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Academic Writing Tools | Business 2 Community

Academic Writing Tools | Business 2 Community | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Academic writing differs when compared to other forms of writing because it explains things that are quite different. Academic writing basically answers a given analogy or topic. You have to deliver these details on the basis of things other authors state and find common ground that answers the asked question or analogy using keen analysis, resource intelligence and reference. The way this is done also has to be very objective, focused and straight forward, contrary to the fillers you would use in a topic such as—this post! To effectively write academic content, there are some tools that are specially designed to optimize your abilities at it. Many of these are online tools you can use wherever you are.
The Essentials of Academic Writing
According to most academic writing experts and teachers, the University of Ottowa ‘Essentials of Academic Writing’ piece is one of the best online resources you will find as far as academic writing is concerned. It’s a clear breakdown in what you need to know as far as academic writing standards, expectations, time management, paper structure, references, resources and so much more. If you have your own guide, then well and good-but, this is one of the best guides out there today.

Read more at http://www.business2community.com/travel-leisure/academic-writing-tools-0264694#hsu6Apg3LgGrXvUR.99

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Language barrier: Poor translation of Burmese testimony leads to mistrial in NY rape case

Language barrier: Poor translation of Burmese testimony leads to mistrial in NY rape case | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

TROY, New York — It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.

A New York judge this week declared a mistrial in a rape case after learning the accuser's testimony had been improperly translated.

The Troy Record reports (http://bit.ly/1mujQ2X) Saturday that the accuser and defendant Than Soe both speak the same Burmese dialect.

Judge Debra Young made the ruling after a translator hired by Soe's lawyer questioned the prosecution translator's accuracy.

Defense attorney Lucas Mihuta said it was clear the prosecution translator did a "poor job" translating the accuser's testimony Wednesday and Thursday.

He said she may not have had a firm grasp of English.

The 27-year-old Soe is charged with first- and third-degree rape and first-degree sex abuse in the November 2013 assault.

Young rescheduled the case for a September trial.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

TROY, New York — It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.

A New York judge this week declared a mistrial in a rape case after learning the accuser's testimony had been improperly translated.

The Troy Record reports (http://bit.ly/1mujQ2X) Saturday that the accuser and defendant Than Soe both speak the same Burmese dialect.

Judge Debra Young made the ruling after a translator hired by Soe's lawyer questioned the prosecution translator's accuracy.

Defense attorney Lucas Mihuta said it was clear the prosecution translator did a "poor job" translating the accuser's testimony Wednesday and Thursday.

He said she may not have had a firm grasp of English.

The 27-year-old Soe is charged with first- and third-degree rape and first-degree sex abuse in the November 2013 assault.

Young rescheduled the case for a September trial.

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The wordy confessions of a collector of dictionaries

The wordy confessions of a collector of dictionaries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
IF YOU want to know anything about pleonasm or encomium, I’m your man.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

IF YOU want to know anything about pleonasm or encomium, I’m your man.

I’ve just finished reading a book about the origin of words, A Miscellany for Word Lovers. I have learned the important difference between nidifugous and nidicolous. Nidifugous birds are ones who leave the nest early and nidicolous birds hang around a bit longer.

These are words you may like to mention to your children when they reach 25 and are still living at home. “I think you have become nidicolous,” you might gently suggest.

Words, spoken and written, are what separate us from the other animals. And, obviously, the fact that we wear pants.

Also, come to think of it, we don’t generally eat our own children (like hamsters and guppy fish) or devour our sexual partners (like certain spiders and mantises).

But these are quibbles. I say each species to his own. If Mrs Black Widow wants to eat Mr Black Widower, that’s none of my business.

They’re both consenting adults (him consenting a little less perhaps). Language is a defining human characteristic.

Other creatures have communication systems, but they’re pretty crude.

The male hammer-headed bat is said to have a quite complex system of calling females. But, if your name is Mr Hammer-Headed Bat, I guess you need all the help you can get in your search for love.

The greater spear-nosed bat also makes subtle changes in the frequency of its sexual signals. But, once again, if your name is Mr Greater Spear-Nosed Bat, love is not going to come knocking, you’d have to assume.

Call me as loopy as a slip knot, but I collect old dictionaries. And most of us humanoids (apart from the former Labor MP Barry Jones) use only a fraction of the words in them. Ever since the first utterance of “ug” around the prehistoric campfire, humans have invented more words than we know what to do with. An autotonsorialist, for example, is someone who cuts their own hair. I was an autotonsorialist for a couple of months but it scared my children.

An abactor is a cattle thief. I can’t remember that word being used on any episode of The Lone Ranger I ever saw. “Kimosabe, the abactors have escaped. What we do now?”

Vespacide is the killing of wasps. Or maybe the destruction of an Italian scooter. Kickie-wickie is an arcane word for wife. If I called my missus that, I’d probably be making a visit to The Alfred. Qiviut is wool from a musk ox. That’s a word of value only to competitive Scrabble players or people who knit jumpers out of musk ox wool (and believe me, they’re out there).

Preantepenultimate means the fourth from last. If they had given preantepenultimate prizes in school athletics, I’d have to build a trophy cabinet. One of my favourite words is pelf, the negative effect of an obsession with mere money. I doubt Gina Rinehart uses that word often (or if she does, she probably thinks it’s a good thing).

Verbomania is a fascination with words. Newspaper offices are infested with verbomaniacs. They’re so voluble and orotund it makes me umbrageous. Jazzetry is poetry read to jazz. Oh, dear, I think I’m busy that night.

Most of the words in A Miscellany for Word Lovers are fairly well-known, but it’s still fascinating to find out their origins. Sarcasm is derived from the Latin for “tearing flesh”. The authors of this book need to brush up on their Aussie English however. They say someone who dodges their shout at the pub is a “wowser”. Close, but no kewpie doll. Just FYI, encomium is lavish praise. Pleonasm is using too many words when fewer would suffice. Guilty your honour. Exhibit A: read above.

BAZ BLAKENEY IS A HERALD SUN COLUMNIST


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Bocadillos lingüísticos: Fulano y fulana - El Nuevo Día

Bocadillos lingüísticos: Fulano y fulana - El Nuevo Día | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Fulano, Zutano y comparsa son demandados constantemente por el impago de préstamos, hipotecas, etc.; mire la página de edictos del periódico para que vea qué muchos Fulanos morosos hay. 

Todos son De Tal, lo cual sugiere que, de alguna manera, están emparentados, aunque sea en su ficción/función en la lengua. Y todos nos ayudan a nombrar personas INDETERMINADAS (sin contar con el uso despectivo que los hablantes les otorgan). 

Tenemos que tener cuidado con su uso para no ofender, porque cuando nos referimos como fulano a alguien que en efecto conocemos o sabemos quién es, la referencia es a todas luces despectiva, como en “ese es un fulano cualquiera”. 

El diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE) dice que fulano se usa “para aludir a alguien cuyo nombre se ignora o no se quiere expresar”. Interesantemente añade que “fulana” puede también designar a una prostituta, más no así fulano (¡qué fino todo!). En fin, que Fulano es alguien cualquiera, cuya identidad no tiene ninguna importancia y esa falta de trascendencia es lo que posiblemente ha derivado en su uso despectivo. 

Fulano y comparsa son de procedencia árabe, que desde el siglo 8 al siglo 15 fue la lengua oficial de gran parte de la Península. Los arabismos que han penetrado en nuestra lengua mantienen una frecuencia de uso altísima en prácticamente todos los campos semánticos de nuestro léxico. Para muestra, con un botón basta: alcalde, barrio, alfiler, almohada, alcantarilla, zaguán, ajuar, taza, aceite, ajedrez, ataúd, asesino, joroba, Fulano y Mengano, y si sigo, no acabo.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Fulano, Zutano y comparsa son demandados constantemente por el impago de préstamos, hipotecas, etc.; mire la página de edictos del periódico para que vea qué muchos Fulanos morosos hay. 

Todos son De Tal, lo cual sugiere que, de alguna manera, están emparentados, aunque sea en su ficción/función en la lengua. Y todos nos ayudan a nombrar personas INDETERMINADAS (sin contar con el uso despectivo que los hablantes les otorgan). 

Tenemos que tener cuidado con su uso para no ofender, porque cuando nos referimos como fulano a alguien que en efecto conocemos o sabemos quién es, la referencia es a todas luces despectiva, como en “ese es un fulano cualquiera”. 

El diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE) dice que fulano se usa “para aludir a alguien cuyo nombre se ignora o no se quiere expresar”. Interesantemente añade que “fulana” puede también designar a una prostituta, más no así fulano (¡qué fino todo!). En fin, que Fulano es alguien cualquiera, cuya identidad no tiene ninguna importancia y esa falta de trascendencia es lo que posiblemente ha derivado en su uso despectivo. 

Fulano y comparsa son de procedencia árabe, que desde el siglo 8 al siglo 15 fue la lengua oficial de gran parte de la Península. Los arabismos que han penetrado en nuestra lengua mantienen una frecuencia de uso altísima en prácticamente todos los campos semánticos de nuestro léxico. Para muestra, con un botón basta: alcalde, barrio, alfiler, almohada, alcantarilla, zaguán, ajuar, taza, aceite, ajedrez, ataúd, asesino, joroba, Fulano y Mengano, y si sigo, no acabo.

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The Tumult and Turmoil in the Translation Industry

The Tumult and Turmoil in the Translation Industry | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
  The "translation industry" (hereinafter "the Industry") has been in tumult and turmoil for more than a decade now. When one compares the situation today to what was "normal and expected" 20 ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The “translation industry” (hereinafter “the Industry”) has been in tumult and turmoil for more than a decade now. When one compares the situation today to what was “normal and expected” 20 or 25 years ago, the difference is breathtaking.

