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Falibo - Learn English As a Second Language - Fluency and Speaking Techniques : Shadowing

Falibo - Learn English As a Second Language - Fluency and Speaking Techniques : Shadowing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Learn how to improve your speaking skills using some techniques as Shadowing, maybe like many people you've heard of it, but don't actually use it. Now is a good time to start.

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Asuntos Sociales suscribe un convenio con Digmun para financiar proyectos

Asuntos Sociales suscribe un convenio con Digmun para financiar proyectos | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El Consejo de Gobierno celebrado ayer dio luz verde a un convenio suscrito entre Asuntos Sociales y Digmun para financiar proyectos de inclusión tales como las aulas de inmersión lingüística en las que se favorece el aprendizaje de los MENA o el servicio de traducción a inmigrantes.
El dinero que se destinará asciende a 87.663 euros que permitirá el trabajo de seis personas para atender a unas 500, que son el grueso de beneficiarios, tal y como explicó el portavoz del Ejecutivo, Emilio Carreira a los periodistas. En el caso de las aulas de inmersión, de cuya puesta en marcha ya informó El Faro en un reportaje, se trata de atender a los MENA que están tutelados por la Ciudad para así garantizar su integración en los centros escolares. En el caso del servicio de traducción, se atiende un compromiso plenario adoptado en octubre del pasado año, atendiendo así a las necesidades específicas de inmigrantes. En aquel entonces, el Gobierno se comprometió a facilitar la traducción en servicios en los que sea necesario para atender debidamente a usuarios extranjeros, una situación que en Ceuta no es extraordinaria por tratarse de una ciudad fronteriza. Carreira recordó ayer que ante la imposibilidad de hacer contrataciones, esta demanda se resolvía vía convenio con Digmun.

Apoyo al Banco de Alimentos con 63.500 euros de la Ciudad

Otro de los convenios que fue aprobado ayer en Consejo de Gobierno afecta directamente al Banco de Alimentos y su operatividad. Así se aprobó una financiación de 63.500 euros, que permitirá la viabilidad de una entidad que atiende a más de 10.000 personas y de la que dependen dos trabajadores. En este año la idea del Banco es repartir 105.000 kilos, contando además con las aportaciones que espera obtener de entidades y colectas o de otros Bancos de Alimentos peninsulares. La labor que desarrolla esta entidad en Ceuta es clave puesto que permite que muchas familias dispongan de una atención básica en la recepción de alimentos. De no ser por su operatividad el riesgo de exclusión sería aún mayor así como la cantidad de unidades familiares que se verían obligadas a recurrir de las ayudas sociales en sus conceptos más básicos. La entidad, tras luchar por obtener un local mejor al antiguo de Loma Colmenar, espera seguir contando con apoyo de la ciudadanía.
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OPINION La diversité linguistique menacée dans la haute administration | La-Croix.com - Articles du Forum

OPINION La diversité linguistique menacée dans la haute administration | La-Croix.com - Articles du Forum | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Par un simple arrêté ministériel (du 16 avril 2014, ministère de la décentralisation et de la fonction publique), le régime des langues aux concours d’entrée à l’École nationale d’administration a été changé de manière radicale. D’apparence anodine, cette réforme est susceptible d’avoir des conséquences lourdes sur le long terme.

À partir de la session de 2018, la seule épreuve de langue maintenue sera l’épreuve d’anglais. Les autres langues, retenues par l’arrêté du 13 octobre 1999, à savoir 13 langues dont l’allemand, le chinois, l’espagnol, l’italien, le japonais, le portugais ou le russe, seront éliminées des concours d’entrée et, s’agissant de la scolarité, reléguées dans des formations facultatives non prises en compte dans le classement final.

Ce choix de la langue unique représente une régression incompréhensible, contraire à toute vision prospective et aux intérêts de la France tels qu’ils sont généralement affirmés par le gouvernement français.

Le monde d’aujourd’hui est un monde plurilingue qui ne devrait admettre aucune hégémonie linguistique.

Certes, l’anglais est aujourd’hui la langue avec laquelle il est le plus facile de se déplacer à travers le monde, mais l’utilité qu’on lui reconnaît ne doit pas privilégier une seule culture au détriment de l’ouverture au monde que permet la diversité linguistique et culturelle.

Priver les futurs hauts fonctionnaires de cette dimension indispensable est en soi un non-sens, alors que les anglophones s’interrogent eux-mêmes sur les limites de leur monolinguisme.

Mais il faut aussi tenir compte des effets en chaîne que cette décision ne manquera pas de provoquer.

Tout d’abord, la France donnerait un très mauvais signal à l’ensemble des pays dont les langues sont éliminées du concours. Il ne faudra pas s’étonner si ceux-ci, qui représentent la majorité de la population mondiale, épousant la logique affichée par l’ENA, considèrent à leur tour que leurs futurs responsables peuvent se passer du français. Ajoutons que les ambassadeurs de la France se plaignent souvent que leurs collaborateurs maîtrisent insuffisamment les langues et cultures des pays dans lesquels ils sont affectés.

Ajoutons que l’ensemble des concours administratifs ne tarderont pas à s’aligner pour les langues vivantes sur l’exemple donné par l’ENA.

Par ailleurs, les universités, souvent aux prises avec des difficultés budgétaires considérables, se verront ouvertement incitées à abaisser leur effort pour les langues vivantes alors que les besoins sont criants. Et ce ne sont pas les grandes écoles qui combleront le retard linguistique de notre pays.

On se demande enfin comment l’on peut justifier d’avoir rendu obligatoire au baccalauréat deux langues parmi plusieurs dizaines, quand aux plus hauts niveaux universitaires on constate un repli sur une seule langue.

Cette situation relève de la plus complète incohérence et révèle avant tout une fermeture à la créativité et à l’innovation et une absence d’ouverture intellectuelle et d’ambition pour notre pays.

Lorsque la France fait sien le principe arrêté au Conseil européen de Barcelone en 2002 selon lequel tout citoyen devrait apprendre dès le plus jeune âge au moins deux langues étrangères, principe auquel elle a donné force de loi en l’intégrant au code de l’éducation (article L.123-1) (« la maîtrise de la langue française et l’enseignement de deux langues étrangères sont un objectif fondamental de l’éducation »), on est en droit de penser que ce principe devrait inspirer toutes ses décisions à caractère linguistique.

Nous ne pouvons pas non plus négliger l’image que nous donnons au monde entier. La France ne doit-elle pas être simplement elle-même, c’est-à-dire ouverte au monde et à la diversité linguistique et culturelle ?

Il y a un vrai paradoxe. La dernière promotion de l’ENA vient de se donner comme nom de baptême George Orwell. Or George Orwell a inventé le newspeak ou la novlangue, c’est-à-dire cette langue unique qui dans son esprit est synonyme de servitude.

(1) ADEAF : Association pour le développement de l’enseignement de l’allemand en France ; (2) AFEA : Association française d’études américaines ; (3) AFR : Association française des russisants ; (4) AGES : Association des germanistes de l’enseignement supérieur ; (5) ALF : Avenir de la langue française ; (6) APLV : Associations de professeurs de langues vivantes ; (7) CLEC : Cercle littéraire des écrivains cheminots ; (8) ICEG : Institut culture, économie et géopolitique ; (9) OEP : Observatoire européen du plurilinguisme ; (10) SHF : Société des hispanistes français de l’enseignement supérieur ; (11) SIES : Société des italianistes de l’enseignement supérieur ; (12) SLNL : Société des langues néo-latines.
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Speak thine own tongue, urges ESL

Speak thine own tongue, urges ESL | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
E.S.L. Narasimhan

Governor of AP, TS

On a platform meant for the promotion of English language, the first citizen of the State gave a call urging people to give primary importance to their mother tongue.
Governor of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh E.S.L. Narasimhan said English was fast becoming the common language in a country with diverse languages and appealed to the citizens to not neglect their native language.

He felt that knowing how to read and write Indian languages has its own advantages since Sanskrit forms the basis of not only local but global languages.

The Governor was speaking at the inaugural of the fifth International English Language Teacher Educator Conference (TEC 15) in Hyderabad on Friday. The event is being organised by British Council in association with English and Foreign Languages University (EFLU).

Mr. Narasimhan, in his speech, pointed out a problem being created as a result of growing influence of English language. “Are we creating a society of have’s and have not’s based on the knowledge of English language? Let us not make it elitist. Parents are sending their children to private schools as English is taught well there. It’s time now that English is introduced in all government schools,” he said.

He felt that India’s human resource potential can contribute greatly to the English language in the form of teachers if they are trained well.

Global conference

The conference is being attended by about 1,000 participants from over 30 countries, including teacher educators, ministerial officials, heads of universities and colleges, representatives of the vocational sector, NGOs and policymakers.

Sunaina Singh, Vice-Chancellor, EFLU, said the critical aspect of higher education in India is sustaining quality. Keeping abreast with changes by constantly re-inventing the curriculum is one way of improving the standard of English.

Chris Brandwood, Director, English, British Council South Asia said: “The theme for this year’s conference is timely from a national and global perspective. Internationally, the most recent global monitoring report highlighted quality as its central concern. Key initiatives such as Teacher Education Mission (2013), National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009-10) and 12th five year plan highlight issues of quality as fundamental to professional development of teachers.”

Mei-kwei Barker, Director, British Council South India said that about 20,000 persons from across the globe have registered to follow the proceedings of the conference through digital platforms.

Are we creating a society of have’s and have not’s based on the knowledge of English language? Let us not make it elitist. It’s time English is introduced in all government schools said Governor AP and TS ESL Narasimham.
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Sacrifice for recognition of Bangla language | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh

Sacrifice for recognition of Bangla language | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Bangla is the state language of Bangladesh - more than 155 million people of Bangladesh speak Bangla. It is the mother tongue of almost all people of Bangladeshi origin. Although Bangla is one of the 23 official languages recognised by the Republic of India, it is the official language of the states of West Bengal and Tripura. It is also a major language in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  Bangla is also the co-official language of Assam, which has three predominantly Sylheti-speaking districts of southern Assam, Cachar, Karimganj and Hailakandi.  Bangla is a second official language of the Indian state of Jharkhand from September 2011. It is also a recognised secondary language in the city of Karachi in Pakistan. In December 2002, Sierra Leone's President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah also named Bangla as an "official language" of Sierra Leone in recognition of the work of more than 5,300 troops from Bangladesh in the United Nations (UN) Mission in Sierra Leone peacekeeping force. The national anthems of both India and Bangladesh were written in Bangla by the Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.  Another giant of Bangla literature, Kazi Nazrul Islam, is the national poet of Bangladesh. In 2009, elected representatives in both Bangladesh and West Bengal called for Bangla to be made an official language of the UN.

