés par certaines associations cultuelles ou culturelles par des imams formés on ne sait où… Cela n'a strictement rien à voir! 

Le rapport du Haut Conseil à l'intégration (HCI) considère que les contrôles sont trop faibles…
Ces enseignants sont inspectés. Peut-être insuffisamment par manque de moyens, mais j'ai moi-même constaté qu'il y avait ces inspections et qu'en cas de problème, les enseignants étrangers pouvaient être rappelés à l'ordre et même renvoyés. 

Des professeurs qui sont payés par des États étrangers. N'est-ce pas un signal étonnant au moment où on s'interroge sur le sentiment d'appartenance de certains enfants issus de l'immigration?
Il faut relativiser l'impact des Elco. On parle d'un public de quelque 80.000 élèves sur une population de 8 millions d'enfants en primaire. Et puis, quand un enfant est bilingue français-anglais, on dit que c'est une chance d'avoir une deuxième langue. Alors, pourquoi ce serait un handicap quand il s'agit de l'arabe ou du turc? Il faudrait sans doute réformer ce système ancien des Elco en l'encadrant mieux. Mais pour se construire en tant que citoyen, certains jeunes ont besoin de comprendre la culture de leurs parents. Sinon, d'autres s'en chargeront…
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Reconocen a Don Burguess con el Premio “Guardián de la palabra” | Entrelíneas Noticias de Chihuahua

Reconocen a Don Burguess  con el Premio “Guardián de la palabra” | Entrelíneas Noticias de Chihuahua | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Por su destacada labor en el trabajo e investigación para la preservación del idioma tarahumara, Don Burguess McGuire, fue reconocido este sábado 28 con la presea “Ra’íchali tibúame” o “Guardián de la palabra”, con la que el estado de Chihuahua reconoce a las personas e instituciones que con su trabajo, imaginación y voluntad han contribuido a preservar y desarrollar los idiomas indígenas que se hablan en nuestro territorio.

Don Burguess, ha realizado estudios del idioma, folclore, cantos, colores, topónimos y comidas de los tarahumaras junto con antropólogos, lingüistas y botánicos que han sido dados a conocer en diferentes publicaciones.

Su traducción del nuevo testamento de la Biblia fue terminada en el 2008 y en el 2013 elaboró un resumen del antigüo testamento, ambos grabados en audio libros. Autor de textos de cuentos tarahumaras, plantas comestibles, deportes y libros médicos para combatir enfermedades que atañen a los indígenas, así como términos de parentesco entre los rarámuris.

Al recibir el premio durante la ceremonia realizada en la Plaza de Armas dentro de las actividades para conmemorar el Día Internacional de la Lengua Materna, Burguess agradeció a todo el equipo de gente que lo apoyó para desarrollar sus trabajos, a todos los cientos de tarahumaras, a su esposa de quien dijo “es mucho mejor en la computadora y en la cocina que yo”, así como a los dibujantes y las imprentas.

Sergio Reaza Escárcega, director del ICHICULT entregó la presea a nombre del Gobernador del estado César Duarte y destacó: “Me enorgullece presidir las entrega del Premio “Ra´íchali tibúame” (Guardián de la palabra) y no es exagerado decir que todas las personas que han ganado este reconocimiento abrevaron directa o indirectamente del ejemplo de un tarahumara por adopción que hace ya varias décadas decidió dedicar su talento y esfuerzos a las comunidades indígenas de la sierra chihuahuense. Enhorabuena, Don Burgess”, finalizó.

Previo a la ceremonia, fueron entregadas de manera simbólica dos constancias de alfabetización en lengua rarámuri y un certificado de primaria a personas provenientes del Municipio de Bocoyna que estudian en el ICHEA, por lo que se hizo entrega a Belén Villalobois González, Imelda González Torres e Isidra Zamarrón Rosas.

La Maestra Azucena Ruiz Zuñiga, Delegada Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, hizo hincapié en el trabajo de los traductores, quienes juegan un papel muy importante, no solo en la traducción de textos de primaria y secundaria, sino en la procuración de justicia.

Ante la presencia de Gobernadores indígenas, traductores, representantes de los consejos, autoridades y público en general, se concluypo el programa con lectura de poesía en lengua Rarámuri, con la obra de autores como Dolores Batista, Martin Makawi y Martita Akaróari, además de una danza de los pintos a cargo de un grupo rarámuri.
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Google pays $25 million to add ‘.app’ to ‘.soy’ and ‘.how’

Google pays $25 million to add ‘.app’ to ‘.soy’ and ‘.how’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Anyone wondering how serious Google is about tackling its mobile challenges should take a look at internet domains.

Anyone wondering how serious Google is about tackling its mobile challenges should take a look at internet domains.

Google paid $US25 million to control the “.app” top-level domain this week, according to the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a non-profit group which maintains much of the technical plumbing of the Internet.

The price is more than three times as much as the previous record for a new top-level domain, the $US6.8 million paid by Dot Tech LLC in September for the “.tech” top-level domain. Google rival Amazon paid $US4.6 million for the “.buy” domain name in September and $US2.2 million for “.spot” in October.

Winning the auction gives Google control over Internet addresses ending in .app. It can allow others to register names, likely by selling those rights, or keep all .app addresses for its own use. Google has not disclosed its plans, and a Google spokesman declined to comment.

Google has purchased other domains in recent years and made specific addresses available for others to buy. Google controls “.minna,” based on the Japanese word for everyone, for Japanese-oriented businesses; “.soy” for companies and publishers that want to reach Hispanics online; “.how,” for do-it-yourselfers; and “.foo” for software developers.



