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Sobre a questão da equivalência em tradução poética¹

O objetivo que se impõe ao presente artigo é o de discutir o referencial da estrita equivalência na avaliação crítica de traduções, para concluir que ele não se mostra o mais adequado à tradução de poesia.
A respeito da conceituação de tradução poética e do que seja “fidelidade” na ação tradutória, considere-se de início um pensamento como aquele elaborado por Haroldo de Campos (por meio de seus artigos sobre “transcriação”)2, que permite ver a tradução de um poema como uma criação de algo novo, com suas próprias “regras” internas, ainda que resulte de um processo de recriação e seja construído de modo a guardar relações de paramorfismo com o texto-fonte. As prescrições tradutórias de uma teorização como essa não determinam, necessariamente, procedimentos sempre idênticos ou uniformes, nem soluções encaminhadas pelas mesmas diretrizes; sendo um processo de criação, envolverá as escolhas do tradutor-criador a cada etapa de seu trabalho, iniciando-se com a eleição, pela leitura, do que considera relevante da “estrutura” do poema a ser “re-produzido”3 e prosseguindo com suas opções de composição e modo de “correspondência” com o texto de que parte. Existirá potencialmente, permitida por uma abordagem como essa, grande flexibilidade no processo de escolhas que levarão a resultados diferentes: abolindo-se uma relação de “servitude” em relação ao “original” – que deixa de ter o peso implícito à noção de equivalência completa, e com o qual o poema traduzido deseja ombrear-se, podendo ser visto como “original do original” –, o poema resultante da tradução será antes construído a partir de princípios e de processos considerados análogos ou correspondentes, do que de obrigações de equivalência palavra a palavra, ou efeito a efeito (sonoro ou imagético).

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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Langues nationales: le Conseil fédéral ne veut pas d’intervention «précipitée»

Langues nationales: le Conseil fédéral ne veut pas d’intervention «précipitée» | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le Conseil fédéral ne bougera pas avant le mois de juin dans le dossier de l’enseignement des langues. Il attend le bilan qui sera alors présenté lors de la séance des directeurs cantonaux de l’Instruction publique

Le Conseil fédéral ne bougera pas avant le mois de juin dans le dossier de l’enseignement des langues. Il attend le bilan qui sera alors présenté lors de la séance des directeurs cantonaux de l’Instruction publique, a répété lundi le conseiller fédéral Alain Berset devant le Conseil des Etats.

La votation de dimanche prochain dans le canton de Nidwald, qui pourrait repousser l’apprentissage du français à l’école secondaire, ne change rien au plan de route du gouvernement. Celui-ci ne souhaite pas agir de manière précipitée et il doit se garder de se substituer aux compétences des cantons, a insisté le ministre de la Culture, en réponse à une interpellation d’Urs Schwaller (PDC/FR).

Le Conseil fédéral soutient les cantons dans leurs efforts d’harmonisation, en se basant sur le mandat constitutionnel et sur la stratégie d’enseignement des langues de 2004, a relevé Alain Berset. Celle-ci prévoit l’enseignement d’une deuxième langue nationale au niveau primaire.

Si les citoyens de Nidwald acceptent dimanche de retarder l’apprentissage d’une deuxième langue nationale, ils remettraient en question les efforts d’harmonisation. «Si on constate que l’harmonisation a partiellement échoué, il faudrait approfondir la discussion», a dit Alain Berset.
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Persian version of Yasar Kemal’s “Çakircali Efe” published in Tehran - Tehran Times

Persian version of Yasar Kemal’s “Çakircali Efe” published in Tehran - Tehran Times | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The cover of the Persian version of Yasar Kemal’s “Çakircali Efe”
TEHRAN – A Persian version of the late Turkish author Yasar Kemal’s “Çakircali Efe” has recently been published by Nimaj Publications in Tehran.
 
The book is about the life of nomad militiaman Çakircali Mehmet Efe who fought against the Greeks in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-22.
 
