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15 Funniest Autocorrects Of The Month

15 Funniest Autocorrects Of The Month | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
If you've spent more than 15 minutes on the Internet, you're probably familiar with Damn You, Autocorrect, the site that curates the funniest texting FAILs uploaded to the web. And you wouldn't believe how many there really are.
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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guineepresse.info :: | Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…?

guineepresse.info :: | Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…?

Par Bellahimana LY


2015-02-27 07:09:04

Comme les Kurdes au Moyen-Orient et les Berbères au Maghreb et au Sahel, les Peuls constituent un grand peuple sans un « Etat foyer » comme disent les Occidentaux à propos des Juifs. Ils se trouvent dans la quasi-totalité des pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest et une partie de l’Afrique centrale.

Traditionnellement des nomades, les Peuls se sont sédentarisés pour former des Etats qui datent du Moyen Age : l’Almamiya du Fuuta Toro ( Sud de la Mauritanie et Nord du Sénégal de Saint-Louis á Bakel), le Royaume Fouladou (Haute Casamance au Sénégal, Nord-Est de la Gambie), l’Almamiya du Fuuta Jallon en (Guinée ), l’Empire du Macina (centre du Mali), l’Etat infaillible du Liptaako (Burkina Faso), l’Empire de Sokoto (Ouest du Nigeria , Sud du Niger et Nord du Togo et du Benin) et l’Etat d’Adamaoua (Est du Nigeria et Nord du Cameroun).

Seuls les Wodaabés en Afrique centrale (Est du Niger, Extrême Est du Nigeria et Cameroun, Tchad, Soudan, Soudan du Sud et Centrafrique) n’ont pas d’Etat foyer dû à leur activité de transhumance. 

Aujourd’hui aucun de ces Etats n’est une république indépendante et aucun mouvement ou groupe séparatiste ne revendique une quelconque autonomie. 

La langue peule

La langue peule et le Swahili sont les deux langues les plus parlées en aires géographiques en Afrique. La langue est appelée Pulaar dans la zone ouest et elle est appelée Foulfoulde dans les autres pays. Elle est comprise par tout le monde peul avec des légères différences. Il y a huit aires dialectales du Peul :

Pulaar Fuuta Jaloo (Guinée, Guinée Bissau, Sierra Leone),
Pulaar Fuuta Tooro (Nord du Sénégal, Sud de la Mauritanie et Ouest du Mali),
Pulaar Firdu (Casamance et Gambie), 
Fulfulde Maasina (Centre et Nord du Mali), 
Fulfulde Liptaako (Burkina Faso), 
Fulfulde Borgu (Benin et Togo), 
Fulfulde Sokoto (Nord-Ouest du Nigeria et Niger),
Fulfulde Adamaoua (Nord-Est du Nigeria, Cameroun, Tchad, Centrafrique, Soudan du Sud).

Le Peul n’est la langue officielle d’aucun de ces pays cités; comme l’est le Swahili, la langue officielle de la Tanzanie et du Kenya. Cela s’explique d’abord par le fait qu’aucune ville peule n’est devenue la capitale d’un pays ; ça s’explique aussi par des raisons politiques. 

Les Peuls sont-ils vraiment des gens méchants?

Les Peuls sont victimes de discrimination et de stigmatisation. Les autres ethnies ont “surtout peur” de la langue qui pourrait être selon eux un facteur de domination en Afrique de l’Ouest. Leur situation politique aujourd’hui est aussi le résultat de leur forte opposition aux colons. Les Blancs ont installé la méfiance dans les coeurs des gens comme ils l’avaient fait au Rwanda entre Tutsi et Hutu. Par conséquent, les Peuls sont accusés de racisme et d’égoisme.

Si aujourd’hui beaucoup d’Africains se vantent d’être musulmans c’est grâce à “Geno”  bien sûr, mais aussi aux Peuls, surtout ceux du Fuuta Toro appellés Haal Pulaaren. Une partie des Peuls d’Afrique de l’Ouest, ont été parmi les propagateurs de l’islam sunnite, notamment avec des personnages du clan Toroobed’Oumar Tall, comme Ousmane Dan Fodio et Muhammad Bello chez les Haussa, Sékou Amadou, fondateur de l’Empire Peul du Macina,et Amadou Lobbo Bari “Emir du Macina“, Modibo Adama, fondateur du royaume peul de l’Adamaoua. Les Peuls auraient dû profiter de l’Islam pour imposer leur culture aux autres.

Sur le plan socio géographique, les Peuls conquérants pratiquant le djihad sont des Peuls sédentaires et en bonne relation avec les populations avec lesquelles ils cohabitent. 

Les Peuls ont un large esprit d’ouverture et de partage, ils forment en général une seule communauté avec leurs voisins. Au Sahel, il est très difficile de différencier un Peul d’un Touareg. Au Nigeria, avec les Haussa, ils constituent un peuple appelé Haussa-Fulani. Au Sénégal, les Peuls et Sérères sont très liés, bref les discours politiques et la réalité sont très différents. 

Les Peuls très croyants n’ont jamais adopté l’esprit de vengeance ou de représailles.          « Ko muusi muusi ko fof » ils s’en remettent à Dieu. « Maa Allah ñaaw fof » Dieu jugera tout.
Le Président mauritanien avait prononcé ces mots à Kaédi : «… je suis heureux parce que les affligés ont fait preuve de magnanimité et d’indulgence, je suis heureux parce que Allah leur a donné le courage de surmonter les douleurs et la force d’essyer les larmes de l’amertume sans ressentiment… »

Les éleveurs peuls ont beaucoup de problèmes avec leurs voisins agriculteurs qu’ils soient Peuls sédentaires ou d’autres groupes ethniques. Les pasteurs détruisent sur leur passage les champs des agriculteurs cela engendre des incidents très graves, le plus grave est celui qui a provoqué un conflit sénégalo-mauritanien suite à la bagarre entre un éleveur mauritanien et un cultivateur sénégalais, par contre ils sont victimes des vols de bétails à main armée. Le plus récent événement remonte en 2012: des Peuls Burkinabés sont massacrés par des Dogons du Mali.

Situation politique par pays.

Sénégal

La situation politique du Sénégal est très stable. Les Peuls ont toujours occupé des postes importants, le président actuel est originaire du Fouta mais on ne peut pas dire que la situation est la meilleure. Dans les années 70-80 le Sénégal avait publié des statistiques en divisant les Peuls en 3 groupes (Toucouleurs, Peuls et Laobés) pour donner la majorité au Wolof afin que cette langue soit la première au Sénégal. Le défuntTidiane Ann tenta de s’opposer à ces données. 

Aujourd’hui parler Pulaar dans certains lieux peut relever de nationalisme voire du racisme chez certaines personnes. Il n y’a pas de tension ethnique au Sénégal mais la langue pulaar est en perte de vitesse. A la veille du deuxième tour de l’élection présidentielle 2012 des responsables politiques brandissent l’épouvantail d’une menace peule dans le pays en criant au vote ethnique. Heureusement le peuple sénégalais dans son ensemble est un peuple civilisé et mature. 

Cameroun

Les Peuls ne sont pas catégoriquement exclus de la vie politique camerounaise. Leur premier président était un peul, Ahmadou Ahidjo. Poussé à la sortie par les Français en lui faisant croire qu’il était gravement malade, quelques années plus tard il a voulu reprendre le pouvoir. Cette fois-ci il est contraint à l'exil forcé au Sénégal par Paul Biya. Les Peuls dominent le centre et le nord du Cameroun (Ngaoundéré) même si le pouvoir est aux mains des sudistes depuis plusieurs décennies.

Le fulfulde est la première langue du Cameroun, elle est véhiculaire dans tout le centre et le nord Cameroun. Les villes comme Ngaoundéré, Maroua et Garoua ont bénéficié des infrastructures modernes et de bonne gestion où ils pratiquent librement leurs traditions. Le pays est réputé être calme car il n’a jamais connu des conflits ethniques ou religieux. Les Camerounais se demandent si la dictature qui assure la stabilité n’est pas meilleure qu’une alternance démocratique qui installe le chaos.

La Guinée et la Mauritanie 

Ces deux populations ont un destin identique et parfois tragique.

En Guinée, les Peuls subissent un sentiment de haine qui remonte au discours scandaleux de Sékou Touré. Inquiet de la montée de popularité de Diallo Telli, premier Secrétaire Général de l’OUA, le dictateur sanguinaire invente un complot peul imaginaire. 

D’abord il interdit les bourses d’études aux enfants peuls, ensuite des gens ont été massacrés parce qu’ils portaient des patronymes Diallo, Sow, Barry, Bah… Des intellectuels peuls sont victimes d’exécutions en série, ce qui a fait le plus mal durant cette période c’est le fameux discours haineux, Sékou Touré appelle ouvertement au génocide peul….

M. Diallo [Telli] n’a pas perdu sa foi en « Geno » voilà un extrait parmi ces derniers mots: « Je suis croyant…je l’attends devant Allah »
Sept ans plus tard Sékou l’a rejoint dans l’autre monde.
Aujourd’hui, les Peuls souffrent de cette diabolisation et les tensions ethniques persistent. Les spécialistes parlent de risque de guerre civile tandis que les Peuls eux s’alarment d’un risque de génocide.

Ces tensions sont ravivées par les dernières élections présidentielles. Le candidat peul qui est arrivé en tête au premier tour avec 39 % a été éliminé au deuxième tour par une campagne « tout sauf peul » un résultat étonnant politiquement. Pourtant les peuls sont largement majoritaires en Guinée avec 40 % de la population.

En Mauritanie c’est toute la communauté africaine qui fait face à l’arabisation du pays. Les Haali Pulaaren sont la première ethnie africaine, ils sont particulièrement visés. Dans les années 80, ils publient un manifeste dénonçant le racisme et les discriminations. Par la suite le régime en place affirme avoir déjoué un coup d’Etat peul et saisit l’occasion pour commettre ce qu’on appelle une épuration ethnique dans l’armée et d’autres institutions du pays.

En 1989 un conflit sénégalo-mauritanien éclate mais le pouvoir est persuadé que les véritables ennemis sont les haal pulaaren, des milliers de foutankés chassés de leur terre, des tueries et des licenciements des fonctionnaires se multiplient sous le regard silencieux des oulémas et des chefs religieux. Le 28 novembre 1990, 28 soldats tous peuls, sont pendus pour célébrer l’indépendance du pays. 

24 ans après, la justice n’est pas faite mais les choses semblent aller mieux.
La communauté noire continue à dénoncer le pouvoir en place qu’il juge raciste fondé sur un système politique discriminatoire. Les nationalistes arabes veulent instaurer un Etat exclusivement arabe et tourner le dos définitivement aux pays subsahariens. Des mouvements noirs protestent contre ce système. Ces mouvements sont accusés d’être composés exclusivement de Peuls.

Mali

Les peuls du Mali sont victimes des conséquences du conflit entre les Touaregs et Bamako. Les Peuls cohabitent avec les tamasheqs depuis des siècles et ils partagent la même culture du Sahel. Durant les périodes des conflits, les Peuls sont pris entre deux feux, d’une part ils subissent les représailles des Touaregs les considérant avant tout comme des africains et d’autres part l’armée malienne commet des exactions sur des innocents qu’elle accuse de soutenir les Touaregs et surtout d’avoir massivement intégré les forces djihadistes du Mujao.

Les Peuls sont bien représentés dans la vie politique du Mali mais les tensions entre les éleveurs et les agriculteurs sont fréquents. Sous le régime d’ATT qui est élevé dans un milieu peul, l’Etat avait pris des décisions en faveur des pasteurs peuls mais depuis son renversement les tensons surgissent.

Guinée Bissau et Sierra Leone

Dans ces pays la situation politique est instable, ils souffrent des crises politico-militaires. Le président par intérim de Guinée Bissau est peul, le pays traverse une longue crise politique.
La Sierra Leone sort d’une décennie de guerre et la population peule y est minoritaire.

Benin et Togo

Dans ces pays aussi les populations peules sont minoritaires et occupent le nord du pays. Ils ne sont pas impliqués dans la politique de leurs pays, mais ils font face à des conflits frontaliers et des tensions avec les agriculteurs. La communauté peule au Bénin est déjà victime de nombreuses humiliations et brimades par les populations et les forces de l’ordre à cause de la mauvaise publicité qui leur est faite par certains médias et certaines autorités.