“We’ve been excited and curious about the potential for new TLDs for .soy long,” a Google spokeswoman wrote in an email statement. “We are very .app-y with .how, at a .minna-mum, they have the potential to .foo-ward Internet innovation.”

Unlike that joking statement, growing mobile usage is a serious threat to Google, which grew to dominate internet search and advertising on personal computers.

Google search ads on smaller mobile devices sell for lower prices because people are less likely to buy something on their phones after they click on an ad. The rise of apps also means people don’t search as much on their phones, or they search using specific apps such as Amazon.

Google is trying to tackle these problems with a focus is on mobile apps and its Play app store. The company said Thursday that it will start running ads in the Play store, allowing developers to pay to promote their apps. Sales of apps are already Google’s largest non-advertising business — it paid more than $US7 billion to developers in the past year, implying Play store sales of more than $US10 billion.

Google also said this week that its search results will include links to pages and information from inside mobile apps, through a technology known as deep-linking.

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We need a Siswati revolution - SNCAC boss-Observer

We need a Siswati revolution - SNCAC boss-Observer | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A language revolution within the country is needed for it to attain First World Status sooner than later. 

Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture (SNCAC) Chief Executive Officer Stanley Dlamini highlighted this during the Mother Tongue Commemoration which was held at the MacMillan premises in Matsapha last week

He noted how developed and successful countries use their own native languages to conduct business as well as teach at their schools from primary level all the way to tertiary. He said it was imperative to embrace that the only way to move forward as a nation was to make the indigenous language the primary communication medium before other languages.

 He made an example saying Vietnam was colonised by various countries which forced them to speak their own languages making them official in the country. He said after the country gained independence and noted how the foreign languages were used; a decision was made for native languages to be made official, resulting in the country making great strides in development and economic progression. 

He said though the constitution allowed for two official languages, namely English and Siswati, the local language was overtaken by the foreign as people chose thinking it was sophisticated. 

Sentiments

Echoing Dlamini’s sentiments was South African Guest, Lugebhuta High School Teacher Petros Shongwe, who said it was amazing how the Japanese had increased their manufacturing portfolio after resorting to use their own language as a medium of instruction from primary through tertiary. 

He lamented the way parents preferred the English medium schools at the expense of government schools due to the mentality entrenched in them that they are better as they instruct in English. Knocking the use of the English language in places like courts, he said at times the interpreters failed to interpret to the proper understanding of the accused at times to their detriment, as they then got sentenced for crimes they didn’t do simply because of limited understanding.

Protests

He said the service delivery protests in South Africa were due to failure to understand what is expected of the different councils as these meetings are done in English with few really completely comprehending what is happening.

Macmillan director said it was important that the nation keeps its identity by holding onto the language of its birth and knowing it well.

 She said even if one knows English very well, they should take pride in the language of their birth and aspire to speak it fluently and correctly at all times. Highlighting how only a concerted effort will succeed, she said it was important to note that it was not a singular person’s job as everybody has to pitch in and contribute to the revival of the language of the Swazi nation.

People get angry better in siSwati - DPM


“The country needs to preserve its own language,” the Deputy Prime Minister Paul Dlamini said during the commemoration of the mother tongue held at Macmillan. 

He said the country should thank God for the language it uses as it was God given adding that it is the glue that holds it together. He lamented the decline in its use saying it was unfortunate as His Majesty King Mswati III encouraged the use of the language as well as culture. He said no matter how learned a person is, the minute they are angry, they are able to articulate that better in siSwati. 

Praised

He praised siSwati song writers for the efforts they made in telling the country’s stories in song, adding that the language was not only nice to listen to, but it was also better to speak. 

...Siswati dying a slow death - Inspector Mohamed


It has been noted that the siSwati language is not growing as other languages as it is optional for children at school level.

 This was one of the stumbling blocks noted during the commemoration of the Mother Tongue day at Macmillan premises last week. 

SiSwati Inspector Celiwe Mohamed said the school’s guidelines succinctly state that pupils should not be beaten for speaking the language at schools as it allows them to know their own language. 

She said this act which has been happening over the years reduced the teachers of the language as it became somewhat shameful to admit that one taught it with the stigma attached to it.

Punished

“It came to a point where we realised that it meant that we were the ones being punished whenever the children were beaten for speaking their mother tongue at schools. We are glad that times have changed and we wish all schools could adhere to this guideline and allow the children within the schools to speak siSwati,” Mohammed said. 

She went on to state that as teachers they were aggrieved about the poor results as out of the over 13 000 pupils who sat for their school leaving certificates, only 281 obtained As which is very low.

She said teaching children from pre-school level in English narrowed their range of words they use to communicate in their mother tongue. She commended the language and culture debates that have been held in the past adding that a siSwati dictionary was anticipated in the near future.