Kemal who celebrated the lives of the downtrodden and whose works were translated into 40 languages, died on Saturday. He was 91 years old.
 
Translated from Turkish into Persian by Alireza Seifeddini, “Çakircali Efe” was first published in Turkey in 1972.
 
Several other books by Kemal have previously been translated into Persian and published in Iran over the past few years.
 
Kemal’s most famous work, “Memed, My Hawk” (1955), was translated into Persian by Samin Baghcheban
 
The book is about a bandit hero who exacts revenge from a cruel overlord. The novel eventually earned Kemal a nomination for a Nobel Prize in 1973.
 
Other Persian translations include “The Birds Have Also Gone” (1978) by Mostafa Ilkhanizadeh, “God’s Soldiers” (1978) by Einollah Gharib, “They Burn the Thistles” (1969) by Iraj Nobakht and “A One-Winged Bird” by Maryam Tabatabaiha.
 
Known for his lyrical approach, Kemal, who helped develop the “village novel”, championed peasants and wrote stirringly of the natural and manmade disasters they faced.
 
“All my life, my only dream was to write a little bit more, a little bit better,” Kemal said in 2012 after the completion of his final novel.
 
RM/YAW
END
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Half-Day Bilingual Proofreader job, Cape Town

Half-Day Bilingual Proofreader job, Cape Town | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Half-Day Bilingual Proofreader
Remuneration: negotiable Cost to company 
Benefits: Within the cost to company package
Location: Cape Town
Education level: Degree
Job level: Mid
Type: Permanent
Reference: #Tam49


Job description
Are a stickler for detail, a grammar guru and a spelling specialist? This position is just for you! We’re looking for a mid-weight, experienced proofreader to work half-day in an exciting, young and busy advertising agency. You’ll need to be fully proficient in both English and Afrikaans and be a dab hand at picking up any mistakes in grammar, spelling, punctuation, style, etc.

The successful candidate will:
Have three to four years’ previous proofreading experience.
Be able to work well under pressure
Have a relevant degree, i.e. languages, linguistics, etc.

*Should you not receive a response within one week, please consider your application unsuccessful.

Company Description
Viv Gordon Placements (VGP) is a specialist recruitment agency in the advertising, marketing, media, public relations and publishing industries.


Posted on 03 Mar 10:06

Contact details
Tamara Wolpert
Viv Gordon Placements
+27 21 422 1037


Or Apply with your Biz CV
- Create your CV once, and thereafter you can apply to this ad and future job ads easily.
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Profesores de la Escuela de Artes Aplicadas exponen un diccionario de profesiones

Profesores de la Escuela de Artes Aplicadas exponen un diccionario de profesiones | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A través de una muestra en el centro Miguel Marmolejo que ayer fue inaugurada por José Manuel Calzado, director provincial del MEC y Fadela Mohatar, responsable de Mujer en la Ciudad Autónoma

Un buho 'aterroriza' a un pequeño pueblo holandés
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Kylie Minogue empieza a calentar el ambiente desde LA

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Profesores de la Escuela de Artes Aplicadas exponen un diccionario de profesiones

Inauguración de la interesante muestra (Foto: GUERRERO)
Por Ángel Meléndez
Más artículos de este autor
02/03/2015@21:22:48 GMT+1

La muestra colgada en las paredes de la Escuela de Arte Miguel Marmolejo, refleja las profesiones de hombres y mujeres por orden alfabético de la A a la Z. Cada profesión se encuentra enmarcada en una ficha con dos muñecos recortables y además lleva una información en la zona inferior en la que se reflejan los porcentajes de hombres y mujeres que la ejercen en España.
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¿Folklore o folclore? - Diario Pagina Siete

