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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
Where the Maltese language comes from
Nov 23rd 2015, 23:55 BY L.G.
IT MAY seem surprising that a dialect of Arabic is an official language of the European Union. But travel 90km south of Sicily and the odd-sounding language of the EU's smallest state, Malta, is exactly that. With some 450,000 native speakers, Maltese was granted official status in 2004 after the country joined the EU. Malta also belongs to the Commonwealth, which is holding a conference in its capital at the weekend; some 30 heads of government are due to arrive in Valletta, where even amid the babble in English they are likely to hear a smattering of Maltese. It is the sole survivor of the Arabic dialects spoken in Spain and Sicily in the Middle Ages and the only Semitic language written in the Latin script. When spoken, Maltese sounds like Arabic with a sprinkling of English phrases. When written it looks like Italian with a blend of some peculiar symbols. So where does modern Maltese come from?
Much like its society, Malta’s language is the result of centuries of cultural mingling. From as early as the ninth century until 1964, when the country became independent, a series of conquerors left their mark on all aspects of Maltese life, from architecture and the arts to the island's colourful cuisine. The main linguistic transformation came in around 1050 when the ruling Arabs absorbed the existing community and, through force of numbers, replaced the local tongue with their own. The Sicilians and the Kings of Malta followed. Sicilian, Latin and Italian, which was later declared the country's official language, enjoyed high status for centuries—but Arabic persisted. In 1800 Malta became a British colony and English, which joined the existing Babel of languages, gradually prevailed over its linguistic rivals.
Maltese developed in parallel with the nationalities of those who ruled it, absorbing new elements and fitting them into its simplified Arabic structures. Even after the British named it a national language in 1934, it was affected by foreign elements. Along with Maltese, English remained (and still is) one of the country's two official languages and until 1959 television was only available in Italian. This polyglot culture is at the heart of Malta's modern society. According to a Eurobarometer poll in 2012, some 90% of the island's population speaks English. Another 36% speak Italian. Half of the subjects in the country’s schools and almost all of its university courses are taught in English. Shop signs and menus are in English and Italian; newspapers in English and Maltese.
Identity and language are closely entwined, but the high level of bilingualism in Malta has made code-switching rife. The use of English is increasingly present in informal speech—some words are even adopted and given a new life in Italian forms. Now many fear this intrusion could cause the language to be abandoned. Others dismiss such concerns as irrelevant. Professor Joseph Brincat, who teaches linguistics at the University of Malta, says it is too early to say whether Maltese will survive. But whereas Malta's tongue emerged through inescapable blending, it is no longer vulnerable to the whims of foreign rulers. Like its booming economy, the evolution of the island's language will be dictated by those who speak it.
DENVER, Nov. 23, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, today announced the first module of Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library, the first major text-searchable online archive of pre-20th century Arabic printed books. Module One, which includes a wealth of content on Islamic literature, law and other religious items, is part of Gale's ongoing Arabic digitization program offering the world's most important Arabic collections to researchers, instructors and students.
The announcement was made at the Middle East Studies Association (MESA) annual conference.
"Gale's Arabic program is unprecedented in scale and scope. It will enrich our cultural understanding of the Middle East and its historical relationship with the West, as well as preserve the written heritage of the Arabic world for generations to come," said Seth Cayley, Director of Research Publishing, Gale International.
"The Early Arabic Printed Books collection from the British Library covers almost all subjects, including history, science and literature over 400 years, enabling researchers to track the development of the Middle East's literary and intellectual heritage over time. As stated in our Living Knowledge vision published at the beginning of 2015, the British Library is committed to making intellectual heritage accessible, and we're delighted that this collaboration with Gale will enable researchers to study this rich archive online for the first time," said Catherine Eagleton, Head of Asian and African Collections at the British Library.
Based on the catalogue edited by A.G. Ellis from 1894, Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library consists of texts in Arabic script as well as translations into European and Asian languages. The collection demonstrates Europe's fascination with, and study and assimilation of ideas and knowledge from the Arabic-speaking world. Module One includes many editions of the Qur'an (Koran) with translations and commentaries, as well as Islamic laws, statutes, fatwas and rulings. Two additional modules on sciences, history, geography, and literature, language and periodicals will be released in 2016.
"Digitizing an entire collection allows scholars to dig deeper into Arabic primary sources that enhance insight into the intellectual creativity, the production of knowledge and the confluence of technologies and ideas of dynamic cultures from Europe to China in multiple languages. The resource offers scholars a tremendous opportunity to engage in new and creative ways, to build upon our understanding and to help chart a new direction of scholarship," said Sean Swanick, the Islamic Studies Liaison Librarian at McGill University in Canada, and an advisory board member for Gale's Arabic digitization program.
With Early Arabic Printed Books from the British Library, scholars can full-text search material in Arabic, English, French, German, Latin, Italian, Dutch and Spanish, and discover through granular metadata and facsimile images content in Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Ottoman Turkish, Persian, Syriac and 17 other languages. Interfaces in Arabic and European languages, right-to-left-read navigation of Arabic texts, an embedded Arabic keyboard and newly developed optical character recognition software for early Arabic printed script ensure scholars in Arabic-speaking countries and beyond can research the extensive range of texts.
For more information Gale's Arabic digitization program please visit gale.cengage.co.uk/arabic or stop by the Gale booth (#60-61) for a product demonstration at the MESA annual meeting in Denver, Nov. 21- 24. Gale will also hold an informational lunch session on Monday, Nov. 23 from 12-1pm for MESA delegates and media.
To attend the lunch or speak with a Gale leader about this program and the company's global product development strategy, please contact Kristina Massari at firstname.lastname@example.org.
About Cengage Learning and Gale
Cengage Learning is a leading educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education and K-12, professional and library markets worldwide. Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, is a global provider of research resources for libraries and businesses for more than 60 years. Gale is passionate about supporting the continued innovation and evolution of libraries by providing the content, tools, and services libraries need to promote information discovery, enable learning, and support economic, cultural, and intellectual growth in their communities. For more information, visit www.cengage.com or www.gale.cengage.com.
About The British Library
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and one of the world's greatest research libraries. It provides world class information services to the academic, business, research and scientific communities and offers unparalleled access to the world's largest and most comprehensive research collection. The Library's collection has developed over 250 years and exceeds 150 million separate items representing every age of written civilisation and includes books, journals, manuscripts, maps, stamps, music, patents, photographs, newspapers and sound recordings in all written and spoken languages. Up to 10 million people visit the British Library website - http://www.bl.uk/- every year where they can view up to 4 million digitized collection items and over 40 million pages.
Logo - http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20150622/224567LOGO
SOURCE Cengage Learning
University of Regina Press is asking the public to speak up for First Nations’ languages.
The publisher is planning to create 60 First Nations’ language readers. Each book takes an indigenous language and prints about 10 stories — some traditional, some contemporary — in that language. Each story is printed in syllabics, Standard Roman Orthography, and English.
“Every language is a world unto itself. You understand the world through the lens of your language,” said Arok Wolvengrey, a professor of Indigenous languages at First Nations’ University and an editor of the books.
So far, Plains Cree, Woods Cree, Blackfoot, Saulteaux and Lillooet versions have been printed.
The books retail for $24.95, but production costs are about $40,000.
“As a publisher it is difficult to recoup our costs,” says Morgan Tunzelmann, sales and marketing co-ordinator for U of R Press.
With that in mind, U of R Press is launching a crowdfunding campaign in December to help raise money for the remaining books.
When you know your own language, you know your own culture, you know your own place in the world and from that comes strength and confidence — Arok Wolvengrey
The goal is to raise half the money needed to produce the next book — roughly $20,000.
“The campaign, we hope, will raise some money but we also hope it will build a community of people who want to do something for reconciliation with Indigenous peoples,” said Tunzelmann.
Wolvengrey started working on a version of the language readers in 2007 with the Canadian Plains Research Centre, which became U of R Press.
The idea to continue supporting the project can be traced to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which finished its work in 2015. The Commission recommended the revitalization of First Nations languages.
Each book involves someone going and collecting the stories to be used from elders. Then, an in-depth editorial process follows to make sure cultural protocols are being followed and the community is comfortable with the product.
“It’s just a small way to start bringing some attention to these languages and hopefully inspire people who are trying to bring their languages back,” said Wolvengrey.
With 25 more books already in development and a plan to create 60 in total, this is no small undertaking for U of R Press, which has published three national bestsellers in its history — all with Indigenous themes.
“Crowdfunding is about raising money, but probably equally or even more so important is that need to raise awareness among Canadians about how important this issue of revitalizing Indigenous languages is, said Tunzelmann.
Wolvengrey said many of the challenges facing Indigenous culture today is a result of a loss of language.
“When you know your own language, you know your own culture, you know your own place in the world and from that comes strength and confidence,” he said.
The books that have already been completed are being used in classrooms. Tunzelmann hopes the use will expand as more languages are printed.
“We’re really hoping the public libraries will get behind this project,” she said.
Her hope is that everyone will learn at least a few words from an Indigenous language.
“It would drastically change the power dynamics in this country,” she said.
El diccionario de la RAE, furor en celulares y tablets Comentar
24 NOV 2015 | 09:04 La Real Academia Española dio a conocer cambios en su diccionario, los cuales pueden ser consultados en su sitio web y desde cualquier smartphone.
El diccionario de la RAE, furor en celulares y tablets
La tecnología no deja de innovar. Y la novedad de que el diccionario de la Real Academia Española se renueva para celulares y tablets ya es furor entre los que buscan hablar y escribir mejor. Así lo revela un sondeo entre los usuarios, que refleja que el 40% de las consultas llegan a través de estos dispositivos.
El diccionario de la Real Academia Española (RAE) ya está disponible en los smartphones y tabletas a través de una aplicación oficial gratuita para dispositivos de Apple y con el sistema de Android.