Il y a quelques mois, suite à un incendie qui a décimé un village, un ministre de la République parlant des transhumants, a dit publiquement devant une population en furie, donc vulnérable et facilement influençable : « Comme le Guépard, nos forces de sécurité et de défense sont appelées à traquer ces hors-la-loi jusqu’à leur dernier retranchement ». Ces propos ont été relayés par la presse béninoise.

Burkina Faso

Les Peuls constituent la troisième ethnie du pays, c’est l’un des pays qui n’a pas connu des crises interethniques. Dans la région du Sahel, le Fulfulde est enseigné, le taux d’alphabétisation est élevé, le fulfulde est bien représenté dans le pays. Selon la Constitution les habitants sont appelés les Burkinabè (mot invariable), où le suffixe « bè » désignant l’habitant en fulfulde (homme ou femme), le singulier est Burkinajo mais pour faciliter les choses le gentilé du Burkina reste toujours invariable.

Niger et Nigeria

Dans ces deux pays les Peuls sont indissociables des Haoussas, dû à leur attachement à l’islam. Au Nigeria, on parle plutôt d’une opposition du nord musulman au sud chrétien la religion est au-dessus de l’appartenance ethnique. Le pays a connu des présidents peuls et la langue fait partie des quatre principales langues du Nigeria (Haoussa, Foulani, Igbo et Yoruba).

Tchad, Soudan et Centrafrique

Les Peuls-Bororos ou Woddaabe vivent éparpillés dans plusieurs pays d‘Afrique. On ne connaît pas précisément leur nombre ni même où ils habitent parce qu’ils sont constamment en mouvement. Ce sont des nomades qui ne connaissent pas les frontières ; en plus des pays de l’Afrique centrale on les trouve également au Niger et au Nigeria.

Les deux Soudan sont déchirés par des guerres inter-ethniques, aucun groupe n’est épargné par les graves crises.
Au Tchad, le peuple peul est plus mal recensé compte tenu de son mode de vie qui est nomade. Les Peuls du Tchad sont souvent confrontés à des problèmes dus à leur activité, ils sont accusés de ne pas respecter les lois qui protègent la nature.
Le Tchad a connu une rébellion dirigé par un Peul, le Général Baba Laddé. Les organisations internationales dénoncent les exactions commises sur les populations peules, elles dénoncent également les violences des milices peules sur des populations civiles.

En Centrafrique, les Peuls vivent en ce moment une situation dramatique, ils sont victimes de série de massacres. Des rebelles venus du nord à majorité musulmane avaient renversé le pouvoir en place. Ces rebelles sont accusés de commettre des exactions sur les civils chrétiens. Ces derniers ont formé une milice Anti-balaka qui attaque les musulmans. Les Peuls constituent 70% de ces musulmans. Ces deniers jours la situation est particulière désastreuse: les Peuls connaissent une vraie épuration ethnique au nom d’un faux conflit confessionnel.

Depuis décembre 2013, au moins 100 personnes d’origine peule ont été tuées à l’arme blanche, parmi lesquelles beaucoup d’enfants, près de Boali, à 95 km au nord de Bangui. Les victimes, selon les sources, sont toutes des Bororos, membres de la minorité peule musulmane. 

L’avenir des Peuls

Notre culture dépend de la survie de notre peuple. A quoi bon une culture sans hommes?
Nous ne pouvons pas continuer à fermer les yeux et laisser nos proches se faire massacrer comme des mouches.
Nous ne pouvons pas continuer à fermer les yeux et laisser nos proches se faire exclure de la vie politique et des institutions de leurs pays.

Nous ne pouvons pas abandonner nos activités traditionnelles au nom des frontières artificielles, les Peuls ne connaissent pas de frontières, les lois doivent tenir compte de cette réalité.
Notre culture dépend de notre vie, ce que les Peuls subissent aujourd’hui en RCA, Guinée et dans d’autres régions est inhumain, personne ne peut dire que les autres ont subi la même chose, qu’il nous montre des preuves !

Contrairement aux Kurdes et aux Touaregs les Peuls ne cherchent pas à créer un Etat peul indépendant, en tout cas pour le moment mais plutôt à vivre dignement sur leur terre natale, c’est un peuple pacifique qui ne connait pas « la culture de guerre ».

La stigmatisation doit cesser partout pour une paix durable !

Le Peul est la troisième langue la plus parlée en Afrique après le swahili et le haussa, il devrait avoir plus de considération. On voit des radios et des télés internationales dédiées aux autres langues, pourquoi pas au peul aussi ?

La communauté internationale a le devoir de protéger tous les peuples, la question peule ne devrait plus rester un sujet tabou. 

Les lois qui rendent difficiles le pastoralisme des Peuls (comme c’est le cas au Tchad) doivent être modifiées.
Les Peuls doivent avoir une garantie de libre circulation et la communauté internationale doit surtout faire des pressions sur les régimes politiques pour faire cesser les persécutions.

Le problème est qu’il n’existe pas de véritable solidarité entre les Peuls. Les organisations et associations comme Tabital Pulaaku International ne font rien de concret à part les festivités et les réunions. Aujourd’hui, les pires massacres des Peuls sont en cours en RCA, que disent ces organisations ? Pourquoi elles ne réagissent pas ? 

Le combat n’est pas seulement militaire ou politique c’est aussi culturel, humanitaire… créer des télévisions et des radios peules pour promouvoir la langue et la culture, créer des organisations humanitaires pour aider ceux qui sont en situation vulnérable, accueillir des frères et sœurs victimes des persécutions politiques.


Bellahimana LY

Africpost 


 
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Star Trek technology that we use today

Star Trek technology that we use today | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
With the death of Leonard Nimoy, the actor who played Star Trek's Spock, we remember his character's legacy: The technology we use every day.
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Bill proposed to change public notices for voters

Bill proposed to change public notices for voters | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A bill introduced into the Tennessee House of Representatives earlier this month would modify how registered voters are notified of election aspects, such as changes, polling places and results.
By Xavier Smith xsmith@lebanondemocrat.com
Nashville
Feb 26, 2015
 

A bill introduced into the Tennessee House of Representatives earlier this month would modify how registered voters are notified of election aspects, such as changes, polling places and results.

House Bill 726, sponsored by Rep. Mark Pody and Rep. Mae Beavers, would require certain notices be made by U.S. mail to all registered voters instead of by publication in a newspaper of general circulation. The bill would also modify several sections of Tennessee Code Annotated relative to elections.

The bill would modify the publication of notice by commission or board section (TCA 2-1-110) by deleting the current text and substituting new language, known as the Voters Right to Information Act.

The proposed bill states when a commission or board established under the title would be required to convey notification of any meeting by U.S. mail. The commission or board shall notify all registered voters by U.S. mail in the county or municipality, as applicable, in which notice is to be given.

The notices should not be mailed less than two weeks prior to any meeting to give effective notice to the qualified voters in the area and notice that requires the same time frame for notification may be combined in the same mailing.

The act also abolishes TCA section 2-1-117, which defines a “newspaper of general circulation” as a publication bearing a title or name, regularly issued at least as frequently as once a week for a definite price, having a third-class mailing privilege, being not less than four pages, published continuously during the immediately preceding one-year period and is published for the dissemination of news of general interest to the community which it serves.

The act also changes the language “in a newspaper of general circulation” to “by United States mail pursuant to (TCA) 2-1-110 to each registered voter” in several sections of the Tennessee Codes Annotated.

TCA 2-2-114 states the election commission shall publish, in a newspaper of general circulation in the county, a notice of the exact location and telephone number of its office or offices and the hours and days it is open no later than 45 days prior to any election.

If proposed House Bill 726 is adopted, U.S. mail would deliver the notices detailing the information to registered voters–excluding nonregistered voters.

If the proposed bill passes, a sample ballot would not mandatorily appear in a newspaper of general circulation at least five days before the beginning of an early voting period and at least five days before an election. 

The bill passed on second consideration in the House on Feb. 18, and was assigned to the Senate Local Governments Subcommittee on Feb. 19.

 
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'Believe' based on NIV Bible translation

'Believe' based on NIV Bible translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
'Believe' based on NIV Bible translation
Book offers 10 key beliefs, practices and virtues of the Christian faith

Posted: February 27, 2015 - 4:29pm

SUBMITTED
The cover of "Believe" by Randy Frazee.


By Phil Anderson
phil.anderson@cjonline.com
If you are looking for a fresh new way to read the Bible, you might want to consider “Believe: Living the Story of the Bible to Become Like Jesus” (Zondervan, hardcover, 507 pages, $24.99).

Taking readers through 10 key beliefs, practices and virtues of the Christian faith, “Believe” is an easy-to-read, topical abridgement of the best-selling New International Version of the Bible.

“Believe” is divided into 30 chapters that address one of three questions: “What Do I Believe?”; “What Should I Do?”; and “Who Am I Becoming?”

Randy Frazee, senior minister at Oak Hills Church in San Antonio, served as general editor of “Believe,” which is a follow-up to “The Story,” a chronological abridgement of the NIV Bible that presented the Bible as one continuous story from beginning to end — Genesis to Revelation.

As a companion to “Believe,” Frazee’s book “Think, Act, Be Like Jesus” (Zondervan, softcover, 263 pages, $15.99) explains how to people can grow as a follower of Christ and become more like him through their thinking, actions and character.
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Vice President Ansari releases Hindi translation of Dr. Dabholkar's books - newkerala news #25077

Vice President Ansari releases Hindi translation of Dr. Dabholkar's books - newkerala news #25077 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Vice President Ansari releases Hindi translation of Dr. Dabholkar's books

New Delhi, Feb. 27 ANI1 hour ago
Vice President Hamid Ansari on Friday released the Hindi translation of a set of books authored by the late Dr. Narendra Dabholkar, expressing sadness over the social activist's murder.



The Vice President released books titled 'Andhvishwas Unmoolan - Aachaar volume 1', 'Andhvishwas Unmoolan - Vichaar volume 2' and 'Andhvishwas Unmoolan - Siddhant volume 3' at a function in the national capital.

In his address on the occasion, the Vice President said that August 20, 2013 will be remembered in the history as a 'Black Day' when Dr. Narendra Dabholkar was murdered because he was trying to awaken people against various superstitions. He said that Dr. Dabholkar had advocated the Maharashtra Anti-Superstition Law, which was passed after his death.

Vice President Ansari also called for making the Anti-Superstition Law a national Law.

Dr Dabholkar, who had founded the Maharashtra Andhshrddha Nirmoolan Samiti (MANS), was shot down by two unidentified gunmen near the Omkareshwar temple in Pune on August 20, 2013.
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Lost: 225 million words in translation (with video)

Lost: 225 million words in translation (with video) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
In the past few years, the government has slashed translation activity by more than 30 per cent – forcing most independent translators to take radical steps in order to survive.
On another stone-cold January day in Ottawa, Jannet Soler is patiently organizing daily work assignments for dozens of colleagues at Masha Krupp Translation Group (MKT).

In her fifth floor operations room, Soler – head of client services – collects translation requests from the Canada Revenue Agency, Agriculture, Finance and other federal institutions. These give MKT the go-ahead for translating press releases, technical papers, staff documents and social media.

Part of Soler’s role is to match jobs with MKT’s most appropriate translators. There are 85 full-time specialists on staff, and most of them work in this small office tower along Merivale Road.

“We have all kinds of specialties,” Soler says, referring to company translators with expertise in taxation, science or finance. Soler also keeps track of which employees have translated what department’s documents in the past – to ensure consistency. And she makes it her job to know which colleagues are prepared to work late, or who can be persuaded to do so.

“We have a lot of after hours work because we are open 24/7,” Soler notes.


Advertisement

Jannet Soler of Masha Krupp Translation Services

Wayne Cuddington / Ottawa Citizen
MKT and its competitors exist in part thanks to the 1969 Official Languages Act and 1982 Charter of Rights – which guarantee the right to federal government services in French or English for millions of Canadians, most notably in the National Capital Region.

Yet, despite this legal and constitutional underpinning, the fact that MKT’s translators are still busy these days is something of a miracle. Few of this city’s workers have been hit quite has hard as its language geeks.