¿Folklore o folclore? - Diario Pagina Siete | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (RAE), al conjunto de creencias, costumbres, artesanías, etc., tradicionales de un pueblo se lo denomina folclore (con c).  La palabra folklore (con k)  no está registrada en el diccionario de la RAE, que, sin embargo, reconoce el origen de la palabra del inglés  folklore.
 Hace unos días, a raíz de las críticas de artistas y músicos a la calidad de la participación boliviana (específicamente la letra de la canción Morena, del grupo Pasión Andina) en el festival de Viña del Mar (Chile), el músico Grillo Villegas escribió el artículo Chauvinismo, nuevo folclore pop y mala ortografía, que fue publicado en Ideas el domingo pasado.
Grillo escribíó "folclore” como lo dispone la RAE y la sección de corrección de Página Siete corrigió su artículo colocando "k” en vez de "c” a la mentada palabra. Según un convencionalismo ampliamente usado por diarios de habla hispana -al que se acoge Página Siete- se respeta el origen del anglicismo, por lo que se usa la "k”. En cualquier caso, vale como explicación  a El Grillo, por el impasse.
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500 Australian English words added to Oxford Dictionaries

500 Australian English words added to Oxford Dictionaries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Australian English has an amazingly rich seam of vocabulary. In its latest update, OxfordDictionaries.com has added more than 500 Australianisms.


Oxford Dictionaries today announced the largest ever quarterly update of Australian English on OxfordDictionaries.com, with over 500 new entries added to the free online dictionary of English.

This update is part of a collaborative project with the Australian National Dictionary Centre (ANDC) to increase Oxford Dictionaries’ online coverage of international varieties of English, making these words freely available online for the first time with fully updated definitions, pronunciations, and usage examples.

New entries include uniquely or chiefly Australian vocabulary such as lamington drive, lolly water, and mugaccino; typical abbreviations such as mushie, ocky, and plonko; and words from Aboriginal languages such as maluka, makarrata, and wonguim. Many of the new additions are also used in New Zealand English.

The online format eliminates the difficulties lexicographers have previously faced, providing unlimited space for dictionary entries reflecting established vocabulary and language developments around the world.

Judy Pearsall, Editorial Director for Oxford Dictionaries, explains the rationale behind the update: “English is truly a global language, with many different varieties and nuances based on the local culture and life. At OxfordDictionaries.com our goal is to bring the vocabulary of English from all parts of the world to our users, wherever they are.

“Australian English has an amazingly rich seam of vocabulary, and in this latest update we have boosted the coverage by adding more than 500 Australianisms, both recent and past coinages, with words from subjects as wide-ranging as business and education, sport and leisure, farming, food and drink, the weather, and the landscape. The Australian sense of humour is conveyed by colourful colloquialisms and slang terms such as shirtfront and rubbity-dub, while there are also key historical terms (loan gang and lurkman), terms from Aboriginal languages (maluka and monjon), and technical vocabulary. By doing all of this, OxfordDictionaries.com presents a fascinating picture of Australia’s unique culture, history, and language.”

Words unique to Australian English

All varieties and dialects of English have their own words for everyday things, many of which are rarely, if ever, used elsewhere. Australian English is no exception – most people outside of Australasia would struggle to know the meaning of many words added to OxfordDictionaries.com today, including lamington drive (an organized effort to raise money for charity from the sale of lamingtons), sausage sizzle (a chiefly Australian term for a fundraising or social event at which barbecued sausages served on a slice of bread are sold or provided), lolly pink (a vibrant shade of pink), lolly water (a non-alcoholic or weak alcoholic drink), little lunch or play lunch (a mid-morning break at school, during which children have light refreshments), mugaccino (a cappuccino coffee served in a mug), phrase off the grog (abstaining from drinking alcohol), pilchers (a waterproof cover worn over a baby’s nappy), phrase rough as guts (lacking in refinement or sophistication), phrase sell off the farm (sell the capital assets of a country to foreign interests), and wombat crossing (a pedestrian crossing in the form of a wide, flat speed bump).