There may be some other countries or nations who have campaigned for or demanded recognition of their languages, but Bangla is the only language for which people have made the highest sacrifice.  People gave their lives for Bangla on 21st February 1952. The day of that utmost sacrifice was declared as the 'International Mother Language Day' throughout the world by the UN on 17th November 1999 - a day to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism.  International Mother Language Day has been observed every year since 2000 February. As a Bengali as well as Bangladeshi I remember with utmost respect those who sacrificed their lives for the Bangla language to be recognised. My thoughts and prayers are for those martyrs. May the Almighty (SWT) accept their sacrifice and grant them Jannatul Ferdous - the highest place in jannah. I would also like to remember and thank those who contributed to the cause and suffered for it (harassment, torture, being falsely implicated to legal cases, being jailed etc.) in our historic chapter of the language movement which was fought from 1948 for Bangla to be recognised officially.    

Three languages are very important to us: Bengali, English and Arabic

In my view, people of Bangladeshi origin must learn three languages side by side: Bengali, English and Arabic. They must learn Bangla because it is their mother tongue and state language, and it is for this language that the utmost sacrifice of an unprecedented nature was made. With about 220 million native speakers, and about 250 million speakers in total, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages, ranked seventh in the world. In order to learn other languages, one must be good at one's own native language.  One who is competent in his or her own langue can easily pick up other languages. In other words, the mother tongue is a gateway to other languages.

Alongside Bangla, English must be learned because it is the only international language by which one can communicate anywhere in the globe. Truly, the "English" language is the most important language in the world. It is an international language in proper and true sense. It is the mother tongue and the first language of some of the most powerful nations and developed countries of the world. After Bangla, English is a highly desirable language in Bangladesh.  In many countries of the world, English is the second or third official language.  Any country can hardly be found on the earth where English is not spoken or written or at least understood.  English is given due importance [often given over importance too] in non-English speaking countries. Even in those countries, native applicants who are fluent or competent in English are given apparent priority in the competitive job market. Almost all International bodies, agencies, institutions and organisations consider fluency and competency in the English language as one of the compulsory or mandatory requirements for recruitment or appointment of their staff. The English calendar is followed in all international trades and businesses and by almost all countries of the world, regardless of whether English speaking or non-English speaking.  

In Bangladesh, English is widely spoken, written and used.  Students who studied at English medium schools or students who studied at public schools but were good at English have, statistically, been doing better in their subsequent profession, job and career.  Generally, a student or job applicant who has good command of English is considered smart, skilled and competent. Thus, apart from linguistic value and international dimension, the English language has distinct economic value too. Thus, former British High Commissioner to Bangladesh Mr Anwar Chowdhury once rightly said "English is not only a language, but it is an essential commodity too."

Besides Bangla and English, Arabic must also be learned.  At least 85% of the population in Bangladesh are Muslims. The holy book of Islam, the Quran, was revealed in Arabic.  Other important religious texts including the major/authentic Hadith books and original tafseers are written in Arabic.  In order to understand the religion of Islam properly and perfectly in a non-alienated way the knowledge of the Arabic language is essential. Apart from the religious perspective, there are economic and business benefits as well in learning Arabic. There are huge markets and employment prospects in the Middle East and in some countries of Africa, in which the native or state languages include Arabic. Arabic is one of the current official languages of the UN. Therefore, knowledge of the Arabic language, regardless of religion, would be an invaluable communicative asset for exploring that huge market and to get maximum benefit of that global opportunity.

Our children in the UK can easily learn four languages:

Our children who live in the United Kingdom can easily learn four languages: English, Bangla, Arabic and one modern language. The medium in which our children's teaching and learning is conducted in the UK is English. Therefore, parents do not need to do anything extra for their children to learn the English language. They will automatically and naturally learn and be competent in the English language and literature. Alongside the English language, all pupils in schools are required to learn a modern language: either French or Germany or Spanish or another suitable language.  It is a part of their national curriculum.  With the efforts of school and little effort from parents, our children can learn one of the modern languages.  The first or at least second language of almost all of our children is Bangla. Most of them have Bangla as their mother tongue. Bangla is widely spoken in the house and the community they live in.  With proper support and care, our children can easily learn Bangla. Almost 90% or above of those of British-Bangladeshi origin in the UK are Muslims.  To all Muslims, Arabic has a distinct value and importance, for the reasons stated above. With extra care and support, our children can easily learn the Arabic language. Learning more languages is like acquiring new skills. Those who are competent in their own language, be it Bangla or English or any other, can easily grasp other languages. With proper support, guidance and care, our children can be multi-lingual - skilled in four languages!  This is a unique opportunity for our children which should not be taken or considered lightly.    

Can 'Bangla' be fully introduced in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh?

Although 'Bangla' is our mother tongue and state language of Bangladesh, the language of the Apex Court of Bangladesh is, however, English.  Thus, many people demand that 'Bangla' be fully introduced in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.  As mentioned above, we are the only nation on earth which sacrificed lives for the restoration of our mother tongue.  This is probably why when the month of February comes, we become emotional and there is, no doubt, a logic for being so. But when people demand the introduction of 'Bangla' fully in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, they genuinely need to consider the wider importance and international implication. When late Dr M Zahir, an eminent jurist and country's leading company law expert, visited London few years ago, I discussed this with him and drew some issues to his kind attention. One of them was the possibility of introducing 'Bangla' at the Supreme Court.  He straightway replied "Nazir, look, three things you cannot do in Bangla: Namaj (prayer) cannot be done in Bangla, company law cannot be done in Bangla and Supreme Court proceedings cannot done in Bangla." There is a strong logic for this assertion. One of those is perhaps that the Supreme Court judgements of a country are often referred to throughout the world.  For example, House of Lords' judgments and the judgments of the Indian Supreme Court are frequently referred to the proceedings and hearings of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.  Likewise, in order for the judgments of our Apex Court to be referred to the proceedings of the Apex Court abroad, the judgments would have to be of that standard. Thus, if the judgement is written in Bangla, can it have international force and be referred abroad?

How could 'Bangla' be an official language of the UN?

Six languages are currently official languages of the UN.  These are: English, French, Arabic, Russian, Chinese and Spanish.  Proposal has been made to include 'Bangla' as one of the official languages of the UN.  Besides Bangla, Esparento, Hindi, Portuguese and Turkish have also been proposed.  There have been some campaigns, albeit of a very limited scale, for recognising Bangla as one of the UN official languages.  Despite all these, the UN has not yet recognised it.

The mere wish or desire to have Bangla recognised by the UN, or a limited campaign to achieve this, would not bring any fruitful result. In order for Bangla to be recognised by the UN, the value and importance of the country would have to be raised. Our images would have to be positive throughout the world.  The presence of a proper democracy in the country, having a record of upholding human rights and rule of law, being known outside the country as a civilised and desirable nation, less dependence on foreign aid, having an excellent and cordial relationship with the major and powerful nations and having competent diplomacy are all relevant key factors in order for this demand to be recognised by the highest international body, the UN, to be pursued. If anyone compares and assesses our country against the barometer of the above components, he can easily ascertain where our country is at the moment. Empty rhetoric, emotional outcry and making demands without being able to show support for them are one thing - and marching ahead with a solid demand backed by sustainable and appreciable records and tangible and concrete evidence is completely another thing.  The latter is the most important thing needed for our country.  The sooner our superior authorities realise this, the better for our country.



Barrister Nazir Ahmed: Legal expert, analyst, writer and columnist.  He can be contacted via e-mail: ahmedlaw2002@yaho.co.uk
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Upholding dignity of mother languages | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh

Upholding dignity of mother languages | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Upholding dignity of mother languages

Representatives from almost 25 ethnic groups and speakers of 40 languages gathered to take part in the Walk



International Mother Language Movement (IMLM), Canberra, Australia celebrated the International Mother Language Day with Language Walk and Community Celebration.

IMLM has successfully organised its annual 'Language Walk and Community Celebration' to commemorate the International Mother Language Day 2015. On a bright sunny morning, people from different ethnic groups started to gather at the International Flag Display at the southern shore of Lake Burley Griffin. Representatives from almost 25 ethnic groups and speakers of 40 languages gathered to take part in the Walk.

IMLM volunteers distributed free T-shirts specifically designed for the Walk to all the participants gathered there. When people of different races and colours put on the common T-shirt, they become one and exude the spirit of 'unity in diversity'.

After paying due respect to the Ngunnawal people, the original custodian of this Land, the Walk was officially inaugurated by Ms Yvette Berry, Minister for Multicultural Affairs and Community Services of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government.

The procession of multilingual and multi-ethnic people started to walk from the International Flag Display towards the Regatta Point crossing the Commonwealth Bridge and raised the slogan, 'My Language, My Pride'. After walking 1.8 km, the procession reached their destination at the Commonwealth Park next to the Regatta Point.

While they were slowly walking towards their destination, they were greeted with the live music played by the local 'Gourmet Band'. While adults were walking in a sombre mood, kids were having a blast at the jumping castle and were busy getting their face painted. Live music of the Gourmet Band was followed by poem recitation in Dari Language, traditional Afghan fashion parade, Bangla song, Chinese classical dance, Portuguese song and poem, Brazilian martial arts and dance and traditional Tongan dance.

Amidst all these fun and festivities, a genuine concern was palpable among the participants about the steady demise of many ethnic languages especially Aboriginal languages of Australia.

One of the main objectives of IMLM's organising this programme is to raise awareness about the conservation of endangered languages especially rapidly declining Aboriginal languages as well as promoting multilingualism in Australian multicultural social fabric and mutual respect and acceptance of different languages and cultures.     — Press release
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International Mother Language Day celebrated

International Mother Language Day celebrated | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dr. Avea Ephraim Nosh, a Lecturer at the University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Department of Gur-Gonja Languages Education, has called on lecturers, students to collectively work with politicians and other stakeholders in education to ensure that children continue to benefit from their mother tongue in a much improved manner.

Dr. Nosh made the called in a presentation delivered on the topic “Are indigenous Languages still relevant in the current dispensation?” at a durbar as part of this year’s International Mother Language Day Celebration held at the College of Languages Education, UEW Ajumako Campus.

The celebration was on the theme “Inclusion in and through Language Education counts”, was attended by personalities including, chiefs in the area led by the Paramount Chief Ajumako Traditional Council Nana Ogeabo Ababio Hammah, lecturers of the UEW, students and other stakeholders in education.

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) in November, 1999 declared 21st February every year as the International Mother Language Day aimed at promoting awareness of linguistic and culture diversity, multilingualism and above all, to promote and indemnify the linguistic rights of individuals specially children across member countries.

The United Nations General Assembly on 16th May, 2009 endorsed it compelling all member countries “to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by peoples of the world” which fortunately, these international conventions found expression and space in Ghana’s national laws including the language policy in education and in the 1992 constitution, he added.

Dr. Nosh said on International Mother Language Day it was legitimate to seek answers to the questions why thousands of BECE and WASCE graduates should be denied admission into the higher institutions when they pass Kasem, Asante or Ewe but fail the English language, a situation in which the young ones were deny opportunities because of artificially created languages barriers, which were inexhaustible and heart breaking.