Breathtaking, sad, and discouraging.

Translators are definitely living in interesting times, as per a purported Chinese curse (“May you live in interesting times”), which is in fact an English proverb rather than an evil curse from the Orient since according to Wikipedia, the closest Chinese saying would be:”宁为太平犬,莫作乱离人” (níng wéi tàipíng quǎn, mò zuòluàn lí rén) which means “better to live as a dog in an era of peace than a man in times of trouble.”

Nobody is really talking about what is happening in the Industry, at least not officially, if you discount a few mad bloggers such as myself and heated discussions on discussion groups of translators. And translators are reaping the harvest of a decade of official silence and indifference. As one commenter on my blog (Shai) put it, ” …. many professional translation practitioners are now paying the cost of a decade of silence and indifference as a result of the activity of many charlatans/opportunists who established a narrative that many buyers were exposed to.”

If you read the ATA (American Translators Association) Chronicle, nothing untoward is happening in the Industry. In a typical ATA article, translators will receive for example copious advice from a translation agency operator on how to prepare a perfect invoice that meets with her approval, or on how to “better integrate” machine translation (MT) and computer assisted tools (CATs) into our daily work. The rest of the magazine is filled with advertisements from the NSA and companies selling indispensable tools such as Trados.

Oh, and we are often also told, in the ATA Chronicle, but also on blogs of translators, that “customers have come to expect discounts for fuzzy matches”.

Which is a lie. I have been working mostly for direct clients since the early nineties and not once was I asked by a customer for a discount based on advanced level mathematics courtesy of a CAT. Some customers may in fact do that, but most only know about four-legged CATs called Blackie, Fluffy, and Tiger. But translators definitely are asked all the time for discounts based on a weird concept of what is known in the Industry as “fuzzy matches” and “full matches”. As another commenter (Peter) on my blog put it, “so-called CAT tools are the biggest hoax ever perpetrated on the translation community.”

Although you could also say that wage theft is not such an outlandish  concept, depending on your perspective. It has certainly been practiced for centuries and it is now more popular then ever.

What has been happening in the industry for at least the last decade is a concentrated effort to harness and leverage technology and combine it with modern business management methods to maximize the profits of translation agencies at the expense of translators.

While a decade or two ago, most translation agencies were trying to identify highly educated and experienced translators and keep them busy working on their team by paying them handsome rates because the good reputation and loyalty of  the customers of the agency depended on the skills of its translators, the new management method sees translators more as easily replaceable, low skill workers, comparable to burger flippers at McDonalds who are invariably paid minimum wage.

The hunt is on for the cheapest translator who can in theory do the work of an experienced and highly qualified translator, but for a fraction of what such a translator would be charging. This is again a sincere and flattering imitation of the corporate business model.

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‘Facebook iskilling poetry’

‘Facebook iskilling poetry’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Literature in its current form of novels and poetry still has around 250 years left, till it is entirely replaced by scripts for films, television and radio, novelist-poet Jerry Pinto has said.

Speaking at the third annual James and Shobha Mendonca Endowment Lecture organised by Kavita Trust here on Saturday, Mr. Pinto expressed pessimism when reminded of the waning reading habit.

“When one enters a film, you know exactly how long it will last. In poetry or novels, you do not know how long it will take to finish or understand it. No one has the time any more,” he said.

Asked during an interaction session whether the explosion of novel writing came at the expense of poetry, Mr. Pinto said: “No. It is Facebook that is killing poetry.”

He said that Facebook, and social media in general, allowed for the democratisation of writing wherein instead of writing being confined only to professional writers and poets, it allowed anyone to write to an audience.

“On Facebook, users seek likes and comments, the same way as writers and poets seek readers,” he said.

The lack of readers had a domino effect on publishers who loath to publish poetry now, Mr. Pinto. However, in the era of open communication, self-publishing was the way forward for Indian poetry. “Some of the greatest works of poetry are published by poets themselves,” he said.

‘Self-awareness’

However, through the grim picture presented, he held firm that art, and poetry in particular, was not superficiality or excess; rather, it began the process of humanity, of discovering self-awareness by saying “this is who I am”.

“It is through poetry that the word of god was propagated… poets were taken along armies to record the battles that followed and sing praises of the conqueror. Now, we have journalists to do these things. But, poetry still describes the human experience, brings forth different interpretations and views and engages the reader in a journey of self-discovery,” said Mr. Pinto.

He likened the art of poetry to the need to sculpt language and make meaning out of nothingness, like a potter fashions clay.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Literature in its current form of novels and poetry still has around 250 years left, till it is entirely replaced by scripts for films, television and radio, novelist-poet Jerry Pinto has said.

Speaking at the third annual James and Shobha Mendonca Endowment Lecture organised by Kavita Trust here on Saturday, Mr. Pinto expressed pessimism when reminded of the waning reading habit.

“When one enters a film, you know exactly how long it will last. In poetry or novels, you do not know how long it will take to finish or understand it. No one has the time any more,” he said.

Asked during an interaction session whether the explosion of novel writing came at the expense of poetry, Mr. Pinto said: “No. It is Facebook that is killing poetry.”

He said that Facebook, and social media in general, allowed for the democratisation of writing wherein instead of writing being confined only to professional writers and poets, it allowed anyone to write to an audience.

“On Facebook, users seek likes and comments, the same way as writers and poets seek readers,” he said.

The lack of readers had a domino effect on publishers who loath to publish poetry now, Mr. Pinto. However, in the era of open communication, self-publishing was the way forward for Indian poetry. “Some of the greatest works of poetry are published by poets themselves,” he said.

‘Self-awareness’

However, through the grim picture presented, he held firm that art, and poetry in particular, was not superficiality or excess; rather, it began the process of humanity, of discovering self-awareness by saying “this is who I am”.

“It is through poetry that the word of god was propagated… poets were taken along armies to record the battles that followed and sing praises of the conqueror. Now, we have journalists to do these things. But, poetry still describes the human experience, brings forth different interpretations and views and engages the reader in a journey of self-discovery,” said Mr. Pinto.

He likened the art of poetry to the need to sculpt language and make meaning out of nothingness, like a potter fashions clay.

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The Kill Zone: Writing Doesn't Make You a Better Writer

The Kill Zone: Writing Doesn't Make You a Better Writer | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
1. You learn to write by learning how to write
As a kid I'd check out basketball books from the library and study them. Then I'd practice what I studied on my driveway. I'd watch players like Jerry West and Rick Barry and observe their technique. Later on, I got coaching, and once went to John Wooden's basketball camp. I played in endless pickup games, and afterward I'd think about how I played and what I could do to improve.
Writers learn their craft by reading novels and picking up techniques.  Also by reading books on writing. Then they practice what they learn. They get coaching from editors and go to writers' conferences. They write every day and after they write they think about how they wrote and what they can do to improve.
2. Creativity and craft go together
Every now and then some contrarian will say a writer should forget about "rules" and just write, man. That's all you need to do! Rules only choke off your creativity. Burn all those Writer's Digest books!
It's a silly and strawman argument.
First, they use the word rules as if writing craft teachers (such as your humble correspondent) lay them out as law. But no one ever does that. We talk about the techniques that work because they have been proven to do so over and over again, in actual books that actually sell. And even if a technique is so rock solid someone calls it a rule, we always allow that rules can be broken if—and only if—you know why you're breaking them and why doing so works better for your story.
What should be said by creativity mavens is this: creativity and the "wild mind" (Natalie Goldberg's phrase) are the beginning but not the end of the whole creative enterprise. One of the skills the selling writer needs to develop is how to unleash the muse at the right time but then whip her material into shape for the greater needs of the story and the marketplace for that story.
That's why structure is so important. Structure enables story to get through to readers, you know, the ones dish out the lettuce. That's why I call structure "translation software for your imagination." I know many writers would love to be able to simply wear a beret, sit at Starbucks all day, and have whatever they write go out to the world and bring in abundant bank and critical accolades.
Not going to happen.
Meanwhile, more and more writers who have taken the time to study the craft are happily selling their books in this new, open marketplace we have.
3. Passion, precision and productivity make for writing success
To gain traction in this game, you would do well to consider the three Ps: passion, precision and productivity.
Passion. You find the kind of stories you are burning to tell. For me, it's usually contemporary suspense. I love reading it, so that's mostly what I write. But I also believe a writer can pick a genre and learn to love it. Like an arranged marriage. The key is to find some emotional investment in what you write (usually that happens by way of heavy investment in the characters you create). But that's only the first step.
Precision. Eventually, the selling writers know precisely where the niche is for the books they write. They spend some time studying the market. That's how all the pulp writers and freelancers of the past made a living. Dean Koontz at one time wanted to be a comic novelist like Joseph Heller. But when his war farce didn't sell, he switched markets. He went all-in with thrillers. He's done pretty well at this.
Productivity. Finally, selling writers produce the words. Even so, not everything will sell as hoped, but the words won't be wasted. They will be making better writers, because they have studied the craft and keep on studying and never give up. 
Therefore, writing friends, don't be lulled into thinking all you have to do each day is traipse through the tulips of your fertile imaginings, fingers following along on the QWERTY tapper, recording every jot and tittle of your genius. That's the fun part of writing, being totally wild and writing in the zone. 

The work part of writing is sweating over the material so it has the best chance to connect with readers. 

That is what makes you a better writer. 