Embrace

Meanwhile University of Swaziland Vice Chancellor Professor Cisco Magagula said it was important for the country to embrace its language as it made problem solving easier. He said those taught in foreign languages absorbed their learning slower and in the end got labelled as slow learners whereas it is not their usual mode of communication. He said studies showed that a person learned better using their own language as the case in Ghana and Tanzania where a language revolution has taken place. He said those who were punished for speaking siSwati ended up hating the language and it was time to fix past mistakes. He said for development to take place, all children should learn their mother tongue, while adult education should take place in the same language.
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Lost in Translation

Lost in Translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Who isn’t familiar with JFK’s famous words “Ich Bin Ein Berliner”? Would you believe me If I told you the correct meaning of this phrase is “I am a doughnut”? The addition of ‘ein’ before ‘berliner’ transforms the meaning of the noun from citizen of Berlin into berliner, a doughnut-like pastry, a specialty of the capital. This makes for a fun anecdote but also displays a certain laxness on the speech author’s part. (1)

The use of the Internet seems to have stressed a form of degradation in journalistic rigor. By having a digital platform, the press, journalists, and also television networks, offer their services ‘for free’ by getting funding through the advertising revenue of websites and TV networks. This has led to a decrease in revenue – from loss of subscribers – and hence an increase in competition within the realm of the mediascape. This competition to attract the biggest amount of consumers has used as weapons sensationalist tactics and controversial headlines. This should not come as a surprise, after all, the media are enterprises that need to generate capital in order to survive. However, this becomes an issue when the race for views outweighs the importance of the race for information. More and more cases of botched journalism seem to happen, from non-verified information to rough translation, a worrying issue for these institutions so key to democracy.

This is a multidimensional issue, which can be looked at through various lenses. One of them, often neglected, is translation. The Internet has allowed for the lowering of borders while simultaneously increasing the importance of international relations. However, linguistic borders remain. A translator’s job is crucial, as sometimes one word, if not translated well enough, can change the meaning of a whole declaration.


http://videos.tf1.fr/jt-20h/2014/l-integralite-de-l-interview-de-vladimir-poutine-8430275.html
June of 2014, Vladimir Putin granted an exclusive interview to French TV and Radio, TF1 and Europe 1. During the interview he was asked to react to Hilary Clinton’s declaration towards his actions which compared them to those of Adolf Hitler pre-WWII. Putin’s response was translated as: “It is preferable not to debate with women.“ Yet, the Russian leader had used the verb  “sporitsya” whose meaning changes depending on the context it is used in. The sentence should have been translated as “It is preferable not to quarrel with women”, a small nuance but a relevant one. The translator then went on to declare that Putin had said that “when people exceed the limits, it is not because they’re too strong, but rather because they’re too weak. But maybe weakness isn’t the worst flaw for a woman” even though a more accurate translation would have been “but maybe weakness is not the worst of traits in a women”.(2). Obviously, Mr. Putin is no women’s rights advocate, but does this really come as a surprise? The issue here is that the wrongful translation eclipsed the importance of the main topic of conversation. The discussion post-interview revolved around his misogynistic declaration rather than the Ukrainian crisis and the annexation of Crimea.


Le Petit Journal du 30/01/2015
A similar case of rough translation is Anne Hidalgo’s interview with CNN. Paris’ mayor was invited to react to Fox News’ report on fictional “no-go zones”. (3) The network’s journalist asked her whether and how she planned on responding to the fake report to which she actually answered that she was contemplating suing Fox News. Her words however were translated as “I think we’ll have to sue” (4). The nuance of “contemplating” was not properly translated, changing possibility into inevitability. The determination present in the translation was not present in the original statement. Following this interview, the mayor’s falsely translated declaration was shared by multiple medias worldwide. Theories on whether the trial would be won or lost were put forward and the political figure was humiliated. Even though her real intentions regarding legal action against Fox News cannot be verified, it’s undeniable that following the mistranslation of her words she was backed into a corner, pushed towards the option of the trial. This mistranslation had a potential impact on the actions of the public figure as well as her image.

Another less mediatized example of faulty translation is the interview given to CNN by ex-ISIS hostage Didier François. The interview went as follows (translated from French by the author): 

 

(…) They did some sort of preaching, trying to teach us…

They taught you the Koran?

Yeah, but it was more like they tried hammering in what they believed rather than teaching us the Koran. This has nothing to do with the Koran, we didn’t have the Koran, they would not give it to us, so it has nothing to do with it.

So they’re not religious fanatics?

…What they believe, what they think, they tried to hammer it into our brains because that is what they believe in, it has nothing to do with the Koran, it’s their vision of the world.


http://www.slate.fr/story/97571/didier-francois-coran
Up to here, everything seems fine, but the translators of the networks were apparently confused by the ex-hostage’s statement, translating from “we didn’t even have the Koran, they would not give it to us” in French to “they didn’t even have the Koran” in English. (5). The narrative of the French citizen was completely misrepresented, at the benefit of a very enticing tweet. Journalists from Slate Magazine got in touch with François, who explained that his words had indeed been misinterpreted. CNN hence conveyed alarming misinformation about the terrorist group. Had the translation been correct, it would have revealed that Didier believed that the terrorist group, claiming to be motivated by their religious beliefs, were strictly teaching their own ideologies and not directly from the Koran. He never said that the group lacked access to the Koran.


Cartoon appearing on the Financial Times’ Rachman blog
A final example of a terrifying case of disinformation goes back to October 2005 during a conference held by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. During the conference he expressed himself on the ‘issue of Israel’. Following the conference, medias denounced words allegedly pronounced by the Iranian leader: his desire to “wipe (Israel) off the map”. Israel then declared itself in a state of imminent and real danger. Panic in international relations, the US Secretary of State for political affairs at the time, R. Nicholas Burns, claimed that after such declarations it was inconceivable to grant Iran the right to develop its nuclear power. However, after verifying the translation it came to light that Ahmadinejad had never spoken such words. In fact, since Iran does not recognize the existence of Israel as a state, it would be virtually impossible for it to ‘wipe it off the map’. The president’s actual words stated that he wished for the collapse of the ‘Zionist government head of the state’(6). This misinterpretation of the leader’s words led to incredible diplomatic tensions.