Five years ago, the federal government shelled out $265 million to make services available in English and French. Last year, it spent just $192.5 million. The number of words translated slumped even faster – from roughly 675 million per year to 450 million annually over the same period.

Stunningly, the public seems scarcely to have noticed. Equally astonishing, nearly all the industry’s decline has taken place on the backs of private-sector translators. The Translation Bureau – the federal agency responsible for the bulk of this work – has witnessed only a marginal decline in its activity.

 

There have been relatively few complaints about a lack of access to government services in either official language, according to Graham Fraser, Commissioner of Official Languages.

Fraser says he has discussed the drop in translation activity with Donna Achimov, the head of the Translation Bureau. The upshot: this so far is little ado about not much. Fraser’s office has had complaints about the translation policies of the federal courts as well as the decision of the Canadian International Trade Tribunal to post decisions in just one language. More recently, Fraser has called attention to unilingual tweets by federal cabinet ministers. But there has not been what you’d call a groundswell of discontent.

Vlad Fox, the owner of Fox Translations, says he can detect no pattern in the drop in volume. “It’s really been across the board,” he says.

So how has the government managed to lose 225 million translated words annually with few people outside the translation industry even noticing? Many things have contributed.

Smaller government means less paperwork – and fewer words. Companies and federal departments are also getting better at using technology to avoid translating the same words or phrases over and over again.

Some departments are using bilingual staff to avoid having to pay either the Translation Bureau or private sector translators. The words are still being translated, in other words, just not showing up in government’s statistics.

It’s also the case that the Translation Bureau until recently wasn’t very efficient. Inspired by multi-year budget cuts, that’s finally changing.

Official Languages Act

Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that any member of the public can communicate with and obtain available services from its head or central office in either official language, and has the same duty with respect to any of its other offices or facilities
(a) within the National Capital Region; or
(b) in Canada or elsewhere, where there is significant demand for communications with and services from that office or facility in that language.
In theory, the Bureau’s influence should be relatively small by now. Twenty years ago this April 1, the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien transformed the Bureau from monopoly to special operating agency – a move that allowed departments to bypass the Bureau and tap the private sector directly for translation services.

Federal managers had every incentive to do so: the Bureau charged significantly more than private firms, and was less productive.

Yet, surprisingly, the Bureau in 2010 still controlled the vast majority of the federal government’s translating business – most of it through its own staff (1,700 employees at the time) but also through a network of hundreds of private sector sub-contractors. Many of the latter operated out of home offices.

The rest of the industry – representing nearly $50 million in annual billings – was made up of dozens of private firms such as Masha Krupp Translation Group, Société Gamma, Fox Translations and CLS Lexi-Tech. These companies contracted directly with federal agencies — including Canada Revenue Agency, Finance, Parks Canada and Statistics Canada – willing to bypass the Translation Bureau in search of economies.


Translation services in the federal government

James Bagnall, Dennis Leung / Ottawa Citizen
When the Conservatives began squeezing government spending in 2010, private-sector translators were confident even more federal departments would take advantage of their lower-cost services. The independent firms offered easy savings – charging only 25 cents per word compared to more than 60 cents per word at the Translation Bureau.

Instead, something very strange occurred: the federal government slashed the amount of translation work by roughly one-third, and nearly all the decline took place in the private sector.

The Bureau achieved its dominance in part simply by keeping more translation work in-house. “As business volume declined,” a spokesperson for the agency says, “the Bureau reduced its use of private sector capacity and maximized the use of internal employees.”

That’s understating things. During the four years ended last year, the number of words translated annually by Bureau staff fell only marginally to 270 million from 277 million. Meantime, private sector translators operating under contracts assigned by the Bureau saw their workload shrink to 83.5 million words from 203 million over the same period.

At the same time, private firms operating outside the Bureau’s orbit lost nearly 100 million words annually – for a total decline of roughly 225 million words in the federal government’s purchases.


The National Capital Region is the epicentre for the application of the Official Languages Act. Government service in either French or English is guaranteed, forming the underpinning of the translation industry.

James Bagnall / Ottawa Citizen
 

The Bureau’s shift to using in-house staff has caused no end of pain among small firms and individual translators. This has become apparent during the Bureau’s ongoing efforts to upgrade its list of pre-qualified translators.

In order to be included on the new list, for instance, translators must show they have translated at least 300,000 words involving general and administrative federal text over the past five years. This requirement prompted the following response from a Bureau subcontractor:

“Many excellent and highly experienced French-English translators got less than that amount of work over the last five years because the Bureau basically stopped sending them work due to cuts,” the subcontractor wrote. “In some cases, such as mine, we entered into contracts for more than 300,000 words, but didn’t get the work. Some of us barely got 20% of the contract volume. The remedy is to go back farther in time and allow relevant experience in other fields to be used.”

The Bureau’s response: It would not amend the procurement. In a follow-up query by The Citizen, the Bureau said it had established the requirements after consulting the translator industry and that “close of half of the 124 pre-qualified suppliers are individuals.”

Translation firms working with federal departments that have opted not to use Bureau staff have not fared well either. “With this kind of drop (in federal translation contracts) everyone has had to make cuts,” says Vlad Fox. “We reduced our staff and restructured the whole operation in order to stay afloat.”

Why Google Translate is not yet a threat to professional translators, Example 1:

Original French in Le Parisien:
Kadyrov, qui dirige la Tchétchénie d’une main de fer, avait appelé à “une manifestation populaire et solidaire” contre les representations de Mahomet.

Google translates as:
Mr. Kadyrov, head of Chechnya with an iron hand, called for a “popular and solidarity demonstration” against depictions of Muhammad.

MKT’s Gerald Woodard translates as:
Mr. Kadyrov, who rules Chechnya with an iron fist, called for a “public demonstration of solidarity” against depictions of Mohamed.

Public accounts data suggests federal government spending on independent translation firms – that is, excluding the Bureau and its subcontractors – shrank by 50 per cent from 2010 to last year to $24 million. The number of words translated also plummeted.

Two of the industry’s better-known firms – CLS Lexi-Tech and Société Gamma – adapted by merging with much larger language industry multinationals headquartered in Boston and Paris respectively.

This leaves MKT as the largest Canadian-owned independent supplier to the federal government. It is run and owned by Masha Krupp, a former translator for the RCMP and Canadian Security Intelligence Service. The 23 year-old firm rose to fame on the strength of its 2004 win at the Canada Revenue Agency – which sends MKT more than $4 million worth of translation business annually.

Translation Bureau executives doubted the private firm could handle the job. That is, until MKT won the follow-up contract as well – which with extensions will run until late 2016. More than one-quarter of the firm’s nearly 90 employees are dedicated to serving the tax agency’s account.

Despite the stability offered by a few big clients, however, Krupp has also had to accommodate a shrinking industry. MKT’s employment levels are down from 2010 and the firm has had to drop prices in order to keep winning contracts.

“The price per word of translation has dropped significantly,” Soler acknowledges, “but volume has been increasing because we have more government clients.”

Indeed, the firm has landed enough new business to keep staff occupied and to justify pay raises. Last year, for instance, MKT won an initial two-year contract at the federal department of Finance valued at $1.4 million. This was at the expense of Société Gamma, the department’s longtime supplier of translation services.

Soler adds that social media such as Facebook and Twitter have also increased the demand for translation services, albeit at the cost of quick turnarounds.

“It adds a little bit to the pressure on translators,” she says, “but we make it happen.”


Krupp notes that her key government clients have been getting smarter about how they use her company’s services. For instance, they are organizing their translation projects so that more of them can be done during regular work hours at MKT – rather than in a rush over weekends when the firm charges more.

“There’s also less duplication,” Krupp says, explaining some of the reduction in translation volume. “Everybody is watching their pennies.” Indeed, the pennies can add up to very significant savings. Her biggest client, Canada Revenue Agency, paid MKT a shade under $4 million in 2014 – down 21 per cent from four years earlier.

MKT and its private sector rivals do not appear to be losing sleep at least over improvements in translation software such as Google Translate.

“Google Translate is good for getting the gist of something,” says Gerald Woodard, a senior translator with 13 years experience at MKT. “but you need a live person to go over it after.”

Translation software is usually too literal, causing it to miss idioms and misinterpret polysemous terms – words with multiple meanings. Indeed, the error rate is so high (see sidebar) that certain requests for proposals issued by federal departments prohibit the use of Google Translate.

“Until they figure out how to make software that thinks,” adds Woodard, “I’m not worried about my job.”

Why Google Translate is not yet a threat to professional translators, Example 2:

Original French in Le Parisien:
Ils étaient “plus de 800.000” manifestants, a affirmé à l’AFP le ministère russe de l’Intérieur tandis que les autorités locales, citées par les agencies russes ont avancé elles le chiffre d’un “million de manifestants”.

Google translates as:
They were “more than 800,000” protestors told AFP the Russian Interior Ministry while local authorities quoted by Russian news agencies, they advanced the figure of a “million demonstrators.”

MKT’s Gerald Woodard translates as:
The Russian Ministry of the Interior told AFP that there were “more than 800,000” demonstrators, while Russian agencies quoted local authorities as suggesting a figure of a “million demonstrators”.

But MKT and other private sector firms do face a tough longer-term battle with Translation Bureau, which is showing signs of getting its act together. The Conservatives several years ago gave the agency a mandate to “modernize operations” and cut prices “to be more in line with the private sector”.

While Bureau prices are still well in excess of those charged by private firms, the agency justifies the gap by offering “value-added services” such as “strong quality assurance”, certified translation for legal and engineering text, security clearances and lexicons tailored for particular government departments. Of course firms such as MKT provide similar services, suggesting that what the Bureau is really offering is a level of comfort – government agency to government department.

The Bureau’s prices are at least moving in the right direction – it expects it will charge 34 cents per word by 2020 compared to more than 45 cents currently. And it is certainly becoming more productive. Staff levels – which include interpreters and administrators, as well as translators – declined to 1,400 last year from 1,700 in 2010. The agency translated roughly the same number of words each year. The Bureau anticipates its head count will slide further to 1,100 by March 2017.

Nevertheless, the Bureau’s flexibility in trimming expenses is hampered by the fact its employees – unlike private sector translators– enjoy union rates of pay and benefits, and are members of the Public Service Pension Plan, which offers fully-indexed pensions. The agency last year shelled out $111 million in salaries and benefits, representing more than 80 per cent of the organization’s expenses, excluding what it pays to subcontractors.

The Bureau has coped with government cutbacks during the past several years by looking after its own staff at the expense of subcontractors. It some cases, federal departments have declined to move to private sector translators because they wanted to see the work stay with fellow public sector workers.

But there are limits to this approach. For one thing, it’s not clear whether the Bureau’s employees can or will continue to ratchet up their productivity. This could become an issue as the decline in translation activity finally reaches the stage where the government risks running afoul of legal and constitutional requirements – and the cuts have to stop.

At this point government managers will have to ask themselves if the Bureau’s higher rates are worth paying. This is the long-term danger facing the Bureau and its remaining employees.  In the meantime, the private sector translators are doing everything in their power just to survive.



jbagnall@ottawacitizen.com
twitter.com/JamesBagnall1
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Botswana: Government Committed to Preserving Languages

Botswana: Government Committed to Preserving Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Aobakwe Molefhi
Tsabong — Assistant Minister of Local Government and Rural development, Mr Frans Van Der Westhuizen says government is committed to preserving local languages.

Speaking at Middlepits recently during the commemoration of the national languages day, Mr Van Der Westhuizen said the commemoration was indicative of government commitment to ensuring that local languages do not disappear.

He said Vision 2016 also encouraged Batswana to uphold the spirit of unity, tolerance and respect through the appreciation of each other's languages and cultures. The assistant minister said it was in that spirit that government recognises that local languages need to be developed to enhance cultural identity and social cohesion.

He called upon educationists, publishing houses and researchers to help in the promotion and use of local languages, paying particular attention to local languages.

The assistant minister also applauded Batswana that unlike other nations they have progressed beyond tribalism and ethnic tensions which are normally caused by culture and language.

For his part, the representative of Kgalagadi District at Ntlo ya Dikgosi, Kgosi David Toto concurred with the assistant minister that there was need to preserve local languages as that would help preserve culture.

He urged attendees to learn each other's languages so that they live harmoniously.

Kgosi Toto said Kgalagadi District has different tribes which live peacefully because they have learned each other's language and culture.