“Son los mismos contenidos que se pueden ver en la actualidad a través del portal electrónico de la RAE, incluidas las últimas mejoras y novedades, como consulta escalonada, por aproximación, sin tildes ni diéresis y de formas complejas”, explicó la organización en un comunicado.
A fines de junio, la RAE incluyó términos y modificaciones a su diccionario en línea relacionados con el lenguaje tecnológico y revoluciones sociales actuales, las cuales también podrán consultarse en la próxima edición impresa.
La última edición incluye varios conceptos relacionados a la economía y palabras como blog, friki, tuit y la forma compleja redes sociales, entre otras. La “app” de la RAE, que ha alcanzado un promedio de 3.000 descargas al día, estará disponible para otras plataformas “en un futuro próximo”.
“Nunca desde 1780 el diccionario ha ejercido tanta influencia en el uso del español como ahora”, reflexionó Darío Villanueva, director de la RAE, durante el acto de presentación de la versión digital de la vigésima tercera edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española , presentada en su convencional formato de papel hace un año y, desde hoy, integrada en el servicio en línea que la Academia presta tanto a través de su página web como sus aplicaciones.
¿Es el inglés un virus para el español?
24 NOVIEMBRE 2015
Conocimiento y educación
Cuando nos hablan de los cambios que ha sufrido nuestro idioma desde aquel latín vulgar que nos regalaron los centuriones romanos a su paso por Hispania, es lógico pensar que todo es obra del tiempo. Cierto, los siglos transforman todo a su paso: moda, costumbres sociales, gobiernos… e idiomas. Nuestro léxico también se ha visto afectado por ese evolucionar de los tiempos. Sin embargo, el transcurrir de los siglos no ha sido el único factor que ha cambiado el significado de algunas palabras. También el contacto con otras lenguas ha provocado ciertos cambios en el diccionario. Y entre todas ellas, una destaca por encima de todas: el inglés.
La lengua de Shakespeare ha penetrado silenciosamente en nuestro léxico y, como si de un virus se tratase, ha calado tan profundamente en algunas de nuestras palabras que más de un clásico de nuestra literatura seguramente alucinaría en colores tratando de entender qué demonios estamos diciendo quienes vivimos este siglo XXI. Y no hablamos solo de préstamos lingüísticos. Hablamos de palabras cuyo significado ha cambiado gracias al influjo de la lengua británica. Estas son algunas de ellas:
Si acudimos al Diccionario veremos que su primera acepción es la de «acaecimiento» y en segundo lugar «eventualidad, hecho imprevisto o que puede acaecer». Sin embargo, hoy hablamos de eventos para referirnos a actos que no tienen nada de fortuitos ni accidentales. Y esto es gracias al event inglés que, además de con los mismos significados de nuestro idioma, es empleado para hablar de conferencias, espectáculos o cualquier otro acto programado.
Haz la prueba y busca esta palabra en el Diccionario de la RAE. ¿Cómo es posible? ¿No decimos que algo es bizarro cuando lo encontramos raro, extravagante o estrambótico? Desde luego, a juzgar por muchos de los contextos en los que aparece la palabra hoy en día, sí. Pero el significado original de bizarro es el que acabas de ver en el Diccionario: valiente, lúcido y espléndido. Lo que ha ocurrido aquí es un claro caso de calco semántico. Bizarre en inglés tiene el significado de «raro», «friki» si apuramos. Siendo tan parecidas ambas y con la querencia que tenemos los españolitos por adoptar todo lo que huela a inglés, la cosa estaba cantada.
Si hace unos cuantos años hubieras descrito a alguien como versátil, lo más probable es que te hubiera calzado una bofetada por tamaño insulto. Porque lo que hoy entendemos, gracias al inglés versatile, como capaz de amoldarse a las circunstancias y le damos un sentido positivo, para nuestros abuelos era algo tan feo como decirles que tenían un carácter voluble e inconstante. Y eso sí que no, chavales. De hecho, el Diccionario aún recoge ese significado aunque, eso sí, en su tercera acepción. ¿Tardará mucho más en desaparecer? Aaaah…
Si nos pidieran definir algo patético, seguramente la inmensa mayoría diríamos así, a ojo, sin mirar en el Diccionario, que es algo penoso, lamentable y despreciable. Y nos vendría a la cabeza la frase de cierta friki que se creía cantante cuando trataba de insultar a la prensa espetándoles aquello de «sois patéticos». Ahora bien, si recurrimos al Diccionario, veremos que el significado es otro: «Que es capaz de mover y agitar el ánimo infundiéndole afectos vehementes, y con particularidad dolor, tristeza o melancolía». Como, por ejemplo, un naufragio o la desespera huida de los refugiados sirios hacia Europa. La culpa, del inglés, ya sabéis. Y viendo cómo va el tema, tiene todas las de ganar.
Si bizarro cambió su significado a algo negativo, sofisticado ha seguido el camino contrario. De denotar algo afectado, falto de naturalidad, hoy en día hablamos de algo sofisticado para referirnos a lo elegante e incluso a lo complejo, si nos referimos al mecanismo de algún objeto. Estas dos últimas acepciones fueron incorporadas al Diccionario a finales del siglo pasado gracias al influjo del inglés.
Lo primero que nos viene a la cabeza será «hacer testamento». Sin embargo, poco a poco, se ha ido introduciendo un nuevo sentido para esta palabra por su tremendo parecido con el test inglés y cada vez más se usa testar con el sentido británico del término: «someter algo a prueba». No es raro encontrar en ciertos contextos que se ha testado el rendimiento de un motor o incluso que se ha testeado. Hasta tal punto que el Diccionario panhispánico de dudas advierte de que es un calco innecesario puesto que tenemos términos en nuestro idioma como examinar, controlar, analizar, probar o comprobar mucho más adecuados. De hecho, la nueva versión del DRAE sigue sin recoger ese significado. Pero, al tiempo…
Visto lo visto, podríamos decir que el inglés ha sido un virus benévolo que ha ayudado a enriquecer nuestro idioma. Aunque habrá más de uno que opine lo contrario. Pero, ya lo dice el refrán: para gustos, los colores.
POR MARIÁNGELES GARCÍA
Vous a-t-on salué en vous disant « Howzit bru » ? Ou vous-a-t-on dit de tourner à droite après les « robots » quand vous avez demandé votre chemin ? Ou que votre plat arriverait « just now » après 30 minutes d’attente ? Même si l’anglais est la langue la plus couramment utilisée pour communiquer en Afrique du Sud, le jargon sud-africain à base d’anglais avec une touche d’Afrikaans et des nombreuses langues africaines en laisse plus d’un perplexe ! Pour éviter des confusions voire des malentendus, mais aussi pour se faire mieux comprendre, lepetitjournal.com propose une sélection d’expressions expliquées !
Ag, man : prononcé [agh], utilisé en début de phrase pour exprimer sa résignation ou son irritabilité.
Braai : prononcé [br-aie], c’est un barbecue à la sud-africaine où l’on prépare du steak, poulet et boerewors, saucisse fermière en Afrikaans, accompagnés de salades, pap et pain.
Chill bru : prononcé [chill-brou], expression employée pour dire à quelqu’un de se détendre et de se calmer.
China : pour la majorité des gens, c’est un pays. En Afrique du Sud, ce terme fait référence à un bon ami.
Eish : prononcé [ish], exclamation pour exprimer l’étonnement, la stupéfaction, la frustration ou l’indignation.
Gatvol : prononcé [ghat-fall], terme sud-africain qui signifie en avoir assez.
Hectic : traduit littéralement par intense, mouvementé ou chargé. Ce mot est utilisé généralement pour exprimer la stupéfaction et la compassion dans une situation.
Howzit : abbréviation de “How is it ?”, salutation.
Jol (to go on a jol) : signifie faire la fête.
Just now / now now : il faut bien comprendre la différence entre “just now”, le future proche (ou lointain), et “now now”, un futur plus proche, pour ne pas se faire surprendre par ces petites nuances !
Laduma! : prononcé [la-doo-mah], de l’isiZulu signifie « Il y a du tonnerre ». Si vous assistez à un match de foot, n’hésitez pas à soutenir votre équipe en criant “laduma” quand un but est marqué.
Lekker : prononcé [lekk-irr], de l’Afrikaans, a une connotation positive et signifie cool, sympa, chouette, ou encore délicieux.
Robots : signifie feux de circulation !
Safa : pour désigner les sud-africains.
Shame : traduit littéralement par honte, utilisé pour exprimer l’empathie mais aussi pour dire d’une personne ou d’un animal qu’il est mignon.
Sharp : souvent employé deux fois à la suite "sharp, sharp", utilisé pour saluer quelqu’un, dire aurevoir, montrer son accord, ou encore exprimer l’enthousiasme.
Skinner : prononcé [skin-neur], de l’Afrikaans, signifie ragot.
Sjoe : prononcé [shou], autre exclamation pour exprimer le choc, la surprise.
Voetsek : prononcé [foot-sek], de l’Afrikaans, utilisé pour congédier une personne d’une manière brusque.
Yebo : de l’isiZulu, signifie oui.
Et vous, parlez-vous le sud-africain ?!
www.lepetitjournal.com/johannesbourg Mardi 24 novembre 2015
Crédit de haut en bas : détail du tee-shirt Eish par Skrikvirniks, Yebo par Tori Stowe
Source : http://www.southafrica.info/travel/advice/saenglish.htm#ixzz3sEb1TTcq
Restez en contact !
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twitter : LPJJohannesburg
A Câmara Brasileira do Livro divulgou na última quinta-feira (19/11) os vencedores do Prêmio Jabuti de 2015. A Editora da UFPR recebeu o terceiro lugar na categoria de tradução com o livro O mundo como vontade e representação – Volume 2 (Tomo II Complementos Livros III – IV), uma das principais obras do filósofo alemão Arthur Schopenhauer.