Also see: ‘Bogan’ breaks into Oxford dictionary

Words from Aboriginal languages

The words in this update also recognise the complex role of Aboriginal language in Australian English, which dates back to 1770 when Captain James Cook and Joseph Banks recorded the word kangaroo from an Aboriginal language of north-eastern Australia. The dictionary update shows that borrowing from Aboriginal languages is a continuing process, with more words being recognised as having their origin in Aboriginal languages, and other words moving from Aboriginal languages into mainstream Australian English. Maluka (the person in charge; the boss) is derived from the Aboriginal language Djingulu, for instance, and has moved into general use; similarly, the word munjon (an Aboriginal person who has had little contact with white society) was borrowed in the 1930s from Yindjibarndi.

Australasian abbreviations and diminutives

Today’s additions to OxfordDictionaries.com reflect how Australians and New Zealanders use more abbreviations and diminutive words than any other English speakers. New entries for words with an –ie or –y suffix include littley (a young child), mushie (a mushroom), ocky (an octopus), saltie (a saltwater crocodile), scratchie (a scratch card), shornie (a newly shorn sheep), trammie (a tram driver or conductor), wettie (a wetsuit), and youngie (a young person). The –o suffix also appears frequently, in words such as milko (a milkman), Nasho (a person undergoing compulsory military training as introduced under the National Service Act), plonko (an alcoholic), and sarvo (this afternoon).

Shortening words, and using endings such as –o and –ie or –y, makes the speaker appear more relaxed and friendly, so by using this informal style people are often signalling their lack of pretentiousness, as well as making themselves seem open and approachable.

What is Australian English?

The Australian National Dictionary Centre provides Oxford University Press with editorial expertise for its Australian dictionaries.

Mark Gwynn, editor at the ANDC, said of the update: “Australian English is a distinctive variety of global English. The influence of Aboriginal culture and language; the early penal settlement established in the late 18th century; the influence of regional dialects brought by early settlers from the UK; the distinct and diverse range of fauna, flora, and geographical features: all of these factors have shaped a distinctive Australian English vocabulary. Australian English is often noted for its informality, colloquialisms, and the way this is seen to reflect a particular Australian sense of humour and disdain for authority, but Australian English is more than this – it reflects the diverse nature of Australian society and Australian experiences, and this can be seen in microcosm in the entries added to OxfordDictionaries.com today.”

What’s the difference between OxfordDictionaries.com and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED)?

The new entries mentioned above have been added to OxfordDictionaries.com, not the OED. The English language dictionary content on OxfordDictionaries.com focuses on current English and includes modern meanings of words and associated usage examples. The OED, on the other hand, is a historical dictionary and forms a record of all the core words and meanings in English over more than 1,000 years, from Old English to the present day, including many obsolete and historical terms.


Bryce Lowry
Bryce Lowry is Publisher of Australian Times. With 11 years experience in UK Australasian media he is also a regular Australian affairs commentator for BBC News and UK affairs commentator for ABC radio in Australia.
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Pratique : Traduire un texte sans quitter Editorial sous iOS

Pratique : Traduire un texte sans quitter Editorial sous iOS | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Publié le 3 mars 2015 à 09:09
Pratique : Traduire un texte sans quitter Editorial sous iOS
Urbanbike Catégorie : Applications commentaire(s)
Nous ne sommes pas tous fluents en anglais ou dans d’autres idiomes. Par contre, nous connaissons tous l’application translate (Gratuit) ou le site web Google Traduction. La démarche n’est pas compliquée : depuis son traitement de texte, copier une portion de texte, aller la soumettre dans l’outil idoine, sélectionner la traduction… après avoir verifié que le rendu est à peu près conforme aux souvenirs de nos longs séjours en classe, etc. Et recommencer le cas échéant. Fastidieux !

À nouveau, voici l’une des forces des workflows de Editorial (6,99 €). On y trouve de tout dans le catalogue vertigineux des contributeurs occasionels… Dont ce très récent script qui permet de transcrire du français vers du polonais, Editorial Workflow — Fr.

