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What's Lost (And Found) In Machine Translation | Think Tank | Big Think

What's Lost (And Found) In Machine Translation | Think Tank | Big Think | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

A few milestones in the short but storied history of machine translation: in 1939, Bell Labs presented the first speech synethesizing device, the Voder, at the World's Fair in New York. In 1978, the first spoken words were transmitted across the Internet. June 2012 saw the release of VoiceTra4U-M, an iPhone app developed by the global Universal Speech Translation Advanced Research Consortium (U-STAR) which enables voice translation of 13 different languages.

Today's translation machines, both written and spoken, "are extremely clever and give us a lot reasons for thought about what language is and how we may understand language better, but the way they work bears little resemblance, in fact, no resemblance at all to the way human beings both speak," says David Bellos, a translator and director of the Program in Translation and Intercultural Communication at Princeton University.

Watch the interview:

Computers decode and reproduce spoken human language in much the same way they translate written language -- by effectively transcribing the speech in the source language into text and putting it through a translation device which "sounds out" the text, "just like your telephone answering device does." (This feature is used and will, says Bellos, always be used in machines that simulate speech translation.) Software translation programs like Google's, Yahoo's, and Microsoft's are essentially statistical engines. Programmers use data to train their algorithms on human-translated parallel texts so that they automatically "learn" how to translate.

Over the years, the technology has become more sophisticated, but speaking to an automated voice on the other end of the line is still an exercise in frustration. The results of programs like Google Translate are notoriously comical. Here, for instance, is Hamlet's famous "To be or not to be" soliliquy translated from the original English to Chinese, back to English again via Google Translate:

Or not, this is a problem:
Whether this is a noble mind suffer
Outrageous slings and arrows of Fortune
Or take up arms against a sea of troubles,
And opposing the closure, after they die, to sleep
A sleep to say we end
The heart of pain, as well as countless other natural shocks
This flesh is heir to it?

As Phil Blunsom, a researcher at Oxford University, told the BBC, "the time when a computer can match the interpretive skills of a professional is 'still a long way off.'"

What's the Significance?

The limitations of machine translation are indicative of the broader historical limitations of symbolic A.I. Early researchers regarded both the human brain and human language as systems of explicit rules which could be pinned down, catalogued, and unlocked -- but despite a few breakthroughs in the field, we've still not come close to building a brain or decoding the nuances of language. Perhaps the problem is more than technological. Perhaps it is unsolvable.

Why? "You possess a skill that hardly any computer programme does," explains the author of a 2009 paper from the University of Copenhagen. In studies, people are able to pick up on subtle distinctions in the meanings of words that computer systems always miss, for example:

(1.1) (a) The command interface defines a single method called “execute” that is invoked by the
internal CommandExecutor when a command is to be executed.

(b) An Iranian cleric, Hojatoleslam Rahimian, called today for the leaders of Iran’s
opposition Green Movement to be executed.

Google Translate and the automated phone operator fall flat when they try to understand passages that contain complexity and variation -- abstract ideas, shifts in tone, words that mean more than one thing. That's why Bellos believes machine translation will always require the existence of human translators.

Still, he says, machine translation has great potential to expand our sense of the possibilities of communications, as civilization grows increasingly global. "The way airplanes fly resembles not at all the way birds fly. It doesn’t have to. What you want is the flight."

The overall picture is this. The more machine translation there is the more translation will happen, the more people will expect to be able to communicate with other folk and the more they will realize that although machines can clear the ground the actual translation has to be done by somebody because language is human behavior. It’s machine simulated, but they’re not doing anything like what a human translator is doing.

Image courtesy of Shutterstock.

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Argolian
How do you translate a lie?

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2 hours ago 1 Like

HudsonPop Thinker Specializing in Strategy, Systems Architecture & Innovation, Business Troubleshooting and Brainstorming, Computational Linguistics and Intelligence.
Clearly what is needed is software that can naturally perform Language Comprehension. The common place word-for-word transposition (statistical) approach is laughable and will only ever fail.

Although it was a little unfair giving text from Shakespeare to Google Translate since nobody speaks as they did 400 years ago. Always good for a laugh though. Which I think reinforces my first point, that the statistical approach just doesn't work well enough.

To approach a solution, developers need to know a couple of things: 1) Robotics is a silly wasteful way to approach the development of intelligent entities. 2) You don't need super powerful computers to perform the computations needed to achieve comprehension. What we've got right now is more than enough.