A tradução é do professor e psicanalista Eduardo Ribeiro da Fonseca, que já havia publicado a primeira parte da tradução da mesma obra – veja aqui. Não é a primeira vez que o autor, que é doutor em Filosofia Moderna e Contemporânea, recebe o prêmio, em 2013 seu livro Psiquismo e Vida: sobre a noção de Trieb nas obras de Freud, Schopenhauer e Nietzsche ficou em segundo lugar na categoria Psicologia e Psicanálise. Tanto a primeira tradução como o livro de autoria de Fonseca foram publicados pela Editora UFPR.
A editora já havia recebido o prêmio em 2014 na mesma categoria, ficando em primeiro lugar com a tradução do professor Guilherme Gontijo Flores de “A Anatomia da Melancolia” de Robert Burton.
Primeira edição de O mundo como vontade e representação de Arthur Schopenhauer de 1819 (© Foto H.-P.Haack)
Além do prêmio, a UFPR teve ainda indicações de quatro professores e um ex-professor, selecionados para a fase final do concurso. Confira:
3º lugar Categoria Tradução
Título: O Mundo Como Vontade e Representação, tomo II: Complementos Livros III- IV, Volume 2
Tradutor: Eduardo Ribeiro da Fonseca (mestre pela UFPR) Editora: Editora UFPR
Título: O Professor
Autor: Cristóvão Tezza (ex-professor da UFPR)
Editora: Companhia das Letras
Título: Direitos Fundamentais e Jurisdição Constitucional
Autor: Clémerson Merlin Cleve (professor de Direito Constitucional) e Alexandre Freire (mestre em Direito Constitucional pela UFPR) Editora: Revista dos Tribunais
Categoria Educação e Pedagogia
Título: História Concisa da Língua Portuguesa
Autor: Renato Miguel Basso e Rodrigo Tadeu Gonçalves (professor de Língua e Literatura Latina)
Editora: Editora Vozes
Título: Elegias de Sexto Propércio
Tradutor: Guilherme Gontijo Flores (professor de Língua e Literatura Latina)
Título: Graça Infinita
Tradutor: Caetano Waldrigues Galindo (professor na área de Linguística)
Editora: Companhia das Letras
Editora e professor da UFPR levam Jabuti de tradução (2014)
Professores e Editora UFPR são finalistas do Prêmio Jabuti 2015
Por Rodrigo Choinski
Forthcoming, 29 November 2015
To order a copy, go to http://www.tandf.net/books/details/9781138929876/
Discursive interventions in the political arena are heavily mediated by various acts of translation that enable protest movements to connect across the globe. Focusing on the Egyptian experience since 2011, this volume brings together a unique group of activists who are able to reflect on the complexities, challenges and limitations of one or more forms of translation and its impact on their ability to interact with a variety of domestic and global audiences.
Drawing on a wide range of genres and modalities, from documentary film and subtitling to oral narratives, web comics and street art, the eighteen essays reveal the dynamics and complexities of translation in protest movements across the world. Each unique contribution demonstrates some aspect of the interdependence of these movements and their inevitable reliance on translation to create networks of solidarity. Framed by a substantial introduction by Mona Baker, the volume also includes an interview with Egyptian activist and filmmaker Philip Rizk.
With contributions by both scholars and artists, professionals and activists directly involved in the Egyptian revolution and other movements, Translating Dissent will be of interest to students of translation, intercultural studies and sociology as well as the reader interested in the study of social and political movements. Additional online materials, including links to relevant websites and videos, are available at http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9781138929876/.
Note: All royalties from the sale of this volume are donated to Hisham Mubarak Law Centre, founded in 1999 by the late Ahmed Seif El-Islam and other human rights activists to defend victims of torture and arbitrary detention in Egypt.
Mona Baker is Professor of Translation Studies at the University of Manchester. She is author of In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation (Routledge, 1992, second edition 2011) and Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account (Routledge, 2006), and editor or co-editor of several reference works, including the Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (1998/2009); the four-volume Critical Concepts: Translation Studies (Routledge, 2009); and Critical Readings in Translation Studies (Routledge, 2009). Her articles have appeared in a wide range of international journals, including Social Movement Studies and Critical Studies on Terrorism. She is founding Editor of The Translator (1995-2013), founding Vice-President of the International Association for Translation & Intercultural Studies, and co-editor (with Luis Pérez-González and Bolette Blaagaard) of the Rutledge series Critical Perspectives on Citizen Media.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Dedication: To Radwa Ashour
Beyond the Spectacle: Translation and Solidarity in Contemporary Protest Movements
Narrating Revolution, Historicizing Revolutions
A Wish Not to Betray: Some Thoughts on Writing and Translating Revolution
Changing Frames and Fault-lines
Translation and Diaspara Politics: Narrating the Struggle at ‘Home’ and ‘Abroad’
The Contemporary Epoch of Struggle: Anti-austerity Protests, the Arab Uprisings and Occupy Wall Street
Todd Wolfson and Peter Funke
Translation as Political Intervention
Text and Context: Translating in a State of Emergency
Ethical Reflections on Activist Film Making and Activist Subtitling
What Word Is This Place? Translating Urban Social Justice and Governance
Translation and the New Poetics of Egypt’s Revolution
Tahia Abdel Nasser
Translation and Solidarity in Words of Women from the Egyptian Revolution
On Translating a Superhero: Language and Webcomics
An Archive of Hope: Translating Memories of Revolution
Translation and the Visual Economy of Protest
Translating Emotions: Graffiti as a Tool for Change
Democratic Walls: Street Art as Public Pedagogy
Pharaonic Street Art: The Challenge of Translation
Translating Egypt’s Political Cartoons
Solidarity, Translation and the Politics of the Margin
Interview with Philip Rizk
Moments of Clarity
Omar Robert Hamilton
Translator Training Workshop Held
On November 17, 2015, the Faculty of Education in cooperation with the Association for Applied Linguistics in Bosnia and Herzegovina (AALBiH), the International Association for Translation and International Studies (IATIS), and the Association of Translators in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UPBiH), University of Sarajevo and Dublin City University organized a Translator Training Workshop with local and international presenters
It was first IATIS supported workshop in BiH. Representatives from the Directorate of European Integration of Council of Ministries of B&H attended the workshop as well. The workshop was presided by the prominent professor and translator from Dublin City University in Ireland, Dorothy Kenny.
Professor Kenny is the head of Applied Linguistics and Intercultural Studies department at Dublin City University, where she has been teaching translation and translation methodology since 1992. In her three lectures at BURCH University, Professor Kenny addressed the issues of machine usage in translation, the ethics of machine assisted translation, and general guidelines for the usage of corpora in translation.
Following Professor Kenny’s lectures, guest lecturers from University of Sarajevo and professional translators presented a variety topics in the field of translation, ranging from the translation of the Roma language, to the challenge of translating the Sarajevo Haggadah. The lineup of guest lecturers included the president of the Association of Translators in BiH, Almira Drino, professors Amina Šiljak-Jesenković, Amira Sadiković, Selma Đuliman, and Nejla Kalajdžisalihović from University of Sarajevo, Professor Hedina Sijerčić from Catholic University of Leuven, and Nataša Pelja-Tabori, a professional translator.
As a token of appreciation, Dean of Faculty of Education, Professor. Azamat Akbarov, awarded a certificate of appreciation to all presenters, alongside an honorary AALBiH membership for Professor Kenny. The next lecture in the fall speaker series at the Faculty will be held in December this year.
Translator Training Workshop
“Imagine a multinational military operation where fuel for all vehicles is different, ammunition is of various calibrations with totally different safety and storage requirements, and radios are communicating on different frequencies,” said Maj Gen Edvardas Mažeikis, Director of the NATO Standardization Office (NSO), addressing an international conference on terminology management hosted at NATO Headquarters on 19 and 20 November 2015.
Without standards, interoperability between NATO members and partner countries would not be possible and they would not be able to carry out operations together effectively. To define a standard, it is first of all important to create a terminology to be able to speak the same language.
“One hates to think of all the things that could go wrong if NATO nations and partner countries did not understand each other,” added Mažeikis.
Organised by the NSO to mark International Standards Day, the event brought together 160 experts in the fields of linguistics, terminology, translation and standards development. They exchanged ideas and best practices on how large national and international institutions coordinate, standardize and otherwise manage their terminology.
Participants included representatives of major international organisations like the United Nations, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the European Union, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Oxfam and Interpol, as well as academia representing 30 countries from as far afield as China.
“If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant; if what is said is not what is meant, then what must be done remains undone; if this remains undone, morals and art will deteriorate; if justice goes astray, the people will stand about in helpless confusion. Hence there must be no arbitrariness in what is said. This matters above everything,” said Bihua Qiu, quoting Confucius, the influential Chinese philosopher and scholar.
Qiu is Senior Editor at the China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies, which manages a database of 300,000 Chinese terms on an international level with English equivalents. “In a world of 1.3 billion people, Chinese terms will be needed sooner or later,” she added.
Terminology is particularly important in the area of intellectual property explained Cristina Valentini, Head of the Terminology Unit at the Patent Cooperation Treaty Translation Service, WIPO: “It is important for businesses, research centres, organisations as well as private individuals to be able to search patents in different languages to find out if the invention they want to protect has been patented or not.”
Working with relevant subject-matter experts is essential. “The scope of the terminology activities at NATO is very important and wide, it covers different application fields and NATO has a wide network of subject-matter experts we are interested to work with to validate the military terminology we have in our database ‘WIPO Pearl’,” added Valentini.
NATO is the only international organisation where, once terminology is defined and approved by the North Atlantic Council, its use becomes mandatory throughout the organisation and its structures.