“The day reminds us of the responsibility to our children with respect to the use of language in education and we cannot talk of inclusive education when thousands of children are excluded from education simply because they speak a particular language from some part of the county or just that they cannot pass some foreign language examination, these are discrimination and the constitution of the country frowns on them,” he added.

He said there was no doubt about the relevance of indigenous languages in the present day of “our” country or even the current global setting whereby we have to accept the fact that the we have gone a long way but much more needs to be done.

According to him, as a people, we have to realize that our attitudes to mother tongue worldwide is not different from what is seen in the country and for that matter policy makers should speed up with the language policy.

Earlier in the day students from various tribes at the University dressed in their tribal costumes, amidst drumming and dancing to portray the rich culture and traditions, as well as entertain the gathering.
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Défense de la diversité des langues vivantes - actions récentes - Association des Germanistes de l'Enseignement Supérieur (A.G.E.S.)

Vous trouverez ci-joint un certain nombre de documents par rapport aux démarches concernant la diversité des langues vivantes auxquelles l’AGES s’est associée, notamment dans le cadre de la réforme du concours de l’ENA.

1. Courrier envoyé le 18 février 2015 à François Hollande, Président de la République, et aux autorités politiques suivantes :
* Manuel Valls, Premier Ministre
* Laurent Fabius, Ministre des Affaires Étrangères et du Développement International
* Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, Ministre de l’Éducation Nationale, de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche
* Geneviève Fioraso, Secrétaire d’État de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche
* Fleur Pellerin, Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication
* Harlem Désir, Secrétaire d’État aux Affaires Européennes

2. Question au gouvernement
Des messages ont été envoyés à
* pour l’Assemblée nationale : Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, Thierry
Mariani, Jacques Myard, François Fillon, Charles de Corson, Bruno
Lemaire, Pouria Amirshahi
* pour le Sénat : Jacques Legendre, Catherine Tasca, Claudine Lepage,
Jean-Pierre Sueur, Philippe Marini, Gérard Longuet, Louis Duvernoy,
Dominique Gillot

3.Tribune libre envoyée au Monde, à Libération, La Croix, au Figaro et à Marianne Seule à présent La Croix a répondu favorablement pour une prochaine parution dans la page Forum

4. Autre presse : article paru dans la revue Achats Publics

titre documents joints
Courrier aux autorités politiques (PDF - 101.4 ko)
Question au gouvernement (PDF - 21 ko)
Tribune (PDF - 66.4 ko)
Article Achats publics (PDF - 48.9 ko)
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Your Eyes: A Window to Your Health

Your Eyes: A Window to Your Health | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The old saying goes that the eyes are the windows to the soul, but they can also be a window into your health. Ophthalmologists often see clues in the eyes that warn of health issues elsewhere in your body.

“Any ophthalmologist who does routine eye exams can detect these problems,” says ophthalmologist Richard Gans, MD. “Eye exams are important not only for the health of the eye, but also to determine if there are systemic issues that need attention,” he says.

Here are some health warning signs ophthalmologists can find in your eyes:

1. Diabetes

Dr. Gans looks for a condition called diabetic retinopathy, which damages the blood vessels in the eye. “We can see areas of bleeding and swelling in the retina, or abnormal blood vessels developing, which are hallmarks of diabetic damage,” he says. This damage can be observed even before vision is affected.

When diabetic retinopathy is detected, laser treatments and medications are used to repair blood vessels. However, surgery may be required if the bleeding is severe enough.

2. Hypertension

“High blood pressure can cause permanent damage to vision by affecting the circulation within the eye,” says Dr. Gans. Such damage can be the first clue that a patient is suffering from hypertension.

3. Inflammatory conditions

These include inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus. “There’s a well-known connection between inflammatory diseases and inflammation in the eye,” says Dr. Gans.

Most commonly, inflammatory diseases cause uveitis, which is an inflammation of the middle part of the eye (called the uvea). Untreated, uveitis can cause permanent damage to the eye.

4. Metastatic cancer

“Cancers by themselves rarely have manifestations in the eye,” Dr. Gans says. “However, there are certain cancers that can spread to the eyes,” he adds.

Melanoma is one cancer that is primary to the eye, but it can often be found elsewhere on the body. Breast cancer is an example of a cancer that can metastasize to the eye, where it could be found before other tests show the cancer has spread.

Retinal Diseases Treatment Guide
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Dictionnaire amoureux du Liban - Alexandre Najjar - Routard.com

Dictionnaire amoureux du Liban - Alexandre Najjar - Routard.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Alexandre Najjar

Plon (850 pages)


Alexandre Najjar, grande figure de la littérature francophone, est également avocat et responsable des pages littéraires du quotidien L’Orient-Le Jour. Ses multiples casquettes lui permettent de fournir dans ce Dictionnaire amoureux du Liban un portrait exhaustif, actualisé et passionné de son pays.

Le Liban a été secoué pendant 15 ans par une guerre civile. Il connaît aujourd’hui encore des tensions internes et subit les conséquences de conflits voisins. Alexandre Najjar entreprend de nous présenter sa nation sous un autre angle, en partageant ce qui fait la beauté de ce « petit pays si important ».

Ainsi, il présente la richesse culturelle du Liban à travers sa géographie, ses lieux historiques et son patrimoine (le pays héberge des vestiges archéologiques hérités de 17 civilisations différentes !). De façon très précise, le livre passe en revue tout ce qui fait l’authenticité du pays : sa gastronomie, ses coutumes et traditions, fêtes et festivals, proverbes et expressions…

Parmi les 222 entrées, il y a les thèmes incontournables de société : la place des femmes, la langue et la justice. Mais des chapitres plus spécifiques et inattendus surviennent aussi, tels que l’état de la circulation dans le pays, les coiffeurs, l’électricité ou encore l’eau, relatés sur un ton léger.

Ce ton presque humoristique contraste avec une narration parfois beaucoup plus solennelle et nostalgique, comme dans cette entrée « Guerre » : « Mon enfance et mon adolescence ont été confisquées par les milices qui s’entretuaient sur ma terre. ».

Au fil des pages, le lecteur explore le pays du Cèdre à travers la passion d’un homme, qui décrit avec justesse toute la beauté de ce « trait d’union entre Orient et Occident ».
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Google banks on apps with $25m domain purchase

Google banks on apps with $25m domain purchase | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google has shelled out a mega $25 million to purchase the .app website domain.

The search engine giant managed to scoop the prize domain at an auction held by net authority Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

ICANN is currently in the process of rolling out brand new web domains, many of which are bringing in big cash at auction.

Also amongst the lot were .baby, .tech, .salon, and .VIP, all of which have now been sold.

Google hopes that its app developers will be able to make use of the new generic Top Level Domains (gTLD), the official name for the web address suffix.

Google-owned Charleston Road Registry Inc., writing in the bid application, said: “The proposed gTLD will provide application developers with the ability to customise domain and website name application offerings to signal to the general population of internt users that .app websites are indeed related to applications and application developers.”

“This specialisation makes it clear to internet users that this is the authoritative and designated space where they can find applications and information about developers accessible via differentiated and streamlined web addresses.”

Related: Google Chromecast UK release review

This isn’t the first top-level domain Google has purchased, with its other acquisitions including .soy, .minna, .foo, and .how.

It’s not clear when we’ll actually begin to see .app websites appearing on the web, but it’s a welcome addition to our browser’s otherwise spiritless address bar.

ICANN also revealed that .tech was bout by Dot Tech LLC for $6.76 million , and .baby was picked up, unsurprisingly, by Johnson & Johnson for just north of $3 million.
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Presentan la traducción al árabe de la obra de Juan Goytisolo "La Cuarentena"

Presentan la traducción al árabe de la obra de Juan Goytisolo "La Cuarentena" | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
EFE / La traductora egipcia Abir Abdelhafez presentó hoy la traducción al árabe de la obra "La Cuarentena", de Juan Goytisolo, veinticuatro años después de su publicación, en un acto que tuvo lugar en el Instituto Cervantes de El Cairo.

"He elegido traducir este texto porque tengo emoción hacia una persona como Goytisolo, quien siente que la sangre árabe fluye por sus venas", dijo en declaraciones a Efe la traductora, que añadió que "el texto es un punto de convergencia entre dos civilizaciones y varias religiones".

Con Información de EFE
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Jose Mourinho Says He Doesn’t Want To Be Called A Translator

Jose Mourinho Says He Doesn’t Want To Be Called A Translator | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Chelsea boss Jose Mourinho has hit out at offensive comments labelling him a ‘translator’.

Read: Ramos Explains Why Ancelotti Is Better Than Mourinho

The Portuguese boss was labelled as a translator by former France coach Raymond Domenech, but Jose Mourinho insists that the title is offensive and thinks it is undermining the people who do the job professionally – adding that being able to speak different languages does help him.

"I think because I can speak five languages, it doesn't make me a translator,” he told Sports Illustrated.

"Don't call me a translator because that would be an offence to every translator.

"But it helps me, the fact that I can communicate.”

‘The Special One’ spoke about his first managerial job, where he was assistant to Sir Bobby Robson at Barcelona, and insists he was a good help to his then former boss, and said it gives him an advantage as far as instructions to the players is concerned.

"I was just trying to help my boss - the manager at that time - to communicate the best way with the players and the media,” he added.

“Even today with a Scottish coach by my side, I was communicating with Azpilicueta in Spanish, with Fabregas in Catalan, with Oscar in Portuguese and I suppose that he couldn't understand a word of what I was saying to the pitch."

The 52-year-old, who has coached in Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, is one of the most controversial coaches in world football.

His Chelsea team are currently five points clear of Manchester City at the summit of the Premier League, with just 12 games to go until the end of the season. They are also still in the Champions League, and play Tottenham in the Capitol One Cup final on Sunday.

Read: This Keeper Has Scored More Penalties Than Messi!

Do you believe that Mourinho is correct about the translator title being offensive? Let us know in the comments section below.
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Shanghai Maths Book to Be Exported to UK

Shanghai Maths Book to Be Exported to UK | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A famous supplementary textbook on maths from Shanghai will soon be published in the UK this year, as part of the country's efforts to learn from the city's world-class mathematics teaching methods.

The English version of the book "One Lesson, One Exercise (yi ke yi lian)" will be designed on the base of the original Chinese version and integrate with the local curriculum as well.

The Chinese version of the book has been an essential part to the teaching and learning process for many Shanghai teachers and students for some 2 decades.

UK's education authorities have started to learn from Shanghai's maths teaching since last year, as the city is one of the top performers in the Program for International Student Assessment (Pisa) rankings.