As for the question of ambiguity, and this is a tough one for humans to accept, - deal with it. It goes with the intelligence territory. Just as physics has to deal with spooky quantum mechanics, so humans trying to get by in the world have to deal with ambiguity. This means that when you buy your super-duper language comprehending doo-dah it will still suffer the same issues that any human would when it comes to trying to understand what...

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15 hours ago

jbucher
What has become clear to me after a career of teaching medical transcription and transcribing surgical procedures is that this field is not the ideal one for voice recognition software. I am bothered that there is not more concern with the machine bungling such phrases as "a mass the size of an orange" (the final copy reading, "the size of an RN).
And yes, this copy passed through the editor. I believe there is a place for VRS in the workplace, but only if it is accurate. We are still human beings with human needs.

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21 hours ago 1 Like

Megan EricksonPop Thinker Megan Erickson is Associate Editor at Big Think, and has worked as a tutor and teacher at several NYC public schools.
Good point--computers are better at catching technical errors, whereas human beings are better suited to interpretation.

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0 minutes ago in reply to jbucher

Patrick ElliottPop Thinker
Cyc. There have been projects, like this, which use statistical interpretations, and the ability to process through new words, and old, to find contextual, and other connections. The problem with them end up being a) storage, b) lookup, and c) processing speed. Due to the fact that the means by which words are stored is based on letters, and do use lookups like that, all of these become a problem. In fact, Cyc can be used as OpenCyc, to build a bot, but it a) doesn't learn like the original, b) the data system is a mess to understand, and c) you have to practically program the things understanding of the language from near scratch, due to it not having a way to learn directly, with the result that you might as well be using an Alice bot. It "should" be smarter than that, by a wide margin, but unless you have 5 years to teach it, it never will be, and by the time it is.. it will become unwieldy, slow, and unstable.

Maybe what needs to be done is working on things from the other angle - Have the machine process words as sound, which can...

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1 day ago

marlem388Pop Thinker
Computer decoding could develop a database to categorize what words in a particular context refer to--animal, vegetable, mineral, etc.
But this strategy probably would work only in translating texts that are mainly pragmatic and do not rely on metaphors to highlight their points.
I see a basic difficulty in translating language and phrases that have multiple meanings (ambivalent or multivalenced words), such as--
"He ratted to the company chair";
"She's fit as a fiddle."
Decoding would also have to find a way to include word play like puns, slang, and wit.
Idiomatic forms of language don't yield well to mechanical forms of translation.

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1 day ago 1 Like

Mr. Zychowski I am the light!
We as humans no longer are able to make machines on our own. Machines are already made by machines, it is not unreasonable to think that a master machine will start coding machines as well. Once that happens the singularity will take over and artificial intelligence will take over the planet. The only thing we need to ponder is weather it will be a good assimilation or bad. Similar to a Start Trek computer or a Terminator. Perhaps it will be both with integration into the biological, some sort of cyborg. These might be the last generations of homo sapiens as we know them. I can't wait to see how it will turn out.

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1 day ago

Ken Kendrick
I mean to say that a machine cannot be entitled with the level of capability measured from how he performs with the code given.

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1 day ago

Ken Kendrick
The capabilities of machines depend on the capabilities of humans to program. Machines can work better than humans with better code.

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1 day ago

ReptillianPop Thinker
Bah to the idea that translation always will require a human. As if there were something magical, or spiritual, or non mechanical in our use of language. The problems and obstacles faced aren't fundamental, it's simply a matter of increasingly complex programming and processing power.

Look at the example given with the word 'execute'. The difference in meaning is in what the word is referring to in each sentence. 'Execute' means something different when it is applied to a person instead of an object like a computer program. Perhaps a program which examines the subject, object, and verb in each sentence and classifies subjects and objects as "person, place, or thing" and verbs as "action, linking, or auxilary" would have more luck interpreting and translating. You could rank words in the sentence on importance, then compare to words in the other language.

The alternative is to create a database of human translated phrases, then once an exhaustive database is created; the machine can choose the appropriate translation from the list. That wouldn't be as hard as one might think. Especially since most humans may know thousands of words and phrases, but only use a fraction of them regularly. For the...