“NATO terminology is stored and managed by a database called NATOTerm, which contains more than 10,000 definitions of NATO terms, helping to promote common understanding, and which is directly available on our website,” explained Folkert Zijlstra, Head of the NSO NATO Terminology Office.
NATO Standardization Office (NSO)
NATOTerm - The official NATO terminology database
Hassan Etemadi is now living a life in a free country he could only dream of when he was in Afghanistan now that he has settled in Hayward
Former military translator in Afghanistan looks to help countrymen
The 29 year old and his wife are raising their two-year-old daughter in a two bedroom apartment.
Two years ago, he left his homeland of eastern Afghanistan where he worked as a translator during the war.
"For us, it was the big hope, the United States. When the United States would come, we'd basically have freedom," said Etemadi.
He enjoyed the job, using words, not weapons to fight for freedom for his country. A place he says was torn by violence, bloodshed and the Taliban.
Etemadi took many photos and videos. They captured many of his missions and memories of his friendship with American soldiers during his seven years working for the U.S.
Working shoulder to shoulder with American soldiers, he says the work was extremely dangerous.
He lost a dozen friends, soldiers and three fellow translators. Two were killed by IED's and one he says was beheaded by the Taliban because he worked for the U.S.
Appel à contribution
On Homophonic Translation
* * *
Publié le mardi 24 novembre 2015 par João Fernandes
Depuis une cinquantaine d’années, la traduction homophonique (homophonic translation, sound translation, Oberflächenübersetzung) a fait son entrée dans le champ littéraire international, où elle est pratiquée par un nombre croissant d’écrivains, aux États-Unis, en Allemagne, en France et au-delà. À la suite de quelques pionniers tels que Louis Zukofsky, Ernst Jandl ou les membres du groupe Oulipo, ce genre hétérodoxe, entre traduction et création, s’est largement diffusé sur le plan international, jusqu’à faire partie des exercices proposés aux étudiants dans les cours de creative writing. Jugée par d’aucuns comme une pratique inacceptable, illégitime voire peu éthique, cette approche de la traduction occupe néanmoins aujourd’hui une place essentielle au sein des formes littéraires expérimentales, en particulier dans le domaine de la poésie.
Depuis une cinquantaine d’années, la traduction homophonique (homophonic translation, sound translation, Oberflächenübersetzung) a fait son entrée dans le champ littéraire international, où elle est pratiquée par un nombre croissant d’écrivains, aux États-Unis, en Allemagne, en France et au-delà. A la suite de quelques pionniers tels que Louis Zukofsky, Ernst Jandl ou les membres du groupe Oulipo, ce genre hétérodoxe, entre traduction et création, s’est largement diffusé sur le plan international, jusqu’à faire partie des exercices proposés aux étudiants dans les cours de creative writing. Jugée par d’aucuns comme une pratique inacceptable, illégitime voire peu éthique, cette approche de la traduction occupe néanmoins aujourd’hui une place essentielle au sein des formes littéraires expérimentales, en particulier dans le domaine de la poésie.
S’efforçant de transposer dans une autre langue les qualités sonores d’un texte-source sans se préoccuper du sens en premier lieu, la traduction homophonique peut faire l’effet d’une provocation, voire d’un canular, dans la mesure où elle rompt délibérément avec l’exigence de la transparence et questionne notre rapport utilitaire au langage. En même temps, elle apparaît comme un vecteur privilégié pour analyser, déconstruire, refaçonner les discours poétiques et théoriques, étant donné qu’elle se refuse à considérer le langage comme immatériel et se focalise sur ce que Ezra Pound a défini comme melopeia, c’est-à-dire les propriétés musicales du texte poétique souvent occultées par ses aspects sémantiques.
Sans forcément renoncer au sens ou faire l’apologie du non-sens, la traduction homophonique cherche à dépasser une vision restrictive du vouloir-dire en littérature moyennant une revalorisation de la matérialité du langage, afin de conférer à ce dernier une nouvelle visibilité. En outre, la traduction homophonique comporte une redéfinition du rapport entre original et traduction. Par une mise en valeur paradoxale de l’opacité, elle vient défigurer l’autorité du texte originel pour effectuer parfois ce que Charles Bernstein nomme « la revanche du traducteur ». Au-delà de sa visée parodique, lorsqu’elle s’attaque aux grandes œuvres de la tradition occidentale (à l’instar de Jandl traduisant Wordsworth), la traduction homophonique recèle une dimension subversive et critique, à la fois en littérature et en traduction. On pourra se demander, par exemple, en quoi, comme le postule Rick Snyder, une traduction homophonique de Celan est douteuse alors que celle de Catulle par Zukofsky ou de l’Iliade par Christopher Logue peut être vue comme ludique ou encore « comme une façon de déstabiliser une poétique dominante ».
Alors qu’une bonne partie des plus grands poètes de ces dernières décennies a pratiqué la traduction homophonique, celle-ci a largement été ignorée par la recherche universitaire internationale. Ainsi il n’existe actuellement aucun ouvrage collectif ni aucune monographie consacrés à la question. Le principal objectif de ce premier colloque international consacré à la traduction homophonique sera par conséquent de faire un premier état des lieux, en partant des aires littéraires où le genre a fait son apparition dès les années 1950 : Etats-Unis/Grande-Bretagne, France, Allemagne. Ce cadre géographique et linguistique n’est nullement restrictif mais s’entend simplement comme un point de départ dans une perspective comparée transnationale.
Le but du colloque ne sera pas d’aboutir à une définition univoque ou normative de cette pratique ; il s’agira plutôt de faire apparaître ses diverses réalisations à travers le temps, ses liens avec l’évolution des formes poétiques et des approches de la traduction littéraire. Rares sont en effet les traductions qu’on pourrait qualifier de purement homophonique, tout comme il est fréquent de trouver des traductions ‘orthodoxes’, réalisées par des poètes généralement, qui se montrent hautement sensibles à la musicalité du texte-source, voire utilisent des procédés homophoniques. Ce sont ces relations croisées entre musicalité et sens, entre création et reproduction, entre littérature et traduction qui seront au centre des différentes investigations. Il se fait ainsi jour une poétique de la traduction qui, pour certains poètes, peut être une politique.
L’autre objectif majeur de la manifestation sera de poser, dans un cadre transculturel, la question de la généalogie de la traduction homophonique, de ses précurseurs, modèles et inspirations, de la poésie macaronique à l’âge baroque jusqu’aux avant-gardes historiques du XXe siècle, en passant par les nursery rimes et la nonsense poetry de l’époque victorienne, etc. Sur ce plan les liens entre genres nobles et genres populaires, entre recherche littéraire et approches ludiques du langage revêtent également une importance majeure. Les propositions de communication peuvent ou bien porter sur des études de cas ou bien être de nature synthétique, dans une perspective historiographique ou théorique.
Nous sollicitons en particulier des propositions portant sur ces questions et axes thématiques :
l’histoire de la traduction homophonique (interlinguistique) ; ses différentes formes et réalisations, en particulier aux USA, en Grande-Bretagne, France et Allemagne ;
les sources et origines de la traduction homophonique ; ses rapports avec d’autres procédés d’écriture, genres, formes poétiques (poésie macaronique, langue mixte, nonsense poetry, nursery rimes, bruitisme, poésie sonore, vers holorimes, etc.) ;
les liens entre la traduction homophonique et l’histoire transnationale de la poésie ; traduire la traduction homophonique ; traduction homophonique et littérature plurilingue ;
la traduction homophonique et la culture populaire (latin macaronique, mondegreen, soramimi, etc.) ;
les formes collectives de la traduction homophonique (groupes de poètes, traduction collective, enseignement du creative writing) ;
l’influence mutuelle entre traduction homophonique et d’autres approches de la traduction ; la place de la traduction homophonique dans les théories de la traduction ;
la traduction homophonique entre parodie et théorie ;
réception et critique de la traduction homophonique.
Modalités pratiques d'envoi des propositions
Les langues du colloque seront le français, l’anglais et l’allemand. Les propositions de communication (250-300 mots, plus une notice bio-bibliographique) sont à envoyer
avant le 1er mars 2016
à email@example.com. Les propositions seront sélectionnées avant le 30 mai 2016.