Charles Tiayon's insight:
1. You learn to write by learning how to write
As a kid I'd check out basketball books from the library and study them. Then I'd practice what I studied on my driveway. I'd watch players like Jerry West and Rick Barry and observe their technique. Later on, I got coaching, and once went to John Wooden's basketball camp. I played in endless pickup games, and afterward I'd think about how I played and what I could do to improve.
Writers learn their craft by reading novels and picking up techniques.  Also by reading books on writing. Then they practice what they learn. They get coaching from editors and go to writers' conferences. They write every day and after they write they think about how they wrote and what they can do to improve.
2. Creativity and craft go together
Every now and then some contrarian will say a writer should forget about "rules" and just write, man. That's all you need to do! Rules only choke off your creativity. Burn all those Writer's Digest books!
It's a silly and strawman argument.
First, they use the word rules as if writing craft teachers (such as your humble correspondent) lay them out as law. But no one ever does that. We talk about the techniques that work because they have been proven to do so over and over again, in actual books that actually sell. And even if a technique is so rock solid someone calls it a rule, we always allow that rules can be broken if—and only if—you know why you're breaking them and why doing so works better for your story.
What should be said by creativity mavens is this: creativity and the "wild mind" (Natalie Goldberg's phrase) are the beginning but not the end of the whole creative enterprise. One of the skills the selling writer needs to develop is how to unleash the muse at the right time but then whip her material into shape for the greater needs of the story and the marketplace for that story.
That's why structure is so important. Structure enables story to get through to readers, you know, the ones dish out the lettuce. That's why I call structure "translation software for your imagination." I know many writers would love to be able to simply wear a beret, sit at Starbucks all day, and have whatever they write go out to the world and bring in abundant bank and critical accolades.
Not going to happen.
Meanwhile, more and more writers who have taken the time to study the craft are happily selling their books in this new, open marketplace we have.
3. Passion, precision and productivity make for writing success
To gain traction in this game, you would do well to consider the three Ps: passion, precision and productivity.
Passion. You find the kind of stories you are burning to tell. For me, it's usually contemporary suspense. I love reading it, so that's mostly what I write. But I also believe a writer can pick a genre and learn to love it. Like an arranged marriage. The key is to find some emotional investment in what you write (usually that happens by way of heavy investment in the characters you create). But that's only the first step.
Precision. Eventually, the selling writers know precisely where the niche is for the books they write. They spend some time studying the market. That's how all the pulp writers and freelancers of the past made a living. Dean Koontz at one time wanted to be a comic novelist like Joseph Heller. But when his war farce didn't sell, he switched markets. He went all-in with thrillers. He's done pretty well at this.
Productivity. Finally, selling writers produce the words. Even so, not everything will sell as hoped, but the words won't be wasted. They will be making better writers, because they have studied the craft and keep on studying and never give up. 
Therefore, writing friends, don't be lulled into thinking all you have to do each day is traipse through the tulips of your fertile imaginings, fingers following along on the QWERTY tapper, recording every jot and tittle of your genius. That's the fun part of writing, being totally wild and writing in the zone. 

The work part of writing is sweating over the material so it has the best chance to connect with readers. 

That is what makes you a better writer. 

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Six keys to successful business communications - The Boston Globe

Six keys to successful business communications - The Boston Globe | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A successful business communication is built on simplicity and directness. You can achieve this goal by incorporating six tips as you write your message.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

A successful business communication is built on simplicity and directness. You can achieve this goal by incorporating these six tips as you write your message:

Brevity is your goal. Keep your message short. When speaking, it is tempting to say something, then repeat it, just to make sure you are understood. That same proclivity happens in writing. Edit for redundancy.

Write in the first person. The only exception is if you are writing on behalf of a company, department, or team. Otherwise stick with “I” and “me” rather than “we” and “us.”

Reflect yourself. Your writing should sound like you. Ask yourself how you might phrase a thought if, instead, you were talking to the person. Often, when I am stuck, I role play as though I am talking instead of writing. Then, I aim to write down what I said.

Avoid emoticons, text speak, and all caps. If you find it necessary to place a happy face at the end of a sentence to indicate you are joking, consider rewriting your sentence so its meaning is clear. Text speak—b4, cul8r, or lol—may work in personal instant messages and texts, but they don’t belong in business e-mails and letters. Writing in all caps is considered shouting. Also, readability studies show that all caps are more difficult to read.

Proofread. Certainly, it is important to check all your messages for spelling errors, and check for grammar mistakes as well. In addition, word choice can cause difficulties, especially if you use a word that may seem reasonable to you, but ends up being unpleasant to the person to whom you are writing. (The word “sucks” is a classic example.)

Let it simmer. It is so easy to hit that send button just as you finish tapping the last key in your message. However, hesitate for a moment. Review your message for mistakes. This applies to text messages as well as to e-mails. Mistakes can leave the impression that you are less than careful in the work you do, and that’s never a good impression to make.

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Google adds 13 more languages to Gmail, covers 94% internet population | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis

Google adds 13 more languages to Gmail, covers 94% internet population | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google adds 13 more languages to Gmail, covers 94% internet population - Our lives are socially connected 24x7. Be it Facebook, Twitter or E-mails, we are always logging in, checking, sharing and posting our thoughts to the world. We are just a mail away from logging on and getting streamlined to work. But, can you imagine those days when e-mails were not used widely and excelsheets, text messages and notes were used to exchange messages, deadlines etc. 
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Our lives are socially connected 24x7. Be it Facebook, Twitter or E-mails, we are always logging in, checking, sharing and posting our thoughts to the world. We are just a mail away from logging on and getting streamlined to work. But, can you imagine those days when e-mails were not used widely and excelsheets, text messages and notes were used to exchange messages, deadlines etc. 

We already have mail services such as Verizon, Yahoo, AIM, Outlook, Facebook and obviously, Gmail from Google.  Most of these emails are free and Google has introduced a new feature that will translate the content to rid ourselves of the language barrier.

Google added support for thirteen new languages to the fifty-eight they already had – bringing the total to 71 languages that now covers 94% of the worldwide population that uses the internet!  That is quite an accomplishment – one that we read about, but still do not fully comprehend its significance.

The new languages include: Afrikaans, Armenian, Azerbaijani (Azeri), Chinese (Hong Kong), French (Canada), Galician, Georgian, Khmer, Lao, Mongolian, Nepali, Sinhala, and Zulu.  Google says that the thirteen new languages are rolling out today – not only for Gmail, but also for the smartphone browsers.  Google worked very closely to make sure that the language was as close as possible to the original dialectics and even takes into accord the little nuances to prevent wrong translations that could harm the user. 

Full text by Ian Hill on Gmail's addition : 

Email is a universal way to communicate. No matter where you are, you can reach anyone else in the world with the press of a button. We take it for granted now, but it's so much easier to keep in touch with people than it was in the old days of pens, paper, and stamps. But there’s still an important barrier we need to overcome to make email truly universal: language. Gmail is already available in 58 languages, and today we’re bringing that total to 71—covering 94 percent of the world’s Internet population and bringing us closer to our goal of making sure that, no matter what language you write in, you can use it in Gmail.

These 13 new languages are joining the Gmail family: Afrikaans, Armenian, Azerbaijani (Azeri), Chinese (Hong Kong), French (Canada), Galician, Georgian, Khmer, Lao, Mongolian, Nepali, Sinhala, and Zulu.

As any native speaker knows, each language has its own nuances, so we worked closely with linguists to make sure the tone and style are just right. For example, both Hong Kong and Taiwan use traditional Chinese characters. However, you’ll notice that Gmail’s new Chinese (Hong Kong) language uses 收件箱 for “Inbox” instead of 收件匣, which is a word more common in Taiwan.

All 13 languages are rolling out today in Gmail on the web and feature phone browsers. Try out any one of them by going to your Settings. It’s much easier than finding the right postage.

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Beloved Seger album gets musical translation in live Detroit tribute

Beloved Seger album gets musical translation in live Detroit tribute | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Before a mostly packed house Saturday night at 2,000-capacity Orchestra Hall, native son Don Was hosted a diverse collection of Detroit-related performers to take on Bob Seger's beloved 1976 concert album, 'Live Bullet.' Was' latest Detroit All-Star Revue capped the day for Concert of Colors, the free fest that will wrap up today in Midtown Detroit.
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Young Lebanese-born singer Mayssa Karaa galvanized the crowd with a rich performance of “Turn the Page,” alternating lyrics in English and Arabic — the latter rewritten to transform the song into a haunting story of young love, as her manager said later. Her set began with an intro on lute before McMurray kicked in with the song’s familiar sax lick.

Other Detroit mainstays offered their own distinctive takes: the Detroit Cobras serving a spiky “Bo Diddley” (dropping in a snippet of Seger’s “Lucifer”), the Infatuations getting the crowd dancing with a tight and rocking “Ramblin’ Gamblin’ Man,” Luder grinding a dark ’90s alt-rock version of “Heavy Music,” Doop & the Outlaws doing a meaty “UMC.”

Liz Larin revamped the mood of “Katmandu,” singing and playing guitar atop a skittering electronic beat and bed of layered vocals.

Two of the night’s younger acts — Jess Domain and Blaire Alise & the Bombshells — held their own, with a pretty “Beautiful Loser” and ebullient “Get Out of Denver,” respectively.

When all was said and done, as Martin said from the stage, it had been a night that saw “the reinvention of a beautiful thing.”

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Bad translation leads to mistrial in NY rape case

Bad translation leads to mistrial in NY rape case | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
TROY, N.Y. — It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.
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TROY, N.Y. — It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.

A New York judge this week declared a mistrial in a rape case after learning the accuser's testimony had been improperly translated.

The Troy Record reports (http://bit.ly/1mujQ2X) Saturday that the accuser and defendant Than Soe both speak the same Burmese dialect.

Judge Debra Young made the ruling after a translator hired by Soe's lawyer questioned the prosecution translator's accuracy.