However big or small, cases of faulty translations in the media seem to have been multiplying over the years; a worrying tendency for an institution whose role is to inform. As Emile Cioran wrote “A translation is wrongful when it is clearer, more understandable than its original. It proves that it didn’t keep the ambiguity, and the translator chose which way to weigh the balance: which is a crime” (7).

 

(1) http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/errors-and-omissions-how-a-wrong-translation-became-the-great-berlin-bakeoff-8631377.html

(2) http://www.liberation.fr/monde/2014/06/05/poutine-traduction-imprecise-ou-veritable-goujaterie_1034276

(3) http://mironline.ca/?p=3892

(4) http://www.canalplus.fr/c-divertissement/c-le-petit-journal/pid6515-le-petit-journal.html?vid=1207363

(5) http://www.slate.fr/story/97571/didier-francois-coran

(6) http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/11/weekinreview/11bronner.html?_r=1&

(7) Cioran, Emil. Cahiers, 1957-1972. Paris: Gallimard, 1997. Print.
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Why reading books and writing longhand is better for learning

Why reading books and writing longhand is better for learning | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Why reading books and writing longhand is better for learning
PUBLISHED : Monday, 02 March, 2015, 6:05am
UPDATED : Monday, 02 March, 2015, 6:05am
Tom Chatfield


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Paper books still have a place in the digital world.
My son is 18 months old and I've been reading books with him since he was born. Over the past six months he has started to recognise a few letters and numbers. He calls a capital Y a "yak" after a picture on the door of his room, and so on.

Reading is a young activity in evolutionary terms. Humans have been speaking in some form for hundreds of thousands of years; we are born with the ability to acquire speech etched into our neurones.

The earliest writing emerged only 6,000 years ago, and every act of reading remains a version of what my son is learning: identifying the special species of physical objects known as letters and words, using much the same neural circuits as we use to identify trees, cars, animals and telephone boxes.

It's not only words and letters that we process as objects. Texts themselves, so far as our brains are concerned, are physical landscapes. So it shouldn't be surprising that we respond differently to words printed on a page compared to words appearing on a screen; or that the key to understanding these differences lies in the geography of words in the world.

For her new book, Words Onscreen: The Fate of Reading in a Digital World, linguistics professor Naomi Baron conducted a survey of reading preferences among more than 300 university students from the US, Japan, Slovakia and Germany.

When given a choice between media ranging from printouts to smartphones, laptops, e-readers and desktops, 92 per cent of respondents replied that it was hard copy that best allowed them to concentrate.

What exactly was going on here? Age and habit played their part. But there is also a growing scientific recognition that many of a screen's unrivalled assets, like hyperlinks, are either unhelpful or downright destructive when it comes to reading and writing.

In three experiments in 2013, Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer compared the effectiveness of students taking longhand notes with typing onto laptops. Their conclusion: the relative slowness of writing by hand demands heavier "mental lifting", forcing students to summarise rather than to quote verbatim; in turn, tending to increase conceptual understanding and retention.

Tests suggest the experience of reading itself differs between letters learned through handwriting and letters learned through typing.

It seems that the motor-skill-activating physicality of objects lights up our brains brighter than the placeless, weightless scrolling of words on screens.

It's not all bad. Screens are at their worst when they ape paper. But at their best, they're something which can engage and activate our wondering minds.

We must abandon the notion that there is only one way of reading, or that technology and paper are engaged in some implacable war. Because we are still lucky enough to have both.

The Guardian

This article appeared in the South China Morning Post print edition as On paper, it's the best way to learn
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Google (NASDAQ:GOOG) has just paid $25 million to buy .app Top-Level Domain

Google (NASDAQ:GOOG) has just paid $25 million to buy .app Top-Level Domain | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google (NASDAQ:GOOG) has just paid $25 million to buy .app Top-Level Domain
John W Arthur March 1, 2015 Internet, News

Now the .app top-level domain is completely bought and owned by Google Inc., the search engine giant bid for $25 million to buy the whole rights for the .app top-level domain.

The top level domains are similar to .com, .org and .net, they will be at the part of each and every URL under that TLD. Nowadays, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is creating a host of new set of top-level domains and auctioning those domains for a bigger sum.



Previously, Amazon has bought .buy domain for almost $4.5 million and currently, Google has now bid $25 million for .app top level domain. Google action indicates that the search engine giant has a bigger plan for this top –level domain, and there are no such announcements that Google will sell those domains to others. The recent announcement of Google Play sponsored search results may use this service in future. The company may use the top-level .app domain in monetization strategy in Google Play services.

In a blog post of Google in the year 2012, Google has mentioned as,

“We decided to submit applications for new TLDs, which generally fall into four categories: Our trademarks, like .google; Domains related to our core business, like .docs; Domains that will improve user experience, such as .youtube, which can increase the ease with which YouTube channels and genres can be identified; [and] Domains we think have interesting and creative potential, such as .lol.”

 Google has said that it is just the beginning to explore the potential source of the web and its innovation, and they were very curious to check out how new TLDs will merge with existing TLD environment. In the meanwhile, Google has started an own domain registration service for only US-based consumers and the price of the domain starts from $12 per year. The current move by Google show us that it is pushing deeper into the world of enterprise market.
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More language support programs to be launched for multicultural families

More language support programs to be launched for multicultural families | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
More language support programs will be launched for multicultural families this year, according to the Gender Equality Ministry and municipal governments.