Mais, bon sang, ce petit script de Robert peut aisément se transformer… ! En changeant pl en en, hop, voici une manière bien pratique de prendre le contenu d’une phrase et la soumettre au traducteur automatique de Google pour la basculer en anglais.



Merci Robert (…c’est une bêta mais elle fonctionne…). Manque juste un pop-up pour proposer deux ou trois autres langues usuelles et hop… !
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Minding my languages and ‘risking’ yoga!

Minding my languages and ‘risking’ yoga! | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
GAA Health Partnership
Ulster GAA Members, Injured Players Now Treated In Ulster. Read More
gaahealthhub.com

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How to write "surfing" in 35 different languages

How to write "surfing" in 35 different languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Surfing is a universal language. Do you know how to write the name of your favorite sport in Mandarin? Let's learn how to jot down "surfing" in the 35 most spoken languages.
International English is a global language, but it is not alone in the world. To get things started, we should have in mind that there are approximately 955 million Mandarin native speakers, i.e., 14.4 percent of the world population.

We've traced the origin of the word "surfing," and we know that, in Hawaiian, "he'e nalu" stands for "to surf waves." Now, it's time to travel the planet and ask how do you write it down, in multiple languages.

Interestingly, many languages have adopted the English word or, at least, part of the expression. The Portuguese, German, French, Italian, Polish and Swedish, for example, have decided to keep the core of the term.

Others - basically the majority of the languages which do not follow the Latin alphabet - have set their own graphic design for expressing the sport of surfing, in the written form. Let's see how surfing is typed in the keyboards of the world:

Language

Mandarin
Spanish
English
Hindi
Arabic
Portuguese
Bengali
Russian
Japanese
Punjabi
German
Javanese
Malay/Indonesian
Telugu
Vietnamese
Korean
French
Marathi
Tamil
Urdu
Persian
Turkish
Italian
Thai
Gujarati
Polish
Kannada
Malayalam
Ukrainian
Nepali
Hungarian
Greek
Czech
Swedish
Belarusian

Native Speakers (Millions)

955
405
360
310
295
215
205
155
125
102
89
82
77
76
76
76
74
73
70
66
65
63
59
56
49
40
38
38
30
17
13
12
10
8.7
7.6

Translation

冲浪
surf
surfing
सर्फ़िंग
ركوب الأمواج
surf/surfe
সার্ফিং
серфинг
サーフィン
ਤਰੰਗ
surfen
selancar
berselancar
సర్ఫింగ్
lướt sóng
파도 타기
surf
सर्फ
உலாவல்
سرفنگ
گشت و گذار
sörf
surfing
ท่อง
સર્ફિંગ
surfowanie/surfing
ಸರ್ಫಿಂಗ್
സർഫിംഗ്
серфінг
सर्फिङ
szörfözés
σέρφινγκ
surfování
surfning/surfing
сёрфінг
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Gradur : l’explication sur le couplet de Chief Keef

Gradur : l’explication sur le couplet de Chief Keef | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Gradur : l’explication sur le couplet de Chief Keef ! alors que le premier album du rappeur du 59 fait un véritable carton dans les bacs son morceau « Bang Bang » avec le rappeur Américain fait beaucoup parler sur la toile.

En effet dans son couplet Chief Keef lâche « He got 10 bands for 8 bars, yeah I’m Tennessee » qui a été mal interprété par de nombreux internautes « Il m’a payé 10 000€ pour 8 mesures, oui je suis un arnaqueur » mais il semble plutôt que le rappeur américain se compare à du whisky dans sa phrase.

L’équipe de Graudr vient d’envoyer communiqué pour expliquer la mauvaise interprétation des paroles de Chief Keef sur son morceau avec Gradur et confirme qu’il n’y aucune « arnaque » dans leur collaboration.