Defense attorney Lucas Mihuta said it was clear the prosecution translator did a "poor job" translating the accuser's testimony Wednesday and Thursday.

He said she may not have had a firm grasp of English.

The 27-year-old Soe is charged with first- and third-degree rape and first-degree sex abuse in the November 2013 assault.

Young rescheduled the case for a September trial.

___

Information from: The Record, http://www.troyrecord.com

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Le Brésil, son système juridique et sa langue : un défi pour les traducteurs juridiques. Par Alexandre Kasmi.

Le Brésil, son système juridique et sa langue : un défi pour les traducteurs juridiques. Par Alexandre Kasmi. | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La Coupe du monde de football 2014 est l'occasion pour les acteurs de la traduction juridique de s'intéresser de plus près au système complexe et à (...)
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LE BRESIL, UNE DEMOCRATIE RECENTE A L’AVENIR PROMETTEUR...

On oublie souvent que le Brésil est une démocratie récente dont la constitution date de 1988, faisant suite à plus de 20 ans de régime militaire. 8eme puissance économique mondiale en 2014, le plus grand état d’Amérique du Sud a su rebondir et ne cesse d’étonner par :

  • la rapidité de sa croissance ces 20 dernières années
  • sa présence toujours plus forte dans les grands événements sportifs et culturels internationaux
  • une volonté claire de modernisation pour atteindre les plus hauts niveaux de compétitivité mondiale.

L’abondance de ressources naturelles de ce pays géant et le dynamisme de son secteur industriel poussent les entreprises étrangères à tenter de s’implanter, de créer ou d’acquérir des sociétés au Brésil.
Ce dynamisme économique et sa position de leader en Amérique du Sud attirent les acteurs économiques du monde entier, créant de nouveaux besoins en traduction juridique et remettant la langue portugaise à l’honneur.

LES CARACTERISTIQUES DE LA LANGUE PORTUGAISE BRESILIENNE :

8ème langue parlée au monde, le portugais est la langue officielle du Brésil. Comme le français québécois ou l’anglais américain, elle a ses particularités qui la distinguent du portugais européen classique. La langue parlée a intégré les influences phoniques africaines et amérindiennes, composantes importantes du passé de cette colonie portugaise.

Mais les linguistes évoquent également une forte évolution de la langue portugaise européenne à partir du XIXe siècle, indépendamment du Brésil. Ainsi la langue brésilienne aurait conservé en grande partie les propriétés du portugais originel, parlé et transmis par les colonisateurs des XVe – XVIe siècles.
Il en résulte un accent, des règles syntaxiques et des formulations nécessitant une parfaite maîtrise de la langue brésilienne pour traduire des textes en brésilien.

Vers une homogénéisation du portugais ?

Ces difficultés de traduction et l’émergence du Brésil sur la scène économique internationale poussent le Brésil et le Portugal à chercher les moyens d’unifier leur langue écrite : en 1990, une grande réforme de l’orthographe a été ratifiée par les différents pays lusophones. Les deux pays ont signé en outre différents accords de coopération technique et scientifique et mis en place des commissions communes de terminologie.

Pourtant, aujourd’hui encore ces différences sont des obstacles à la bonne traduction des actes juridiques, statuts, extraits k-bis et autres documents nécessaires à l’ouverture de l’économie brésilienne à l’international.

L’autre difficulté se situe dans la complexité du système juridique brésilien.

UN SYSTEME JURIDIQUE PARTICULIER.

Le Brésil est une république fédérale présidentielle, constituée de 26 états et d’un district fédéral (Brasilia). Ce simple énoncé met en valeur la multiplicité des pouvoirs en jeu dans le système brésilien et implique une grande diversité de règles et textes juridiques.

> La constitution de 1988, l’une des plus longues du monde

Destinée à rétablir un état démocratique après une période militaire de 1964 à 1985, la constitution brésilienne s’inspire des textes portugais, espagnol, français et américain pour garantir les droits fondamentaux des citoyens brésiliens et instaurer un régime présidentiel et fédéral.

> La complexité de ce système hybride réside dans l’attribution des compétences et pouvoirs :

- Le Président - actuellement la présidente Dilma Roussef - dispose du pouvoir exécutif comme dans un régime présidentiel classique mais partage également des pouvoirs législatifs importants avec le Congrès. Elu pour 4 ans et chef du gouvernement, le président nomme les ministres d’état et peut les destituer à sa convenance.

- Le Congrès détient le pouvoir législatif et est constitué d’une chambre des députés élus pour 4 ans et d’un Sénat

  • Le Pouvoir judiciaire est divisé entre les juges d’Etat et les juges fédéraux, chapeautés en dernière instance par le tribunal fédéral suprême.
  • Au niveau fédéral, chaque Etat est organisé sur le même modèle que l’Union, avec un gouverneur élu pour 4 ans et une assemblée législative propre. Il légifère de façon indépendante sur la Santé publique, l’Environnement, le Patrimoine, l’Education, la Culture…
  • Au sein des Etats, les Communes gèrent elles-mêmes de nombreux domaines

En outre, si l’Union légifère de façon exclusive sur le droit civil, pénal, commercial et procédural, chaque Etat dispose de compétences concurrentes pour le droit fiscal, économique et financier.

> Un nouveau code civil en 2003

Le code civil brésilien régit le contrat, la responsabilité, la famille et la propriété. Il a été rédigé avec un souci de restaurer un minimum de justice sociale dans la société brésilienne. 
Son application se heurte toutefois aux conséquences d’une constitution forte et du pouvoir judiciaire partagé entre juges d’Etat et juges fédéraux. 
La constitutionnalité des règles de droit peut ainsi être remise en cause à tout moment quel que soit le niveau de juridiction.

LES DEFIS DE LA TRANSPOSITION D’ACTES JURIDIQUES EN BRESILIEN :

L’originalité du système juridique brésilien tient à la difficulté d’allier les particularismes fédéraux à l’application d’une constitution nationale très détaillée et omniprésente. 
Il en résulte des lourdeurs de gestion administrative et une multitude de démarches à accomplir, de documents à traduire et authentifier pour toute entreprise souhaitant s’implanter au Brésil ou faire affaire avec des sociétés brésiliennes.
Les spécificités de la langue brésilienne ajoutent une difficulté supplémentaire à la réalisation de traductions qualitatives et pertinentes.
La traduction juridique en brésilien nécessite une parfaite connaissance de la culture brésilienne et du fonctionnement administratif et juridique du pays.

Sources :

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Bad translation leads to mistrial in NY rape case

Bad translation leads to mistrial in NY rape case | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.
A New York judge this week declared a mistrial in a rape case after learning the accuser's testimony had been improperly translated.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

TROY, New York — It's a court case momentarily lost in translation.

A New York judge this week declared a mistrial in a rape case after learning the accuser's testimony had been improperly translated.

The Troy Record reports (http://bit.ly/1mujQ2X) Saturday that the accuser and defendant Than Soe both speak the same Burmese dialect.

Judge Debra Young made the ruling after a translator hired by Soe's lawyer questioned the prosecution translator's accuracy.

Defense attorney Lucas Mihuta said it was clear the prosecution translator did a "poor job" translating the accuser's testimony Wednesday and Thursday.

He said she may not have had a firm grasp of English.

The 27-year-old Soe is charged with first- and third-degree rape and first-degree sex abuse in the November 2013 assault.

Young rescheduled the case for a September trial.

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A mobile app to read and write in 21 Indian languages

A mobile app to read and write in 21 Indian languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Indian Pride has helped over a 1,000 new writers and poets to showcase their work in the last two years
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Mahendra Sharma, co-founder and chief technical officer of NicheTech Computer Solutions Pvt. Ltd, which developed Indian Pride. Sharma, who writes poems and short stories under the pen-name Premi, got the idea for the app when he faced the problem of poor local language support on smartphones. Photo: Alok Brahmbhatt/Mint Ahmedabad: It was his pursuit of writing Gujarati ‘shayaris’ (verses) that made Mahendra Sharma from Ahmedabad come up with the idea of mobile applications for writing and reading a variety of Indian languages— twenty-one in fact! It was in 2010 that Sharma and Nilesh Shah, who had worked together at an outsourcing company, founded NicheTech Computer Solutions Pvt. Ltd. While Sharma is chief technology officer, Shah is chief executive officer. The company’s Indian language project is called Indian Pride and individual apps for writing and reading in local languages named Hindi Pride, Gujarati Pride, etc. can be downloaded from Google Play Store and Apple App Store. “Initially, we worked on many ideas with others but did not get much success. Then we decided to do something on our own. We found that there weren’t many Gujarati language apps around. This is where my love for poetry came in and we came up with an app for Gujarati poetry,” according to Sharma. Apart from facilitating writing in local languages on an English keyboard—called transliteration—some Indian Pride apps also share content from renowned poets. In the last two years, the apps have provided a platform for more than 1,000 new writers and poets to display their creativity. The apps also host a choice of e-books in some local languages. For Sharma, who writes poems and short stories under the pen name Premi, poor local language support on smartphones was a problem. “I used to get some beautiful lines, but they were gone in the next few moments, and I was unable to write them down on my phone. This is when I started working on an app that would support writing in different languages,” he recalls. NicheTech’s transliteration tools are called Language Pride Editors, which converts text typed out in the way it is spoken, to the script in the chosen language, so that users do not have to learn to use a new language keyboard. It has also developed its own “reader app” which is compatible with all languages. Transliteration for 21 Indian languages is available on Indian Pride apps. “We want to revive the Indian culture. To do this, we have to revive the languages of India. Using these apps, we will build the confidence in people that there is a lot to read in their own language and introduce a sense of pride in their mother tongue. People can attach feelings to words when they talk, write and read in their own languages,” says Sharma. The company has spent about Rs.25 lakh to develop and market the product and earns at least Rs.4 lakh a month from advertisements and sales of e-books. NicheTech is in close talks with some investors and private equity funds to scale up its operations.