Kgalagadi district has six major languages being Sengologa, Setlharo, Seherero, Sesarwa, Sekgothu and Afrikaans.

He said when people use their mother tongue they have a sense of dignity adding that different languages need to be taught at school, used as a medium of communication on television and radio so that everybody feels appreciated.

The theme of the day was, 'My Language, my Pride.'

Source : BOPA
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Karbonn Titanium Dazzle arrives with 21 Indian languages at Rs 5490 - TechShout

Karbonn Titanium Dazzle arrives with 21 Indian languages at Rs 5490 - TechShout | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Karbonn has released a new smartphone for the affordable market in India under the Titanium Dazzle branding and it’s touting the latest addition with support for a vast roster of local languages and at an attractive price tag. The handset has been launched for Rs 5490 and it tags along various software enhancements.

Android 4.4 KitKat is what comes preloaded with the Karbonn Titanium Dazzle and there are a lot of goodies bundled as well. With gesture support, you’ll be able to perform various tasks through simple swipes across the display, like skip songs. Then there’s Smart Eye which basically tracks your eye movement during video playback and pauses the screen when you look away.


The Karbonn handset will go up against the Micromax Bolt A82 and Lava Iris 465 smartphones, both also supporting various Indian languages. The device in question is the most expensive out of the three, but has its advantages. Firstly, it offers pretty decent looks where the rear has a dotted finish. It even packs some good hardware.

Also read: Micromax Canvas Selfie with 13MP rear and front cameras finally made available

The display is a 5-inch FWVGA IPS touchscreen and a 1.2GHz quad core processor delivers the steam. The Titanium Dazzle offers 1GB of RAM, while the aforementioned phones packed half the memory. And for storage, there’s 8GB internal and 32GB expandable. Apart from these features, the smartphone also comes with dual SIM support, HSPA+, a 5MP rear camera, a 2MP front shooter and an 1850mAh battery.

Karbonn Titanium Dazzle specs:

– 1.2GHz quad core processor
– 1GB RAM, 8GB storage, 32GB expandable
– 5-inch 854 x 480 pixel IPS LDC
– 2MP front camera, 5MP rear shooter
– Dual SIM card slots with 3G
– Android 4.4 KitKat
– 1850mAh battery

The Karbonn Titanium Dazzle is available in black and golden white shades.
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'Ride-share' and 'unboxing' added to Oxford dictionary

'Ride-share' and 'unboxing' added to Oxford dictionary | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
on IDG Answers
Will the addition of backdoors that enable monitoring hurt the adoption of...
The word was one of hundreds added in the last quarterly update to OxfordDictionaries.com, which is published by Oxford University Press. So take that, critics who insist that Uber and its ilk are technically ridebooking, not ride-sharing, apps.

[ Also on ITworld: 18 ways to get the most out of Android 5.0 ]
Other additions include bioprinting, defined as as “the use of 3D printing technology with materials that incorporate viable living cells, e.g. to produce tissue for reconstructive surgery.”

And unboxing, a favorite past time for Apple enthusiasts especially: “An act or instance of removing a newly purchased product from its packaging and examining its features, typically when filmed and shared on a social media site.”

That’s quite the definition, especially when Merriam-Webster’s defines “unbox” merely as: “To remove from a box.”

Merriam-Webster does not have a definition for ride-share. But Dictionary.com does: “an act or instance of sharing, rides or transportation, especially by commuters,” though with no mention of apps.

Oxford also added vishing, which is like phishing, but using phone calls or voice messages instead of emails to trick people in revealing sensitive information.
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Write, Rewrite, and Check | ATVN

Write, Rewrite, and Check | ATVN | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Every week we begin the day with a list of stories and a plan of the steps we need to take to cover them to the best of our abilities. So many people work on our newscast throughout the day, and the news never seems to stop developing or breaking. Copy editing and rewriting scripts is an essential job for every producer.

As the web/graphics producer this week my copy editing happened more towards the end of the day. As video producer it is impossible to check and edit every MJs script to perfection as video is waiting to be edited. I learned this week that because of this difficulty it is important for the web/graphics producer to double-check work that is being done before it goes live to air. The most effective way to copy edit is to read scripts out loud. After all, if you cannot say what is written coherently then your anchors certainly won't be able to!

It's always helpful to explain to your MJs how to write a good script based on a wire, but I've learned that another successful way of teaching newcomers broadcast writing is to have them try to figure out if a story reads well. Today, I had an MJ come up to me and ask me if a story sounded okay, and I asked him to read it out loud. Once he finished, I asked him the same question. He looked at me puzzled and said, "Wait, but that's what I'm asking you." I explained that if he came to ask me then he must have noticed something was off. I told him to trust his instincts and tell me how he would fix the copy. It was so exciting when he was able to correct the story on his own because I knew that the skills we are working on each week with our MJs are making a difference not only in our newscast, but also in everyone's performance as broadcast journalists.

As stories change and news develops it is important to go back and update scripts and social media posts. Today, we covered a car accident on campus, and as more information came in from DPS we all had to make sure that it made it into our story.
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The power of speech

The power of speech | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Toastmasters Club of Coimbatore brims with success stories

“A person’s success is directly related to his ability to communicate effectively. Don’t you agree?” asks a confident Neethu Harirajan. She is a member of Toastmasters Club of Coimbatore. Neethu works for a biopharmaceutical enterprise in Bangalore and also supports her father’s R & D unit in Coimbatore. “I travel all weekends, but never miss even a single toastmasters’ weekly meeting on Saturday. I’ve grown so much after every session!” she says.

Some years ago, Neethu, who has a passion for public speaking, was a very different person. She met with a road accident that shattered her confidence. She was gripped by stage fear. That was when Toastmasters came to her rescue.

Toastmasters Club of Coimbatore was founded by Sivakumar Palaniappan in 2011 with just seven members; today, they number 55. He began his career as an electrical engineer, and is an author, entrepreneur and pubic speaker. “My life took a turn for the better after I became a part of Toastmasters Club of Bangalore in 2007,” he says. That prompted him to create a platform for self development and growth here.

“We have doctors, lawyers, chartered accountants, professors, engineers, housewives and students among our members,” says Agilan Jagatheesan, the club’s vice-president. Senior-level toastmasters mentor juniors and help them prepare speeches and present them. The feedback is also immediate. “It is not easy to convince a group of people who come from different walks of life. That is exactly what makes speaking a rich and challenging experience in Toastmasters Club” says S. Sameer, an MBA student, who landed the highest paying job during recruitment in his college. He attributes this to the inputs and perspective gained from fellow toastmasters.

S. Karthikeyan hails from Keeramangalam village in Pattukottai. He studied in Tamil medium at a Government-run school. “When I figured out that I lacked English communication skills, I developed an inferiority complex,” he says. His boss took him to a Toastmasters meeting as a guest. He joined them. “In two weeks, I felt like I was part of a family. And, my second speech sounded so much better than my first.” His mentor is a student younger than him. “During my last speech, my mentor spent hours with me though she had exams the next morning. That effort inspires me to take the next leap,” he adds.

Almost everyone has had the experience of holding a mike, facing an audience and being completely at a loss for words. The speech they prepared so assiduously the previous night has deserted them completely. Many of them are scared to go back on stage after an experience like this, but that is the only remedy. One has to go back to the stage again and again. And the club offers a chance to its members to make those mistakes, correct themselves and go back to it again, without feeling embarrassed. With its well-defined protocols and scheduled speeches (prepared and spontaneous topics), it maintains a professional yet friendly environment for speakers to learn the art of public speaking.

All great leaders of the world have been great orators. Being able to communicate effectively to a mixed audience gives you a sense of power and confidence. The vision of Toastmasters’ is to work towards that kind of confidence which can make you a leader.

Keywords: Toastmasters Club of Coimbatore
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Slovenian man demands 591 pages of court documents be translated - at cost of £23,000

Slovenian man demands 591 pages of court documents be translated - at cost of £23,000 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Britain’s top family judge has rejected a Slovenian man’s demands that hundreds of court documents be translated into his language – at a cost of £23,000 to British taxpayers.

The father, who lives in the Midlands, but cannot be named for legal reasons, is locked in a legal row with a British council over his young daughter’s care, wanted 600 pages of text translated into his mother tongue.

Otherwise, he argued, he “could not participate” in a court dispute with crucial implications for his family life.

His lawyers argued that the £38-a-page translation cost should be shouldered by the Legal Aid Agency (LAA).

But Sir James Munby, President of the High Court Family Division, blasted the “striking” request and ruled that less than 10 per cent of the documents needed translation.

The judge made a “plea for restraint in the expenditure of public funds”, saying the amount of taxpayers’ cash available is “limited” and must be “husbanded properly”.

He added: “It is no good complaining that public funds are available only for X and not for Y if money available for X is being squandered.

“Money should only be spent on what is ‘necessary’ to enable the court to deal with proceedings ‘justly’.”

Sir James said the Slovenian resident, referred to as “K”, is embroiled in care proceedings with Warwickshire County Council over the future of his eight-year-old daughter.

K does not speak English but does have the benefit of a solicitor who speaks Slovenian.

It was agreed that some of the documents needed translation - at a cost of just over 10p a word.

But the LAA’s eyebrows were raised when K’s lawyers requested that 591 pages be translated - at a total cost to the public purse of £23,000.

The agency rejected the request, last December, saying: “It is accepted that if the client cannot speak or read English he does need to understand the evidence.

“However, it is very unlikely indeed that he will actually [need] to read such a large volume of the documentation”.

The case was referred to Sir James, who criticised the lawyers involved for submitting a bundle of legal documents which was two-and-a-half times the size of usual judicial limits.

He said there was “absolutely no excuse” for being unfamiliar with directions limiting the size of files submitted in family cases.
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Jose Mourinho Says He Doesn’t Want To Be Called A Translator

Jose Mourinho Says He Doesn’t Want To Be Called A Translator | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Chelsea boss Jose Mourinho has hit out at offensive comments labelling him a ‘translator’.

Read: Ramos Explains Why Ancelotti Is Better Than Mourinho

The Portuguese boss was labelled as a translator by former France coach Raymond Domenech, but Jose Mourinho insists that the title is offensive and thinks it is undermining the people who do the job professionally – adding that being able to speak different languages does help him.

"I think because I can speak five languages, it doesn't make me a translator,” he told Sports Illustrated.

"Don't call me a translator because that would be an offence to every translator.

"But it helps me, the fact that I can communicate.”

‘The Special One’ spoke about his first managerial job, where he was assistant to Sir Bobby Robson at Barcelona, and insists he was a good help to his then former boss, and said it gives him an advantage as far as instructions to the players is concerned.

"I was just trying to help my boss - the manager at that time - to communicate the best way with the players and the media,” he added.

“Even today with a Scottish coach by my side, I was communicating with Azpilicueta in Spanish, with Fabregas in Catalan, with Oscar in Portuguese and I suppose that he couldn't understand a word of what I was saying to the pitch."

The 52-year-old, who has coached in Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, is one of the most controversial coaches in world football.

His Chelsea team are currently five points clear of Manchester City at the summit of the Premier League, with just 12 games to go until the end of the season. They are also still in the Champions League, and play Tottenham in the Capitol One Cup final on Sunday.

Read: This Keeper Has Scored More Penalties Than Messi!

Do you believe that Mourinho is correct about the translator title being offensive? Let us know in the comments section below.
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Glace Bay woman sings versions of songs in 25 languages

Glace Bay woman sings versions of songs in 25 languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ranee MacIntosh entertains kids as Princess Elsa from 'Frozen'
GLACE BAY — A Glace Bay woman has such an amazing knack for learning other languages that she can actually sing certain songs in upwards of 25 different languages, and does so on YouTube.

© Sharon Montgomery-Dupe - Cape Breton Post Ranee MacIntosh, 20, of Glace Bay, relaxes at home in Glace Bay. MacIntosh has such a knack for languages, she can sing many in foreign languages including the song "Let It Go" from the movie "Frozen" in 25 languages.
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“I always liked languages and I always liked singing songs,” said Ranee MacIntosh, 20.

“When you put the two together you get something that impresses a lot of people.”

MacIntosh opened a YouTube channel eight years ago — at age 13 —  and a new channel two years ago. She has posted more than 200 videos over the years, everything from public appearances to songs in languages including Portuguese and Malay.