Listes ouverte d’auteurs susceptibles d’être abordés :
Gary Barwin, Marcel Bénabou, Charles Bernstein, Rolf-Dieter Brinkmann, Ann Cotten, Stacy Doris, Ulrike Draesner, Frédéric Forte, Christian Hawkey, Jeff Hilson, Paul Hoover, John Hulme, Ernst Jandl, Pierre Joris, Robert Kelly, Pierre Klossowski, Franz Josef Knape, Norbert Lange, François Le Lionnais, Tony Leuzzi, Christopher Logues, Léonce W. Lupette, Steve McCaffery, André Markowicz, David Melnik, bp Nichol, Oulipo, Oskar Pastior, Ezra Pound, Pascal Poyet, Stephen Rodefer, Ralf-Rainer Rygulla, Armand Robin, Ron Silliman, Julian Tuwim, Philip Terry, Chris Tysh, Louis Van Rooten, groupe Versatorium, Bénédicte Vilgrain, Rosmarie Waldrop, Uljana Wolf, Peter Waterhouse, Louis Zukofsky…
Vincent Broqua (University of Paris at Saint-Denis) and
Dirk Weissmann (University of Paris at Créteil)
Avec le soutien de
EA Transferts critiques et dynamiques des savoirs, Université Paris-8, Vincennes–Saint-Denis
Institut des Mondes Anglophone, Germanique et Roman, IMAGER), Université Paris-Est Créteil
Équipe Multilinguisme, Traduction, Création de l’Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes (ITEM),
CNRS/École normale supérieure
Labex TransferS, ENS/Collège de France/CNRS/PSL
Melodia E. Jones Chair, State University of New York at Buffalo
Olga Anokhina (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS, Paris, France),
Camille Bloomfield (Université Paris-13 Nord/UMR Thalim Université Paris-3, France),
Antoine Cazé (Université Paris-Diderot, Paris-7, France),
Christine Ivanovic (Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria),
Jacques Lajarrige (Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès, France),
Abigail Lang (Université Paris-Diderot, Paris-7, France),
Sylvie Le Moël (Université Paris-Est Créteil, France),
Jean-Jacques Poucel (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA),
Jean-François Puff (Université Jean Monnet Saint-Étienne, France),
Arnaud Regnauld (Université Paris-8 Vincennes–Saint-Denis, France),
Monika Schmitz-Emans (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany),
Eckhard Schumacher (Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität Greifswald, Germany),
Cole Swensen (Brown University, Providence, USA),
Claus Telge (Osaka University, Japan),
Jean-Jacques Thomas (State University of New York at Buffalo, USA)
Langage (Catégorie principale)
Esprit et Langage > Langage > Littératures
Université Paris-Est Créteil
Créteil, France (94)
Saint-Denis, France (93)
Ecole normale supérieure
Paris, France (75)
jeudi 17 novembre 2016
vendredi 18 novembre 2016
samedi 19 novembre 2016
CfP Homophonic Translation Conference.pdf
traduction, poésie, homophonie, literature
courriel : weissmann [at] u-pec [dot] fr
courriel : vincentbroqua [at] gmail [dot] com
URLS DE RÉFÉRENCE
SOURCE DE L'INFORMATION
courriel : weissmann [at] u-pec [dot] fr
POUR CITER CETTE ANNONCE
« On Homophonic Translation », Appel à contribution, Calenda, Publié le mardi 24 nov
The Potti Sriramulu Telugu University, which will complete 30 years on Dec 2, is planning a week-long celebration to mark the event. It began its journey 30 years ago with just a few courses on a single campus, the university now has five campuses in AP and Telangana.
According to registrar Prof. K Thomasaiah, the university has done an extraordinary job in academics and research in the field of Telugu literature. To mark its 30 years of journey, the university is planning to bring out a new Telugu dictionary with words from different dialects of Telangana districts. A majority of the research activities will be done on the arts and literature of Telangana, he says in an interview with Express. Here are some excerpts of the interview:
In 30 years the Telugu University has grown beyond expectations in academics and research. What do you think are its significant achievements?
The university started with literature courses but expanded to arts as well. The departments of theatre and music have been set up to provide more courses. Now we also offer courses in magic and mimicry. The university performed extremely well in academics. We were the first university in Telangana to introduce the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) in 2014. We are also the only university in the state to have NAAC accreditation at the moment. Every new initiative is taking us a little further in our journey.
How is the university planning to mark this occasion?
The celebrations will begin today on the Hyderabad campus. There will be seminars, cultural activities, exhibitions and talks by prominent personalities. The celebrations will reflect our efforts towards the development of Telugu language, arts and literature of the state.
Has the university overcome the post-bifurcation controversies over academics and administration?
The controversy over providing services to AP campuses has been resolved recently. Now the services have been restored and admissions are under process. Since the Telangana government adopted it, the university belongs to it. Moreover, we are receiving funds from the Telangana government. Finally, we are free from administrative issues and concentrating on academics.
Does the university have any plan to open new campuses in other districts?
If the state government receives a demand for it, we can open new campuses. However, so far, no such proposal has come.
Is Telugu University doing anything to promote the literature and arts of TS?
Most of our future projects envisage promotion of the Telangana literature and arts. We have already started working on bringing out a new Telugu dictionary that consists of Telugu words from different dialects of Telangana.
Not yet Uhuru: Nigerians and a journey towards national identity (2)
CONTINUED FROM YESTERDAY
Once the mental framework is developed and built, and everyone is aware of the indispensable need to learn languages of other cultural nationals, and the basic communication in the white’s language is established, then a move-away from the culture of mediocrity and irresponsibility which makes Nigerians shy away from identifying with their country becomes a reality. The variables that fragment us become clear because there are no efforts to bring together the ethnic nationalities that come together as a people. The voice of the youths must prevail in this regard.
Regrettably, too, we are in a regime where the character of our strength, productivity of our potentials and efficiency of our skills are largely determined by and dependent upon the fluency of our English accent, proficiency in the written and spoken linguistic scheme of the Englishman, and excellence in English language examination. The immediate consequence of this attitude is the degree of disunity and abysmal level of development we are witnessing. Yes, possessing basics of the English syntax, vocabulary and grammar is good but using it as yardstick to, say, gaining admission into post-secondary education is not only evil but also self-colonising. It is interestingly instructive that the power of language is such that man thinks within the framework of the language in which he speaks or is forced to speak. Language influences man’s rational and thinking capacity.
The fast extinction of our various indigenous languages is alarming to the extent that we are comfortable with a system of language developed by a people and relegating the tongue into which we are born. The educational sector and the academia in Nigeria must be put on trial here. They both must be subject to rigorous questions, such as why should the Yoruba (Hausa or Igbo) man not be evaluated based on the tongue into which he is born other than the white man’s language? After been introduced into the basic communication pattern of the colonialist, should the WAEC/NECO candidate not mandatorily asked to engage his mother tongue vigorously in the examination to make him eligible to gain admission for university education? Creating a true national identity requires that the languages and culture of the three major tribes (to start with) in Nigeria be introduced from the elementary education such that the child is aware of the culture and history that birth other ethnic groups that make up his country.
Consequently, he develops a sense of national consciousness, an idea that he is a citizen of Nigeria, whether he lives in the East, West, North or South. The ethnic suspicion that troubled and polarized the first republic Nigeria was due largely in part to lack of national consciousness. The Igbo man did not feel safe in the hands of the Hausa man because the latter could not understand the language of the former, even if the former could speak and communicate in the language of the latter. There was lack of mutual linguistic understanding. This snag may linger for a longer-than-expected period if a national identity that is beyond mere reciting the patriotic anthem, veiled ignorantly in national anthem, is not addressed.
It is absurd and indeed a product of this lack of national identity that after over fifty years of independence, the learning of the three major languages of Nigeria is still left in the hands of occupational and geographical mobility contraption. More worrisome is the fact that through this number of years, the education sector has not designed a scientific process of bringing the Igbo man closer to the Yoruba man, the Yoruba closer to the Hausa, and so forth. Many educationalists and scholars have with high-level incoherence lopsidedly argued that Nigeria is not ripe enough to develop her own national linguistic framework, a language that all Nigerians will learn, speak, write and understand. If this argument is allowed to persist, then Nigeria is doomed for a more disintegrated future. Lessons must be learnt and cue taken from Kenya, South Africa, Botswana, Burundi, Central Africa Republic, Lesotho, Rwanda, Somalia, and a host of other African countries with indigenous national languages, on the procedure to develop a unifying language. It appears that the so-called official language is partitioning Nigeria rather than uniting it.
Given, and admittedly so, that this is the first time a Nigerian government will define and embrace a collective vision, a vision driven by determination, altruism, and strong political will, it is important to bring these suggestions to bear in the ministries, departments and agencies concerned to ensure that Nigeria truly becomes a nation, united in spirit and in truth.
• Alabi a poet, author and public affairs commentator and political analyst, works in Legal Blitz Limited.
Delhi- based Smriti Nagpal among BBC’s 100 inspirational women for 2015 November 23, 2015
Nagpal founded ‘Atulyakala’ for deaf artists.By Sreejith VallikunnuCourtesy of Smriti Nagpal’s Facebook accountSmriti Nagpal, a 25-year-old Indian woman who runs ‘Atulyakala’, a platform for deaf artists, has been chosen in the ‘BBC’s 100 inspirational women for 2015’.The Delhi-based Nagpal joins celebrities such as Asha Bhonsle and Sania Mirza on the global list of 100. She has been selected for the under 30 category of young entrepreneurs.Smriti Nagpal’s work as a sign language interpreter in India inspired her to set up Atulyakala. India has the largest number of deaf population in the world and Smriti has worked within the deaf community as an interpreter for eight years, after which she started ‘Atulyakala’ along with a few deaf artists at the age of 22.When asked about her inspiration to start the platform she told The Times Of India that “My two older siblings are hearing impaired so I grew up in an environment where I had to use sign language, and by the age of 16 I had started working as a sign language interpreter with National Association of the Deaf.”‘Atulyakala’ is a socially responsible brand that co-creates products with deaf artists in India empowering them to live a life of dignity and pride. The organization sells products such as bags, mugs, wallets and journals by deaf designers.The enterprise also has a design studio that takes up client projects related to branding, design, curation and illustration for publishing houses. They have been conducting events about inclusion and spreading awareness about sign language too.BBC quoted her giving advice for anyone wanting to follow her footsteps: “See few dreams and follow them with all your heart, and then the world will be right there, all yours!”Agricultural entrepreneur Rimppi Kumari, Hindi film and television actress Kamini Kaushal, Mumbai-based right to pee activist Mumtaz Shaikh and Kanika Tekriwal, a 27-year-old entrepreneur who founded JetSetGo, India’s first and only marketplace for private jet planes and helicopters, are other four Indian women in the list.
Rehab center to pay $35K after man was denied interpreter
By The Associated Press
POSTED: 11/23/15, 8:51 PM EST | UPDATED: 2 HRS AGO 0 COMMENTS
TRENTON >> A northern New Jersey rehabilitation center will pay a former patient $35,000 to resolve allegations that he was unlawfully denied the services of a sign language interpreter.
Acting Attorney General John Hoffman said Monday that the Park Crescent Healthcare & Rehabilitation Center, in East Orange, will pay Thomas Snyder to settle a discrimination complaint.