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Anthro X: An anti-seminar in culture and cognition

Anthro X: An anti-seminar in culture and cognition | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As mentioned in my previous post, this term I'm running a special course on the topic of culture and cognition, for six of the students in my Culture, Language and Cognition course from last term, ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

As mentioned in my previous post, this term I’m running a special course on the topic of culture and cognition, for six of the students in my Culture, Language and Cognition course from last term, all of whom were highly successful and, because I’m advising them in one way or another, are highly motivated to do some more work in this field.    I’m running this as a joint directed study – it looks like a seminar, and acts like a seminar, but keeping it ‘directed’ allows me to schedule it and manage enrollment more effectively.   I’m calling it ‘Anthro X’ as a conscious homage to the late physicist Richard Feynman, and his ‘Physics X’ informal seminars at Caltech. 

Last term’s course was skewed a little towards ‘cognitive anthropology’ construed narrowly, within the American tradition outlined by Roy D’Andrade in his The development of cognitive anthropology (1995).  This sort of work is obviously important, but hardly scratches the surface of the broader subject of ‘culture and cognition’ (across anthropological subfields and related disciplines).  It’s that broader field where I position my own work on number and numeracy, and thus, where I decided to go in this new course.  I chose recent book-length works, all from the past ten years, and a heavy skew towards the past two years. Partly that’s because these particular students already have a broad reading background in the older material, so are more than ready for contemporary stuff.  Partly it’s because they’ll be writing book reviews, which they’ll be posting here in the weeks to come.  Partly it’s because I haven’t read half this stuff myself, and assigning it to students provides me a good incentive to do so. 

Anyway, here’s the planned reading list – comments and questions are welcome!

Bloch, Maurice. 2012. Anthropology and the cognitive challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

C

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Is this just another privileged white man writing about Indigenous affairs? –

Is this just another privileged white man writing about Indigenous affairs? – | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Recent articles at Croakey have highlighted efforts to decolonise healthcare practice and HIV research. How might policy-making be different – in both process and outcomes – if efforts were made to decolonise what remains a heavily colonised system? This and other questions are raised by Dr Tim Senior’s sixth Wonky Health column, which examines the Forrest [...]
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Resume writing seminar for job seekers

Resume writing seminar for job seekers | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
ARARAT Regional Library in conjunction with Proven Resume Results is holding a free two hour resume writing seminar this month.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The seminar will be held at the library on Friday September 12 from 11am to 1pm.

The workshop will develop participants' skills and provide the secrets of how to write your own 'cutting edge' resume and the importance of finding and identifying the keywords in a job advertisement.

Did you know that 95 per cent of organisations do not read your resume, as a computer system may scan your documents first and look for the keywords. At the seminar you will learn how to find the keywords!

The seminar is suitable for anyone and everyone, whether you are looking for a career change, you are a return to work parent, student, executive or new to Australia. This seminar will inspire you to have a point of difference and provide you with the key to your success.

Each attendee will be provided with the format of a resume; the knowledge on how to identify key words in a job advertisement; how to use these keywords in your resume; how to structure the layout; how to select the right referees; interview coaching, social media and how to address key selection criteria. After the seminar attendees will be encouraged to re-write their own document using the advice/information that has been provided to them and to then email their resume to Carmel Brown the workshop mediator, for a free resume assessment.

This seminar will provide a great opportunity to update your resume and learn from a professional resume writer, HR consultant and qualified trainer and assessor. If you have a current resume please feel free to bring it along.

Limited places are available, so please reserve your place early to avoid disappointment. For further information please visit the Proven Results website on www.provenresumeresults.com.au or contact the Ararat Regional Library on 5352 1722 or email library@ararat.vic.gov.au



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Think Out of the Box, Let Your Creativity Guide You

Think Out of the Box, Let Your Creativity Guide You | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Being different is often thought of as not such a good thing. Innovation and creativity are often not given due importance in this world of ours. But what makes...
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Quels sont les enjeux de l’école de la société d’aujourd’hui ?

Quels sont les  enjeux de l’école de la société d’aujourd’hui ? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Site d'informations générales créé en avril 2008 à Dakar par des journalistes professionnels et expérimentés dont Alassane DIALLO, ancien Directeur de publication du journal L'Actuel, avec des associés venus du monde de la presse, du barreau et du monde des Affaires comme Abdoulaye Bamba Diallo, PDG de PSP, Editeur de Nouvel Horizon et de Thiof... Ni à gauche, ni à droite, mais au milieu. Au juste milieu, pour ne pas dire, au centre de l'info et à la pointe de l'équilibre.
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Iran Book News Agency (IBNA) - English version of book on Iranian martyred mason released