One of her most recent posts is the 25-language versions of “Let It Go’ from the movie "Frozen," which can be found online by clicking HERE.

MacIntosh, whose mother, Laurie, is a French consultant for the Cape Breton-Victoria Regional School Board, has been speaking French fluently since she was only three years old.

“I can speak a little Swedish and Portuguese too.”

She always had an interest in other languages and was only 10 years old when she got German and Japanese dictionaries.

“I always thought different languages was so cool,” she said.

“I use to whip out the Japanese dictionary in class and tell people random words.”

By the age of 13, her interest in singing increased and as a result she started listening to songs in other languages on YouTube and memorizing them.

It all started with The Little Mermaid song, "Part of Your World" when a CD came out in different languages.

“I basically know all the 42 or 43 versions inside and out now,” she said.

Then when the popular Children’s movie "Frozen" came out in 2013 she began working on learning it in different languages as well.

MacIntosh, a third- year French student at Dalhousie University who also studied Portuguese, never took singing lessons, but attended a few summer programs including with well-known musician Robyn Cathcart. She appeared in the musical "Oklahoma" in 2011 at the Boardmore Theatre at Cape Breton University.

One day her mother suggested, where she knew all these songs in French, to sing to the French immersion students at the local schools. Eventually MacIntosh also began singing to younger kids as well.

"With the young kids I sing in English because they wouldn't really understand about the foreign languages," she said.

“Sometimes with an older group that would be able to understand a little better, I will sing in multi languages.”

She visited several schools last spring and again at Christmas, including Greenfield Elementary School in Scotchtown, St. Anne’s Elementary School, Glace Bay, Shipyard Elementary in Sydney and Etoile De L’Acadie in Sydney.

When she visited the elementary children, she at first sangs songs from "Frozen" and slowly began adding even more magic, dressing like Queen Elsa.

Coincidently, the prom dress MacIntosh purchased for her boyfriend’s graduation in 2013 was similar in colour and style.

“It just so happened that even though I bought it long before the movie came out,  it was a similar cut and colour to the coronation gown she wears.”

Then she added Elsa’s "snowflake" accessories and the signature braid to the side.

“It became whenever I’m home I’d put on my dress and go sing to some elementary school kids,” she said.

Although she enjoys singing to all ages, her favourite group to speak to is those around age six or seven.

“Kids older than that, although they appreciate your talent, don’t find it quite as magical because they know you’re just a normal person under the dress. When your six years old, they see you as an actual princess who has come to visit your class.”

She gets lots of questions — and even a few hugs.

Some of the more observant kids will ask her why her hair is brown instead of blond like Elsa.

“Usually I’ll give them some sort of story that Elsa’s mom had brown hair and that Elsa would have had brown hair if she didn’t have her snow powers,” she said.

“Which conveniently explains two things — the fact I’m not using my snow powers and the fact I have brown hair.”

 

 

smontgomery@cbpost.com
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This Is How New Words Enter the Vernacular of ASL

This Is How New Words Enter the Vernacular of ASL | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Marissa Fessenden
SMITHSONIAN.COM
FEBRUARY 26, 2015
Languages change—they must. For example, even stickler grammarians have to admit that "impact" has gained popularity as a verb (even if it’s still annoying to some). The Oxford Dictionaries are always adding words: duckface, lolcat and five-second rule made it in December. As evidenced by that list, the internet is a cauldron of word evolution. And like all other languages, American Sign Language has to incorporate the phrases and terms that spring from it.

A story at Hopes&Fears explores exactly how ASL is incorporating all these internet-y words. Turns out, change happens pretty much like it does in any other language: New signs crop up and are shared and debated; some catch on. Eventually, dictionaries reflect the language change. The difference is that ASL doesn’t have one official dictionary, so the whole process is a little more organic.

Bill Vicars, who is hard of hearing and culturally Deaf, owns a company called Lifeprint that offers an ASL dictionary online. (There is a host of resources online to share signs.) He told Hopes&Fears:

First, I do a ‘literature review.’ I compare numerous respected sign language dictionaries and textbooks to see how the sign is demonstrated in those dictionaries. Occasionally, the dictionaries conflict with each other but eventually a dominant sign tends to emerge. After doing a thorough review of the literature it is time to interview a cross section of Deaf adults who have extensive experience signing… I make it a goal to ask a minimum of ten advanced Deaf signers how ‘they’ do it. The next stage of investigating a sign is to consider how the sign is done in other locations and decide which version is more widely used… The last stage is to post the sign online to my website where it is exposed to the scrutiny of thousands of individuals - many of whom then email me and tell me their version is better.

But not everyone in the Deaf community uses Lifeprint. ASL artist, actor and educator Douglas Ridloff learns new signs through different means. "We see various signs until one emerges as the agreed upon sign by a collaboration of the community," he explains. But still, it requires discussion until one sign emerges as the best. Sometimes consensus takes a while. 

Ridloff and one of his students, 12-year old Tully Stelzer, showed Hopes&Fears the signs they use for some of the new words. The list includes duckface, emoji and screencap. Both Tully and Ridloff have different signs they use, but the similarities are easy to pick out.

For example, their signs for "selfie" are rather intuitive. In the discussion, Doug tells Tully: 

My sign for selfie was a little bit different than yours. I did it by pushing the button on the camera, but our concepts are almost the same. It felt easy because it's almost like following common sense of what we do organically.

Once you've seen the sign for selfie, it's easy—even if you're not familiar with ASL— to catch"Mary" use a similar sign in this YouTube video as she tells the story of a photographer who leaned close to a squirrel for selfie, only to be jumped by the animal.

But other signs are still being sorted out. Doug wrote to Hopes&Fears that after showing his sign for "photobomb" to other members of the Deaf community:

It was deemed awkward because 'photobomb' is technically an action with several different possibilities," he wrote. "ASL is non-linear — a sign can incorporate several dimensions — temporal, spatial and numeral. For example, if a person is photobombing a crowd of people, this would require a different sign as opposed to a person photobombing another individual. This person also could photobomb within the foreground or in the background, which again would impact how the sign is executed. This also brings to question who the subject is — the person being photobombed, the photobomber or the photographer. The other challenge with the sign I presented is the fact that it involves too many moving parts at the same time, a violation of the grammatical rules of ASL. This is an example of how the democratic Deaf community breathes life into signs. My point is this: the sign I presented during the shoot at Hopes&Fears is only the beginning of a dialogue of an actual sign. In time, there will be a wholly accepted sign for the word photobomb.
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MNS activists blacken non-Marathi language boards of shops in Thane | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis

MNS activists blacken non-Marathi language boards of shops in Thane | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) activists blackened boards of shops which were displayed in non-Marathi languages, a day ahead of 'Marathi Rajbhasha Divas' on Friday.

The activists of the Raj Thackeray-led outfit went around Louis Wadi area of Thane city last night, blackening boards of shops which were displayed in languages other than Marathi.

They also warned shopkeepers to immediately change their boards to the Marathi language in addition to other languages.

Meanwhile, Thane Mayor Sanjay More presided over a function organised by the Thane Municipal Corporation to mark the 'Marathi Rajbhasha Divas'.

Several other functions were organised in the city to celebrate the occassion.
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Lexifone Automatic In-Call Translation Service to Be Featured on Sony Xperia(TM) Smartphones Worldwide via Sony Select

Lexifone Automatic In-Call Translation Service to Be Featured on Sony Xperia(TM) Smartphones Worldwide via Sony Select | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Lexifone Automatic In-Call Translation Service to Be Featured on Sony Xperia™ Smartphones Worldwide via Sony Select
SAN FRANCISCO, CA--(Marketwired - February 27, 2015) - Lexifone (www.Lexifone.com) plans to announce at the upcoming Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona March 2 - 5, 2015 that Sony Mobile Communications will be featuring Lexifone's app on Sony Select for a limited time. The company will be an exhibitor at MWC and will have the app available to the public. Through Sony Select, Lexifone's automatic translation service will be available on all Sony Xperia™ smartphones worldwide, putting Lexifone at the fingertips of millions.
"Sony is a worldwide leader when it comes to communication, and this partnership marks a significant new chapter for us," said Steve Dubnik, Lexifone CEO. "Through Sony Select, our groundbreaking voice translation technology and services are available to a huge number of people on premium Sony devices."
Sony Select features a handpicked selection of apps that are exclusive to Sony mobile phone customers. All content found through Sony Select is optimized to work specifically on Sony's Xperia™ devices.
All Xperia owners who register with Lexifone will receive 10 free minutes of fully translated calls, worldwide, via Lexifone CallOut™, plus unlimited free translation of in-person conversations via Lexifone's Talk Face-to-Face service.
"Our real time translation service is great for travelers, business people, expatriates, and any person who needs to converse with others who do not speak their language, either over a phone call or in person," continues Dubnik. "With the capability to translate 16 different languages across 500 global destinations, Lexifone is changing the way the world interacts and bridging the gap created by language barriers."
As Lexifone continues to grow as a leader in global telecommunication, the company is attracting the interest of prominent international businesses seeking partnership. In 2014, French telecom giant, SFR, partnered with Lexifone to offer an automatic, in-call translation service to French businesses looking for ways to improve their global commerce and telecommunications. 
"Our purpose is to improve global commerce by eliminating language barriers in a way that is easy for both parties involved in conversation and in business," says Dubnik. "As we grow, our goal is to include more languages and increase the number of countries and destinations to which we are able to provide our service. Lexifone's products are truly expanding the capabilities of worldwide business, and we are looking forward to what's next for our company and our customers."
About Lexifone
Lexifone is the world's only privately-held automated technology for in-call translation. Lexifone translates outgoing and incoming calls in 16 different languages on any landline or mobile phone. Both sides of the call simply speak their language and Lexifone will translate both ends of the conversation in real time. The company is headquartered in New York, with an R&D center in Haifa, Israel, and Business Development office in San Francisco, California. To view videos and learn more about Lexifone's service visit the Lexifone YouTube channel, the Lexifone website, or stop by booth 5E81 at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona March 2 - 5. For pre-arranged meetings please contact mwc@lexifone.com.
Image Available: http://www.marketwire.com/library/MwGo/2015/2/27/11G034416/Images/main-banner-large-1214332435423.jpg
CONTACT INFORMATION
Media Contact:
Itay Sagie
Vice President of Business Development
415-358-5236
www.lexifone.com
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Brésil, romance et numérique : interroger le métier de traducteur

Brésil, romance et numérique : interroger le métier de traducteur | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dans le processus éditorial, quelle(s) place(s) pour les acteurs
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Joe Madueria's Battlechasers Back As A Comic Book - And A Game - Bleeding Cool Comic Book, Movie, TV News

Joe Madueria's Battlechasers Back As A Comic Book - And A Game - Bleeding Cool Comic Book, Movie, TV News | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Years before The Walking Dead, Joe Madueira‘s Battlechasers was, along with Danger Girl, the non-superhero comic book that would sell better than the superheroes in comic stores. Part of Image Comics and Wildstorm’s creator owned line, Cliffhanger, the fantasy war comic saw nine issues published, getting later and later until it… stopped. But, as Joe moved into... Read more »
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This week’s new theatre

This week’s new theatre | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Antigone, London
Belgian theatre director Ivo van Hove has already made a name for himself here with an award-winning production of Arthur Miller’s A View From The Bridge, which recently transferred from London’s Young Vic to the Wyndham’s Theatre, WC2. Now the man most associated with Toneelgroep Amsterdam returns with an international collaboration based on Sophocles’s Antigone, which stemmed from the desire of Juliette Binoche to work in English. In Anne Carson’s new translation of the Greek tragedy, the French actor takes on the role of the woman who is determined to bury her “traitor” brother, despite the wishes of the new ruler of Thebes.

Barbican Theatre, EC2, Wed to 28 Mar

MC

Uncle Vanya, Leeds
Anya Reiss recently provided us with her updated version of Uncle Vanya at the St James Theatre in London, and now Samuel Adamson offers up his take in Leeds in a production directed by WYP’s associate director, Mark Rosenblatt. There are no stars but an ensemble of fine actors who should bring all the comic pathos necessary to a bitterly funny play, which charts the foibles of a family in a world where there appears to be no justice at all. It’s got one of Chekhov’s greatest speeches – Sonya’s final monologue – and is a play that manages to ask all the big questions: why are we here, and how can we be happy?