Snyder says he was repeatedly denied an ASL interpreter during a 39-day stay at the facility starting in March 2014. The center acknowledged that it didn’t accommodate the request because Snyder appeared to be able to communicate through writing.
Hoffman says health care facilities don’t get to be the sole arbiter of what communication method is best for deaf and hard of hearing patients.
So this dump truck can’t make it through an overpass on I-90; the crash knocks the dump box off the truck and into the road. Five minutes later (or 30 seconds, if you believe some people), along comes Mr. Itzkowitz, with his wife and five children, and plows right into the dump box. Then, after another few seconds (or 20 minutes, according to some people), ka-pow: Mr. Compton’s car, with another six passengers, does the same thing. What are you gonna do? In National Liability & Fire Ins. Co. v. Itzkowitz, No. 14-3651 (2d Cir. Sept. 15, 2015), the Second Circuit said these facts call for the “unfortunate event test.” It says the test shows there were three different accidents, because the crashes were not part of the “same causal continuum”—even though the owner of the dump truck was liable for “causing” all of them. Which meant that the dump truck’s insurer was on the hook for the $1 million per-accident limit three times, rather than once.
Digging Up the Pertinent Provisions
The owner of the dump truck was insured under a policy that contained this provision:
Regardless of the number of covered “autos”, “insureds”, premiums paid, claims made or vehicles involved in the “accident”, the most we will pay for the total of all damages … resulting from any one “accident” is the Limit of Insurance for Liability Coverage shown in the Declarations. All “bodily injury” [and] “property damage” … resulting from continuous or repeated exposure to substantially the same conditions will be considered as resulting from one “accident.
The policy further defined “accident” to include “continuous or repeated exposure to the same conditions resulting in ‘bodily injury’ or ‘property damage.’”
In Itzkowitz, the insurer argued that all three collisions constituted “one accident,” and so the insurer was liable only once for the $1 million per-accident limit.
Examining the insurer’s claim, the court found that the policy language did not clearly indicate “an intent to aggregate separate incidents into a single occurrence,” noting that the New York Court of Appeals, as well as the Second Circuit, had come to the same conclusion in previous cases involving similar language. Under New York law, the court held, the absence of such language requires a court to apply the “unfortunate event test” to “determine how many occurrences are subject to coverage.
That test involves a two-part inquiry:
First, we identify the ‘operative incident … giving rise to liability in this factual context.’ Second, after identifying the operative incident or incidents, we consider ‘whether there is a close temporal and spatial relationship between the incidents giving rise to injury or loss, and whether the incidents can be viewed as part of the same causal continuum, without intervening agents or factors.’
The court acknowledged that assumption only in passing, by stating:
The three incidents here share a common origin: the initial negligence that caused the dump truck’s collision with the overpass.
In reality, the court assumed that all three collisions shared both a common “origin” and a common proximate cause: if the driver’s “initial negligence” had not been the proximate cause of the Itzkowitz and Compton collisions, then the dump truck’s owner would not be liable for them. Yet the court never noted that assumption in the ensuing inquiry into “causal continuum.”
Keep on Trucking
To identify the operative incident giving rise to liability, the court consulted Appalachian Ins. Co. v. Gen. Elec. Co., 863 N.E.2d 994 (N.Y. 2007). In that case, New York’s high court held that each individual’s exposure to a common source of asbestos could be treated as a different “operative incident.” It also warned:
Common causation is pertinent once the incident—the fulcrum of our analysis—is identified, but the cause should not be conflated with the incident.
Heeding that warning, the Second Circuit concluded—without further explanation—that each of the three collisions on I-90 was a distinct operative incident.
Next, the court considered the spatial and temporal proximity of the three incidents, and whether they could be considered part of a causal continuum. The court declined to draw a line in the asphalt defining “any particular number of seconds or minutes that must elapse before two incidents are distinct accidents.” Instead, the court inquired “whether the relative timing of the various incidents played a role in causing any of the incidents.” In this case, the court found that timing was irrelevant, because the dump box remained a hazard for as long as it sat in the road:
No evidence in the record suggests that the short timespan between the dump box’s collision with the overpass and the Itzkowitz vehicle’s collision with the dump box played any role in the Itzkowitz vehicle’s collision with the dump box.
The court considered spatial proximity was a “closer question.” The two collisions with the dump box were “spatially proximate,” but not so the collision with the overpass, which occurred “farther down the road.” This limited proximity was deemed insufficient; the court applied a “’common sense’ balancing” of all three of the unfortunate event test’s criteria, and proximity was found wanting.
Lastly, the court considered whether the collisions were part of a causal continuum—an inquiry that ostensibly focused on the concept of intervening factors, but which actually appears to have snuck temporal proximity in through the back door. As the court explained, the fact that all three events had a “common origin”—the negligence of the dump truck driver—was not dispositive.
[C]ommon causation, while relevant to our inquiry, is insufficient to aggregate incidents into one accident. Instead, we look to whether there was an ‘unbroken’ continuum between the events. To be part of the same accident, the operative incidents must be part of the same causal chain. Once an incident occurs and that incident does not then cause further injury, the causal chain is broken.
In this case, the court ruled, the collision with the overpass “did not immediately cause further damage,” even though it caused the dump box to land in the road. On that basis, the court distinguished cases involving “chain-reaction” collisions, in which a vehicle ricochets off one car into another. Instead, the court decided Mr. Itzkowitz’s collision with the dump box started a “second causal chain,” and that the ensuing collision started a third one.
We would be facing a different set of facts if the third incident … occurred because of the Itzkowitz collision; if, for example, the Itzkowitz vehicle had ricocheted off the dump box before hitting the [other] vehicle. There might then have been an unbroken chain between the second and third collisions. But that is not what the record indicates. The second and third incidents were therefore not part of the same unbroken continuum.
It seems fair to ask, however, whether a ricochet is really the only way in which two or three collisions might be causally related. The collision with the overpass was certainly a but-for cause of the later accidents, and it was at least arguable that the judgment of the drivers in those accidents was affected by the relative improbability of encountering a dump box in the middle of an interstate highway. The Second Circuit’s opinion did not take up those questions.
Nor did the court explain how the dump truck’s owner could be liable for accidents that were not part of the “same causal chain” as the driver’s negligence. If the driver’s negligence really “[did] not then cause further injury,” why was the driver’s insurer still on the hook?
Thinking Outside the Dump Box
The court concluded that three separate accidents had occurred for purposes of coverage. Thus, at least in those courts bound by Second Circuit precedent, insurers should carefully consider the issue of aggregation in multiple-claimant incidents, as courts may not be willing to dump all the liabilities into a single per-accident limit.
Image source: Image source: Colin Steele (Flickr)
How do you know the translations of your patent applications are accurate? In most cases, you aren’t going to know until you face litigation by a company challenging your patent, and further scrutiny of the patent shows what you thought was covered isn’t. But there are some red flags to look for, says Michael Degn of MultiLing.
Ever feel like you're speaking another language? Well, sometimes you are which is why we asked the members of travel website, Trippy.com to tell us about times they tried to use the local tongue and got, well, totally tongue tied.
Have you ever gotten it wrong in another language? Click here to tell us about it on Trippy.com!
1. In French
"In France I asked for the 'conard' instead of the 'canard' so I asked for the plate of slut, rather than the plate of duck..." - Trippy member Rebecca Wood of New Zealand
2. In Chinese
"...while leaning Mandarin in Shanghai, I meant to tell my teacher that I liked Japanese food. Instead I told her, "I like to eat human flesh." - Trippy member Daniel Roy of Plovdiv, Bulgaria
3. In Spanish
"We walked into a pet store in Merida, Yucatan where a big cage of bunnies (conejos) was stationed front and center just inside the door. As we walked in my wife exclaimed 'Cajones!'" - Trippy member Ed Balogh of Salt Lake City, Utah
4. In Spanish again
"While discussing excess baggage fees, I once told an airline desk agent, 'I will hit (Sp: pegar) you' when I meant to say 'I will pay (Sp: pagar) you'." - Trippy member Stuart Watson of Redondo Beach, California
5. One more time in Spanish
"Once while living in Mexico City, I was trying to explain in Spanish that I had also lived in Grenoble, France where they had the Olympic games in 1976. Well...the word for games in Spanish is 'juegos' and the word for eggs in Spanish is 'huevos'. But for a single consonant, very similar in pronunciation. So...what I ended up saying on a very crowded bus was that I had spent time in Grenoble, the site of the "Olympic Balls." - Trippy member Elizabeth Way of Boynton Beach, Florida
Looks like Trippy members better start taking some Spanish lessons, especially since they named Cuba one of the world's "Best Cities".
6. In Korean
"...while teaching in South Korea. My co-teacher (and carpool-er) was teaching me how to say, 'Let's go home' - 'Chip-bay kahjah' and one time I tried to mimic but instead said, 'Chipbay kamjah?' which translates to 'home potato'. I don't know why, but she told my 6th graders this story. I caught one of them calling me Potato Teacher once and was able to get him in trouble. But hopefully I'm still lovingly referred to as Potato Teacher." - Trippy member Sarah Goth from Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Have you ever gotten it wrong in another language? Click here to tell us about it on Trippy.com!
It seems like a fashion to learn a new language, but can it be put to any use? Reena Jhaveri finds out
Like we said earlier, it almost seems like a fashion for a student to enrol for at least one foreign language course while still in college. And sometimes it is at the behest of the parents, or a friend. You enrol and invest a sum, but you know what, it might not be all futile! With the internet, communication has become so easy that a multitude of opportunities has opened up in several spheres. Some of these are such that one could not even have thought about them a decade or two ago.
A simple example would be all the dubbed movies and TV shows that we are watching, the book translations that we are reading, not to mention all the exotic food that is doing rounds of the country’s food map! It is a fact that the world is shrinking, and for those in the world to come closer, one aspect needs to be taken into consideration – the most important means of communication – language!