Iran Book News Agency (IBNA) - English version of book on Iranian martyred mason released | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
IBNA- The English version of the book ‘Borunsi’ on life and struggle of an Iranian commander during the Iraq-Iran war Martyr Borunsi was published and released by Malek A’zam publication institute.
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Le bilinguisme rend-il plus intelligent? Les études se contredisent

Le bilinguisme rend-il plus intelligent? Les études se contredisent | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Les experts linguistiques de l’Université Abertay à Dundee, en Écosseont comparé un groupe de gens parlant deux dialectes (le dialecte Dundonian et l’anglais standard parlé par les Écossais)à un groupe parlant deux autres langues et à un groupe unilingue, rapporte le magazine Mail Online.


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Les experts linguistiques de l’Université Abertay à Dundee, en Écosseont comparé un groupe de gens parlant deux dialectes (le dialecte Dundonian et l’anglais standard parlé par les Écossais)à un groupe parlant deux autres langues et à un groupe unilingue, rapporte le magazine Mail Online.


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Diego Costa y su traductor de lujo:Thibaut Courtois

Diego Costa y su traductor de lujo:Thibaut Courtois | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Thibaut Courtois, uno de los mejores arqueros del mundo, sabe hablar inglés, pero Diego Costa no, entonces luego del triunfo del Chelsea ante el Everton por 6 a 3, el arquero hizo la traducción de las preguntas de los periodistas al delantero.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Thibaut Courtois, uno de los mejores arqueros del mundo, sabe hablar inglés, pero Diego Costa no, entonces luego del triunfo del Chelsea ante el Everton por 6 a 3, el arquero hizo la traducción de las preguntas de los periodistas al delantero.

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A simpler way to teach writing: the one trait rubric -

A simpler way to teach writing: the one trait rubric - | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I used to spend hours grading students essays and felt extremely frustrated by the subjectiveness of my system. It was very difficult to think about all six traits of effective writing–ideas/content, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions–at one time while grading. I’d often get sidetracked by mistakes in one area, such as spelling or …
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Using a straightforward rubric with only 3 or 4 criteria makes it clear to students and parents why an assignment earned the grade it did. It also prevents the teacher from downgrading a paper by weighting one aspect of good writing too heavily. Concentrating on only one trait makes it easier for the teacher to fairly assess a student’s skills in a particular trait.

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Malagasy, Malgaches, Madagascarois, Madareines… Faits linguistiques, lexicaux | L'Express de Madagascar – Portail d'information et d'analyse

Malagasy, Malgaches, Madagascarois, Madareines… Faits linguistiques, lexicaux | L'Express de Madagascar – Portail d'information et d'analyse | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Certains américains ou autres anglais s’expriment parfaitement dans la langue de Molière. Sans même le petit accent cliché qu’on leur confère dans les productions artistiques à vocation humoristique ou caricaturale.
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Passeport pour les langues - Les événements - Ficep

Passeport pour les langues - Les événements - Ficep | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

STARTING LAST SPRING, a new figure began popping up everywhere on British television and radio and in newspaper pages, berating his audience for their grammar abuses: a spry, white-haired Latin and English grammar tutor named N.M. (or Nevile) Gwynne. His claim to fame was a short polemical guidebook, “Gwynne’s Grammar,” which brings a bewitching zeal—and a defiantly old-fashioned approach—to the study of English grammar and usage. “What I maintain is that our ancestors created this language, which is one of the three best languages in history,” Gwynne said (he considers the other two to be Latin and classical Greek). “And we know how they passed that on from generation to generation....The children were jolly well made to learn it exactly.”

Charles Tiayon's insight:

STARTING LAST SPRING, a new figure began popping up everywhere on British television and radio and in newspaper pages, berating his audience for their grammar abuses: a spry, white-haired Latin and English grammar tutor named N.M. (or Nevile) Gwynne. His claim to fame was a short polemical guidebook, “Gwynne’s Grammar,” which brings a bewitching zeal—and a defiantly old-fashioned approach—to the study of English grammar and usage. “What I maintain is that our ancestors created this language, which is one of the three best languages in history,” Gwynne said (he considers the other two to be Latin and classical Greek). “And we know how they passed that on from generation to generation....The children were jolly well made to learn it exactly.”