West Yorkshire Playhouse, Sat to 21 Mar

LG

Stevie, London
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Zoë Wanamaker in Stevie. Photograph: Shaun Webb
The suburban world of north London’s Palmers Green – one of battenberg cake, gossip and small sherries – could be straight out of Alan Bennett were it not so southern. Instead, it provides the backdrop for Hugh Whitemore’s play about the poet Stevie Smith. First seen in 1977 and made into a film starring Glenda Jackson the following year, Stevie is a portrait of a woman whose quiet life resulted in telling poems and novels that were far from genteel. The in-demand Zoë Wanamaker returns to the Hampstead Theatre in the title role, 20 years after starring in the multi-award-winning Dead Funny by Terry Johnson. This Chichester Festival Theatre co-production is directed by Christopher Morahan, and later heads to Chichester (24 Apr to 24 May).

Hampstead Theatre, NW3, Fri to 18 Apr

MC

Solace Of The Road, Derby
Holly has been living in care but now she’s been fostered. Her foster parents are well meaning but Holly can’t settle and longs for a home that really means something to her. So she sets out alone to try to find her mother. But will it be the journey rather than the arrival that provides the answers to Holly’s questions? The late, great Siobhan Dowd’s terrific road-trip novel is adapted for the stage by Mike Kenny and directed by Sarah Brigham. It may have been written for young people – and Derby Theatre is initiating a long-term project for teenagers around the show – but the play is so emotionally acute that it should tap into everyone’s memories of what it was like to be young: filled with longing and wanting to know where you fit in and belong.

Derby Theatre, to 14 Mar

LG

King Lear, On tour
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King Lear. Photograph: Nobby Clark
Beginning in Halifax before heading off on a UK-wide tour until mid-June, the Northern Broadsides company has invited Jonathan Miller to direct Shakespeare’s story of a family at war with itself. Brian Blessed may have been recently defeated by the mountain that is the role of the tormented king when he had to withdraw from a revival in Guildford because of ill-health, but hopefully the same won’t happen to Northern Broadsides’ artistic director, Barrie Rutter, who takes on the part in this production. Miller hasn’t directed widely in British theatre in recent years, but when he has the results have been well-worth seeing, including a fine Cherry Orchard in Sheffield and a very subtle and watchable Hamlet for Bristol’s Shakespeare At The Tobacco Factory season.

Various venues

LG



Blood Wedding, On tour
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In Federico García Lorca’s passionate nail-biter of a play, a wedding takes place, but during the subsequent party the bride disappears. Have the worst fears of the groom and his mother been realised? Someone once told Jenny Sealey, the deaf artistic director of Graeae (a company that puts differently abled actors centre stage), that “Lorca did not write Blood Wedding for people like you to be in it,” a remark that made her all the more determined to stage it. The result can be seen on stages throughout the UK – beginning at Dundee’s Rep theatre – in a new version by David Ireland that relocates Lorca’s 1932 play of passion and violence to the modern day.

Various venues

LG
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Donner sa langue au chat

Donner sa langue au chat | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Question de confiance.



Qu'elle soit de vipère ou de belle-mère, pendue ou bien échevelée, la langue qui sèche, qui ne trouve pas la réponse doit être abandonnée au félin domestique. Il en faut une dose de confiance pour confier un bien si précieux à cet affreux greffier capable de sournoiserie comme de fourberie.

J'ai commis l'imprudence d'agir ainsi, de me tirer la langue de dessous le nez pour avouer mon ignorance. Le matou s'empressa d'y mettre un coup de griffe, pour partir avec ce qu'il pensait avoir gagné. Je voulus garder ma langue et ne pouvant la mettre dans ma poche, je la remis aussitôt au fond de ma bouche. Hélas, l'animal m'avait vilainement blessé. La douleur était vive, je ne savais où me mettre, un trou de souris eût parfaitement fait l'affaire mais le chat n'y tenait pas !

Je gardai ma langue quoique bien sanguinolente, on eût pu la prendre pour une langue de bœuf. Je me jurai de ne plus jamais la confier à un animal, fût-il matois et capable de faire patte de velours. Et là stupeur, j'avais une griffe fichée au bout de mon appendice buccal. Que faire pour m'en défaire ?

Je tournai sept fois l'organe douloureux dans ma bouche, je refis la manœuvre dans l'autre sens plus vivement encore. Il fallait agir vite, je sentais ma langue défaillir, elle était fort mal en point, bientôt elle serait morte si je ne trouvais pas de solution. Le temps pressait, la langue était en feu.

Normal me direz-vous pour quelqu'un qui use plus que de raison de la langue de bois. Le tirage étant favorable, le feu prit à une vitesse qui me surprit et effraya le chat qui se sauva sans demander son reste ni sa griffe manquante.



Passa à portée de main, une langue qui fourchait. Elle s'empressa de jeter sur le brasier deux ou trois fourches de son sable pour éteindre l'incendie. Je l'avais échappé belle, le calme revint avec cette chaude alerte. Je voulus faire plus ample connaissance avec ma bienfaitrice.

Mais qui êtes-vous noble dame ? Je suis une langue de chez-nous, vigie chargée de surveiller les dérapages verbaux, les fautes de prononciation et les cheveux qui s'incrustent. J'avoue que jusqu'alors, un cas comme le vôtre, jamais je n'avais eu. Mais je m'en suis sortie à merveille, demain, tout le village en fera des gorges chaudes !

Je voulus pousser plus avant cette relation qui débutait sous un jour favorable. Mêler nos langues était mon but ultime mais la dame s'empressa de me tancer sans ménagement. Vous vous méprenez jeune homme (je sais que l'adjectif est usurpé mais il me plait de l'employer ici, vous n'allez pas faire les mauvaises langues), vous n'avez pas face à vous une dame qui se donne au plus offrant, ma langue est maternelle, nullement péripatéticienne !

Je la vis partir, fière et hautaine, sottement, je restai là, la langue pendante et le cœur en émoi. Quand soudain une quinte de toux me permit de reprendre mes esprits. Hélas le mal se répéta, je compris ce qui se passait : « J'avais un chat dans la gorge ! »

Échaudé par l'expérience précédente, je pris grande précaution pour me débarrasser de celui-ci. Je ne lui confiai rien de moi et me gardai bien d'écouter la devinette qu'il voulut me poser.

Vous qui avez écouté cette histoire, prenez garde de ne jamais prendre au pied de la lettre ces expressions étranges, notre belle langue française doit rester vivante, il vous appartient de ne pas la mettre en péril !

Lingualement vôtre.

 




Sur le même thème
Ne pas avoir sa langue dans sa poche
Le spectacle doit continuer
Y'a du beau linge !
Chroniques Kabyles : Akli
L'alphabet des ombres
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Apulée des temps modernes…: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com

Apulée des temps modernes…: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le département de langue et culture amazighes de l’université de Batna a célébré, hier, la Journée mondiale des langues maternelles, qui coïncide avec le 21 février de chaque année. Cette célébration s’est organisée autour d’un hommage à une figure auressienne qui s’est illustrée dans le domaine de la recherche : Nezzal Amor, qui a même été un précurseur dans ce domaine, toutes disciplines confondues : langue, toponymie, anthropologie, lexique… D’ailleurs, un livre consacré à toutes ces disciplines a été édité en 1961. Amor Nezzal, diplômé de la medarsa de Constantine et titulaire d’un diplôme en langue arabe de l’université d’Alger, a également obtenu une licence à Paris. Il s’inscrit comme auditeur libre en 1932 à l’École des langues orientales, passe l’examen d’admission en 1933 et obtient un diplôme de berbère. Il occupe plusieurs postes, par la suite, notamment celui de traducteur et de professeur d’arabe. Amor Nezzal a, en outre, collaboré avec André Basset sur un travail ethnolinguistique du parler des Ah Frrah, c’est-à-dire dans son propre village. Lors de ce travail de recherche, Nezzal s’est distingué par son travail de proximité méticuleux et professionnel ; il se mêlait aux assemblées des anciens, qu’il questionnait longuement, ce qu’il faisait aussi au sein de sa propre famille. Il avait un souci de transcrire la langue maternelle qui n’avait pas de support et c’est ce qu’il a fait, avec ce travail qui est toujours disponible et qui reste unique. Lors de cette journée d’étude et hommage, le docteur Khadija Nezzal Adel (également petite- nièce du chercheur) a présenté aux étudiants une brève mais intéressante biographie de cet amoureux du patrimoine chaoui, surnommé “Apulée des temps modernes” ou “l’érudit Juba”. Mettant en exergue à la fois ses textes et son parcours atypique, Khadidja Nezzal Adel a estimé que “tout semble intéresser le chercheur”, notamment l’architecture, le parler des gens, les noms des lieux, l’accoutrement, etc. Le docteur n’oublie pas de signaler que Amor travaillait “dans l’urgence”. “Il faisait un peu le pompier conscient du danger qui guette le patrimoine matériel et immatériel de son village natal, pour qui il avait un grand amour.”
En outre, le représentant du Haut-Commissariat à l’amazighité, Boudjemaa Aziri, a souligné que “le HCA accorde une grande importance à la fois à la Journée mondiale des langues mère pour la prise en charge et la promotion de la langue amazighe qui est la langue maternelle de quelque 30% des Algériens”. Et d’ajouter : “Le département de langue et culture amazighes, fraîchement inauguré, joue pleinement son rôle puisque on constate déjà que la prise en charge et la réhabilitation des grandes figures de la culture amazighe telles Amor Nezzal est au programme et c’est tant mieux.”
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£230k ACE grant for creative writing charity Arvon | The Bookseller

£230k ACE grant for creative writing charity Arvon | The Bookseller | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
£230k ACE grant for creative writing charity Arvon
Published February 27, 2015. By Caroline Carpenter
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Creative writing charity Arvon has received a £236,200 grant from Arts Council England’s small scale capital funding programme to support its plans for improvements across three rural residential writers’ centres.

The work, which will be carried out over the next year, will improve access, the learning facilities and the sustainability of the charity’s properties in Devon, Shropshire and Yorkshire.

Joyce Wilson, London area director for Arts Council England, said: “We are pleased to have been able to support Arvon through our small scale capital programme. Arvon’s rural residential writer’s centres in Devon, Shropshire and Yorkshire provide an important talent development route for young writers in England and this capital improvements project will enable them to build on this further.”

At Arvon’s Shropshire centre, The Hurst, the work will build on the renovation of the main house, which is the former home of John Osborne. It will include the transformation of an old dovecote into a ‘writer’s den’ as part of the plan to create a dedicated space for writers on retreat. Eco-pods will be created for writer tutorials at Arvon’s Devon and Yorkshire centres. There will also be improved IT facilities and audio-visual equipment, and all centres will receive better facilities to enable disabled writers.

Ruth Borthwick, c.e.o of Arvon, said: “With this investment and endorsement from Arts Council England we can be even better at what we do. Coming at a time of unprecedented diminution of opportunity for disadvantaged people across the country to engage with the arts, particularly in schools, we are especially thrilled that this support will help us enhance and sustain our vision.”

Arvon attracts more than 2,000 writers to its centres each year for residential creative writing courses and retreats, including school groups, community groups and individuals.
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Ways To Remedy Your Pathetic Writing Skills | ATVN

Ways To Remedy Your Pathetic Writing Skills | ATVN | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I can't remember for how many times I've brutally disagreed with people when they say Chinese is way more complicated than English. As a non-native English speaker, I'm still learning new vocabulary even though I've spent three years in the States. In the past 10 years, I've studied English, French, and Russian. Trust me, English is the most beautiful language on earth, but for writers whose mother languages are not Indo-European, there are just so many pitfalls behind its beauty. By saying "pitfall" I mean tricky grammar, strange language nuances, bewildering idioms, and other endless ways that will make your writing just doesn't sound right. So listen carefully, future MJs and producers who didn't grow up speaking English. Here are some thoughts and tools I use to avoid those embarrassing moments when your EP/professor can do nothing but sigh: "This needs to be rewritten..."


(Zihao Yang/Word Cloud)
Q: How do I make my tweets sound native and catchy?