Read more at: http://www.livemint.com/Industry/f0T0T8ipQQdFkZLfXV3sTP/A-mobile-app-to-read-and-write-in-21-Indian-languages.html?utm_source=copy

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La aplicación del coaching a la actividad política, uno de los nuevos cursos de verano desde este lunes

La aplicación del coaching a la actividad política, uno de los nuevos cursos de verano desde este lunes | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El director general de Comunicación Social de la Junta de Andalucía, Javier García Ostos, impartirá este lunes la conferencia inaugural del curso 'Aplicación del coaching a la actividad política', un seminario dirigido por la coordinadora de proyectos del Instituto de Coaching y Liderazgo, Samantha Muñoz Vera, y cuyo objetivo es acercar los beneficios de aplicar esta disciplina a responsables y dirigentes políticos.. Noticias, última hora, vídeos y fotos de Seminario en lainformacion.c
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CARMONA (SEVILLA), 13 (EUROPA PRESS)

El director general de Comunicación Social de la Junta de Andalucía, Javier García Ostos, impartirá este lunes la conferencia inaugural del curso 'Aplicación del coaching a la actividad política', un seminario dirigido por la coordinadora de proyectos del Instituto de Coaching y Liderazgo, Samantha Muñoz Vera, y cuyo objetivo es acercar los beneficios de aplicar esta disciplina a responsables y dirigentes políticos.

La inauguración oficial de los cursos tendrá lugar a las 10,00 horas en la Casa Palacio de Los Briones y estará presidida por el vicerrector de Postgrado, Empleo y Formación Permanente de la UPO, Miguel Ángel Gual Font, y el delegado de Cultura y de Patrimonio Histórico y Turismo del Ayuntamiento de Carmona, Ramón Gavira Gordón. A este acto asistirán también los directores académicos de los seminarios.

Este lunes también comienza el curso 'Taller sobre casos prácticos y habilidades de mediación' que acercará, hasta el miércoles 16 de julio, la mediación tanto a alumnos como a profesionales para aprender a gestionar e intervenir en conflictos de distintas índoles. Este seminario está coordinado por el profesor del departamento de Derecho Público de la UPO, Javier Alés Sioli.

Asimismo, arranca el curso 'Habla bla blabla. Aprende a hablar mejor: convence y persuade', regido por el director general de Con Acento, Debate y Comunicación S.L., Antonio Martín Sánchez. Durante tres días, se aplicarán de forma práctica los conceptos y técnicas para alcanzar una comunicación oral eficaz y atractiva.

'Traducción multimodal accesible: audiodescripción para ciegos y subtitulación para sordos', coordinado por la profesora del departamento de Filología y Traducción de la UPO, Silvia Martínez Martínez, se desarrollará desde el lunes hasta el miércoles 16 de julio.

Este curso ofrecerá una introducción a dos modalidades nuevas de traducción audiovisual, con el objetivo de que el alumno tome conciencia de las necesidades de acceso al conocimiento de los medios audiovisuales del colectivo de personas ciegas y sordas.

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Mormons discuss Book of Abraham translation

Mormons discuss Book of Abraham translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Mormon belief that God provides guidance or inspiration by way of revelations is a fundamental core of the faith, and helps church leaders make major decisions. The essay marks a departure from past explanations by officials with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and embraces the widely-held view from religious scholars and historians that Smith's work isn't a direct translation, said Armand Mauss, a retired professor of sociology and religious studies at Washington State University. The essay affirmed the faith's belief that humans can become like God in eternity, but says the "cartoonish image of people receiving their own planets" is not how members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints envision it. Mauss said that by emphasizing that the real value of the Book of Abraham lies not in its literal translation, but in its divinely inspired contents, the article makes a point that might be applicable to other translated scriptures in the religion as well, such as the Book of Mormon, whose historical authenticity has also been questioned.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

SALT LAKE CITY (AP) — The Book of Abraham is inspired scripture and probably not a literal translation from ancient Egyptian scrolls by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, the Utah-based church said in a new essay.

The article suggests God may have helped Smith, who never claimed to speak the language it was in, to understand what was in the scrolls.

"They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to the characters on the papyri," the article says, "The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and power of God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham."

The Mormon belief that God provides guidance or inspiration by way of revelations is a fundamental core of the faith, and helps church leaders make major decisions.

The essay marks a departure from past explanations by officials with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and embraces the widely-held view from religious scholars and historians that Smith's work isn't a direct translation, said Armand Mauss, a retired professor of sociology and religious studies at Washington State University.

"It is an official recognition — even a concession — that Joseph Smith could not, and did not, 'translate' any scriptures in the literal, scholarly sense that is usually implied by the term 'translate,'" Mauss said.

The article, posted on the church's website, recognizes that it's impossible to know how exactly Smith used the papyri to write the Book of Abraham. There were no eyewitnesses to the translation process, and only fragments of the scrolls exist today, the article says. It notes that Smith never claimed to know the language it was in.

The church still encourages members to look to the scripture for the "eternal truths it teaches and the powerful spirit it conveys."

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Chapter 1.1: Why should translators get a professional logo? - Circa Lingua

Chapter 1.1: Why should translators get a professional logo? - Circa Lingua | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
How a logo can influence in your translation business? Use the power of marketing to promote your business and brand yourself within your industry.
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The Ethics & Politics of Translation: A Lecture by Prof. Mona Baker - YouTube

The Ethics and Politics of Translation: A Public Lecture Day: Monday 9/12/2013 Venue: Room (13) Speaker: Mona Baker, University of Manchester Chair: Hoda Els...

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The Ethics and Politics of Translation: A Public Lecture Day: Monday 9/12/2013 Venue: Room (13) Speaker: Mona Baker, University of Manchester Chair: Hoda Els...

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11 great lines for your best man speech

11 great lines for your best man speech | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Being the best man is a huge responsibility - hopefully these jokes will help you out with that all-important speech.
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It’s a big responsibility being a best man. Some might even say that it’s a bigger job than being a groom.

You need to entertain, you need to behave – it’s hard work.

And your best man speech is a critical part of your success. So, here are some great lines to use. Of course, replace the names with the names of the bride and groom – otherwise you will look pretty silly.

1. So where do I start with Dan? Well for starters he’s…handsome, witty, intelligent, he’s char… charm…. Sorry…Dan …. I’m having trouble reading your handwriting, you can tell me the rest later.

2. I read somewhere that a best man speech shouldn’t take any longer than it takes the groom to make love. So ladies and gentlemen – I give you Mr and Mrs Wyatt. (Take drink and sit down).

3. Firstly I’d just like to say I’m very nervous about making this speech. In fact this must be the third time today that I have stood up from a warm seat with pieces of paper in my hand.

4. Kate, you’re a wonderful woman, who deserves a wonderful husband. And I’m not going to rest until I get to the bottom of what’s gone wrong here.

5. Gareth is the most generous friend anyone could ask for. Here is a man whose philanthropy knows no bounds. Magnanimous should be his middle name. He’ll do anything for me. He even wrote a section of this speech.


On the bright side, nothing you could say or do will end as badly as this wedding (Picture: HBO)


6. Well, I do hope that John and Sarah enjoy their honeymoon in Wales. I assume that’s where they’re going anyway… When I asked Howard what he was doing after the wedding he said he was going to Bangor for a fortnight…

7. Now I did ask for a microphone but was told one wasn’t available. So if you can’t hear me at the back, the silence from the people at the front should reassure you that you’re not missing out on anything.

8. David knows his wife so well. When I asked him what her favourite flower was, he instantly replied ‘self-raising’.

9. I was told specifically by Michelle to keep the groom’s ex-girlfriends away. I didn’t have to try too hard though as there has been an outbreak of foot and mouth in the area.

10. Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. I’ll admit to you that I’m extremely nervous right now. As the people sitting near to me at the table can testify, it really is possible to smell fear.

11. If you could keep the clapping and yelling to a minimum today, I would appreciate it as I have a horrible hangover. I know it’s irresponsible to drink before such a big occasion, but I couldn’t let the groom drink alone.

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How to write a compelling cover letter

How to write a compelling cover letter | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Crafting strong, impressive introduction creates a positive first impression
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Your cover letter is the first impression you make before an employer sees your résumé. You can have a strong, impressive résumé, but if your cover letter is generic and lackluster, you may be overlooked as a potential candidate.

The most important rule for cover letters is that you need to tailor it for every job you apply for and include a copy of your résumé. The cover letter is a chance for the employer to quickly scan through your information for the specific keywords they are looking for, and they can quickly identify cover letters that have been mass produced for multiple job opportunities.

In order for your information to be consistent, update your résumé before you begin writing cover letters. You do not want to refer to work experience in your letter that is not listed somewhere on your résumé. Do not send résumés to employers without including a cover letter with each.

Read the job description or posting carefully and highlight the main skills and experience the employer is looking for. Understand the qualifications and requirements of the job position and how you can best meet their needs based on your experience and education.

There are some basic cover-letter guidelines to keep in mind. First, your letter should be limited to one page. One- to 1½-inch margins generally work well.

For fonts, use a style that is professional and is between 10 and 12 points in size. Twelve-point, Times New Roman is always a safe bet for professional correspondence. Your cover letter and résumé should be in the same style for consistency.

Include your name, address, contact information and the date at the top of your letter. The name of and address of the employer should be included.