Later this February, 29 maths teachers in Shanghai will also visit selected primary schools in the UK to share their teaching techniques.
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Las traductoras pioneras del Caribe | Revistas

Las traductoras pioneras del Caribe | Revistas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Rojano Ovallos
Chía, Vivien y María Cristina comparten una tarde en el apartamento de esta última. Las une el amor por los idiomas.
María Cristina, Chía y Vivien se conocen desde su época de colegio en el Marymount y en el Karl C. Parrish, donde estudiaron y compartieron, entre otras cosas, su primera comunión. Desde entonces, las tres barranquilleras han construido una relación muy cercana en la que su principal punto de encuentro gira en torno a la misión que tienen como traductoras.

Según ellas expresan, “el traductor juega un papel muy importante en las conferencias y eventos donde hace su trabajo, porque es esa persona la que ayuda a transmitir una idea en el idioma que sea requerido”.

Las historias de estas tres mujeres guardan varias similitudes, como son: haber estudiado en los mismos colegios, haberse ido a cursar sus carreras universitarias en el exterior y que cada una de estas amigas y colegas tienen tres hijos —respectivamente—.

María Cristina Dangond,  hija de padre guajiro y madre paisa, una vez finalizó el bachillerato, viajó a Estados Unidos a estudiar antropología en la Universidad Estatal de Lousiana (LSU). Aunque obtuvo el título de antropóloga, nunca ejerció esa profesión, sino que —al regresar a Colombia, a sus 21 años— empezó a trabajar en Morrison Knudsen, la empresa de ingeniería que construyó El Cerrejón.

María Cristina laboró en el departamento de personal de esa compañía por tres años. “Gran parte de mi trabajo allí consistía en establecer comunicación con los extranjeros que llegaban y acompañarlos a realizar las diligencias que tuvieran que ver con su situación legal en el país”, dice. 

Tras terminar su bachillerato en el colegio Marymount, Chía García viajó a Miami a estudiar Economía e Idiomas en la Universidad Estatal de la Florida. “Desde que regresé a Colombia, he trabajado haciendo traducción simultánea y escrita, y me he ocupado de negocios familiares”, afirma.

Por su parte, Vivien Campo —hija de padre colombiano y madre checoslovaca— se graduó en el colegio Lourdes, luego estuvo durante un tiempo en un internado en Suiza y regresó a Colombia para estudiar traducción simultánea en la Universidad del Rosario. Tras ser becada, fue a estudiar a París (Francia) la misma carrera —con un nivel superior—, en la École Supérieure d’Interpretes et de Traducteurs (ESIT).

En un principio, María Cristina y Chía fueron compañeras de colegio en el Marymount. Al ser pasada María Cristina para el Parrish, se conoció con la hermana de Vivien, con la que forjó una amistad que la hacía frecuentar la casa de su familia.

Años más tarde, Chía y Vivien fueron las primeras en abrir una empresa llamada Traducimos Limitada, con la que empezó su experiencia como traductoras. “Tenemos que trabajar siempre en pareja en cabina, porque es una labor extenuante en la que debemos turnarnos cada media hora para poder transmitir el mensaje que se esté emitiendo en otro idioma”, dice Vivien acerca del trabajo que desempeñan.



Estas tres mujeres han sabido ganarse un espacio en el medio, como profesionales calificadas. “Somos traductoras oficiales certificadas por el Ministerio de Justicia y registradas ante el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores”, expresa Vivien, quien junto a su hija mayor, Silvia, pertenece a la Asociación Internacional de Intérpretes de Conferencias (AIIC), con sede en Ginebra, Suiza.

Para hacer parte de ese tipo de asociaciones, la persona debe tener muchos años de experiencia y debe contar con la referencia y certificación que colegas den de su trabajo. Además, se deben tener certificaciones en las que se diga cuántas horas de trabajo se han cumplido y que el nivel de los idiomas que se manejan es el adecuado.

Dentro de las afinidades que estas amigas tienen se encuentra el gusto por el escritor checo, Milan Kundera. Las tres dicen que disfrutan y aprecian mucho sus novelas, tal como gozan el ser traductoras. Cuando se les pregunta por qué se vieron interesadas en ser intérpretes, responden casi al unísono que “por el amor a los idiomas”.

Para ellas, la gracia de su labor radica en que los traductores sirven como ayuda para comunicar y transmitir las ideas que —precisamente por las mismas barreras idiomáticas— otros no entienden. “El papel que nosotras desempeñamos como traductoras es fundamental, porque permitimos que todos entiendan un mismo mensaje”, dicen.


Preparadas para todos

Estas expertas en traducción simultánea expresan que una de las mayores dificultades a las que se enfrentan a la hora de hacer su trabajo es cuando los acentos que van a interpretar no son muy claros y hacen que el mensaje no se entienda bien. Sin embargo, según dicen, en esos casos deben hacer el mayor esfuerzo por manifestar la frase en el sentido que sea más acorde con el contexto donde se esté empleando.

SOBRE su pasión...
“El traductor juega un papel muy importante, porque ayuda a transmitir una idea en otro idioma”.

SOBRE su trabajo...
“Tenemos que trabajar siempre en pareja y en cabina. La labor es extenuante”.
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Nahuatl language through food | Endangered Language Alliance

Nahuatl language through food | Endangered Language Alliance | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
February 26 @ 7:00 PM – 9:00 PM

Did you know the words for chocolate, tomato, avocado and chile all come form the Nahuatl language? Join Nahuatl teacher Irwin Sanchez as he discusses the etymologies behind popular Mexican cuisine and demonstrates the traditional preparation of several dishes. Not only will participants get a crash course in Nahuatl and be able to pronounce “tomato” and “chocolate” properly for the first time, they will also be treated to a sampling of authentic Nahuatl food from the Mexican state of Puebla.
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Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission - N. M.

Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission - N. M. | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
« Le français est une langue qui se porte très bien. » D'emblée, le recteur de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, Bernard Cerquiglini, donne le ton à sa conférence, coupant court, du moins le temps de cette rencontre à la Résidence des pins, à tout pessimisme concernant l'avenir de la langue de Molière.
Historien de la langue, auteur et présentateur de l'émission « Merci professeur », diffusée sur TV5 monde, M. Cerquiglini affirme ainsi que le français est « une langue, une institution, une mission ». Il s'agit de trois traits particuliers dont la « réunion forme la spécificité ». Trois caractéristiques qui ont constitué d'ailleurs le thème de la conférence qu'il a donnée jeudi soir, dans le cadre des rencontres de la Résidence des pins : « Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission. Entre science et passion, itinéraire d'un linguiste. »
Se penchant sur la première caractéristique de la langue française, M. Cerquiglini souligne que « le français est une langue qui est montée très haut », bien qu'elle « soit sortie du ruisseau ». Il rappelle ainsi que les travaux menés pendant plus d'un siècle sur l'origine de cette langue sont ponctués d'une « série de déceptions ». D'abord, le français a une origine « bourbeuse ». Cette langue tient en effet son origine du latin, « non pas classique de la littérature, mais du latin "vulgaire " de la foule, des marchands, des soldats... ». Au fil des travaux de recherche, « on découvre vite que ce latin s'est mêlé de gaulois », ainsi que de germain.
Mais ces déceptions ont été « régulièrement compensées ». « L'histoire du français est une monumentalisation, mais noble », insiste M. Cerquiglini. Il rappelle qu'au XIXe siècle, « l'étude historique de la langue française a exagéré l'influence gauloise, qui se réduit à une cinquantaine de mots actuels comme "chemise", "alouette" ». Cela est dû « au mythe ancien d'une origine gauloise ». « Dans le même temps, on a minoré l'influence germanique, la France ayant été à plusieurs reprises en conflit avec l'Allemagne », note-t-il.

Une France bilingue
Cette monumentalisation de la langue française s'est également faite au niveau de l'orthographe. Le linguiste indique ainsi que « ce n'est pas un hasard si l'orthographe française est fondamentalement latinisée ». Elle l'est « pour que l'écrit rattrape ce que la parole a perdu ». « On a une orthographe volontairement monumentale », avance-t-il. Il rappelle dans ce cadre que l'Académie française avait le choix entre « une orthographe relativement simplifiée, qui est celle des imprimeurs hollandais protestants, et une orthographe très latine, que j'appellerais orthographe catholique ». Et c'est cette deuxième orthographe que l'Académie française a choisie.
« Donc, le français est la couleur particulière prise, vers le IXe siècle, par le latin parlé, mêlé de gaulois et de germain, dans une région qui correspond à peu près aujourd'hui à la France du Nord et à la Belgique du Sud, poursuit-il. Cela veut dire que la France n'est pas le seul berceau de la langue française. » Il convient de noter, par ailleurs, qu'au sud de la France, « le latin non germanisé a donné naissance à une autre langue : l'occitan ou le provençal ». Donc, explique le linguiste, « le latin a connu deux destins en France ». « La France est constitutivement bilingue », constate-t-il, un fait qui a été « caché pendant des siècles, car le français au Nord prenant son essor et devenant la langue de l'État a étouffé ou du moins tenté d'éteindre l'autre ».
Quid du français aujourd'hui ? Il est au nombre des langues internationales en expansion. « On compte aujourd'hui au moins 220 millions de locuteurs de français dans le monde, précise M. Cerquiglini. Cela signifie que depuis quelques années, les Français de France sont minoritaires. La France ne peut plus donc prétendre à donner le ton ni à fournir la norme. D'extension mondiale, le français a acquis des couleurs locales en prenant racine un peu partout. Il y a un français du Canada, d'Afrique, d'Océanie, comme il y a un français de France. Cette variété forme sa richesse. »

Biodiversité des langues et des cultures
Le français est aussi une institution, dans le sens où c'est une langue qui a été « instituée ». « Le français fut écrit très tôt, dès 842, à une époque où l'écriture européenne, quand elle existe, est massivement latine, indique M. Cerquiglini. C'est la première des langues romanes passées à l'écrit. Le premier texte français, les Serments de Strasbourg, est un document éminemment politique. Cet acte diploma
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Ghana joins the world to celebrate International Mother Language Day -

Ghana joins the world to celebrate International Mother Language Day - | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dr. Avea Ephraim Nosh, a Lecturer at the University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Department of Gur-Gonja Languages Education, has called on lecturers, students to collectively work with politicians and other stakeholders in education to ensure that children continue to benefit from their mother tongue in a much improved manner.

Dr. Nosh made the called in a presentation delivered on the topic “Are indigenous Languages still relevant in the current dispensation?” at a durbar as part of this year’s International Mother Language Day Celebration held at the College of Languages Education, UEW Ajumako Campus.

The celebration was on the theme “Inclusion in and through Language Education counts”, was attended by personalities including, chiefs in the area led by the Paramount Chief Ajumako Traditional Council Nana Ogeabo Ababio Hammah, lecturers of the UEW, students and other stakeholders in education.

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) in November, 1999 declared 21st February every year as the International Mother Language Day aimed at promoting awareness of linguistic and culture diversity, multilingualism and above all, to promote and indemnify the linguistic rights of individuals specially children across member countries.