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Presenta universitaria Diccionario de Mexicanismos y Gachupinismos

Presenta universitaria Diccionario de Mexicanismos y Gachupinismos | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
En el marco de la 14 Feria Nacional del Libro, la universitaria Rita Vega Baeza presentó el “Diccionario Breve de Mexicanismos y Gachupinismos y viceversa”, del que es coautora.
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Catch the original, non-dubbed 'Godzilla' and two other movies not to miss this fall at the FIA

Catch the original, non-dubbed 'Godzilla' and two other movies not to miss this fall at the FIA | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

FLINT, MI--You won't find any transformers or superheroes at the Flint Institute of Arts Theater, no summer blockbusters or the latest romcom, but that doesn't mean you should overlook what they do have.

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FLINT, MI--You won't find any transformers or superheroes at the Flint Institute of Arts Theater, no summer blockbusters or the latest romcom, but that doesn't mean you should overlook what they do have.

"We always have kind of a balancing act, because we do want to bring in movies with recognizable names, but we're challenged," said Ed Bradley, FIA associate film curator. "Part of our mission is to educate as well, so we're looking for other movies." 

They bring in a mix of documentaries, foreign films, and movies that might not have been in mainstream theaters but, well, that's the point. This is one of the few places you can see them on the big screen.

The FIA recently announced its fall lineup, kicking off it's nine-month film season, and if you can't make it every week, we've picked out a few you shouldn't miss.

The biggest standout is the original "Godzilla." As in the original original. This is the movie that set the standard for poor dubbing--but there's not dubbing here. This movie, aside from the subtitles, will be just as you would have seen it in Japan in 1954.

It's also as you would have seen it in 1954 because this is one of those rare chances to catch an old movie on a big screen.

"That's part of what we do too. You can rent a movie and watch it, but to watch it with an audience and have that collective experience ... is different, even if it's a movie you're familiar with," Bradley said. "I think that's why people come to our movies. ... that's still the ideal way to see a movie." 

"Godzilla" screens Oct. 30, carrying on the tradition of having a Halloween-appropriate movie for the holiday.

One movie Bradley said he's particularly excited about this season is the first one they'll show, "Third Person."

Bradley said he likes to open the season with a film that has some familiar names to draw more people in, and this one has those names--James Franco, Liam Neeson, Mila Kunis, and Kim Basinger are all part of the cast.

The movie was written and directed by Paul Haggis, the same guy who made "Crash" in 2004 that followed multiple interweaving storylines, plots, and characters.

"This is another one of his ensemble romances/dramas/all kinds of other stuff, with lots of characters," Bradley said. The interlocking love stories are set in Rome, Paris, and New York.

"Third Person" will screen Sept. 5-7 at the FIA (all films are shown at 7:30 p.m. Fridays and Saturdays, and 2 p.m. on Sundays).

Bradley said he's also looking forward to the movie "Hateship Loveship" starring Kristin Wiig and Nick Nolte. Bradley describes the film as being about a rebellious teen who promotes a romance between her nanny (Wiig) and her father, a recovering addict. It screens Sept. 26-28.

Those aren't the only films, though. Take your pick--and if you think there's a better one that what we described, let us know in the comments.

Here's the rest of the season:

Sept. 12-14: "The Bachelor Weekend"

This 2014 Irish film was directed by John Butler. In it, Andrew Scott (Moriarty on TV's "Sherlock") "leads the cast of a laugh-out-loud comedy from Ireland in which a bachelor party in the great outdoors takes some unexpected detours," Bradley said.

Sept. 19-21: "Herb & Dorothy 50X50"

This movie is a follow-up to the award-winning documentary "Herb & Dorothy" that is according to the LA Times, "as engaging and unpretentious as its subjects" in which an elderly couple continue to find homes for their extraordinary art collection. The FIA will also run the first "Herb & Dorothy" on Sept. 18.

Oct. 3-5: "A Summer's Tale"

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Why You Should Write What You Love

Why You Should Write What You Love | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Some of you are probably like me. No, not in that way. I'm told this condition is one of a kind and that surgery will correct it enough so that small children and pets no longer tumble into cataton...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Some of you are probably like me.

No, not in that way. I’m told this condition is one of a kind and that surgery will correct it enough so that small children and pets no longer tumble into catatonic states upon seeing me.

No, I mean in the way that you sometimes struggle with what to write. Writing is a craft and storytelling is an art so the one part of you wants to just unbuckle all the straps affixing you to this mundane world so that you can leap into the chasm of madness that is creation. You and the Muse will art-fuck until the world explodes into pure narrative.

And yet, this thing we do is also a business. Which means you should proabably be writing Stories That Will Earn You Respect And Also, Sweet Cash Money.