The programs have been organized to encourage multicultural children to learn their parents’ mother tongues as well as the Korean language.

They consist of classes for the migrant’s spouse and Korean in-laws on the importance of bilingual education, as well as separate sessions for foreign-born parents on how to support their children in a bilingual household.

“It is important for the Korean in-laws and Korean spouses to be supportive of their children becoming bilingual,” said an official from the Gender Ministry.

“Learning their parent’s mother tongue can raise the children’s self-esteem and help with identity formation.”

According to the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, 76.1 percent of children whose foreign-born parents were from North America and Europe were learning their parent’s native language on top of Korean, while only 10.4 percent of those whose parents were from Cambodia and Vietnam were doing the same in 2012.

One of the reasons behind the statistics has to do with the lack of support from the children’s Korean parents and relatives. Many foreign-born mothers are encouraged by their Koreans spouses or in-laws to only speak in Korean with their children, according to NGOs.

“Many Korean in-laws believe that when a child is exposed to two languages at a young age, he or she would end up not being fluent in either of those languages,” said a worker from Multicultural Children’s Library Modoo in Seoul.

“But having a bilingual environment only betters a child’s linguistic development and cultural understanding.”

The ministry is establishing 20 more pre-school classes for multicultural children from the current 80 nationwide.

It is also increasing the number of Rainbow Schools, a special educational institution for young foreign-born children, to 17 from the current 12 across the nation.

There were about 204,000 multicultural children in Korea as of last year.

By Claire Lee (dyc@heraldcorp.com)
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They're in Oxford dictionary, but many words have limited usefulness

They're in Oxford dictionary, but many words have limited usefulness | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
They're in Oxford dictionary, but many words have limited usefulness
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Posted: Sunday, March 1, 2015 9:00 am
WHEN they created it in the 19th century, editors of The Oxford English Dictionary planned to print four volumes and 6,400 pages, with plans for ten volumes. It was to become the definitive dictionary of the English language. Since then it has grown exponentially. Today, it has 414,800 words in 20 hefty volumes. In 2014 alone it grew by 500 new words.
Some say it has become too large and too expensive to keep print editions available. In the future, subscribers will likely find the online edition only.
We might well ask how many of the great hoard of words in the Oxford dictionary the average person actually knows. It has been estimated at about 45,000 words; that is, for an adult with a high school education. No doubt some of the thousands of words in the Oxford dictionary have limited usefulness today.
The first word in the Oxford dictionary is an oddity – aa, “a kind of volcanic lava that forms jagged masses with a light frothy texture.” The final word – Zyxt, “an obsolete Kentish word that is the second singular indicative present form of the verb see.”
Many such weird and wonderful words express common thoughts, and some have obscure origins. Recently, a linguist made a list. You say you have to leave a room abruptly. The word is absquatulate. An ignorant or unsophisticated person is an apple-knocker.
Meaningless talk or writing is argle-bargle. Refined or incisive wit is attic salt. A sticky preparation used for setting hair is called bandoline. Something illusory or imaginary is Barmecide. A tramp is a bindlestiff. A person who talks at great length without making much sense is a blatherskite. A place where alcoholic drinks are sold illegally is a blind pig. A great deal of fuss or trouble is bobsy-die. You say you have a rumbling or gurgling noise in the intestines. It’s borborygmus.
Besides weird and wonderful words, there are other things about English that linguists are often asked to explain. What is the shortest word in English? It cannot be I because lower case i is a letter. The answer is A or a. On the other hand, there are very long words: antidisestablishmentarianism – opposition to the disestablishment of the Church of England (28 letters); floccinaucinihilipilification – the estimation of something as worthless (29 letters); and the longest seems to be pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis – a supposed lung disease (45 letters).
At least 36 words begin with the letter x. Most are medical or technical. Perhaps the least arcane is the name of Socrates’ wife, Xanthippe.
A few words have no exact rhymes. Orange has almost no perfect rhymes. The only word that rhymes with orange is sporange, a very rare alternative form of sporangium (a botanical term for a part of a fern or similar plant). Silver is another word for which it is almost impossible to find a perfect rhyme: the only candidate is the rare word chilver.
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2 Million Reasons to Buy Facebook Inc. Stock

2 Million Reasons to Buy Facebook Inc. Stock | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Facebook recently announced that it now has 2 million monthly active advertisers on its site, up from 1.5 million last July and 1 million in June 2013. That steep growth trajectory makes the social network a significant threat to Google , which Macquarie analyst Ben Schachter estimates has roughly 4 million active advertisers.


In 2014, Google's advertising revenue rose 17% year over year to $59.1 billion. Facebook's advertising revenue soared 64.5% to $11.5 billion last year. Between 2013 and 2014, Facebook's share of the digital advertising market rose from 5.8% to 7.8%, but Google's share slipped from 33.6% to 31.1%.





Source: Pixabay

If Facebook's ad revenue maintains its current growth rate, should Google start worrying? Let's compare the advertising strategies at the world's largest search engine and biggest social network to find out.

Google's three weak spots
Google still dominates online search advertising, but it has three big weaknesses: mobile graphical/video ads, a frustrating inability to "get" social networking, and single sign-ons (SSOs) .