A: Constantly reading. I was graphics producer on Tuesday. It could be a hussle especially when your tweets are not conversational and idiomatic enough. Make sure you follow as many media outlets as possible, and read their tweets. From Buzzfeed to New York Times, there are hundreds of ways of telling the same story. For example, today South Korea puts an end to its adultery law. The Associated Press tweeted "South Korea court abolishes 63-year-old law that says extramarital affairs are illegal", while los Angeles Times tweeted "In South Korea, married cheaters are no longer law-breakers". See the difference? One sounds pretty formal and the other is conversational, because news organizations have different tones when conveying information. For ATVN, I tend to make our Facebook posts and tweets more accessible to people of our age, so read as much as you can will help you ace it on social media.

Q: I just can't tell any difference among "tell", "speak", "talk", and "say". What should I do?

A: First, you should be shameful if you cannot tell the difference. But the point is, language nuance is something you can't avoid when writing a story. Sufficient amount of reading will help you improve your writing skills, but when you are not sure about your word choice, don't hesitate to ask your teammates or professor. Also, look up examples on legend news orgnizations when you are uncertain about a word or a phrase, and see what descriptions they used to tell a similar story. I usually got "A"s or "A-"s on my academic essays, but when it comes to news writing, my scripts sometimes seem like to be written by some amateur middle schoolers. I think that's because I was trained to write long, formal sentences when I learned English, but TV news writing is a totally different style. What I normally do to improve my news writing skills is to do mini exercises on weekends. Pick several random stories from newspapers and adapt them to TV version. Don't be lazy. Laziness is evil.

Q: How do I copy edit a story if I'm not a native speaker?

A: When MJs come to me asking for writing tips, sometimes I don't even know where to start, honestly speaking. But there are certain things you can always do. First, I would check what facts are included in the script and see if they flow. Always check if an SOT is introduced, make sure an INTRO doesn't give out too much, and judge whether a TAG is necessary. Then, you should go over spelling and punctuactions with MJs because you don't want to make such mistakes. When it comes to style (oh that's my weakest weekness), I'll ask help from Rebecca and sit down together to troubleshoot. Always remember you have a team behind you, and they are always ready to help you out.

Q: What if I'm just feeling upset... ?

A: Don't be upset! Confidence is king! I used to have that bad feeling because I thought I was such a bad writer. I'll never forget when I got a fail alert in my sophomore-year broadcast writing class since my script was so crappy. But through reading and exercising, I finally got an A in that class. In retrospect, I don't even think grades matter that much any more. The point is the process of improving, investing your time and gaining confidence. And I'm still working on building up self-confidence. I really hope this short blog post would help if you are also struggling with writing.
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The word-hoard: Robert Macfarlane on rewilding our language of landscape

The word-hoard: Robert Macfarlane on rewilding our language of landscape | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Làirig – ‘a pass in the mountains’ (Gaelic). Photograph: Rosamund Macfarlane
Robert Macfarlane
Friday 27 February 2015 11.30 GMT Last modified on Friday 27 February 2015 11.52 GMT
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Eight years ago, in the coastal township of Shawbost on the Outer Hebridean island of Lewis, I was given an extraordinary document. It was entitled “Some Lewis Moorland Terms: A Peat Glossary”, and it listed Gaelic words and phrases for aspects of the tawny moorland that fills Lewis’s interior. Reading the glossary, I was amazed by the compressive elegance of its lexis, and its capacity for fine discrimination: a caochan, for instance, is “a slender moor-stream obscured by vegetation such that it is virtually hidden from sight”, while a feadan is “a small stream running from a moorland loch”, and a fèith is “a fine vein-like watercourse running through peat, often dry in the summer”. Other terms were striking for their visual poetry: rionnach maoim means “the shadows cast on the moorland by clouds moving across the sky on a bright and windy day”; èit refers to “the practice of placing quartz stones in streams so that they sparkle in moonlight and thereby attract salmon to them in the late summer and autumn”, and teine biorach is “the flame or will-o’-the-wisp that runs on top of heather when the moor burns during the summer”.

The “Peat Glossary” set my head a-whirr with wonder-words. It ran to several pages and more than 120 terms – and as that modest “Some” in its title acknowledged, it was incomplete. “There’s so much language to be added to it,” one of its compilers, Anne Campbell, told me. “It represents only three villages’ worth of words. I have a friend from South Uist who said her grandmother would add dozens to it. Every village in the upper islands would have its different phrases to contribute.” I thought of Norman MacCaig’s great Hebridean poem “By the Graveyard, Luskentyre”, where he imagines creating a dictionary out of the language of Donnie, a lobster fisherman from the Isle of Harris. It would be an impossible book, MacCaig concluded:

A volume thick as the height of the Clisham,

A volume big as the whole of Harris,

A volume beyond the wit of scholars.

The same summer I was on Lewis, a new edition of the Oxford Junior Dictionary was published. A sharp-eyed reader noticed that there had been a culling of words concerning nature. Under pressure, Oxford University Press revealed a list of the entries it no longer felt to be relevant to a modern-day childhood. The deletions included acorn, adder, ash, beech, bluebell, buttercup, catkin, conker, cowslip, cygnet, dandelion, fern, hazel, heather, heron, ivy, kingfisher, lark, mistletoe, nectar, newt, otter, pasture and willow. The words taking their places in the new edition included attachment, block-graph, blog, broadband, bullet-point, celebrity, chatroom, committee, cut-and-paste, MP3 player and voice-mail. As I had been entranced by the language preserved in the prose‑poem of the “Peat Glossary”, so I was dismayed by the language that had fallen (been pushed) from the dictionary. For blackberry, read Blackberry.

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Cladach stony beach


I have long been fascinated by the relations of language and landscape – by the power of strong style and single words to shape our senses of place. And it has become a habit, while travelling in Britain and Ireland, to note down place words as I encounter them: terms for particular aspects of terrain, elements, light and creaturely life, or resonant place names. I’ve scribbled these words in the backs of notebooks, or jotted them down on scraps of paper. Usually, I’ve gleaned them singly from conversations, maps or books. Now and then I’ve hit buried treasure in the form of vernacular word-lists or remarkable people – troves that have held gleaming handfuls of coinages, like the Lewisian “Peat Glossary”.


From didders to hob-gobs: add to Robert Macfarlane's nature word-hoard
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Not long after returning from Lewis, and spurred on by the Oxford deletions, I resolved to put my word-collecting on a more active footing, and to build up my own glossaries of place words. It seemed to me then that although we have fabulous compendia of flora, fauna and insects (Richard Mabey’s Flora Britannica and Mark Cocker’s Birds Britannica chief among them), we lack a Terra Britannica, as it were: a gathering of terms for the land and its weathers – terms used by crofters, fishermen, farmers, sailors, scientists, miners, climbers, soldiers, shepherds, poets, walkers and unrecorded others for whom particularised ways of describing place have been vital to everyday practice and perception. It seemed, too, that it might be worth assembling some of this terrifically fine-grained vocabulary – and releasing it back into imaginative circulation, as a way to rewild our language. I wanted to answer Norman MacCaig’s entreaty in his Luskentyre poem: “Scholars, I plead with you, / Where are your dictionaries of the wind … ?”

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Ammil – a Devon term for the thin film of ice that lacquers all leaves, twigs and grass blades when a freeze follows a partial thaw. Photograph: John Macfarlane
In the seven years after first reading the “Peat Glossary”, I sought out the users, keepers and makers of place words. In the Norfolk Fens – introduced by the photographer Justin Partyka – I met Eric Wortley, a 98-year-old farmer who had worked his family farm throughout his long life, who had been twice to the East Anglian coast, once to Norwich and never to London, and whose speech was thick with Fenland dialect terms. I came to know the cartographer, artist and writer Tim Robinson, who has spent 40 years documenting the terrain of the west of Ireland: a region where, as he puts it, “the landscape … speaks Irish”. Robinson’s belief in the importance of “the language we breathe” as part of “our frontage onto the natural world” has been inspiring to me, as has his commitment to recording subtleties of usage and history in Irish place names, before they are lost forever: Scrios Buaile na bhFeadog, “the open tract of the pasture of the lapwings”; Eiscir, “a ridge of glacial deposits marking the course of a river that flowed under the ice of the last glaciation”.



I turned also to the archive, seeking place words as they were preserved in glossaries and dictionaries, gathered on the web, or embedded in the literature of earlier decades and centuries. WS Graham wrote in a 1977 poem of “Floating across the frozen tundra / of the lexicon and the dictionary”, but I find lexicons to be more tropical jungle than tundra, gloriously ornate in their tendrilled outgrowths and complex root systems. I met, too, with great generosity from correspondents around the UK, who were ready to share “their” place words. Over the years, and especially over the last two years, thousands of place terms reached me. They came by letter, email and telephone, scribbled on postcards or yellowed prewar foolscap, transcribed from cassette recordings of Suffolk longshoremen made half a century ago, or taken from hand-sketched maps of Highland hill country and island coastlines. I began to comprehend something of the awesome range and vigour of place words as they have existed in the numerous languages and dialects of these islands.

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Some of the terms I collected mingle oddness and familiarity in the manner that Freud calls uncanny: peculiar in their particularity, but recognisable in that they name something conceivable, if not instantly locatable. Ammil is a Devon term for the thin film of ice that lacquers all leaves, twigs and grass blades when a freeze follows a partial thaw, and that in sunlight can cause a whole landscape to glitter. It is thought to derive from the Old English ammel, meaning “enamel”, and is an exquisitely exact word for a fugitive phenomenon I have several times seen, but never before named. Shetlandic has a word, pirr, meaning “a light breath of wind, such as will make a cat’s paw on the water”. On Exmoor, zwer is the onomatopoeic term for “the sound made by a covey of partridges taking flight”. Smeuse is an English dialect noun for “the gap in the base of a hedge made by the regular passage of a small animal”; now I know the word smeuse, I notice these signs of creaturely commute more often.

I became fascinated by those scalpel-sharp words that are untranslatable without remainder. The need for precise discrimination of this kind has occurred most often where landscape is the venue of work. The Icelandic novelist Jón Kalman Stefánsson writes of fishermen speaking “coddish” far out into the North Atlantic; the miners working the Great Northern Coalfield in England’s north-east developed a sub-dialect known as “Pitmatical” or “yakka”, so dense it proved incomprehensible to Victorian parliamentary commissioners seeking to improve conditions in the mines in the 1840s. The name “Pitmatical” was originally chosen to echo “mathematical”, and thereby emphasise the skill and precision of the colliers. Such super-specific argots are born of hard, long labour on land and at sea. The terms they contain allow us glimpses through other eyes, permit brief access to distant lifeworlds and habits of perception. In another of his Hebridean poems, MacCaig commended the “seagull voice” of his Gaelic Aunt Julia, so rooted in the terrain of Harris that she came to think with and speak in its birds and climate.

I also relished synonyms – especially those that bring new energy to familiar entities. The variant English terms for icicle – aquabob (Kent), clinkerbell and daggler (Hampshire), cancervell (Exmoor), ickle (Yorkshire), tankle (Durham) and shuckle (Cumbria) – form a tinkling poem of their own. In Northamptonshire and East Anglia “to thaw” is to ungive. The beauty of this variant surely has to do with the paradox of thaw figured as restraint or retention, and the wintry notion that cold, frost and snow might themselves be a form of gift – an addition to the landscape that will in time be subtracted by warmth.

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Shreep - ‘mist that is slowly clearing’. Photograph: John Macfarlane
Many of the glossary words are, like ungive, memorably vivid. They function as topograms – tiny landscape poems, folded up inside verbs and nouns. I think of the Northamptonshire dialect verb to crizzle, for instance, a verb for the freezing of water that evokes the sound of a natural activity too slow for human hearing to detect (“And the white frost ’gins crizzle pond and brook”, wrote John Clare in 1821). When Gerard Manley Hopkins didn’t have a word for a natural phenomenon, he would simply – wonderfully – make one up: shivelight, for “the lances of sunshine that pierce the canopy of a wood”, or goldfoil for a sky lit by lightning in “zigzag dints and creasings”. Hopkins, like Clare, sought to forge a language that could register the participatory dramas of our relations with nature and landscape.