Try to include the name of the interviewer or your contact at the company if possible. If you do not have a specific name, begin your letter with a salutation such as “Dear Sir or Madam.” Your subject line should be the specific title of the job opening or position that was advertised.

In the body of the letter, include the following information in paragraph form: the position you wish to be considered for; how you learned about the opening; why you are interested in working for the company; what experience, education and skills you would bring to the job; and what you will do to follow up with the employer.

You should incorporate some general information about the company and the type of work done there. Referencing specific information about the employer will demonstrate to them that you have taken the initiative to learn research the company.

Type your name on the signature line and then sign all hard copies. Include an “Enclosure” line listing if your résumé, references and transcripts are attached.

Print on professional, white paper, and, finally, invest the time to have someone review your letter for grammar, punctuation and typos.

Your cover letter is your introduction to a prospective employer, and writing a strong letter may gain the attention of the potential interviewer or applicant screener. An employer will be more inclined to take a closer look at your résumé, and you may be a step closer to getting an interview.

This is a regular column written by the N.M. Department of Workforce Solutions. For more information, go to dws.state.nm.us.

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Gorostiza, en persa

Gorostiza, en persa | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El escritor iraní Mohsen Emadi, quien vive exiliado en México, expresa en entrevista sus conceptos sobre poesía, y anuncia que trabaja ya en traducir a Juan Gelman y a José Emilio Pacheco
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El escritor iraní Mohsen Emadi, quien vive exiliado en México, expresa en entrevista sus conceptos sobre poesía, y anuncia que trabaja ya en traducir a Juan Gelman y a José Emilio Pacheco
 
13/07/2014 03:00 Juan Carlos Talavera

Foto: Claudia Aréchiga

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO, 13 de julio.- Cuando el escritor iraní Mohsen Emadi tradujo al persa el poema Muerte sin fin, de José Gorostiza, conoció el verdadero significado de la vida mexicana. Fue después de ese acto cuando volvió a blandir el lápiz y retomó su propia poesía, luego de permanecer en silencio desde 2012, tras su exilio en la Casa Refugio Citlaltépetl de la Ciudad de México.

Ahora prepara dos poemarios, uno sobre su visión de la guerra entre Irán e Irak y otro sobre su concepción filosófica del mundo. También continúa la traducción al persa de la poesía de César Vallejo, Antonio Gamoneda, Juan Gelman, José Emilio Pacheco y Cristina Peri Rosi, porque “la traducción también es un acto de amor”, dice a Excélsior.

¿Podría hablar sobre
sus traducciones?

Hay bastantes poetas que en Irán no se conocían. De la poesía latinoamericana se sabía de Octavio Paz, y de la española únicamente de Federico García Lorca. Entonces he ido traduciendo bastantes poetas del castellano al persa, como César Vallejo, Antonio Gamoneda, Ángel González, Juan Gelman, José Emilio Pacheco y Cristina Peri Rosi, entre otros. Incluso no conocían la poesía de Luis Cernuda, aunque ahora estoy revisando una traducción del poeta checo Vladimir Holan.

¿Qué significado tiene la traducción en su producción literaria?

La traducción es un acto de amor, es tocar la visión y la experiencia de la poesía dentro de cada poema… y cuando consigue tocarlo, entonces es posible traducirlo y transformarlo.

¿Prefiere una traducción más interpretativa?

Sería imposible una traducción literal de la poesía. Lo que quiero es traducir fielmente, como te digo, la sensación de cada poema. Pero no me refiero a fidelidad de las palabras, porque como dice Vladimir Holan, las traducciones de palabra a palabra matan la poesía. Por eso el traducir es un acto peligroso, pues es un viaje que nos lleva a tocar la visión y experiencia de la poesía dentro de un poema.

¿Podría hablar sobre
los poemarios que
está preparando?

Son dos poemarios en español. Uno se llamará Contra el lector, que inicia cuando yo estaba en el servicio militar, en Irán, y del tiempo de la guerra entre Irán e Irak. Aunque también estoy haciendo traducción de mi propia poesía al español.

“Y el segundo incluirá poemas más de concepción filosófica, éste tendrá un título en finés, sobre el viaje que hice desde Finlandia a México. Su título no lo traduciré al español, pero la idea será bordear el exilio desde diferentes lugares, incluyendo la vida cotidiana, será un tipo de amplificación del exilio como fenómeno que sucede en la vida diaria de mucha gente”, explica.

Rulfo, un encantador

Una de las presencias de la literatura latinoamericana más importantes para Mohsen Emadi ha sido Juan Rulfo, esencialmente Pedro Páramo, libro que leyó muy joven y que le pareció una especie de mago literario.

¿Rulfo es una presencia relevante?

¡Mucho! Leí Pedro Páramo a los 17 años. Me pareció un encantador de historias. Me parecía que él estaba hablando de mí, sobre lo que yo estaba viviendo, pues vengo de una familia donde por un lado hay patrones y, por el otro, campesinos pobres. Por eso, en mi opinión lo que se dice acerca del realismo mágico en los cuentos latinoamericanos me parece un término falso.

¿Por qué es falso?

Porque es una literatura que también habla de mi vida cotidiana. Si yo escribiera los recuerdos de mi infancia parecerían cuentos latinoamericanos. Eso hizo que me identificara con la literatura de Juan Rulfo, pues de alguna forma le daba voz a mi propia infancia.

¿El realismo mágico contiene una imprecisión de origen?

El realismo mágico es una forma de lectura más del colonialismo, una interpretación imprecisa, porque esta literatura no es exclusiva de América Latina, quizá de lugares rurales donde los secretos caminan por la calle en forma de vida cotidiana. En Oriente Medio, por ejemplo, hay bastantes lugares similares. “Recuerdo que en Sári, el pueblo donde nací, no conocíamos los coches y entonces cuando llegó uno, las personas suponían que era un tipo de animal o de vaca, así que el ponían comida enfrente y le decían: “Anda, come”. Parece gracioso si lo escribes, pero era la realidad.

¿Cómo enfrenta
hoy el tema del exilio?

De muchos lugares he escapado, pero no me gusta que utilicen el término exilio como una forma de categorizar. Para mí, el exilio es un problema existencial. Es una realidad existencial. Pienso que un escritor es un exiliado especialmente cuando es poeta, es exiliado dentro de su propio idioma.

“Vladimír Holan dice que lo que mata la poesía es la poética, pues ésta es un espacio común. Así que cuando un poeta escribe algo diferente, siempre será un exiliado dentro de su propio idioma”, apunta.

¿De qué forman
conviven exilio y poesía?

Para mí la poesía no es un género literario. Es la realidad. Desde este punto de vista la vida de un poeta es la vida de un exiliado en su propia sociedad. En mi espacio también tiene una dimensión política, porque cuando un gobierno invade todos tus espacios personales, tus espacios de ser, la cárcel se amplifica. He sido exiliado en mi propio país, pero tampoco tengo refugio en otro país, porque cuando soy un extranjero. Así que mi lugar de refugio es un tipo de condenación que me regala la poesía.

¿Poesía y política
coexisten en usted?

Cuando hablamos de política, debemos tener cuidado. ¿En qué términos hablo de política? Hablo de política en términos antiguos griegos, como un acto político para la ciudad. No se trata de un partido político. Yo nunca estaré dentro un partido político porque huyo de la categorización y la reducción.

“El acto del poeta no es un acto de conceptos, sino un acto de vida. Quizá por eso me identifico con los cuerpos muertos de todas las personas que están muriendo en estos días en Palestina.”

¿Volverá pronto a Irán?

No, no lo creo.

 

¿QUIÉN ES?

Mohsen Emadi (1976) es poeta, escritor y traductor. Nació en Sári, capital de la provincia de Mazandarán, al norte de Irán, cerca de las orillas del mar Caspio. Su primer libro lo compiló, en 2003, la poeta y traductora Clara Janés en La flor de los renglones. Cuatro años después publicó No hablamos de sus ojos y Las leyes de la gravedad. Su antología más reciente es Visible como el airelegible como la muerte. En 2010 obtuvo el Premio Internacional de Poesía de Miedo y obtuvo la IV Beca Internacional Antonio Machado. Llegó a México en 2012, donde  vive exiliado en la Casa Refugio Citlaltépetl.

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Building a language bridge

Building a language bridge | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Nashik-based linguistic enabler Sunil Khandbahale has created 22 Indian regional language digital dictionaries and developed the first-ever dictionary on SMS. The INK Fellow, recently back from a trip to the US, tells Moeena Halim about how his necessity became the mother of invention
Charles Tiayon's insight:

“Over a billion people in our country don’t understand English. The dominance of the language on the Internet, signage and a majority of published texts is the main hurdle in education, career and communication for native language speakers. This has caused a ‘digital-divide’ in this era of globalisation. The whole world is coming closer and yet we are separated by languages,” says Sunil Khandbahale, who’s made language literacy his life’s mission. 

Sunil Khandbahale educating children in a rural area with mobile phones

Born to a family of farmers in Mahiravani village in Nashik district, Khandbahale was schooled in his native Marathi. He was first hit by the language barrier 14 years ago at the English-medium Government Polytechnic at Ahmednagar. He had been tempted to quit the engineering course when he came across a dictionary, which became his lifeline and eventually enabled him to rank among the top four in class.

But his own success wasn’t enough. “I thought about all of my class-mates who had run away. The dictionary had worked for me so I thought, ‘Why not for others?’,” recalls Khandbahale. He began by distributing Xerox copies of his own compiled dictionaries until he thought of a digital dictionary and set about teaching himself programming. “I created an online dictionary only to realise that barely 10 per cent people have access to the Internet. So I started building mobile apps for Java, Symbian, Windows, Andoid. But over 80 per cent of the phones did not have the capability to install or run the apps,” he rues. The common denominator, he found, was SMS and so he set up a service called ‘Dictionary on SMS’ — the world’s first short messaging service in 22 Indian languages.