SSO (single sign-on) buttons. Source: Iceflowstudios.com

Last year, Google generated more than twice as much revenue as Facebook from mobile ads (from search and third party sites), yet Facebook generated three times as much revenue as Google from graphical and video ads on mobile devices. Since Facebook's graphical and video ads are concentrated within its News Feed, rather than spread across the Web, they arguably have a more captive audience.

Facebook cleverly limits the number of ads it displays, causing demand and ad prices to spike. Last quarter, the average cost of Facebook ads soared 335% year over year as total ads served fell 65%. By comparison, Google's average cost per click fell 3% year over year last quarter, and cost per click across Google sites slipped 8%.

Since Google+'s monthly active users come nowhere close to matching Facebook's, Google lacks a proper "news feed" to deliver targeted ads. Meanwhile, SSOs for third-party apps and websites have become widely accepted replacements for cumbersome sign-ups and logins.

Since Facebook users are often inclined to play games or share website postings with their friends, Facebook's SSO can be more appealing than Google's. Therefore, Facebook leverages its presence in social networking to tether more website and app users directly to its website, giving it more data to craft targeted ads with.

Making things easier for small businesses
Facebook attributes its advertising growth to its ad platform's ease of use and new tools for ad management. For example, Facebook's new Ads Manager App lets advertisers create, manage, and track all their ad campaigns from a phone. This makes it easier for individuals and small businesses -- who might otherwise be intimidated by the process of ad buying -- to purchase and manage ads.



Facebook Ads Manager. Source: iTunes

That's probably why the majority of Facebook's 2 million advertisers are small- to medium-sized businesses. Although Facebook did not disclose the exact ratio between small, medium, and large businesses, COO Sheryl Sandberg noted that the fastest areas of growth for small business advertising were in the Asia Pacific and EMEA (Europe, Middle East, and Africa) regions.

However, smaller businesses also spend less on ads. An average small business advertiser spends $5 to $50 per day on ads, compared to millions spent annually by larger companies, according to Reuters.

Could Facebook disrupt Google's ad business?
It wasn't that long ago when Google and other online portals and search engines disrupted traditional print advertising with digital ads.

Looking ahead, Facebook's three-pronged strategy of integrating ads into its News Feed, giving advertisers streamlined ad management tools, and using SSOs to expand its ecosystem could disrupt traditional methods of digital display advertising. If that happens, Google could see the value of its ads continue to decline as advertisers decide to buy Facebook's tightly focused ads instead.

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Leo Sun owns shares of Facebook. The Motley Fool recommends Facebook, Google (A shares), and Google (C shares). The Motley Fool owns shares of Facebook, Google (A shares), and Google (C shares). Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days . We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy .
Copyright © 1995 - 2015 The Motley Fool, LLC. All rights reserved. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy .



The views and opinions expressed herein are the views and opinions of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc.
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Ecole : langues étrangères à surveiller - leJDD.fr

Ecole : langues étrangères à surveiller - leJDD.fr | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Un rapport confidentiel remet en cause l’enseignement des langues et cultures d’origine dispensé en primaire. Certains cours s’apparenteraient à des "catéchismes islamiques".

L'école française doit reprendre en main l'enseignement des langues étrangères! C'est la conclusion sans appel de la dernière étude du Haut Conseil à l'intégration (HCI). Le document de 17 pages que le JDD a pu consulter a été remis aux services du Premier ministre au deuxième semestre 2013. Il vient compléter les travaux du groupe de travail sur "Les défis de l'intégration à l'école". L'étude, restée totalement confidentielle, s'intéresse à un dispositif ancien, celui des enseignements de langue et culture d'origine (Elco). Il concerne 92.500 élèves dont 87.000 dans le primaire, selon les derniers chiffres du ministère de l'Éducation nationale. Une population scolaire en progression de 16 % au cours des cinq dernières années, selon l'enquête du HCI, notamment en arabe (57.145) et turc (16.555). 

Lire notre interview : "Il faut sans doute réformer ce système"

Ces cours de langue et de culture étrangères sont dispensés aux enfants dont l'un des deux parents au moins est né dans le pays d'origine. Dans la grande majorité des cas, cet apprentissage s'effectue en dehors du temps scolaire mais à l'intérieur de l'école et sous son contrôle. Il est confié à des ressortissants étrangers placés sous l'autorité de l'académie mais payés et formés par leurs ambassades.

"Les Elco peuvent conduire au communautarisme"
"Susceptibles de renforcer les références communautaires, les Elco peuvent conduire au communautarisme. Certains interlocuteurs craignent même que les Elco deviennent des 'catéchismes islamiques'", écrivent les rapporteurs. Les auteurs se sont en effet étonnés du contenu du guide de l'enseignant édité en 2010 par le ministère de l'Éducation turc et en usage auprès de certains enseignants de langue et culture d'origine. "Ainsi le chapitre V de cet ouvrage intitulé "Foi, islam et morale" insiste sur l'importance de croire en Allah, un des principes de la foi, et sur la nécessaire acquisition par les élèves d'une bonne connaissance de la vie du prophète Mahomet dont l'importance doit être mise en valeur." Assez loin de la laïcité, française ou turque.