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Not all place words are poetic or innocent, of course. Our familiar word forest designates not only a wooded region, but also an area of land set aside for hunting – as those who have walked through the treeless “forests” of Fisherfield and Corrour in Scotland will know. Forest – like many wood-words – is complicatedly tangled up in political histories of access and landownership. We inhabit a post-pastoral terrain, full of modification and compromise, and for this reason my glossaries began to fill up with “unnatural” language: terms from coastal sea defences (pillbox, bulwark, rock-armour), or soft estate, the Highways Agency term for those natural habitats that have developed along the verges of motorways and trunk roads.



Some of the words I collected are ripely rude. These islands, I now know, have scores of terms for animal dung, most of which double up nicely as insults, from crottle (a foresters’ term for “hare excrement”) to doofers (Scots for “horse shit”), to the expressive ujller (Shetlandic for the “unctuous filth that runs from a dunghill”) and turdstool (West Country for “a very substantial cowpat”). A dialect name for the kestrel – alongside such felicities as windhover and bell-hawk – is wind-fucker. Once learned, never forgotten; it is hard now not to see in the pose of the hovering kestrel a certain lustful quiver. I’ve often been reminded of Douglas Adams and John Lloyd’s genius catalogue of nonce words, The Meaning of Liff (1983), in which British place names are used as nouns for the “hundreds of common experiences, feelings, situations and even objects which we all know and recognise, but for which no words exist”. Thus “Kimmeridge (n): The light breeze which blows through your armpit hair when you are stretched out sunbathing”; or “Glassel (n): A seaside pebble which was shiny and interesting when wet, and which is now a lump of rock, but which children nevertheless insist on filling their suitcases with after a holiday”. When I mentioned to my young son that there was no word for the shining hump of water that rises above a submerged boulder in a stream, he suggested currentbum. Well, yes.

I organised my growing word-hoard into nine glossaries, divided according to terrain-type: Flatlands, Uplands, Waterlands, Coastlands, Underlands, Northlands, Edgelands, Earthlands and Woodlands. The words came from dozens of languages, dialects, sub-dialects and specialist vocabularies: from Unst to the Lizard, from Pembrokeshire to Norfolk; from Norn and Old English, Anglo-Romani, Cornish, Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, Orcadian, Shetlandic and Doric, and numerous regional versions of English, through to Jérriais, the dialect of Norman still spoken on the island of Jersey.

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Roarie-bummlers – ‘fast-moving storm-clouds’ (Scots). Photograph: John Macfarlane
I quickly realised that they couldn’t and shouldn’t aspire to completion. They contained only a debatable fraction of an impossible whole. There is no single mountain language, but a range of mountain languages; no one coastal language, but a fractal of coastal languages; no lone tree language, but a forest of tree languages. So I decided to imagine them not as archives but as wunderkammers, celebrating the visions these words opened in the mind, and their tastes on the tongue.



I am wary of the dangers of fetishising dialect and archaism – all that mollocking and sukebinding Stella Gibbons spoofed so brilliantly in Cold Comfort Farm (1932). Wary, too, of advocating a tyranny of the nominal – a taxonomic need to point and name, with the intent of citing and owning – when in fact I perceive no opposition between precision and mystery, or between naming and not knowing. There are experiences of landscape that will always resist articulation, and of which words offer only a distant echo. Nature will not name itself. Granite doesn’t self-identify as igneous. Light has no grammar. Language is always late for its subject. When I see a moon-bow or a sundog, I usually just say “Wow!” or “Hey!” Sometimes on a mountain, I look out across scree and corrie, srón and lairig – and say nothing at all. But we are and always have been name-callers, christeners. Words are grained into our landscapes, and landscapes grained into our words.

Yet it is clear that we increasingly make do with an impoverished language for landscape. A place literacy is leaving us. A language in common, a language of the commons, is declining. Nuance is evaporating from everyday usage, burned off by capital and apathy. The substitutions made in the Oxford Junior Dictionary – the outdoor and the natural being displaced by the indoor and the virtual – are a small but significant symptom of the simulated screen life many of us live. The terrain beyond the city fringe is chiefly understood in terms of large generic units (“field”, “hill”, “valley”, “wood”). It has become a blandscape. We are blasé, in the sense that Georg Simmel used that word in 1903, meaning “indifferent to the distinction between things”.

This impoverishment has occurred even in languages that have historically paid close attention to place, such as Irish or Gaelic. Even the landscape lexis of the Outer Hebrides is currently being lost. Gaelic itself is slowly withering: the number of native speakers in the Scottish Gàidhealtachd is now around 58,000. Of those who do still speak Gaelic, many are understandably less interested in the intricacies of toponymy. In Ireland, a similar situation exists: Tim Robinson notes how with each generation, more “of the place names are forgotten or becoming incomprehensible”.

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Sun-scald – ‘the eye-scorching gleam of sunlight as it falls on river, lake or sea’ (Sussex)
Why should this loss matter? You can’t even use crizzle as a Scrabble word: there aren’t two “z”s in the bag (unless, of course, you use a blank). It matters because language deficit leads to attention deficit. As we deplete our ability to denote and figure particular aspects of our places, so our competence for understanding and imagining possible relationships with non-human nature is correspondingly depleted. To quote the American farmer and essayist Wendell Berry – a man who in my experience speaks the crash-tested truth – “people exploit what they have merely concluded to be of value, but they defend what they love, and to defend what we love we need a particularising language, for we love what we particularly know.” Or as Cocker punchily puts it, “If acorn goes from the lexicon, the game is up for nature in England.”

There is, suddenly, a surging sense of the importance of preserving and plenishing a diverse language for landscape. In January, a campaign for OUP to reinstate the culled “nature words” was launched, drawing support from Margaret Atwood and Michael Morpurgo: OUP has responded positively and thoughtfully. Robinson has written recently of the need for what he calls “geophany”, meaning a language “fit for the secular celebration of place”. This spring the photographer Dominick Tyler is publishing Uncommon Ground, which pairs 100 place words with 100 photographs of the phenomena to which the words refer, from arête (“a sharp-edged mountain ridge, often between two glacier-carved corries”) to zawn (a Cornish term for a “wave-smashed chasm in a cliff”). Mabey’s forthcoming The Cabaret of Plants argues for “a new language” with which to accommodate the “selfhood” of plants: “metaphor and analogy may be the best we can do, but they will have to be toughened by an acceptance that the plant world is a parallel life system to our own, intimately connected with it, but still existentially different”. George Monbiot is launching a project seeking new framings for the protection of the nature, “prompted by the miserable, uninspiring state of the language of conservation” and policy-making: “‘Environment’ is a term that creates no pictures in the mind, which is why I have begun to use ‘natural world’ or ‘living planet’ instead.”

Landmarks, the book that has arisen from my own years of word work, is a celebration and defence of land language. Its fascination is with the mutual relations of place, word and spirit: how we landmark, and how we are landmarked in turn. Each of the nine glossaries is matched with a chapter exploring the work of those writers who have used words exactly and exactingly when describing specific places. “The hardest thing of all to see is what is really there,” observed JA Baker in The Peregrine (1967), a book that brilliantly shows how such seeing might occur in language, written as it is in prose that has “the quivering intensity of an arrow thudding into a tree”. The terrain about which Baker wrote with such committing force was the coastal Essex of saltings, spinneys, sea walls and mudflats. Compelled by the high gold horizons of this old countryside, even as it was undergoing the assault of big-field farming in the 1950s and 1960s, Baker developed a new style with which to evoke its odd magnificence. His sentences are full of neologisms: the adjectives he torqued into verbs (“The north wind brittled icily in the pleached lattice of the hedgerows”), and the verbs he incites to misbehaviour (“Four short-eared owls soothed out of the gorse”).

I have long been drawn to the work of writers who – in Emerson’s phrase – seek to “pierce rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things”. Baker is one such writer, Robinson another, Nan Shepherd a third. Shepherd was a word-hoarder, and her slim masterpiece The Living Mountain carries a long glossary of Scots terms, which abounds with walking words (spangin’, for “walking vigorously”) and weather words: smoored, for “smothered in snow”, and the unforgettable roarie bummlers, meaning “fast-moving storm clouds”. Roger Deakin, while writing his modern classics Waterlog and Wildwood, gathered wood words and water words. John Muir relished the technical language of botany (bract, bole, pistillate) but also delighted in his own coinages.

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Wurr – ‘hoar-frost’ (Herefordshire). Photograph: Rosamund Macfarlane
For all of these writers, to use language well is to use it particularly: precision of utterance as both a form of lyricism and a species of attention. “I want my writing to bring people not just to think of ‘trees’ as they mostly do now,” wrote Deakin in a notebook, “but of each individual tree, and each kind of tree”. Muir, spending his first summer working as a shepherd among the pines of the Sierra Nevada in California, reflected in his journal that “Every tree calls for special admiration. I have been making many sketches and regret that I cannot draw every needle.”

Strange events occurred in the course of the years and journeys I spent writing Landmarks – convergences that pressed at the limits of coincidence, and tended to the eerie. They included the discovery of a “tunnel of swords and axes” in Cumbria, guided by a Finnish folk tale; an encounter with a peregrine in south Cambridge on the day I went to look through Baker’s telescopes and binoculars; the experience of walking into the pages of Shepherd’s The Living Mountain in the Cairngorms; and the widening ripples of a forgotten place word, found in a folder in Suffolk, left behind by a man who had died. Strangest of all these strangenesses, though, was the revelation in the week I finished the book, that its originating dream of a glossary of landscape-language so vast it might encompass the world had, almost, come true.

That revelation came as a letter sent by a scholar of languages living in Qatar, and reading the letter made me feel as if I had stepped into a story by Borges or Calvino. For the last 15 years, he explained, he had been working on a global glossary of landscape terms. His name was Abdal Hamid Fitzwilliam-Hall, he had been born in Cyrenaica, now eastern Libya, had grown up among the kopjes and veldt of what was then Southern Rhodesia, and it was while studying Arabic, and walking the black lava fields (harrah) and granite domes (hadbah) of the Hejaz mountains in western Saudia Arabia, that he decided to begin gathering place words from the Arabic dialects, before they were swept away forever. But his task soon began to grip him with the force of an obsession, and he moved into neighbouring Semitic and African-Eurasian languages, then to the Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Nordic and Slavic language families, and then backwards in time to the first Sumerian cuneiform records of c3100 BCE.

The entries for individual words grew, some to several pages in length, as a meshwork of cross-reference thrived between languages and usages. Topographically, he ranged from mountain tops to city forms. Linguistically, he worked through more than 140 languages, from Afrikaans to Zande. His hope, he said, was to show “that the land is layered in language as surely as the rocks are layered beneath its surface”. The work had become, he told me, so complex in its structures and so infinitely extendable in its concerns that he did not envisage completing it, only bringing it to a point of abandonment that might also be a point of publication. “The project has,” he said almost embarrassedly, “something of the fabulous about it.”

Later, he emailed me as an attachment the section of the glossary covering those words beginning with the letter “b”. “I hope the file size can be accommodated,” he wrote. I double-clicked it. The document opened in Word, and I watched the page count tick up as my computer ascertained the extent of the text. The count hit 100 pages, then 200, then 300 … it settled at last on 343 pages. All those pages in 11-point font, just for “b”. Then I read the note preceding the first entry (“bā (Akkadian, jungbabylonisch lex.): water”): “This glossary is a work in progress. At the present time … it is some 3,500 pages long and contains around 50,000 separate terms or headwords.” I sat back in my seat, amazed and haunted by this extraordinary scholar, out there in the desert, gathering and patterning a work of words that might keep us from slipping off into abstract space.

So Landmarks began with the “Peat Glossary”, and it ended with Abdal’s world-spanning magnum opus. In between, I have realised that although place words are being lost, they are also being created. As I travelled I met new terms as well as salvaging old ones: a painter in the Western Isles who used landskein to refer to the braid of blue horizon lines on a hazy day; a five-year-old girl who concocted honeyfur to describe the soft seeds of grasses pinched between fingertips. We have forgotten 10,000 words for our landscapes, but we will make 10,000 more, given time and inclination. This is why Landmarks moves over its course from the peat-deep word-hoard of Hebridean Gaelic, through to the fresh-minted terms and stories of young children at play on the outskirts of a Cambridgeshire town. And this is why I decided to leave blank the final glossary of the book – there to hold the place-words that have yet to be coined.

• Landmarks is published by Hamish Hamilton on 5 Marc
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