“Our first phase was to compile Indian official languages. In the second phase, we are going to cover vernacular languages and dialects. Third, we will be adding international languages and in the fourth phase, we will integrate all these languages together to form a seamless real-time translation platform for the entire world,” he adds.

Awarded the INK fellowship in 2013, Khandbahale spent last month touring the USA with the programme, travelling across the “hotspots of American innovation.” He is running innovation workshops with MIT and Harvard for students in Nashik to create social entrepreneurs. “There are 18 to 20 colleges here. Thousands of graduates leave the city for jobs. We want them to stay in Nashik and guide them to solve local issues. For example, Nashik will be hosting Sinhasth Kumbhmela in 2015 where over 30 million pilgrims will visit the city. So our goal is to provide services for millions by creating a new generation of social entrepreneurs dedicated to solve problems like health and sanitation, among others,” he explains.


- See more at: http://www.mid-day.com/articles/building-a-language-bridge/15444178#sthash.c7EUenkE.dpuf

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VENEZUELA: Babel a ras del suelo - Política - Entorno Inteligente

VENEZUELA: Babel a ras del suelo - Política - Entorno Inteligente | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

El Universal / Cargado de simbolismos "castellanos" y aderezado con militarismos americanos, a duras penas y con mucho esfuerzo entendemos la lengua con la cual tratamos de defendernos día a día, eso sin ceñirnos a la obligante moda discursiva impuesta por el hampa internacional y los íconos juveniles que trastocan el lenguaje de manera exponencial. Creo que gran parte de lo existente "en lo discursivo" se maneja a nivel de estafa, de embuste, de mentira, de falsear el sentido, de contrariar a través de lo retórico la esencia misma de lo real. De allí un elemento inherente al éxito de lo humano en su sentido "humanístico" clásico y de allí su trágico destino. ¿Quién siendo venezolano comprende el idioma "español"? Comenzando por esa tontería llamada gramática que, como bien lo han dicho tantos antecesores, es una excusa para explicar los sinsentidos del lenguaje. ¿Cómo justificar que la letra "h" es muda y paradójicamente pretender que escribe correctamente quien la usa? En Madrid, una que otra vez algún colega llegó a decir que mi castellano era arcaico y que desconocía el significado de lo que a su parecer era el habla coloquial castiza americana. Durante algunos años me dediqué a estudiar griego antiguo y descubrí que las raíces de casi cualquier cosa que dijera venían de ese sustrato que no sólo nos vincula con una cultura, sino que nos permite tratar de interpretar aquello que tratamos de decir. La sensación que me quedó es la misma que la que viví siendo niño en Nueva York: Sólo conoce una lengua quien es artífice de la cultura de quien la practica. El conocimiento de idiomas en general es imposible a menos que nos hagamos copartícipes y creadores de la cultura en la cual nos zumbamos de cabeza. Si interpreto un simbolismo azteca es interpretación por encima de cualquier cosa, porque nada me es más ajeno que el preciso hecho de ser azteca. A lo sumo soy merideño de Mérida y puedo vincularme con alguien de mi propia ciudad. A veces, cuando viajo a Margarita, necesito pedir explicación de lo que me dicen porque me es ajena la forma de hablar del oriental, porque sustancialmente no formo parte de esa cultura. −¿Cómo está todo? −Todo bien−, respondemos sin ambages en estas serranías, aunque la vida se nos esté haciendo migajas, puesto que es inherente al hecho de ser andino el tener propensión a no soltar prendas acerca de nuestro mundo interior. Si como venezolano me es ajeno mi vecino connacional, ¿cómo podría pretender atreverme a entender lo que quiso decir Homero? ¿O Plinio? O siendo crudo, Heráclito o Parménides. Soy de los que piensan que quien no pertenece a la cultura de la lengua de un determinado lugar y momento, necesariamente es ajeno a ello. Por eso un traductor es simplemente un intérprete y un filólogo es un malabarista del lenguaje que inexorablemente miente. ¿Quién puede decirme qué significa la cólera de Aquiles a menos que sea un contemporáneo griego? Lo dice quien se debate en el duro tránsito citadino, ha vivido en unos cuantos lugares, maneja alguna lengua y maltrata una que otra jerga. Lo dice quien ha intentado traducir a Aristóteles a "mandarriazos" y ha leído decenas de traducciones de Saint−Exupéry que se contradicen una tras otra. Lo digo desde la perspectiva del lector que se ha acercado a las versiones bíblicas tan contradictorias como ridículas. ¿Cómo entender que hay centenares de maneras de entender a Friedrich Nietzsche dependiendo del traductor o miles de formas de replicar lo que dice Dostoievski? A esta edad de mi vida creo que no hay mayor estafa que la interpretación llamada traducción. Bien lo dice el adagio italiano taduttore, traditore , lo cual no pasaría de ser una frase ingeniosa si no fuese por la enorme tragedia que en ella está implícito. Para los colombianos el realismo mágico "garciamarquiano" es una fiesta. Para los rusos es un drama. Para los latinoamericanos Crimen y Castigo es una novela, mientras para los rusos, se trata de una obra filosófica sobre la moral y uno de los aspectos filosóficos más trascendentes: La ética. Total, que en pleno siglo XXI la "comunicación" sigue distanciándonos, con traducciones google y todo,  porque el lenguaje no tiene absolutamente nada que ver con la manera de decir las cosas, sino con la forma como estructuramos la vida, la existencia y la totalidad de la cultura de la cual somos partícipes. El lenguaje es la representación del pensamiento que surge de la civilización a la cual pertenecemos. Por ello nos es tan propio el nuestro y distante el que proviene de otro origen. Me dediqué a los idiomas para alejarme de Ramos Sucre. Me acerqué a los idiomas para acercarme a la gran comparsa de farsantes que creen que lo filológico es posible. Tratar de entender el origen mismo de aquello que nos proponemos es como hacer historiografía o declarar ciencia  a la política. Una estafa más, como decía mi admirado y ajeno Nietzsche, inherente a lo humano, demasiado humano, para mi gusto. @perezlopresti 

Charles Tiayon's insight:

El Universal / Cargado de simbolismos "castellanos" y aderezado con militarismos americanos, a duras penas y con mucho esfuerzo entendemos la lengua con la cual tratamos de defendernos día a día, eso sin ceñirnos a la obligante moda discursiva impuesta por el hampa internacional y los íconos juveniles que trastocan el lenguaje de manera exponencial. Creo que gran parte de lo existente "en lo discursivo" se maneja a nivel de estafa, de embuste, de mentira, de falsear el sentido, de contrariar a través de lo retórico la esencia misma de lo real. De allí un elemento inherente al éxito de lo humano en su sentido "humanístico" clásico y de allí su trágico destino. ¿Quién siendo venezolano comprende el idioma "español"? Comenzando por esa tontería llamada gramática que, como bien lo han dicho tantos antecesores, es una excusa para explicar los sinsentidos del lenguaje. ¿Cómo justificar que la letra "h" es muda y paradójicamente pretender que escribe correctamente quien la usa? En Madrid, una que otra vez algún colega llegó a decir que mi castellano era arcaico y que desconocía el significado de lo que a su parecer era el habla coloquial castiza americana. Durante algunos años me dediqué a estudiar griego antiguo y descubrí que las raíces de casi cualquier cosa que dijera venían de ese sustrato que no sólo nos vincula con una cultura, sino que nos permite tratar de interpretar aquello que tratamos de decir. La sensación que me quedó es la misma que la que viví siendo niño en Nueva York: Sólo conoce una lengua quien es artífice de la cultura de quien la practica. El conocimiento de idiomas en general es imposible a menos que nos hagamos copartícipes y creadores de la cultura en la cual nos zumbamos de cabeza. Si interpreto un simbolismo azteca es interpretación por encima de cualquier cosa, porque nada me es más ajeno que el preciso hecho de ser azteca. A lo sumo soy merideño de Mérida y puedo vincularme con alguien de mi propia ciudad. A veces, cuando viajo a Margarita, necesito pedir explicación de lo que me dicen porque me es ajena la forma de hablar del oriental, porque sustancialmente no formo parte de esa cultura. −¿Cómo está todo? −Todo bien−, respondemos sin ambages en estas serranías, aunque la vida se nos esté haciendo migajas, puesto que es inherente al hecho de ser andino el tener propensión a no soltar prendas acerca de nuestro mundo interior. Si como venezolano me es ajeno mi vecino connacional, ¿cómo podría pretender atreverme a entender lo que quiso decir Homero? ¿O Plinio? O siendo crudo, Heráclito o Parménides. Soy de los que piensan que quien no pertenece a la cultura de la lengua de un determinado lugar y momento, necesariamente es ajeno a ello. Por eso un traductor es simplemente un intérprete y un filólogo es un malabarista del lenguaje que inexorablemente miente. ¿Quién puede decirme qué significa la cólera de Aquiles a menos que sea un contemporáneo griego? Lo dice quien se debate en el duro tránsito citadino, ha vivido en unos cuantos lugares, maneja alguna lengua y maltrata una que otra jerga. Lo dice quien ha intentado traducir a Aristóteles a "mandarriazos" y ha leído decenas de traducciones de Saint−Exupéry que se contradicen una tras otra. Lo digo desde la perspectiva del lector que se ha acercado a las versiones bíblicas tan contradictorias como ridículas. ¿Cómo entender que hay centenares de maneras de entender a Friedrich Nietzsche dependiendo del traductor o miles de formas de replicar lo que dice Dostoievski? A esta edad de mi vida creo que no hay mayor estafa que la interpretación llamada traducción. Bien lo dice el adagio italiano taduttore, traditore , lo cual no pasaría de ser una frase ingeniosa si no fuese por la enorme tragedia que en ella está implícito. Para los colombianos el realismo mágico "garciamarquiano" es una fiesta. Para los rusos es un drama. Para los latinoamericanos Crimen y Castigo es una novela, mientras para los rusos, se trata de una obra filosófica sobre la moral y uno de los aspectos filosóficos más trascendentes: La ética. Total, que en pleno siglo XXI la "comunicación" sigue distanciándonos, con traducciones google y todo,  porque el lenguaje no tiene absolutamente nada que ver con la manera de decir las cosas, sino con la forma como estructuramos la vida, la existencia y la totalidad de la cultura de la cual somos partícipes. El lenguaje es la representación del pensamiento que surge de la civilización a la cual pertenecemos. Por ello nos es tan propio el nuestro y distante el que proviene de otro origen. Me dediqué a los idiomas para alejarme de Ramos Sucre. Me acerqué a los idiomas para acercarme a la gran comparsa de farsantes que creen que lo filológico es posible. Tratar de entender el origen mismo de aquello que nos proponemos es como hacer historiografía o declarar ciencia  a la política. Una estafa más, como decía mi admirado y ajeno Nietzsche, inherente a lo humano, demasiado humano, para mi gusto. @perezlopresti 