Let’s talk about me.

(HA HA HA because that’s probably all I do here, isn’t it? Sorry about that.)

(Anyway.)

I am presently the author of a handful of published novels.

But, if you will gaze behind me, in my wake you will see a muddy rut filled with the sun-bloated corpses of many other books. Dozens of unfinished ones. At least five finished ones. Some interesting. Most not. All of them lacking in execution and any kind of writerly pizzazz.

I wrote a lot of books that sucked, a lot of books that just plain weren’t “me.” These were books I did not love, that didn’t come from any particular place inside this funky stump I call a heart, that failed to speak to me or speak about me in any meaningful way. They were books I wrote because I was chasing someone else’s ideas of what I should write. I tried writing fiction that seemed respectable and literary. I tried writing novels that would speak to the market, that would sell to some invented segment of the population who likes That Sort Of Thing. I wrote books that were desperate grabs at legitimacy (money, respect, fame, tweed suits with elbow patches, dignity). I knew I wanted to be a writer, but I apparently thought the way to do that was to stop writing the things I wanted to write (which somewhat sullied the idea of being a writer in the first place) and start writing the kinds of things that Other Writers Wrote.

You know: marketable works.

(Translation: derivative works.)

I was walking away from myself.

I was leaving the things I liked, or loved, or that interested me.

Which meant I was leaving my strengths behind.

Which meant I was abandoning my reasons for being a writer in the first place.

So, I’ll exhort you right now:

You should write what you love.

You should write the things that look like your heart, pulled open with prying fingers.

You should walk towards yourself as a writer, not away.

Why?

OH DON’T YOU WORRY, I HAVE REASONS.

REASON ONE: BECAUSE THE MARKET IS AN UNKNOWABLE ENTITY

I’m pretty sure that when Lovecraft wrote about gibbering entities outside time and space that, when gazed upon too closely, ruined man’s sanity the way a rock ruins a mirror, he was really writing a metaphor for the publishing industry and the book market. Nobody knows what the fuck is going on with the market. Publishers like to pretend they do, because that’s their job — but they’re still a bunch of old ladies passing around one eyeball between them.

You’ll hear, “Oh, vampires aren’t hot right now,” and then next thing you know, vampires are hot again. They didn’t get that way because the market was manipulated into being that way. The market didn’t randomly countermand itself and spontaneously grow a spate of new vampire novels. This happens because someone, some author, hears vampires aren’t hot right now and says, well, whatever, I’m going to write a vampire book anyway because I think vampires are cool as fucking shit, and then they write it and it hits the market and it does well. And then publishers are like YEAH, WE TOTALLY KNEW THAT VAMPIRES WERE GONNA BE SUPER-HOT RIGHT NOW and then another 100 derivative reiterations (and maybe 10 original iterations) hit the market and punch it so hard that two years later you hear the familiar refrain: vampires aren’t hot right now.

A lot of the truly amazing books are not ones an industry could’ve predicted. Like I said yesterday, Jeff VanderMeer’s Southern Reach trilogy is… fuck, I don’t even know how to describe them. Invasive… alternate Earth-punk? No, that’s not right. But it doesn’t feel like a trilogy that chased any market. It feels like a series that stands all by itself in a room of its own devising and design. It’s not following anything. It’s a leader: original, weird, amazing, and (if you’ve read Jeff’s work before) most certainly a product of his voice. (The third book,Acceptance, is also out today. Do your favor and go and read them all right now it’s okay I’ll wait here.)

The work that prevails rarely feels like it chases the market.

The work that gets its claws and teeth into you says, “Fuck you, market. I’m the market now. What? You don’t like that? Too bad.” Then it hits you in the face with a toaster oven and says, “YOUR MOM SAYS HI.”

Okay, I think I took that metaphor too far.

Point is: don’t chase the market.

You’re not a dog running after a car.

Be the car, not the dog.

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Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales - eju.tv

Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales - eju.tv | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Franz Rafael Barrios González La Sra. Genoveva Loza Balsa, en su sensata “Carta de reclamo por columna de María Galindo” (Página Siete, 25.06.2014), expres
Charles Tiayon's insight:

La Sra. Genoveva Loza Balsa, en su sensata “Carta de reclamo por columna de María Galindo” (Página Siete, 25.06.2014), expresa —con la indignación de muchos— su molestia por los improperios escritos por Ana María Galindo en su artículo Himno al revés, publicado el 6 de agosto.