The United Nations General Assembly on 16th May, 2009 endorsed it compelling all member countries “to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by peoples of the world” which fortunately, these international conventions found expression and space in Ghana’s national laws including the language policy in education and in the 1992 constitution, he added.

Dr. Nosh said on International Mother Language Day it was legitimate to seek answers to the questions why thousands of BECE and WASCE graduates should be denied admission into the higher institutions when they pass Kasem, Asante or Ewe but fail the English language, a situation in which the young ones were deny opportunities because of artificially created languages barriers, which were inexhaustible and heart breaking.

“The day reminds us of the responsibility to our children with respect to the use of language in education and we cannot talk of inclusive education when thousands of children are excluded from education simply because they speak a particular language from some part of the county or just that they cannot pass some foreign language examination, these are discrimination and the constitution of the country frowns on them,” he added.

He said there was no doubt about the relevance of indigenous languages in the present day of “our” country or even the current global setting whereby we have to accept the fact that the we have gone a long way but much more needs to be done.

According to him, as a people, we have to realize that our attitudes to mother tongue worldwide is not different from what is seen in the country and for that matter policy makers should speed up with the language policy.

Earlier in the day students from various tribes at the University dressed in their tribal costumes, amidst drumming and dancing to portray the rich culture and traditions, as well as entertain the gathering.

GNA
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Heroes’ reality show set to preserve Nigerian languages

Heroes’ reality show set to preserve Nigerian languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
BY OLAMIDE BABATUNDE

An exciting expository maiden edition of the first Nigerian television reality show with a mission to reawaken the inter­est and unleash the potentials of tour­ism abundant in the country has ended with Happiness Udodang emerging the ultimate winner.

Heroes: Back to the Roots real­ity show set out to house 37 contestants picked from all states, including the Fed­eral Capital Territory, laden with culture-based task as they co-habited for 60 days.

The concept is the brain child of Chinyere Ogbukagu, Head, Havilah Timeless Production, based in Jos, Plateau State. In a bid to pick up the gradual loss and fizzling passion for the cultural heritage and values pertinent to Nigeria’s socio economic development and global outlook, especially among the youth, she deemed it fit to use the tube as the ap­propriate channel, working with Ifeanyi Onyeabor (Big Slim), an erstwhile Nol­lywood director.

Beyond showcasing the strength in di­versity in culture, which Nigeria is blessed with, the show spotlighted various tourism potential yet to be harnessed in various states the cast and crew visited. Alhaji Hassan Aliu, tourism officer, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Niger state, added that logistics were provided, and the house mates visited the first bridge in Niger state and other notable tourist sites.

The aim of the show is also to preserve the Nigerian languages from becoming extinct. While interacting with the media, Technical Director, Ifeanyi, said: “We want our youth to speak at least other Nige­rian languages besides their own mother tongue. We also hope to take the show further across Africa, where we can imbibe other culture. Our culture is our strength and we must be able to preserve it.”

The 37 contestants traversed Kaduna and Plateau states before moving to the camp in Niger State, where they spent 60 days under close observation and per­formed all the various tasks expected of them.

Ultimate winner, Happiness Udodang, described her experience thus: “It has been awesome and great, and I thank God for making me a winner. This is the kind of show we need in Nigeria, because we have many things to project. Our Culture is our pride, identity and root. A man without cul­ture is a man without his roots. I see people going to have their weddings outside Nige­ria, a country with many beautiful places around. Some people also favour wearing western attires over our colourful Ankara fabric. These are things we need to watch, because it’s not helping us as a people. We need to realize who we are, speak one voice and brandish our diversity against intoler­ance and disunity.”

The end of the 2014 show culminated in an event of honour to recognize individu­als and institutions that contributed to a better understanding of cultural legacies in Nigeria, with great emphasis on tolerance. Governor Babangida Aliyu came up as Best Supporting Governor, Cross River State as the cleanest, Niger State as the Most Cul­ture Friendly State, while the Best Gover­nor was Godswill Akpabio of Akwa Ibom.

A nationwide audition for the second edi­tion will begin in March, 2015. According to Chinyere, it is a show for everybody and a better way to preach unity and love.
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Salesforce gère le support en 53 langues avec Desk.com - Le Monde Informatique

Salesforce gère le support en 53 langues avec Desk.com - Le Monde Informatique | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Service en ligne permettant de gérer le support aux clients, Desk.com améliore la personnalisation de la prise en charge par une approche multilingue. L'outil s'adresse aux petites structures même s'il convient aussi aux plus grandes.

Il ne suffit pas de vendre, si la relation engagée avec les clients ne leur apporte pas satisfaction, ils ne reviendront pas. A l’inverse, leur apporter un support adapté peut contribuer à les faire revenir et acheter de nouveau. Destiné à gérer le support aux clients dans les petites entreprises, mais aussi dans les plus grosses structures, le logiciel cloud Desk.com vient de s’enrichir d’une vingtaine de langues supplémentaires. Au total, cette solution appartenant au catalogue de Salesforce.com (à la suite du rachat d'Assistly en 2011) propose maintenant 53 langues pour s’adresser au client avec les mots qui lui parlent le mieux : français, allemand, grec, arabe, chinois, danois, hébreu, hindi, japonais, swahili… Les utilisateurs de Desk.com peuvent ainsi constituer leur base de connaissances dans de multiples langues. Dans la liste, on trouve dix versions d’anglais, selon que l’on s’adresse à des interlocuteurs australiens, canadiens, hongkongais, néozélandais, etc. 



Les contenus sont traduits dans la langue choisie. (agrandir l'image)

Suivant la langue, router la demande vers le bon agent
Multilinguisme aussi pour la console utilisée par les agents de l’équipe support. Celle-ci est maintenant disponible en français, néerlandais, allemand, italien, japonais, espagnol et anglais. Des fonctions de reconnaissance de la langue permettent par ailleurs de router la demande d’un client vers l’agent parlant sa langue. Les administrateurs du service sont également concernés par ces évolutions puisqu’ils pourront eux aussi choisir leur langue.  

Desk.com comprend des outils de reporting fournissant des statistiques sur les actions des équipes de support, mais aussi sur les réclamations enregistrées, les problèmes rencontrés sur les produits et l’impact obtenu à la suite des améliorations apportées. Présente à Paris cette semaine, Sara Varni, responsable marketing de l’offre, a notamment expliqué comment la société Munchery, qui livre les repas de chefs à San Francisco, utilise le reporting de Desk.com pour mesurer la satisfaction des consommateurs et identifier des tendances. Les feedbacks sont partagés avec les chefs et les équipes opérationnelles pour optimiser de façon continue les options de menus proposées. Munchery utilise aussi Desk.com pour gérer les problèmes liés aux changements de commandes de dernière minute et, même, assure la société, pour recruter de nouveaux employés.

A partir de 60 € environ pour le service multilingue
Les utilisateurs de Desk.com sont pour l’instant principalement aux Etats-Unis, mais Salesforce.com cherche maintenant à développer l’offre sur d’autres marchés, dont la France. La tarification de Desk.com démarre autour de 30 € par mois et par agent pour la version de base. Le support multilingue est plus coûteux : environ 60 € par mois et par agent. Les outils destinés à l’administrateur n’arriveront en disponibilité générale qu’au 2ème semestre. En complément, un portail d’apps pour étendre le service avec les apps de partenaires. TalkDesk, par exemple, propose un logiciel pour intégrer ses interactions téléphoniques avec Desk.com pour garder en un seul endroit l’historique de la relation avec ses clients.

Article de Maryse Gros
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WHO/Europe | Slovenia - Health 2020 now available in Slovene language

WHO/Europe | Slovenia - Health 2020 now available in Slovene language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Health 2020 now available in Slovene language

27-02-2015
Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being that sets out a far-sighted and ambitious agenda for health has been translated in Slovene language and published. Translation came just in time, as in the following months Slovenia will work on the new National Health Plan and the health system reform.

Strategic objectives of Health 2020: stronger equity and better governance for health, as well as four priority areas for policy action (investing in health through a life-course approach and empowering people; tackling the Region’s major health challenges of noncommunicable and communicable diseases; strengthening people-centred health systems, public health capacity and emergency preparedness, surveillance and response; and creating resilient communities and supportive environments) shall certainly inspire the Slovene policy makers in their desire to achieve measurable impact on health. 

Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being has been translated and published in close collaboration of the WHO Country Office Slovenia and the Ministry of Health as part of the activities agreed by the Biennial Collaborative Agreement 2014-2015.
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Translation Event Helps Local Students While Helping Families in Guatemala

Translation Event Helps Local Students While Helping Families in Guatemala | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Updated: 02/27/2015 5:42 PM
Created: 02/27/2015 3:34 PM KSTP.com
By: Jessica Miles
Fourth- and fifth-graders at an Excelsior elementary school are using their expertise in Spanish to help children in Guatemala.
The popcorn and pretzels may be on hand, but this isn't your typical after-school party.
Young Spanish immersion students at Minnewashta Elementary hosted their second translation party.
"They have letters from sponsors who sponsor children in Guatemala and these sponsors don't always know Spanish so they need those letters translated," said teacher Amanda Zamilpa.
Having been taught Spanish since kindergarten, their skills are in demand. They're taking English words and writing sentences in Spanish.
"They're telling their names, where they live, some of the stuff about their families and hobbies," fifth-grader Emmarie Raby said.
The students say the translation party also helps them use their second language in a different way.
"It helps us learn more vocabulary, and some of the words we don't know, we look up to find out what they mean," said fifth-grader Easton Freed.
Minnetonka schools pride themselves on having the largest language immersion program in the state. The district says they also have creative teachers who can find opportunities for students to use their skills.
"It gives them a great opportunity to see, I can help someone, I can help the world, I can do something with these Spanish skills," Zamilpa said.
The translation party is able to happen thanks to an organization called Common Hope in St. Paul. The nonprofit works to improve the lives of children and families in Guatemala through education, health care, and housing.
Minnewashta Elementary hopes to someday sponsor a child, just like the sponsors they're helping translate for.
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IBNA - Transferring culture to culture is not simply translating words

IBNA - Transferring culture to culture is not simply translating words | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Transferring culture to culture is not simply translating words
 
Publish Date : Friday 27 February 2015 - 22:21
 
 
IBNA- In the meeting of ‘Editing Translated Texts on Humanities’, a sociology lecturer at Tehran University Nayyereh Tavakoli said that Translation is transferring a culture to another and not simply change of the words.

 
According to IBNA correspondent, She also remarked that a translator must be well-informed in all areas and not only in a particular field, as for example a translator who had a doctorate in psychology from an American university misnamed the title of ‘The Cherry Orchard’ in a psychology book where this work of Chekhov was mentioned.”