Dans les années 1970, lorsqu'ils ont été créés sous l'impulsion de Lionel Stoléru, les Elco avaient un objectif précis : maintenir chez les enfants des travailleurs migrants un niveau de langue et culture du pays dont étaient originaires leurs parents dans la perspective de leur retour chez eux. Cette politique s'est ensuite traduite par la publication d'une directive européenne en 1977. Il s'agissait de permettre aux enfants qui se déplaçaient à travers les pays européens au gré du travail de leurs parents de conserver des liens avec leur terre natale. Mais le contexte a fondamentalement changé. Aujourd'hui, la plupart des enfants concernés par les Elco sont français. Les neuf pays signataires d'un accord avec la France sont l'Algérie, la Croatie, l'Espagne, l'Italie, le Maroc, le Portugal, la Serbie, la Tunisie et la Turquie. Ils ne correspondent plus aux pays pourvoyeurs des plus forts contingents d'immigrés comme la Chine… 

Un dispositif qui ne doit pas être abandonné aux États étrangers
Les auteurs de l'étude notent que, depuis 2006, l'Éducation nationale s'attache à mieux encadrer le dispositif. Un programme de langue commun en arabe a, par exemple, été élaboré avec les trois États maghrébins. Depuis cette date, ces cours facultatifs sont en théorie proposés à tous les élèves sans distinction d'origine. Cependant, en pratique, les places sont réservées en priorité aux enfants immigrés directement concernés… Le rapport préconise "la suppression" pure et simple du dispositif Elco. "Au terme de cette étude nous ne saurions trop insister sur le fait que la réussite des enfants de l'immigration passe avant tout par la maîtrise du français", expliquent les auteurs tout en relevant qu'un abandon sans proposition alternative présente aussi ses dangers. "Les conditions de diffusion de l'enseignement du turc s'avèrent extrêmement préoccupantes face aux moyens engagés par l'État turc qui, non content de prendre en charge l'organisation des Elco, ne refuse pas toujours son concours à certaines associations communautaires d'inspiration islamiste en France…"

Pour les rédacteurs, il apparaît important que l'Éducation nationale propose dans le cadre commun l'apprentissage des langues étrangères et ne l'abandonne ni aux États étrangers, ni aux associations, au risque qu'il tombe dans un mauvais débat politique. À moins qu'il ne soit déjà trop tard… Cette semaine, à Fréjus (Var), le maire Front national, David Rachline s'est déclaré hostile à la mise en place de cours d'arabe dans une école primaire de sa ville pour les enfants issus de l'immigration. Une initiative qu'il estime contraire aux valeurs républicaines. La députée FN du Vaucluse, Marion Maréchal-Le Pen a, quant à elle, posé une question sur le sujet à la ministre de l'Éducation nationale le 3 février.
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Amend Constitution to protect regional languages: Manu Baligar

Amend Constitution to protect regional languages: Manu Baligar | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Amend Constitution to protect regional languages: Manu Baligar
Nelyahudikeri (Somwarpet taluk): Mar 1, 2015, DHNS:
The Supreme Court’s verdict that the State can’t impose medium of instruction has had an impact on regional languages.

The only alternative before the State government is to exert pressure on the Centre and bring in an amendment to the Constitution, said writer and Kannada and Culture department retired commissioner Manu Baligar.

Speaking after inaugurating Somwarpet taluk Kannada literary meet here on Sunday, he said that elected representatives and officials should bring in an amendment to the Constitution to protect regional languages.

“We need to empower Kannada language. The Kannada software needs to be further developed. The State government should implement the recommendations of the committee headed by Chidananda Gowda. Kannadigas are not only those who speak Kannada as their mother tongue but also those who have respect for Kannada land, water and language,” he said.

In his presidential address, Bacharaniyanda P Appanna said the State government should initiate measures to provide 50 per cent reservation in government jobs for all those who have studied in Kannada medium up to 10th standard.

“Today, we have Kannada medium schools in villages with all basic facilities. However, the schools have failed to attract students. People are obsessed with English language. This fascination has reached such limits that Kannada medium schools are closing down. Kannada Sahitya Parishat should conduct various competitions to promote Kannada. Kannada books library should be opened in all gram panchayat offices,” he added.

He remembered the contributions of John Michael, William Reev, Herman Mogling, and Rev Kittel to the development of Kannada language.

Kannada schools were opened in Kodagu in 1837. The rich people in Kodagu were fascinated towards English. However, it was teachers and experts from Mangaluru and Mysuru who contributed to the growth of Kannada in Kodagu, he added.
DH News Service
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Y a-t-il (vraiment) une langue algérienne?

Y a-t-il (vraiment) une langue algérienne? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Y a-t-il (vraiment) une langue algérienne?
Publication: 01/03/2015 15h42 CET Mis à jour: il y a 3 heures
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La mobilisation inédite contre le gaz de schiste est saisissante pour au moins une raison: Elle a réussi, en l'espace d'un instant et d'une cause, à réconcilier certains cercles avec l'Algérie profonde. Elle a permis de converger des franges à priori éparses de la société algérienne. C'est probablement pour la première fois dans l'histoire des protestations dans le pays où l'on voit davantage de pancartes en langue arabe qu'en langue française.

Il faut dire que, depuis quelques années, l'un des débats les plus récurrents dans la scène médiatique et culturelle était celui sur la langue ou plus justement les langues en Algérie. Au point que des thèmes comme l'arabité, l'amazighité, les cercles francophones sont devenus des déclinaisons algériennes de la loi de Godwin: Plus une discussion dure longtemps, plus la probabilité de faire référence à ces thèmes s'approche de 1. On a presque le sentiment que tout mène à cela.