En adición al compartido reclamo que efectúa la Sra. Loza, cabe señalar que Galindo, al escribir “canto el Himno y resbalan por mi boca las frases absurdas e incomprensibles de un texto arcaico que ningún significado tiene para mí y para nadie de los que me rodean”, ultraja públicamente el Himno de la nación. Asimismo, ultraja públicamente la bandera nacional al afirmar: “El rojo de la bandera es la sangre inútilmente derramada, el amarillo la abundancia derrochada por tiranos y clases dominantes de ayer y de hoy, y el verde la naturaleza que destruimos en nombre del desarrollo y de la riqueza de unos cuantos”.

Con lo cual habría adecuado su conducta al tipo penal descrito en el Art.129 (Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales) del Código Penal (CP), que dispone “El que ultrajare públicamente la bandera, el escudo o el himno de la Nación, será sancionado con reclusión de seis meses a dos años”.

De acuerdo con el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE), ultrajar implica: “Ajar o injuriar; despreciar (…)”. El mismo diccionario define la palabra “injuria”, como: “Agravio, ultraje de obra o de palabra (…)”. Por tanto, Galindo técnicamente incurre en público “agravio o ultraje de palabra”, al referirse sobre el himno y la bandera tricolor con los términos que usa. Asimismo, al escribir en la misma columna que: “(…) los héroes a caballo son mentira, son de barro, son de cartulina, los héroes son mezquinos, los héroes son falsos. No hay ningún héroe respetable”, también haría típica su conducta con respecto al Art.284 (Ofensa a la memoria de difuntos) del CP, que establece: “El que ofendiere la memoria de un difunto con expresiones difamatorias o con imputaciones calumniosas incurrirá en las mismas penas de los dos artículos anteriores”.

Cabe precisar que el delito de Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales subyace legislado bajo el nomen iuris “Delitos contra la seguridad interior del Estado”. Es decir que, para el ordenamiento jurídico u orden público vigente, los símbolos nacionales son un bien jurídico primordial, que hacen a las bases esenciales del Estado boliviano; específicamente, en lo que respecta a su identidad, o al sentido de pertenencia. Ahora bien, con respecto a la frase “la libertad de expresión es sagrada y está por encima de la ley —inclusive—”, que suele ser utilizada ante denuncias como la presente; para empezar, cabe señalar que dicha libertad justamente está reconocida por una ley (suprema, en este caso denominada Constitución).

Sin embargo, dicha libertad a su vez yace limitada por el mismo cuerpo jurídico que la reivindica. Por ejemplo, una persona no tiene irrestricta libertad de expresión como para “(…) de manera pública, tendenciosa y repetida, revelar o divulgar un hecho, una calidad o una conducta capaces de afectar la reputación de una persona individual o colectiva (…)”; ya que incurriría en difamación (Art. 282, CP). Una persona tampoco tiene irrestricta libertad de expresión como para “(…) por cualquier medio y de un modo directo ofender a otro en su dignidad o decoro (…)”, ya que incurriría en injuria (Art.287, CP). Por tanto, “no es así nomás” de ultrajar públicamente como hace Galindo esta vez contra los símbolos nacionales, y bajo el falso alcance de una libertad de expresión cada vez más “libertinaje(izada)”.

 

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Hyphen use disappearing

Hyphen use disappearing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Is the web to blame for quick changes to language?
Charles Tiayon's insight:

That’s because people are using their own logic instead of dictionaries.

Right now, nearly every dictionary says “off-site” and “on-site” take hyphens. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fifth edition, is alone of the major dictionaries in allowing “offsite” and “onsite.” 

But if you look online (which started out as “on line,” moved swiftly to “on-line,” and even faster to “online”), you’ll see “onsite” and “offsite” popping up more frequently. After all, we have “onstage,” “offshore,” and many other words that have lost their hyphens. (Of course, we also have “off-key,” “on-screen,” and others that still have them, most of the time.)

This evolution is apparent in the Associated Press Stylebook. Now, it has entries for both “off-site” and “on-site.” But its “Ask the Editor” online archive shows an answer from 2008 calling for “Two words for storage on site, and hyphenated as a compound modifier preceding the noun, on-site storage.” But it also had an “offsite” entry until 2009, when “Ask the Editors” questioners pointed out the inconsistency.