Tavakoli who is also a translator and editor, said: “To me, translation is not merely restricted to changing words into another language and observing the grammatical rules; it is a culture to culture transfer. To make it clear I refer to the word ‘snow’ in Eskimo culture which reflects the most significant concept in their life. They have the equivalent of some twenty words including ‘snowing’, ‘settled snow’, ‘dancing snow’, ‘snow ball’, ‘deep snow’ and other concepts as such.”

She referred to the difference between the texts on humanities and other texts which reflect the concept of culture and said: “Texts related to humanities are more culture-oriented than those on pure sciences. This is because they basically revolve around the topics of culture, history, literature, psychology, society and social institutions as well as all which involve human restrictions and the material and spiritual culture of man.”
 
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Shared Histories: 3 Alliances Between Africans and Natives

Shared Histories: 3 Alliances Between Africans and Natives | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
hared Histories: 3 Alliances Between Africans and Natives

Konnie LeMay
2/27/15
It’s unlikely to show up in any American History course in high school, but this country’s past includes many cases of African and Native alliances in the early days of conquest in what became the Americas.

Enslavement, of course, did not mean just African people and in this they also shared a fate. Almost from the arrival of Christopher Columbus, Native peoples were enslaved and some taken to Europe. As historian Jack D. Forbes, Powhatan-Renape/Delaware-Lenape, wrote in Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples, “Speaking of the late 1499-1503 expeditions to northern South America, José Antonio Saco states ‘that one of the objects of these expeditions was that of robbing human beings in order to sell them as slaves.’”

So perhaps it was only natural that, especially early in the conquest of these lands, Native and African people should unite. In some cases the alliance was to live peacefully together, in others it was to battle a common enemy—the encroaching European settlers and their slaveholding descendants.

“Native Americans saw no reason to fight the enemy alone—these people arriving with guns, cannons and diseases,” William Loren Katz, author of Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage, told ICTMN. It comes down to, he added, “The enemy of your enemy is your friend.”

Following are three examples of alliances formed by these two populations—one living on Turtle Island by divine placement, the other torn from their own homeland by corrupt slave traders and slaveholders.

1526 – Colony of San Miguel de Gualdape

Long before the British would try, and fail, to build the 1587 settlement at Roanoke Island, a wealthy Spanish plantation owner built for a few short months the first European colony in what would become the United States.

Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, who lived in the Santo Domingo stronghold of Columbus’ son Diego, would also fail at his attempt to create a settlement.

Although it was not his intention, de Ayllón made local enemies even before he arrived north. He had sent a captain to survey potential sites for a town. The captain, in collaboration with a slave trader, returned with 70 Native captives to sell. A local court under Diego Columbus freed the captives, according to records. De Ayllón tapped one, called by the Spanish either Ferdinand Chicorana or Chicora, as an interpreter.

According to Katz, de Ayllón, after a visit with Chicorana to the king in Spain, came to North America with 500 settlers and 100 African slaves in the entourage. Chicorana left—or perhaps escaped—soon after returning to the north.

The group came to what is probably today’s Pee Dee River that cuts across South Carolina or, by some historians, to Georgia. They set up camp and used the slaves to build homes. De Ayllón called the settlement San Miguel de Gualdape.

Just a few months later in October, the population of the new settlement was sick, starving and split into divisive groups. De Ayllón died that month.

The African slaves were said to resist by setting fires in the village and causing other trouble. In November, they fought back and fled to the Native communities. According to Katz, the local Native population may have instigated and aided the revolt.

The remaining 150 Spanish settlers were forced by the circumstances to return south to Santo Domingo, leaving the free Africans to integrate into the local Native communities.

1600s – Black Voyageurs

Contrary perhaps to the mainstream view of Africans arriving in the “new world,” not all of those from that continent came to this as slaves. Katz points out in Black Indians, “I also found white people who heard little about the historic relationship between Africans and Native Americans. They knew by the early 19th century, slave ships had brought millions of Africans here. But they did not know Africans who accompanied the earliest European expeditions did not come in chains, but as free people. They were translators for European explorers and merchants and rose to play vital roles as negotiators and diplomats with Native Americans.”

So it was during the early period of the fur trade by the Great Lakes. In fact, George and Stephan Bonga, born at the westernmost tip of Lake Superior in the early 1800s, claimed to be both the “first black” and the “first white” children born in the Minnesota territory. They actually were the sons of fur trapper Pierre Bonga, of African descent, and an Ojibwe woman, whose name is apparently lost to history, but who was thought to be of the Leech Lake people. The “first white” designation came because the Ojibwe at the time considered all non-Indians by the same distinction.


This illustration of George Bonga accompanies a story about him by William Durbin, published by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. (Illustration by Chris Gall)
George Bonga, like his father and grandfather, a former indentured servant, became a fur trader and trapper after returning from schooling in Montréal. He was fluent in French, English and Ojibwe languages. By the time he was 48, the 1850 Minnesota census logged 14 African Americans in the state. He married an Ojibwe woman named Ashwinn. They had four children, and after he left trapping, they ran a lodge for tourists until George’s death in 1884. He was also involved in negotiations of treaties, and Bungo Township in Cass County, which overlaps the Leech Lake Reservation, is named for the family. Cass County itself is named for Lewis Cass, an explorer for whom Bonga did some guide work, according to a story in the state Department of Natural Resource’s Minnesota Conservation Volunteer.

The Bonga family is just one example of the professional and family alliances forged between African-European immigrants and Native peoples.

“African Americans were among the trade’s leading figures—as entrepreneurs, voyageurs and hunters.” It was said that Native hunters preferred to negotiate with African interpreters. Katz wrote that five African paddlers accompanied fur trader Louis Joilet and Father Jacques Marquette down the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes region to Arkansas.

1817-1858 – The Three Seminole Wars

“What you had on the peninsula of Florida is what I would call the largest, and single longest-lasting in the United States, alliance of Africans and Native Americans,” Katz told ICTMN. “For 40 years, they held off the most powerful army in the New World.”

Katz was referring to the multiple conflicts between 1817 and 1858, known as The Seminole Wars. The Seminole people are a blending of several regional Native nations, including the Creek. The Florida peninsula came under Spanish colonization in the 1500s (at least according to Spain), though there were five to six Native nations already there. These also would become part of the Seminole people.


A U.S. Marine boat expedition searching for Indians in the Everglades during the Second Seminole War. (Defense Department Photo (Marine Corps) 306073-A)
By the mid-1700s, Britain claimed control of the area, lost again to Spain at the end of the Revolutionary War. So in the early to mid-1800s, what is Florida today was ostensibly under Spanish control, while territories to the north were held by the United States.

The challenging terrain of the peninsula, especially its dense tropical swamplands, would make it attractive as a haven for African freedmen and those who escaped slavery from the north. Culturally, the African people had more in common with the Native nations than with the European slaveholders. Both Native and African cultures valued family above economic profit and had a different relation to the land than did the Europeans.

“I think it solidified them,” Katz said. “The emphasis on nature, on kinship rather than ownership. Many of them didn’t know what (land) ownership meant; they didn’t care.”

Family and allies did matter, though, and as the Africans established their own villages in the region, they formed alliances with many of the neighboring Native populations.

“In time, the two groups came to view themselves as parts of the same loosely organized tribe,” according to Joseph A. Opala in his article “Black Seminoles – Gullahs Who Escaped From Slavery.” The Black Seminoles brought knowledge of rice cultivation, which they shared with their Native Seminole neighbors. In turn, they adopted clothing styles of the Native populations.

Over time, more Africans escaped to the area and more Native peoples also migrated there to escape persecution. Eventually the U.S. government, under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson, moved into the region to claim it and to end it as a haven undermining slavery. What would be called the First Seminole War lasted from 1817 to 1818, often with Creeks aiding the U.S. military against the Seminole peoples.

“The blacks and Indians fought side-by-side in a desperate struggle to stop the American advance, but they were defeated and driven south into the more remote wilderness of central and southern Florida,” Opala wrote.

But the Seminole people continued to live in the region. According to Katz, “hundreds of Seminole families hurried southeast to join Chief Billy Bowlegs on the Suwannee River.” There, Seminole fighting groups were forming and drilling.


Chief Billy Bowlegs (Wikimedia Commons)
In 1819, the U.S. government bought the peninsula from Spain for $5 million (again, under the assumption Spain “owned” the lands).

Meanwhile, efforts were made to corrode the African and Native alliances and to encourage the Native populations to make the Africans their “slaves.” Although some Seminole and others in the “Five Civilized Tribes” did follow that lead, often intermarriages and other alliances continued.

The Second Seminole War would last much longer, erupting in 1835 and continuing to 1842. Trickery and forced treaties that would move the people west lead to retaliations by Seminole people, including raids on a plantation and an attack on the troops of Major Francis Langhorne Dade that ended in death for him and nearly 110 soldiers. According to the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, “the seven-year war cost more than the American Revolution (estimates start at $20,000,000). It involved 52,000 soldiers fighting against less than 2,000 warriors.”


Abraham, a Black Seminole leader in the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). The Indians called him “Souanaffe Tustenukke,” a title indicating membership in the highest of the three ranks of war leaders. He is wearing typical Seminole dress and holding a rifle. (Yale.edu)
Katz suggested a $40 million monetary cost along with the deaths from battles and the deportation of people into slavery or onto reservations. Ultimately up to 4,000 people—Native and African—were removed to Oklahoma territory. Still a few hundred Seminole remained hidden in southern swamplands; many were united under Chief Bowlegs. Some of the Seminole peoples, like friends and leaders Wild Cat, a Native Seminole, and John Horse, of African descent, moved to Mexico and allied with the government there.

The Third Seminole War started with an attack led by Chief Bowlegs in December 1855 and continued with more than two years of guerrilla-style raids until 1858, when the chief agreed to emigrate along with about 165 people. He would die of yellow fever while serving as a major for the Union in the Civil War.

Katz estimated a couple hundred Native people, however, remained hidden in the Everglades while the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum reports “No one really knows how many Seminoles were left in Florida after the 3rd Seminole War ended in 1858.”

However some did remain, surviving by hunting, guiding tourists or making items to sell; they were the ancestral foundation of today’s Seminole Tribe of Florida.


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Endangered Indigenous songlines preserved with digital storytelling tools

Endangered Indigenous songlines preserved with digital storytelling tools | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Learning traditional songlines and stories is an important part of initiation into an Aboriginal clan, but the education process is very different to western-style schooling. Rachael Kohn reports on a project that is trying to bridge that gap and preserve tales from endangered Indigenous languages.


‘Reading and writing is not our format,' says Mark Nakarrma Guyula. 'We paint our stories. We look at and understand the stories of the painting, but we can translate painting stories onto reading and writing. They’re both useful now, and its meeting the needs.’

Mr Guyula, a Yolnu man from north-east Arnhem Land, is referring to the needs of Aboriginal children, who are required to undertake western-style education while also learning the stories of their own culture.   