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Why we need an underground Google

Why we need an underground Google | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There has never been a search engine that accurately reflects the Internet.
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Computerworld - There has never been a search engine that accurately reflects the Internet.

In the 1990s and 2000s, the limitation was technical. The so-called "deep web" and "dark Internet" -- which sound shady and mysterious, but simply refer to web sites inaccessible by conventional means -- have always existed.

Many parts of the Internet are hard to index, or are blocked from being indexed by their owners.

Companies like Google have worked hard to surface and bring light to the "deep, dark" recesses of the global web on a technical level.

But in the past few years, a disturbing trend has emerged where governments -- either through law or technical means or by the control of the companies that provide access -- have forced inaccuracy, omissions and misleading results on the world's major search engines.


The censorship


Until recently, search engine censorship was not on the list of first-world problems. But in the last few years, governments in the United States, Europe and elsewhere in the industrialized world have discovered that, although they're prevented by free-speech laws from actually blocking or banning content where it lives, censoring search engine results is a kind of "loophole" they can get away with. In an increasingly digitized, search-engine discoverable world of content, censoring search results is a way to censor without technically violating free speech protections.

Starting in 2011, companies like Google started reporting a disturbing rise in government requests for search engine results to lie -- to essentially tell users that existing pages and content on the Internet do not exist when in fact they do. Requests for such removals by the U.S. government, for example, rose 718% from the first half of 2011 to the last half. And they've continued to rise since.

And such requests weren't just coming from the U.S., but from "Western democracies not typically associated with censorship," according to the Google policy analyst who reported the trend on behalf of the company and talked about Google's Transparency Report.

The reasons for these requests vary, and often sound reasonable -- national security, law and order, national pride, religious sensitivity, social order, suppression of hate speech, privacy, protection of children -- you name it. But when you add them up and allow them to grow in number over time, the cumulative effect is that increasingly, search results don't reflect the real Internet.

Many of these cases start out with the best intentions but result in serious problems. Let's start with a disturbing recent case in Canada.

A Supreme Court of British Columbia ruling on an intellectual property dispute between two small industrial equipment companies ordered Google to not only delete all search results referring to one of the companies, but all future such results as well -- not only in Canada, but worldwide. (Yet another unsavory dimension to the case was that the ruling applied only to Google. Bing and other search engines were not required to comply.)

The particulars of the case are irrelevant and the data involved unimportant. The precedent that a government in one country could censor information in other countries has bad implications if allowed to stand. Imagine if China were allowed to censor information about the Dalai Lama within the US, or if Pakistan were allowed to censor images offensive to Muslims in Denmark.

Even more recently, the European Court of Justice brought into existence Europe's "right to be forgotten" ruling. In a nutshell, Europe wanted to protect citizens from the fact that the Internet never forgets.

The particular case heard by the court involved a Spanish man who was in the press for serious debt problems, but who later climbed out of debt. Rather than ruling that the actual information about his money problems be removed or censored, the court invoked the search engine loophole for censorship and ordered Google, Bing and other search engines to remove his name as a search query that returned the outdated information about his finances.

Worse, the ruling required search engines to offer a process by which any European could request similar treatment, and ordered Google, Microsoft and other search engine companies to judge whether those requests were valid and to take action on the valid ones.

At last count, Google had received some 70,000 requests for changes to search results under the ruling in the past month. Microsoft only this week launched its process for censoring results.

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Dictionnaire chimpanzé-humain : des scientifiques sont parvenus à traduire les gestes des primates

Dictionnaire chimpanzé-humain : des scientifiques sont parvenus à traduire les gestes des primates | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Longtemps objet de tous les fantasmes, le langage des chimpanzés commence à être décrypté. Une étude de Catherine Hobaiter rend compte d'un...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Adrien Meguerditchian: Cette étude apporte des données sur la composition du répertoire gestuel d’un groupe de chimpanzés sauvages en Ouganda qui n’avait pas été décrit jusqu’à présent. Depuis les travaux de la primatologue Jane Goodall dans les années 60, on savait déjà que les chimpanzés communiquaient par gestes entre eux de façon intentionnelle (c’est-à-dire en adressant volontairement leur geste à un individu en particulier dans l’attente d’une réponse) mais cette étude tente surtout d’interpréter leur "signification".


Décrire le répertoire gestuel de nouveaux groupes de chimpanzé est aussi important pour pouvoir les comparer entre eux. On se rend compte de leur grande variabilité. Les groupes de chimpanzés ne développent pas tous les mêmes gestes et les individus peuvent même en apprendre de nouveaux tout au long de leur vie.

Il ne faut pas oublier que les chimpanzés communiquent aussi par de nombreuses vocalisations. Mais ce mode de communication vocale chez les primates n’a pas le même degré de flexibilité que les gestes et semblent beaucoup plus rigide. En effet, contrairement au geste, le répertoire vocal, malgré une certaine flexibilité, est quasiment identique entre différents groupes d’une espèce de primate donné qu’ils soient en milieu naturel ou en captivité.

Le docteur Catherine Hobaiter, responsable de l'étude, a identifié 19 messages qui passeraient à travers 66 gestes. Que savons-nous de la signification de ces messages ?

Les gestes des chimpanzés et plus généralement des primates non humains, peuvent se développer et s’utiliser dans différent contextes sociaux comme le jeu, la menace, les comportements sexuels, le partage de nourriture, les relations mères-enfants, l’épouillage mutuel, etc. Par exemple, certains chimpanzés peuvent se saluer entre eux par un contact furtif des mains. Dans un contexte de partage de nourriture après une chasse collective où seul un chimpanzé a attrapé la proie, les autres participants peuvent alors lui demander leur part du "butin" et développer des gestes de quémande en étendant le bras vers lui.  Par ailleurs, un chimpanzé peut donner une tape sur l’épaule d’un congénère afin d'attirer son attention pour l’inviter à jouer avec lui. Chez les babouins par exemple, taper ou frotter la main rapidement sur le sol en direction d’un congénère a une fonction de menace, comme on l’a décrit dans nos recherches.

Ces gestes sont passionnants à étudier ! A la différence des vocalisations, ce mode de communication semble partager quelques propriétés communes avec le langage humain comme l’intentionnalité, la flexibilité d’apprentissage et les propriétés dites "référentielles" comme le pointage, qui consiste à se "référer" à des objets de l’environnement. C’est ce qu’on fait tout le temps quand on parle ! Comme l'enfant, les chimpanzés, surtout ceux élevés en captivité, peuvent développer des gestes de pointage pour indiquer un objet (souvent de la nourriture) qu’il souhaite obtenir d’un partenaire.


Read more at http://www.atlantico.fr/decryptage/dictionnaire-chimpanze-humain-scientifiques-sont-parvenus-traduire-gestes-primates-1662934.html#QdC6APXcU9mAWqmr.99

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Bing is better than Google when it comes to searching for movie showtimes | WinBeta

Bing is better than Google when it comes to searching for movie showtimes | WinBeta | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
In the old battle of Bing vs Google, who comes out on top when it comes to searching for movie showtimes? According to Search Engine Land, Bing outperforms Google when it comes to searching for movie showtimes.

"After performing movie title searches for
Charles Tiayon's insight:

In the old battle of Bing vs Google, who comes out on top when it comes to searching for movie showtimes? According to Search Engine Land, Bing outperforms Google when it comes to searching for movie showtimes.

"After performing movie title searches for last weekend’s top box office hits on both search engines, we discovered Bing returned movie showtimes for 100 percent of the searches, while Google was successful only 70 percent of the time," Search Engine Land stated, citing a side-by-side comparison survey.

We tested this ourselves and found that a quick search on Bing for "Transformers" showcased the showtimes and details for the newest movie "Transformers: Age of Extintion." A search on Google did not offer showtimes, rather, it showcased links to the first movie which came out in 2007.

Microsoft has touted Bing as the better search engine, even launching a side-by-side comparison of their own called "BingItOn." With BingItOn, Microsoft wanted the whole world to see that people prefer Bing over Google.

Bing is already a fantastic alternative to Google, with its constant updates and improvements, and even offering rewards for every day searching. Microsoft says you should expect relevant information to come to you when and where you need it. With Bing, Microsoft wants you to expect experiences to adapt to you and your context, not the other way around. Bing should anticipate what you need and be proactive, not reactive to your search query. 

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