All the dictionaries are unanimous that both words are only adjectives (“We are having an off-site meeting”) or adverbs (“We are having a meeting on-site”). In other words, you can’t have an “off-site” without another noun coming along. But people ignore that, too, and have “offsites.” That’s a language “offside,” for now, at least.

- See more at: http://www.cjr.org/language_corner/how_to_use_hyphens.php#sthash.RsRtSqth.dpuf

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Africa: NAMs Ratify OAU/AU Cultural Charters

Africa: NAMs Ratify OAU/AU Cultural Charters | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Gambia National Assembly Thursday, 21st August ratified the cultural charters of the Organisation of African Union and the African Union 1976 and 2006 respectively. The two charters are formulated by the African Heads of states at the thirteen Ordinary Sessions in Maurituis 1976 and Khartoum 2006.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The Gambia National Assembly Thursday, 21st August ratified the cultural charters of the Organisation of African Union and the African Union 1976 and 2006 respectively. The two charters are formulated by the African Heads of states at the thirteen Ordinary Sessions in Maurituis 1976 and Khartoum 2006.

The Minister of Works, Construction and National Assembly Matters, Bala Garba Jahumpa, overseeing the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, laid the reports for the two charters separately. Minister Jahumpa said the two charters were inspired by the 1966 Algiers Pan African cultural manifesto and the inter-governmental conference held by UNESCO at Accra in 1975.

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PEDVAC set to mark International Literacy Day

PEDVAC set to mark International Literacy Day | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
PORT ELGIN, N.B. –�Sept. 8, International Literacy Day, has long been a day to reflect upon the literacy needs around the world. Here in New Brunswick we often think of illiteracy being a third world country problem but that is far from the truth.
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GoldenDict, a definição e tradução de verbetes em uma tecla de atalho - BR-Linux.org

GoldenDict, a definição e tradução de verbetes em uma tecla de atalho - BR-Linux.org | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Enviado por Rafael Gomes (gomexΘriseup·net): “Quem nunca precisou de um programa pra agilizar pesquisas de significados das palavras, definição no Wikipédia, tradução e afins, tudo com teclas de atalho, sem precisar acessar outros
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Volunteer (Washington): Language Teaching Fellowship (Less commonly taught

Volunteer (Washington): Language Teaching Fellowship (Less commonly taught | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Global Language Network (GLN) is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization whose mission is to provide opportunities to learn any language at a minimal cost.
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HBKU’s TII receives record number of graduate students

HBKU’s TII receives record number of graduate students | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A record number of graduate students have been welcomed to Hamad Bin Khalifa University’s (HBKU’s) Translation and Interpreting Institute (TII), it was announced yesterday.
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Kurdes d'Irak, de Syrie, de Turquie: qui sont-ils? | Geopolis

Kurdes d'Irak, de Syrie, de Turquie: qui sont-ils? | Geopolis | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les Kurdes, notamment irakiens, sont aujourd’hui au cœur de l’actualité proche-orientale. Retour sur cette «nation sans Etat», sa langue, sa culture, ses
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Le français, langue la plus parlée du monde en 2050 ?

Le français, langue la plus parlée du monde en 2050 ? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Malgré toute la bonne volonté du monde, les langues étrangères et vous, cela ne marche pas ? Rassurez-vous : plus que quarante ans à tenir et le français devrait devenir l'une des langues les plus parlées du monde.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Et si le français était en passe de devenir plus populaire que l'anglais et le mandarin ? C'est en tout cas ce qu'affirme une étude de la banque d'investissement Natixis. Intitulé "La francophonie, une opportunité de marché majeure" le document souligne le potentiel du marché francophone pour l'industrie médiatique française. En conclusion, la banque d'investissement précise que "le français pourrait être en 2050 la langue la plus parlée du monde, devant l'anglais et le mandarin". Mais avant de crier cocorico, il convient de remettre ces affirmations en perspective...

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Google Lets Search Android App Users Use Multiple Languages

Google Lets Search Android App Users Use Multiple Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The new capability in the Android Search app means that users can look for something in one language and then send a message to a friend in another language without changing the app's settings each time.
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“El corazón de las tinieblas”, es convertido en “collage” | Literatura | Tiempo libre | El Tiempo - El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental

“El corazón de las tinieblas”, es convertido en “collage” | Literatura | Tiempo libre | El Tiempo - El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Este mes se cumplen 90 años de la muerte del autor Joseph Conrad y para conmemorarlo, una de sus novelas insignes fue reeditada con ilustraciones de Abraham Cruzvillegas
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