In the past, it was an either/or situation. Children who were taken away from country and educated at boarding schools lost knowledge of their peoples' cultures.

It creates a strong, firm foundation where a language in that clan is learned. Everybody learns, children, young women, young men and senior elders.
MARK NAKARRMA GUYULA, YOLNU MAN FROM NORTH-EAST ARNHEM LAND
Now that’s changing, thanks to digital technology and the Sharing Stories Foundation, which was founded by Dr Liz Thompson, a documentary maker, author and passionate activist for the preservation of Indigenous culture. 

Together, Dr Thompson and Mr Guyula, along with elders from various Indigenous communities, are recording stories and songlines from languages that are almost disappearing. One such language is that of the Paakantji community on the Darling River in NSW, which has no more than five speakers and is on UNESCO’s endangered list. 

‘I would say that there are many languages that have been lost, some of the languages that [songlines] were sung in are no longer spoken,’ says Dr Thompson.

‘Even in Arnhem Land, where the culture is very strong, Nakarma has said to me on many occasions, as have other custodians, that they are deeply concerned about the health and maintenance of those stories and songlines.’

One such endangered story is the Paakantji community’s The Moon and the Gecko (Patjuka and Punu).

IMAGE: PUNU BLEW A MAGIC SONG (PAAKANTJI COMMUNITY)
While Patjuka was up the tree, Punu started blowing on it, singing a magic song.  A wind came and the tree began to grow. It grew and grew until it reached the sky. ‘Can you touch the sky?’ asked Punu. ‘Yes’ Patjuka replied. ‘Well grab hold of it,’ said Punu.

The Moon and the Gecko is a creation story that has been passed on through generations of the Paakantji people, whose name means ‘belonging to the river’.

Today it is held by custodian Murray Butcher, who received it from his grandmother. As one of the five people who can sing it in its original language, Mr Butcher is a willing contributor to the Sharing Stories Foundation, which, with the help of other members of the community, has retold the tale as an illustrated book.

IMAGE: DINGOES ATTACKED HIM (PAAKANTJI COMMUNITY)
The passing on of lore by elders to children is a crucial part of membership of an Indigenous clan. It’s a learning process that differs sharply from the template of western education, where a person armed with questions accosts a more knowledgeable person or simply reads books to find the answers.  

Mr Guyuma says learning the knowledge of his clan was a privilege which was not ‘expected’ but bestowed by elders when they thought he was ready. As a member of the Liya-dhalinymirr Djambarrpuynu clan, his songline starts with the story of the ancestral Murrka Hunters who hunted Wol, the great giant green sea turtle.

Becoming a knowledge custodian changed the course of Mr Guyuma’s life. He was working in the ‘white culture’ of Ballarat, Victoria, far away from Buckingham Bay in his native Arnhem Land. He enjoyed his work as an aircraft maintenance engineer and had a particular knack for flying planes, but he felt there was something missing.

A phone call from his father beckoning him home to attend an important men’s business ceremony prompted Mr Guyuma to reconnect to the songlines and, as he puts it, balance the education in his life. He left his life and job in Victoria and went back home, eventually becoming a knowledge custodian of his clan.

IMAGE: BAT SHOWED THE PEOPLE THE WAY HOME (JAARA COMMUNITY )
Mr Guyuma was fortunate that his father and community elders were around to ensure he would receive the songlines. However, in remote communities where elders are growing older and children are often educated in boarding schools, the transfer of traditional knowledge has been in danger.

The Sharing Stories Digital Storytelling Program is now transferring technologies and skills to communities and has produced a resource that can be used in schools, with the help of elders Jessie Roberts and Sheila Conway.

IMAGE: WHIRLY-WHIRLY BLEW THEM TO NGARLA-YUDJUDJA'S CAMP (JILKMINGGAN COMMUNITY)
The foundation is also paving the way for young children to be part of the digital world, a goal Mr Guyuma, who is now a senior lecturer at Charles Darwin University, has come to respect. 

‘It creates a strong, firm foundation where a language in that clan is learned. Everybody learns, children, young women, young men and senior elders,’ he says.

‘That’s how the foundation begins.’
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guineepresse.info :: | Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…?

guineepresse.info :: | Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les Peuls : les Kurdes d’Afrique… Et si la question peule était posée…?

Par Bellahimana LY


2015-02-27 07:09:04

Comme les Kurdes au Moyen-Orient et les Berbères au Maghreb et au Sahel, les Peuls constituent un grand peuple sans un « Etat foyer » comme disent les Occidentaux à propos des Juifs. Ils se trouvent dans la quasi-totalité des pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest et une partie de l’Afrique centrale.

Traditionnellement des nomades, les Peuls se sont sédentarisés pour former des Etats qui datent du Moyen Age : l’Almamiya du Fuuta Toro ( Sud de la Mauritanie et Nord du Sénégal de Saint-Louis á Bakel), le Royaume Fouladou (Haute Casamance au Sénégal, Nord-Est de la Gambie), l’Almamiya du Fuuta Jallon en (Guinée ), l’Empire du Macina (centre du Mali), l’Etat infaillible du Liptaako (Burkina Faso), l’Empire de Sokoto (Ouest du Nigeria , Sud du Niger et Nord du Togo et du Benin) et l’Etat d’Adamaoua (Est du Nigeria et Nord du Cameroun).

Seuls les Wodaabés en Afrique centrale (Est du Niger, Extrême Est du Nigeria et Cameroun, Tchad, Soudan, Soudan du Sud et Centrafrique) n’ont pas d’Etat foyer dû à leur activité de transhumance. 

Aujourd’hui aucun de ces Etats n’est une république indépendante et aucun mouvement ou groupe séparatiste ne revendique une quelconque autonomie. 

La langue peule

La langue peule et le Swahili sont les deux langues les plus parlées en aires géographiques en Afrique. La langue est appelée Pulaar dans la zone ouest et elle est appelée Foulfoulde dans les autres pays. Elle est comprise par tout le monde peul avec des légères différences. Il y a huit aires dialectales du Peul :

Pulaar Fuuta Jaloo (Guinée, Guinée Bissau, Sierra Leone),
Pulaar Fuuta Tooro (Nord du Sénégal, Sud de la Mauritanie et Ouest du Mali),
Pulaar Firdu (Casamance et Gambie), 
Fulfulde Maasina (Centre et Nord du Mali), 
Fulfulde Liptaako (Burkina Faso), 
Fulfulde Borgu (Benin et Togo), 
Fulfulde Sokoto (Nord-Ouest du Nigeria et Niger),
Fulfulde Adamaoua (Nord-Est du Nigeria, Cameroun, Tchad, Centrafrique, Soudan du Sud).

Le Peul n’est la langue officielle d’aucun de ces pays cités; comme l’est le Swahili, la langue officielle de la Tanzanie et du Kenya. Cela s’explique d’abord par le fait qu’aucune ville peule n’est devenue la capitale d’un pays ; ça s’explique aussi par des raisons politiques. 

Les Peuls sont-ils vraiment des gens méchants?

Les Peuls sont victimes de discrimination et de stigmatisation. Les autres ethnies ont “surtout peur” de la langue qui pourrait être selon eux un facteur de domination en Afrique de l’Ouest. Leur situation politique aujourd’hui est aussi le résultat de leur forte opposition aux colons. Les Blancs ont installé la méfiance dans les coeurs des gens comme ils l’avaient fait au Rwanda entre Tutsi et Hutu. Par conséquent, les Peuls sont accusés de racisme et d’égoisme.

Si aujourd’hui beaucoup d’Africains se vantent d’être musulmans c’est grâce à “Geno”  bien sûr, mais aussi aux Peuls, surtout ceux du Fuuta Toro appellés Haal Pulaaren. Une partie des Peuls d’Afrique de l’Ouest, ont été parmi les propagateurs de l’islam sunnite, notamment avec des personnages du clan Toroobed’Oumar Tall, comme Ousmane Dan Fodio et Muhammad Bello chez les Haussa, Sékou Amadou, fondateur de l’Empire Peul du Macina,et Amadou Lobbo Bari “Emir du Macina“, Modibo Adama, fondateur du royaume peul de l’Adamaoua. Les Peuls auraient dû profiter de l’Islam pour imposer leur culture aux autres.

Sur le plan socio géographique, les Peuls conquérants pratiquant le djihad sont des Peuls sédentaires et en bonne relation avec les populations avec lesquelles ils cohabitent. 

Les Peuls ont un large esprit d’ouverture et de partage, ils forment en général une seule communauté avec leurs voisins. Au Sahel, il est très difficile de différencier un Peul d’un Touareg. Au Nigeria, avec les Haussa, ils constituent un peuple appelé Haussa-Fulani. Au Sénégal, les Peuls et Sérères sont très liés, bref les discours politiques et la réalité sont très différents. 

Les Peuls très croyants n’ont jamais adopté l’esprit de vengeance ou de représailles.          « Ko muusi muusi ko fof » ils s’en remettent à Dieu. « Maa Allah ñaaw fof » Dieu jugera tout.
Le Président mauritanien avait prononcé ces mots à Kaédi : «… je suis heureux parce que les affligés ont fait preuve de magnanimité et d’indulgence, je suis heureux parce que Allah leur a donné le courage de surmonter les douleurs et la force d’essyer les larmes de l’amertume sans ressentiment… »

Les éleveurs peuls ont beaucoup de problèmes avec leurs voisins agriculteurs qu’ils soient Peuls sédentaires ou d’autres groupes ethniques. Les pasteurs détruisent sur leur passage les champs des agriculteurs cela engendre des incidents très graves, le plus grave est celui qui a provoqué un conflit sénégalo-mauritanien suite à la bagarre entre un éleveur mauritanien et un cultivateur sénégalais, par contre ils sont victimes des vols de bétails à main armée. Le plus récent événement remonte en 2012: des Peuls Burkinabés sont massacrés par des Dogons du Mali.

Situation politique par pays.

Sénégal

La situation politique du Sénégal est très stable. Les Peuls ont toujours occupé des postes importants, le président actuel est originaire du Fouta mais on ne peut pas dire que la situation est la meilleure. Dans les années 70-80 le Sénégal avait publié des statistiques en divisant les Peuls en 3 groupes (Toucouleurs, Peuls et Laobés) pour donner la majorité au Wolof afin que cette langue soit la première au Sénégal. Le défuntTidiane Ann tenta de s’opposer à ces données. 

Aujourd’hui parler Pulaar dans certains lieux peut relever de nationalisme voire du racisme chez certaines personnes. Il n y’a pas de tension ethnique au Sénégal mais la langue pulaar est en perte de vitesse. A la veille du deuxième tour de l’élection présidentielle 2012 des responsables politiques brandissent l’épouvantail d’une menace peule dans le pays en criant au vote ethnique. Heureusement le peuple sénégalais dans son ensemble est un peuple civilisé et mature. 