En effet quand le rappeur américain prononce Tennessee, il parle de l’etat , plus d’ailleurs de Memphis, la ville d’où viennent ses gars dont il parle aussi : eight ball & MJG. Le mot ne veut ni dire whisky, ni arnaqueur. Le manager de Chief Keef s’est d’ailleurs moqué de la stupidité de nos haters francais et Chief keef aussi. Dire qu il prend 10000 dollars pour 8 mesures, oui il en est fier, aux US c’est la culture de le dire, alors que chez nous, on va dire que « le mec se la pète » parce qu il réussit.

La fermeture du compte Twitter de Gradur n’est pas liée à cette histoire, il y a un problème de compte officiel et de piratage, tout a été réglé hier soir. Voici le communiqué explicatif :

« les Américains ont le privilège de ne pas être forcés de cacher leur réussite. Dans le hip-hop, historiquement aux Etats Unis, la fierté de faire de l’argent en rappant est culturelle. Chief Keef et son manager se sont amusés du ridicule de la traduction à la française des paroles (avec une pensée pour leurs amis rappeurs cités Eight Ball & MJG originaires de l’Etat du Tennessee J ) et de certaines réactions du net, s’exprime Alexandre Kirchhoff, directeur du label Millenium Barclay qui assume pleinement et se félicite de cette collaboration réussie. Le public jugera à sa convenance de la qualité de la musique. »

Et pour la metaphore sur les 8 bars :

“bars” est un terme utilisé pour désigner des barres de xanax : Et dans ce cas, cela expliquerait la métaphore filéee avec les mots “juice” (souvent utilisé pour désigner des stéroïdes) ou encore “8 balls” qui désigne un peu moins de 5 grammes de coke. Donc “il a 10 000 dollars (9000e et pas 10000) pour 8 barres de Xanax. Sachant qu’une barre équivaut à 4mg et que le prix d’une barre est d’environ 1300 dollars, un calcul rapide nous donne la somme de 10 400 dollars.








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Gradur feat Chief Keef sur L’homme au Bob Gradur s’enjaille sur son feat avec Chief Keef et annonce 18 sons dans L’Homme Au Bob Chief Keef recherché par la police après son absence au tribunal ! Bang Bang (SchweitzerNVRsquaad) le feat entre Gradur et Chieff Keef
VOIR L'ACTUALITÉ DE CHIEF KEEF GRADUR TOP

nass
Merci d’arreter avec votre spotify

Miidou B
Heureusement que je n’achète pas d’album ! mdr

PPP
et tu vas viens faire la morale ? SUIVANT

Ppp
Limite , il m’fait pitié la gradur , j’ai pas du tous kiffer son album mais la miskine

Miidou B
tu vas viens faire la morale ? C’est français ce que tu me dis la ? Next !!!

feukyoufeuklafrancefeukdomenec
spa du rap de fisse de renezzzzzz

Le rebeu aux yeux bleu
Peti mytho l album est énervé gradur té un bon, n écoute pas ses semeu

Nexus DbcsStyle
Le truc sur la métaphore des 8 bars c’est de la pure conerie, bars c’est tout simplement mesure ou punchline. Le xanax c’est un anti-dépresseurs. Jamais une pilule n’as été vendu 1300$

Miidou B
L’album est rien énervé Oui et fait au moins un effort de écrire le mots Petit correctement et tkt je n’ai absolument pas le seum j’écoute presque plus du Rap français vu que sa tourne en boucle les mêmes paroles .

olivier tomb
ils mont tué avec leur explication jme suis cru ds une video de conspiration
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Job Opportunity: Senior translator - African Development Bank

Senior translator

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Position title: Senior translator
Grade: PL-5
Position N°: NA
Reference: N°ADB/15/023
Publication date: 02/03/2015
Closing date: 24/03/2015
Objectives

The primary role of the Language Services Department is to ensure, as required by the Bank’s Agreement, the accessibility in the two working languages of the Bank (English and French, and on occasion Arabic and Portuguese) of all issues and documents submitted to the Senior Management and governing bodies of the Bank, for efficient decision-making aimed at the achievement of the Bank’s mission. To this end, high priority will be accorded to ensuring an accurate and effective flow of communication within the Bank, and also between the Bank, its shareholders, development partners and the public at large, through the translation, interpretation and terminological services provided by the Department.