The world over, people are trying to understand each other, and for that, knowing a common language is necessary. Barriers can be broken with knowing even a few words of a language, it becomes essential to understand correctly. So, yes, if you think you have a flair for languages and want to experiment with one of the foreign languages, rest assured you will be able to find work later. Knowledge of a new language can open exciting possibilities to a satisfying and well-paying career. With the increasing number of courses on offer and registrations for courses going up, it is already being seen that the demand is going up.
There are work options in the organised sector, but a lot of the work goes uncharted in the unorganised sector. A large amount of work happens in the unorganised sector, with personal coaching and tutoring for groups.
To get there
One has to understand that without formal training in the language, you cannot move ahead. So yes, you have to pursue a course – even if you take one online. Within the city, there are many options to learn various languages, and in some of these languages the University of Mumbai offers a degree. However, a degree is not as necessary in this field as much as knowledge is.
Several kinds of courses available can be pursued along with another formal degree. The eligibility should be looked into depending on the language, and apply accordingly. Needless to say, to apply for a degree programme you need to have passed your class 12 exams and then can apply for an undergraduate programme which will then pave the way for a postgraduate programme for those who wish to study further.
Often, aspirants join the primary level of a particular language course and then go ahead with each advance level. These are courses offered by established private institutes, and can offer a tremendous amount of exposure to the students. These are diploma and certificate courses.
Candidates should however look into certain personality traits that might be helpful to make a career in this field. You should have a sense of responsibility since one wrong word in a translation could make or break things. Apart from that, you should have a pleasing personality and excellent verbal and non-verbal communication skills since you will be working with people all the time. It is your skill that will matter in the end, if you win over one client, you are bound to get more work by way of personal recommendation and word-of-mouth.
The advantage is that there is no timeline (like regular degree programmes) to learning a new language, it can be done at any time. A few institutes in Mumbai include:
French – Alliance Française de Bombay, New Marine Lines (with other centres)
German – Goethe-Institut, Max Muller Bhavan, Kala Ghoda
Chinese – India China Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Andheri
Spanish – Instituto Hispania, Mumbai; Academia Espanol, Khar
Russian – Russian Centre for Science & Culture, Pedder Road; Dept of Russian, University of Mumbai, Kalina
Japanese – Sensei Academy of Japanese Language, Kandivali; Consulate General of Japan in Mumbai, Cumballa Hill
Italian – Indo-Italian Chamber of Commerce, Andheri
A student says
Shabana Khan, Pursuing his diploma in German
It is a myth that a foreign language is difficult to grasp. I feel that for most Indians, this would not be a problem since we already know at least two languages including English and Hindi. If we can appreciate that each language has its own rules of grammar, spelling and sentence construction, the learning becomes easier. All you need is to get out of the ‘marks mentality’ and focus on the learning. If you are determined, nothing can stop you!
Although I speak Hindi and English very well, my Marathi and Urdu are passable. I started learning German last year, and I am enjoying the process thoroughly, even if it does get taxing at times. German grammar poses a lot of challenges, and initially I found it difficult to translate my thoughts from English to German and vice versa. Slowly and gradually, instead of translating, I started thinking in German and planning my sentences in the language. It was difficult at first, but as I got the hang of it, it became easier. That is one of the most important aspects of learning a new language, I think. The faster you start thinking in that language, the better it will be. Think about it – when you talk in your mother tongue, do you need to translate from another language?
Market and remuneration
With business opportunities growing across border, aspirants can choose from several work profiles. Once you start mastering the language, you can work as an interpreter, where you are a part of a live conversation and articulating each party’s thoughts to the other. Other than that, there are options for translators, where in even the written word matters a lot, especially for documents and short articles. Google translate does not work everywhere! For this work profile, it really helps if you also pick up the nuances of the cultures and the country where the language originates.
In India, it is possible to offer integrated services all in one package for each language, and so these providers need to employ trained professionals. Options exist with the respective consulates and also other agencies which deal in this kind of work. Several of the institutes which offer courses also have work demands where an aspirant can fit in. In the education sector there are openings for teachers and trainers.
If you get good, there are also options to travel to these far-off lands with your job. There are openings for translators and interpreters to travel with business heads. A whole new area as opened up where several experts are offering cultural trips to these cities and learning the language and culture through these trips.
In fact, even students need translations often, especially foreign students for their research work. There are many organisations which provide dedicated services to this effect and so there are options there as well.
The remuneration will be in accordance to the work expected. The field, overall is a well-paying one. Professionals can earn Rs. 35,000 to Rs. 60,000 pm, depending on the work profile.
An aspirant asks
Ayesha Menon, TYBA student
I have already done a few levels of French and have some exposure to German from learning it during junior college. I am also trying to pick up a bit of Spanish via a learning app, since I do not find the time to invest in a new course right now. My family keeps saying that it might open up a career option for me, but the general advice is that I should focus on one language only, rather than dip my feet in many waters. Is that true?
Our counsellor answers: That is a very unique problem you have there, and my thoughts match with the other professionals I spoke to about this. I think you do not need to fear about that right now. At this stage, if you are able to focus on two or more languages at the same time, you should. You never know what opportunities might come your way later! Of course the advice you have is not wrong, since mastering one language will make you more powerful in it, but that does not mean you do not have the potential in another language! In fact, I know of a foreign language teacher who has mastered 18 languages!
I feel that you should be focussed on what you want to do in future and network your way around the institutes you study in, and look up the internet for options and opportunities. I strongly advise you to continue your pursuits of all the languages!
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The online news portal of TV5
MANILA - President Aquino denies the widely reported "aloofness" between himself and Chinese President Xi Jinping during their ceremonial march Wednesday on the way to the APEC Business Advisory Council dialogue with Leaders at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC).
They simply were unable to talk because of the lack of a translator, President Aquino explains.
"Hindi aloof. Talagang kapag wala si translator, walang dialogue (It wasn't a case of us being aloof. It's just that if there's no translator, there can be no dialogue)," Aquino told reporters in Kuala Lumpur at the weekend a coffee chat, which he holds with the press at the end of every foreign trip.
Aquino was in Malaysia for the 29th ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) summit.
During the ceremonial march, Aquino led the APEC leaders to the venue. Xi followed him, along with Chilean President Michelle Bachelet. They were positioned alphabetically, according to his or her country.
Aquino could be seen speaking with Bachelet, while Xi remained silent next to them.
(Read more: VIDEO, #APEC2015 | Aquino and Xi have 2 minutes to mingle)
"I don't know this for a fact, but every time we would interact, there was always an interpreter. Like, if I tell him, 'Good morning,' he would reply to me in Chinese. When we were walking to the function, there was no one next to me – he had no interpreter, and I had no interpreter. President Bachelet was in between us. So it's really a bit hard for you to talk if you use different languages, right?" Aquino said during the coffee chat.
The Philippine President also disclosed the occurrence of a "minor technical difficulty" during one of the sessions during the retreat on Thursday.
Xi was supposed to speak first, but the Chinese translator was unable to immediately use the "priority microphone", thus delaying his speech.
"What was explained to me was, there's a button that you have to push. For example, if you're the Chinese translator, the priority mic is yours, and all the other translators will listen to you and translate it into other languages. But one of the other translators pressed the 'main mic' which feeds to the others," Aquino narrated.
The Chinese translator was then bumped off to another audio channel, causing a mix-up in audio channels. The economic leaders were unable to find the English audio channel, and Xi had to pause while making his speech.
"Of course we were a little embarrassed by that," Aquino said.
He said he apologized to Xi afterwards at lunch.
"I approached him and explained to him what was explained to me. Then he replied, 'Those are technical problems, and such things really happen wherever you are.' In the end, there was no blame. It was like he was even saying thank you for the explanation. That's how I understood it. He accepted that we had no bad intentions," Aquino said.
In fact, Aquino quoted the Cabinet Secretary who saw Xi off as saying the Chinese President expressed his thanks, as well as a desire to return to the Philippines immediately.
VIDEO, #APEC2015 | Aquino and Xi have 2 minutes to mingle
By: InterAksyon.com | Video Report by JV Arcena
November 18, 2015 5:16 PM
President Aquino and President Xi Jinping are seen in file photo at last year's APEC leaders meeting.
The online news portal of TV5
MANILA, Philippines – (UPDATED W/VIDEO) President Benigno Aquino III and Chinese President Xi Jinping had two minutes to mingle before their ceremonial march Wednesday to open the 2015 APEC Business Advisory Council dialogue with Leaders at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC).
According to Presidential Communications Secretary Herminio Coloma Jr., Aquino greeted Xi and welcomed him to the country.
“Welcome, President Xi. Thank you for coming to Manila and attending the APEC meeting,” Aquino told Xi.
Aquino then motioned to the Chinese leader to join the other heads of state as they walked to the ABAC dialogue.
As president of the host country, Aquino led the world leaders as they walked to the venue, followed closely by Chilean President Michelle Bachelet and China’s Xi. The leaders were positioned alphabetically, according to his or her country.
As they walked, Aquino could be seen having an exchange with Bachelet, as Xi followed.
US President Barack Obama did not join the opening ceremony. Coloma said the US leader will be coming to the PICC to join the Pacific Alliance meeting.
The Philippines and China are among six claimants in the South China Sea, but their dispute has drawn international attention because it's only Manila that brought a case to the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, seeking definition of maritime entitlements under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
The tribunal has scheduled for Nov. 24-30 the hearings on the merits, after ruling recently that it has jurisdiction over the case.
In his speech at the ABAC Wednesday, Aquino enjoined the world leaders to “work together …more intelligently and efficiently to meet the challenges of our increasingly globalized milieu.”
He said the APEC summit would also be a venue to discuss topics that impact on the lives of the people, such as the member-nations' next step towards a Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific (FTAAP); the pursuit of region-wide growth through services; the expansion of infrastructure finance; the advancement of micro-small-medium enterprises growth; and, the promotion of sustainable development.