Cameroun

Les Peuls ne sont pas catégoriquement exclus de la vie politique camerounaise. Leur premier président était un peul, Ahmadou Ahidjo. Poussé à la sortie par les Français en lui faisant croire qu’il était gravement malade, quelques années plus tard il a voulu reprendre le pouvoir. Cette fois-ci il est contraint à l'exil forcé au Sénégal par Paul Biya. Les Peuls dominent le centre et le nord du Cameroun (Ngaoundéré) même si le pouvoir est aux mains des sudistes depuis plusieurs décennies.

Le fulfulde est la première langue du Cameroun, elle est véhiculaire dans tout le centre et le nord Cameroun. Les villes comme Ngaoundéré, Maroua et Garoua ont bénéficié des infrastructures modernes et de bonne gestion où ils pratiquent librement leurs traditions. Le pays est réputé être calme car il n’a jamais connu des conflits ethniques ou religieux. Les Camerounais se demandent si la dictature qui assure la stabilité n’est pas meilleure qu’une alternance démocratique qui installe le chaos.

La Guinée et la Mauritanie 

Ces deux populations ont un destin identique et parfois tragique.

En Guinée, les Peuls subissent un sentiment de haine qui remonte au discours scandaleux de Sékou Touré. Inquiet de la montée de popularité de Diallo Telli, premier Secrétaire Général de l’OUA, le dictateur sanguinaire invente un complot peul imaginaire. 

D’abord il interdit les bourses d’études aux enfants peuls, ensuite des gens ont été massacrés parce qu’ils portaient des patronymes Diallo, Sow, Barry, Bah… Des intellectuels peuls sont victimes d’exécutions en série, ce qui a fait le plus mal durant cette période c’est le fameux discours haineux, Sékou Touré appelle ouvertement au génocide peul….

M. Diallo [Telli] n’a pas perdu sa foi en « Geno » voilà un extrait parmi ces derniers mots: « Je suis croyant…je l’attends devant Allah »
Sept ans plus tard Sékou l’a rejoint dans l’autre monde.
Aujourd’hui, les Peuls souffrent de cette diabolisation et les tensions ethniques persistent. Les spécialistes parlent de risque de guerre civile tandis que les Peuls eux s’alarment d’un risque de génocide.

Ces tensions sont ravivées par les dernières élections présidentielles. Le candidat peul qui est arrivé en tête au premier tour avec 39 % a été éliminé au deuxième tour par une campagne « tout sauf peul » un résultat étonnant politiquement. Pourtant les peuls sont largement majoritaires en Guinée avec 40 % de la population.

En Mauritanie c’est toute la communauté africaine qui fait face à l’arabisation du pays. Les Haali Pulaaren sont la première ethnie africaine, ils sont particulièrement visés. Dans les années 80, ils publient un manifeste dénonçant le racisme et les discriminations. Par la suite le régime en place affirme avoir déjoué un coup d’Etat peul et saisit l’occasion pour commettre ce qu’on appelle une épuration ethnique dans l’armée et d’autres institutions du pays.

En 1989 un conflit sénégalo-mauritanien éclate mais le pouvoir est persuadé que les véritables ennemis sont les haal pulaaren, des milliers de foutankés chassés de leur terre, des tueries et des licenciements des fonctionnaires se multiplient sous le regard silencieux des oulémas et des chefs religieux. Le 28 novembre 1990, 28 soldats tous peuls, sont pendus pour célébrer l’indépendance du pays. 

24 ans après, la justice n’est pas faite mais les choses semblent aller mieux.
La communauté noire continue à dénoncer le pouvoir en place qu’il juge raciste fondé sur un système politique discriminatoire. Les nationalistes arabes veulent instaurer un Etat exclusivement arabe et tourner le dos définitivement aux pays subsahariens. Des mouvements noirs protestent contre ce système. Ces mouvements sont accusés d’être composés exclusivement de Peuls.

Mali

Les peuls du Mali sont victimes des conséquences du conflit entre les Touaregs et Bamako. Les Peuls cohabitent avec les tamasheqs depuis des siècles et ils partagent la même culture du Sahel. Durant les périodes des conflits, les Peuls sont pris entre deux feux, d’une part ils subissent les représailles des Touaregs les considérant avant tout comme des africains et d’autres part l’armée malienne commet des exactions sur des innocents qu’elle accuse de soutenir les Touaregs et surtout d’avoir massivement intégré les forces djihadistes du Mujao.

Les Peuls sont bien représentés dans la vie politique du Mali mais les tensions entre les éleveurs et les agriculteurs sont fréquents. Sous le régime d’ATT qui est élevé dans un milieu peul, l’Etat avait pris des décisions en faveur des pasteurs peuls mais depuis son renversement les tensons surgissent.

Guinée Bissau et Sierra Leone

Dans ces pays la situation politique est instable, ils souffrent des crises politico-militaires. Le président par intérim de Guinée Bissau est peul, le pays traverse une longue crise politique.
La Sierra Leone sort d’une décennie de guerre et la population peule y est minoritaire.

Benin et Togo

Dans ces pays aussi les populations peules sont minoritaires et occupent le nord du pays. Ils ne sont pas impliqués dans la politique de leurs pays, mais ils font face à des conflits frontaliers et des tensions avec les agriculteurs. La communauté peule au Bénin est déjà victime de nombreuses humiliations et brimades par les populations et les forces de l’ordre à cause de la mauvaise publicité qui leur est faite par certains médias et certaines autorités.

Il y a quelques mois, suite à un incendie qui a décimé un village, un ministre de la République parlant des transhumants, a dit publiquement devant une population en furie, donc vulnérable et facilement influençable : « Comme le Guépard, nos forces de sécurité et de défense sont appelées à traquer ces hors-la-loi jusqu’à leur dernier retranchement ». Ces propos ont été relayés par la presse béninoise.

Burkina Faso

Les Peuls constituent la troisième ethnie du pays, c’est l’un des pays qui n’a pas connu des crises interethniques. Dans la région du Sahel, le Fulfulde est enseigné, le taux d’alphabétisation est élevé, le fulfulde est bien représenté dans le pays. Selon la Constitution les habitants sont appelés les Burkinabè (mot invariable), où le suffixe « bè » désignant l’habitant en fulfulde (homme ou femme), le singulier est Burkinajo mais pour faciliter les choses le gentilé du Burkina reste toujours invariable.

Niger et Nigeria

Dans ces deux pays les Peuls sont indissociables des Haoussas, dû à leur attachement à l’islam. Au Nigeria, on parle plutôt d’une opposition du nord musulman au sud chrétien la religion est au-dessus de l’appartenance ethnique. Le pays a connu des présidents peuls et la langue fait partie des quatre principales langues du Nigeria (Haoussa, Foulani, Igbo et Yoruba).

Tchad, Soudan et Centrafrique

Les Peuls-Bororos ou Woddaabe vivent éparpillés dans plusieurs pays d‘Afrique. On ne connaît pas précisément leur nombre ni même où ils habitent parce qu’ils sont constamment en mouvement. Ce sont des nomades qui ne connaissent pas les frontières ; en plus des pays de l’Afrique centrale on les trouve également au Niger et au Nigeria.

Les deux Soudan sont déchirés par des guerres inter-ethniques, aucun groupe n’est épargné par les graves crises.
Au Tchad, le peuple peul est plus mal recensé compte tenu de son mode de vie qui est nomade. Les Peuls du Tchad sont souvent confrontés à des problèmes dus à leur activité, ils sont accusés de ne pas respecter les lois qui protègent la nature.
Le Tchad a connu une rébellion dirigé par un Peul, le Général Baba Laddé. Les organisations internationales dénoncent les exactions commises sur les populations peules, elles dénoncent également les violences des milices peules sur des populations civiles.

En Centrafrique, les Peuls vivent en ce moment une situation dramatique, ils sont victimes de série de massacres. Des rebelles venus du nord à majorité musulmane avaient renversé le pouvoir en place. Ces rebelles sont accusés de commettre des exactions sur les civils chrétiens. Ces derniers ont formé une milice Anti-balaka qui attaque les musulmans. Les Peuls constituent 70% de ces musulmans. Ces deniers jours la situation est particulière désastreuse: les Peuls connaissent une vraie épuration ethnique au nom d’un faux conflit confessionnel.

Depuis décembre 2013, au moins 100 personnes d’origine peule ont été tuées à l’arme blanche, parmi lesquelles beaucoup d’enfants, près de Boali, à 95 km au nord de Bangui. Les victimes, selon les sources, sont toutes des Bororos, membres de la minorité peule musulmane. 

L’avenir des Peuls

Notre culture dépend de la survie de notre peuple. A quoi bon une culture sans hommes?
Nous ne pouvons pas continuer à fermer les yeux et laisser nos proches se faire massacrer comme des mouches.
Nous ne pouvons pas continuer à fermer les yeux et laisser nos proches se faire exclure de la vie politique et des institutions de leurs pays.

Nous ne pouvons pas abandonner nos activités traditionnelles au nom des frontières artificielles, les Peuls ne connaissent pas de frontières, les lois doivent tenir compte de cette réalité.
Notre culture dépend de notre vie, ce que les Peuls subissent aujourd’hui en RCA, Guinée et dans d’autres régions est inhumain, personne ne peut dire que les autres ont subi la même chose, qu’il nous montre des preuves !

Contrairement aux Kurdes et aux Touaregs les Peuls ne cherchent pas à créer un Etat peul indépendant, en tout cas pour le moment mais plutôt à vivre dignement sur leur terre natale, c’est un peuple pacifique qui ne connait pas « la culture de guerre ».

La stigmatisation doit cesser partout pour une paix durable !

Le Peul est la troisième langue la plus parlée en Afrique après le swahili et le haussa, il devrait avoir plus de considération. On voit des radios et des télés internationales dédiées aux autres langues, pourquoi pas au peul aussi ?

La communauté internationale a le devoir de protéger tous les peuples, la question peule ne devrait plus rester un sujet tabou. 

Les lois qui rendent difficiles le pastoralisme des Peuls (comme c’est le cas au Tchad) doivent être modifiées.
Les Peuls doivent avoir une garantie de libre circulation et la communauté internationale doit surtout faire des pressions sur les régimes politiques pour faire cesser les persécutions.

Le problème est qu’il n’existe pas de véritable solidarité entre les Peuls. Les organisations et associations comme Tabital Pulaaku International ne font rien de concret à part les festivités et les réunions. Aujourd’hui, les pires massacres des Peuls sont en cours en RCA, que disent ces organisations ? Pourquoi elles ne réagissent pas ? 

Le combat n’est pas seulement militaire ou politique c’est aussi culturel, humanitaire… créer des télévisions et des radios peules pour promouvoir la langue et la culture, créer des organisations humanitaires pour aider ceux qui sont en situation vulnérable, accueillir des frères et sœurs victimes des persécutions politiques.


Bellahimana LY

Africpost 


 
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