The specific objective of the French Translation Division (SGLS.2) is to ensure quality translation of all Bank documents into French, as well as the editing in French of key documents such as the Bank Group Annual Report.

Duties and responsibilities

Under the supervision of the Division Manager SGLS.2, the incumbent:

Translates into French from English, without revision, complex, technical and sensitive documents covering the full range of the Bank’s work, namely: reports of an economic and financial nature, statements from Senior Management, audit reports, planning and programming documents, project appraisal reports, legal documents, etc.:
 Must aim at a high standard of accuracy, faithfulness to the spirit, letter, style and nuances of the original;
 Observes established terminology and usage;
 Advises on language matters and proposes improvements to the translation process;
 Assists less experienced internal and external translators and helps to develop the Department’s terminology base;
Participates in working groups on various issues related to the business of the Bank in general, and that of the Department in particular;
Performs any other duty assigned to him/her by Management.
Selection Criteria

Including desirable skills, knowledge and experience

Candidates must:

A minimum of a Master’s degree in translation.
Qualifications in any other discipline relevant to the business of the African Development Bank Group would be an added advantage;
Have at least 5 years of practical experience in professional translation (particularly in the economic field, finance and/or law), at least 3 of which (for external candidates) should have been spent working in or with an international organization (preferably multilateral development banks);
Have extensive general knowledge and be able to quickly adapt to a complex multicultural environment;
Possess excellent writing skills and a sound mastery of language standards;
Be able to quickly blend into, and maintain a smooth working relationship with a multilingual team;
Have a sound knowledge of, and be able to use modern Computer-Assisted Translation tools (Trados, Multitrans, etc)
Be conversant with all the standard software used in the Bank to be able to directly perform his/her assignments on the computer.
Apply online

Apply for this position

To apply for this position, you need to be national of one of AfDB member countries.

Submitted by: Division Manager, CHRM.1
Approved by: Director, CHRM
Only applicants who fully meet the Bank's requirements and are being considered for interview will be contacted. Applicants will only be considered if they submit an online application, and attach a comprehensive Curriculum Vitae (CV). The AfDB President reserves the right to appoint a candidate at a lower level. The African Development Bank is an equal opportunities employer and female candidates are strongly encouraged to apply: www.afdb.org/jobs
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Indian Television Dot Com | ‘Fast and Furious 7’ to release in four languages across India

Indian Television Dot Com | ‘Fast and Furious 7’ to release in four languages across India | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
MUMBAI: After the success of all its prequels, Universal Pictures India is all set to give Fast and Furious 7 a multi-lingual release in Indian theatres on 2 April, 2015.
 
The movie will release across India in four languages namely English, Hindi, Tamil and Telugu.
 
Fast and Furious 7 will be more special for the franchise’s fans as this will be the last time they will see the late Paul Walker reprising his role as Brian O'Conner. It may be recalled that Walker died in a car crash last year.
 
The movie also stars Vin Diesel, Dwayne Johnson and Michelle Rodriguez, Jason Statham and Indian actor Ali Fazal in a special appearance among others.
 
The movie is directed by James Wan. The movie will also see Michelle Rodriguez, Jordana Brewster, Tyrese Gibson, Chris “Ludacris” Bridges and Lucas Black, who will be joined by international action stars new to the franchise including Jason Statham, Djimon Hounsou, Tony Jaa, Ronda Rousey, Nathalie Emmanuel and Kurt Russell.
 