HERE'S NEWS5 VIDEO REPORT BY JV ARCENA:
• NO SNUB | PNoy: Lack of translator prevented conversation with Xi
• Experts: Gains of P30-B APEC hosting not all readily quantifiable
• APEC assures sustaining war vs. wildlife trafficking
• Tanim-Bala mood returns to NAIA
• PHOTOS, BALIK LIWASAN | Herded street persons jump 'detention' at Boys Town
• ASEAN SUMMIT | Malaysia urges world leaders to confront Islamist extremists
• Gains from PH's 2015 APEC hosting more than compensate for losses: Palace
• Police to file charges against APEC protesters
• APEC2015 | Grassroots say impact of summit imperceptible
• APEC2015 | Obama departs for Kuala Lumpur
NO SNUB | PNoy: Lack of translator prevented conversation with Xi
Experts: Gains of P30-B APEC hosting not all readily quantifiable
APEC assures sustaining war vs. wildlife trafficking
Tanim-Bala mood returns to NAIA
PHOTOS, BALIK LIWASAN | Herded street persons jump 'detention' at Boys Town
ASEAN SUMMIT | Malaysia urges world leaders to confront Islamist extremists
Gains from PH's 2015 APEC hosting more than compensate for losses: Palace
Police to file charges against APEC protesters
APEC2015 | Grassroots say impact of summit imperceptible
APEC2015 | Obama departs for Kuala Lumpur
OTHER NATIONAL STORIES
David sues for SET reconsideration on Poe DQ ruling
NO SNUB | PNoy: Lack of translator prevented conversation with Xi
Experts: Gains of P30-B APEC hosting not all readily quantifiable
ASEAN Community launch means faster, focused cooperation on security issues, disasters - PNoy
Napolcom pressed by victim's kin: resolve cases vs cops in Ampatuan massacre
David sues for SET reconsideration on Poe DQ ruling
NO SNUB | PNoy: Lack of translator prevented conversation with Xi
Experts: Gains of P30-B APEC hosting not all readily quantifiable
ASEAN Community launch means faster, focused cooperation on security issues, disasters - PNoy
Napolcom pressed by victim's kin: resolve cases vs cops in Ampatuan massacre
NAPOLCOM sets up new anti-narcotics group
Suspect in Bulacan judge ambush-slay killed
Customs issues memo on role of BOC personnel at PEZA, Ecozone processes
China says won't cease building on South China Sea isles
Poe seeks to revisit the nuts and bolts of the new gov't salary scheme
What's for breakfast? New Nestlé book shares two-step recipes for healthy morning meals
FAMILY MATTERS | Current laws challenge families in dealing with drug abuse
VIDEO | Parents better watch out: Watchdog lists worst toys for Holiday 2015
OFW HERO | Pinoy seafarer honored in UK for bravery at sea
Northern Samar judge gunned down in cockpit, killer slain by security aide
By Susan K. Livio | NJ Advance Media for NJ.com
Email the author | Follow on Twitter
on November 23, 2015 at 2:45 PM
TRENTON — An East Orange medical rehabilitation center has paid $35,000 to a hearing-impaired patient for denying him a sign language interpreter he requested numerous times during a lengthy stay last year, acting Attorney General John J. Hoffman said.
During his 39-day admission at the Park Crescent Healthcare & Rehabilitation Center in East Orange in March 2014, Thomas Snyder of Newark and his sister repeatedly asked for an American Sign Language interpreter, but the facility staff said no, according to the attorney general's office. A social worker at the center also made the request on Snyder's behalf.
Snyder complained to the state Division on Civil Rights in June 2014, explaining he was unable to ask meaningful questions about his treatment. Snyder's sister told investigators that not having an "ASL" interpreter caused her brother to experience confusion and anxiety, and that his comprehension was often "blurry and sketchy," officials said.
MORE: Therapist for autistic kids accused of bilking Medicaid out of $9K
In his office's investigation, Division Director Craig T. Sashihara, Park Crescent learned the facility managers believed he appeared to be able to communicate well enough by writing things down. The division issued a probable cause finding against the center in November 2014.
In addition to paying Snyder, Park Crescent has also agreed to assess every new patient to determine whether they need special accommodations, use a conspicuous label highlighting their needs, and identify an employee who will be charge of these efforts. The facility is barred from charging patients extra fees for these services, according to Hoffman's statement.
A call to Park Crescent was not immediately returned.
"This is an important settlement, not only for the individual whose request for an ASL interpreter was not accommodated, but for deaf and hard of hearing persons across New Jersey," Hoffman said. "Simply put, caregiver facilities do not get to be the sole arbiter of what communication method is best for their deaf and hard of hearing patients. That is not how the law works in our state, and we're hopeful this case will serve as a reminder of that fact to other patient care facilities."
Susan K. Livio may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Follow her on Twitter @SusanKLivio. Find NJ.com Politics on Facebook.
A judgement requiring Facebook to make major changes to privacy settings in Belgium has been delayed while the court document is translated into English, the BBC has learned.
The case, brought by the Belgian Privacy Commission (BPC), required the social network to stop tracking non-users immediately or face a fine.
It was handed down on 9 November and Facebook was given 48 hours to comply.
Facebook said it was negotiating with the BPC.
"We met with the BPC and provided them specific solutions addressing their concerns about our security cookie. This cookie helped us stop more than 33,000 account takeover attempts in Belgium in the last month, and similar cookies are used by most major internet services.
"We look forward to resolving this without jeopardising people's safe and secure access to Facebook," said Alex Stamos, chief security officer, in a statement.
A spokeswoman for the BPC told the BBC the judgement had yet to be formally served to Facebook because it is "waiting for an English translation" of the 33 pages.
The case hinged on a tracking cookie that Facebook has used for the last five years.
Research commissioned by the Belgian privacy authority found that non-members who visited a facebook.com page had the datr cookie downloaded on to their browser.
The court agreed that Facebook should remove the cookie for non-members and said that, if Facebook failed to comply, it could face fines of up to 250,000 euros (£180,000) per day.
Meanwhile, Facebook's battles with privacy campaigner and Austrian law student Max Schrems continued as a case he is pursuing against the company reached the Austrian supreme court.
It will decide whether Mr Schrems can bring a class action suit against the social networking firm.
He is seeking to add one of his own complaints to thousands of others from Facebook users over alleged infringements of European Union privacy laws.
"It would not make a lot of sense for the court or the parties before it to file these claims as thousands of individual lawsuits - which we can still do if a 'class action' is not allowed. We therefore think that the 'class action' is not only legal but also the only reasonable way to deal with thousands of identical privacy violations by Facebook," Mr Schrems said in a statement.
The Austrian court may choose to refer the case the European Court of Justice, which has already ruled in his favour in another case.
It found last month that the Safe Harbour agreement, which allowed tech firms to send personal data from the EU to the US, was invalid.
The High Court of Ireland - the country where Facebook has its international headquarters - is currently investigating whether the firm's transfer of EU user data abided by the privacy laws and offered adequate protection to European citizens from US surveillance.
Senior British Sign Language/English Interpreter & Interpreter Coordinator
Heriot-Watt University - Management and Languages
Salary: £30,738 to £37,768 Grade 7
Hours: Full Time
Contract Type: Permanent
Placed on: 20th November 2015
Closes: 18th December 2015
Job Ref: IRC1553
The post holder will interpret between English and British Sign Language (BSL) for staff and PhD students within the Department of LINCS and SML at Heriot-Watt University, and externally at lectures, research meetings and conferences; follow and give oral and written directions; demonstrate sensitivity to, and respect for a diverse population; maintain cooperative working relationships; and coordinate interpreting provision in LINCS/ SML.
Preparation to interpret and interpreting for staff and students within LINCS/SML and externally for teaching classes, meetings and research presentations, seminars and conferences.
Coordination of BSL/English interpreting needs in LINCS/SML in consultation with LINCS Head of Department and BSL section staff and students.
Administrative duties including managing the booking of in-house or freelance interpreters and related financial administration in collaboration with other members of the interpreting and administrative teams and delegating tasks where appropriate.
Liaison with Department for Work & Pensions regarding Access to Work agreements for staff, and with HWU Student Support Services regarding support for Deaf PhD students in LINCS.
Reviewing interpreting provision for users and other relevant duties as required by your line managers.
Supervising and managing workload of the part-time interpreter.
As a member of LINCS/SML staff, the post holder will be expected to fully participate in LINCS and SML activities where appropriate and in consultation with line managers.
Occasional contribution to teaching in the BSL/English Interpreting programme as appropriate and in negotiation with the BSL section head and programme/course coordinators.
Delivery of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) workshops for sign language interpreters as appropriate and in negotiation with LINCS Head of Department and the BSL section head.
Actively follow HWU policies including Equal Opportunities and Race Equality policies.
The post holder will maintain an awareness and observation of Fire and Health & Safety Regulations.
The post may involve travel to accompany Deaf staff or students to external events.
As duties and responsibilities change, other combinations of time commitments are possible. Weekend or early/evening work may be required, as well as travel outside of Edinburgh or the UK. The job description will be reviewed and amended in consultation with the post holder.
Please note that this job description is not exhaustive, and the role holder may be required to undertake other relevant duties commensurate with the grading of the post. Activities may be subject to amendment over time as the role develops and/or priorities and requirements evolve.
Applications from candidates who require sponsorship to work in the UK will be considered alongside other applications. However, candidates who require sponsorship cannot be appointed if a suitably qualified, experienced and skilled EEA applicant is available due to the UK Visas & Immigration requirements. For further information on this please visit the UK Visas & Immigration website: www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration/work-visas
For application details please go to: www.hw.ac.uk/apply-jobs
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