La dernière polémique autour des déclarations de Othmane Saadi ne fait que confirmer ce constat. Dans ce contexte, des voix de plus en plus sûres, proposent une troisième voie, ou peut-être une quatrième. Une prétendue langue algérienne est avancée comme une alternative à toute cette querelle linguistique. Sauf que, cette voie pose plus de questionnements qu'elle ne propose de solution. Et, contrairement à ce que pourrait suggérer son titre, le présent texte n'a pas la prétention de discuter la légitimité de cette proposition ni de la cerner de façon exhaustive. Il ne cherche pas aussi à donner une opinion claire et tranchée. À défaut de cela, il en pose pleins de questions. L'idée de discuter le bon fondement d'une langue algérienne sur un plan linguistique est donc à écarter. Ce qui intéresse en premier lieu l'auteur du texte c'est ce que cache un tel débat et un tel discours où les non-dits sont plus importants que les dits? Pourquoi parle-t-on d'une langue algérienne maintenant?

Il est vrai que ce n'est pas la première fois que l'on propose des solutions en forme de compromis dans cette guéguerre entre arabophones et francophones qui sévit en Algérie depuis plus d'une trentaine d'années. On parlait autrefois de la nécessité d'instaurer la Darija, langue d'échanges quotidiens, comme un moyen plus formel de communication. On a milité aussi en faveur d'une langue-synthèse des différents dialectes du Maghreb, appelée le Maghribi, un projet cher au linguiste Abdou Elimam. Le débat autour d'une langue algérienne est toutefois relativement récent. Il s'invite dans une conjointure spéciale où la question de l'identité algérienne revient sans cesse au centre des débats, cinquante ans après l'indépendance. La langue française est de plus en plus minoritaire. L'université algérienne, notamment dans le domaine des sciences humaines et sociales et de plus en plus arabisée. La presse francophone est une presse en perte de vitesse. Khaoula Taleb Ibrahimi dans une contribution à L'Année du Maghreb avait écrit en 2004 "la langue française occupe encore une place importante dans les médias écrits [...] [toutefois] ils sont de plus en plus chahutés par la presse arabophone qui bénéficie du lectorat scolarisé en masse depuis les années 1980". Cette place qu'occupait la presse francophone dans le paysage médiatique s'est vue rétrécir ces dernières années.

Justement, si l'on remarque bien, ceux qui font l'apologie d'une langue algérienne sont pour la plupart des élites francophones. Serait-elle une dernière cartouche face à la généralisation de la langue arabe? Les chaînes satellitaires françaises, jadis dominantes, laissent place à des chaînes arabes. L'Algérien moyen regarde désormais ses films dans des chaînes moyen-orientales et sous-titrées en langue arabe. Il se passionne pour des équipes de football européennes dont les matches sont retransmis dans Bein Sports où les commentaires ne sont certes pas en arabe classique mais ne sont plus en français. On reprochait dans le passé aux élites arabophones d'avoir recours à une stratégie, en voulant imposer l'anglais comme principale langue étrangère dans l'enseignement. Ce qui est certainement vrai. Mais les élites francophones ne font-ils pas de même en proposant l'Algérien comme alternative à l'Arabe? D'ailleurs, le sujet n'était même pas débattu, du moins pas de la même façon, quand le Français faisait quasiment l'unanimité, comme langue formelle dans la presse et à l'université. Le débat sur la langue algérienne en cache un autre: Celui entre le Français et l'Arabe.

Sous l'apparence de cette guéguerre linguistique se profile une lutte des élites pour sauvegarder ou améliorer leur statut dans l'administration et pour le contrôle du pouvoir, reconnaît Abderrezek Dourari pour résumer la situation. Placer le débat sur un autre niveau ne serait-il pas une ruse? On a compris depuis longtemps qu'il ne sert à rien d'entrer en confrontation directe avec la langue arabe tant qu'elle est liée, dans l'imaginaire collectif de beaucoup, au sacré.

Revenons à In Salah dont le courage de ses habitants a fait dire à un ami, lui le spécialiste de la sociologie urbaine, que la révolte des gens "là-bas" a eu cet effet de réduire en obsolescence la guéguerre entre modernistes et conservateurs. La lutte symbolique entre arabophones et francophones qui dure depuis que le monde nombriliste "algérien du Tell" est monde n'a au final pas grand intérêt. Car une autre Algérie est plus profonde et plus importante qu'une telle chamaillerie d'enfants gâtés et nous prouve qu'il existe plus important qu'une stupide lutte pour la domination linguistique. La leçon que nous apprennent les gens du Sud est qu'une langue algérienne est possible. Elle existe bel et bien, mais ailleurs que là où l'on pense. Elle n'est ni le Français, langue de la modernité comme le pensent naïvement certains, ni l'arabe, langue du sacré défendue par d'autres avec la même naïveté. L'Algérien est la langue de la contestation face à l'injustice et de la lutte pour la vérité.
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L'UDC du Valais plaide pour l'enseignement des langues nationales

L'UDC du Valais plaide pour l'enseignement des langues nationales | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L'UDC du Valais plaide pour l'enseignement des langues nationales
L’UDC a lancé aujourd’hui son année électorale. Le parti était réuni en assemblée des délégués pour définir son programme. A cette occasion,  l'UDC Valais a demandé que les langues nationales aient la priorité dans l'enseignement des langues étrangères. Les délégués ont accepté la proposition, alors que plusieurs initiatives pour l'allègement de l'enseignement des langues étrangères sont en cours. L'UDC Valais a aussi demandé l'abrogation de l'asile comme un droit. Cette modification, jugée démesurée par certains, a été refusée.
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