Talking about the movie, Wan said, “When you're making a bigger movie you have much bigger set pieces that require more time and more effort and more people. But I think the final product will surprise a lot of people. It's the hardest film I've ever had to make but it's also the one I'm proudest of.  I'm really proud of this film.”
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Traduire les langues rares : l’exemple de l’islandais | Foire du livre // 26 FÉVRIER - 2 MARS 2015

Traduire les langues rares : l’exemple de l’islandais | Foire du livre // 26 FÉVRIER - 2 MARS 2015 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
TRADUIRE LES LANGUES RARES : L’EXEMPLE DE L’ISLANDAIS

RENCONTRE
Avec Eric Boury

Les amateurs de polars ont découvert avec enthousiasme les maîtres du polar islandais. Ce plaisir et cette aventure passionnée n’ont été possibles que grâce … au traducteur !
Animé par Emmanuèle Sandron
Organisé par le CETL
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Shivaji University library to provide free e-books on campus - The Times of India

KOLHAPUR: The Shivaji University library will soon offer more than 100 e-books in the popular Marathi fiction and non-fiction categories across the university campus in an attempt to cultivate the reading habit among students. The books will be made available on university intranet. Separate computers for reading the electronic version of the book also will be made available.

University librarian Namita Khot said, "We have tie-up with Mehta publishing house for providing the books. The facility will be launched simultaneously with the inauguration of the new library building on the campus soon. The books are from the popular fiction and non-fiction categories in Marathi language."

The university has observed that students refer to only academic books at most of the times, Khot said, adding that initiatives such as these are necessary to cultivate the light reading habit.

"Almost every student these days own a smart phone with internet and Wi-Fi connectivity. Since the university has good internet, intranet and Wi-Fi facility, we can capitalize on it by making books available on the intranet from where students can read them on their mobiles or tablets," she said.

Khot told TOI that the scheme will cost almost Rs 2 lakh for the books and only Mehta publishing house from Pune had approached them with the idea.

"We are open for student centric initiatives; if other publishers too have same kind of book availability, we are very much open for hearing from them," said Khot.

The university will also buy an academic database of books at a cost of around Rs 60 lakh. The database will have the book record of over 2,000 books and will be helpful for post-graduate students, she said.

These two initiatives will be financed from the University Grants Commission's general development funds, said Khot.

Kavita Mali, a PG student said that it is one of the attempts that no educational institution has attempted and it can help students get to know about Marathi literature.

The university already has a book club which was started by students themselves a year ago and has over 100 members.
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D. Leclair & P. Née (dir.),Dictionnaire René Cha

D. Leclair & P. Née (dir.),Dictionnaire René Char 
 
Information publiée le 2 mars 2015 par Perrine Coudurier(source : Danièle Leclair)

Dictionnaire René Char

Sous la direction de Danièle Leclair et Patrick Née 

Paris : Classiques Garnier, coll. "Dictionnaires et synthèses", 2015.

EAN 9782812433009.

Prix 49EUR.

Présentation

Fruit de cinq ans de travail, avec 25 collaborateurs, français et étrangers, leDictionnaire René Char (qui comporte 715 pages et 371 notices) fait la synthèse des connaissances sur l’œuvre du poète. Il rassemble des données éparses, parfois peu accessibles, mais il exploite aussi des catalogues récents d’expositions et de ventes, la bibliothèque du poète, des correspondances inédites et des dossiers de manuscrits. Bien des notices ont nécessité plusieurs mois d’enquête et apportent de nouveaux éclairages sur cette œuvre et ses sources. Le genre du dictionnaire, en plein essor, s’inscrit en effet dans une problématique moderne favorisant l’approche scientifique du texte littéraire et celle de la démarche créatrice de l’écrivain.

Les notices portent donc aussi bien sur les recueils de Char, les lieux qui ont façonné son imaginaire, ses amitiés littéraires et ses lectures, les peintres qu’il aimait et ceux avec lesquels il a collaboré, que sur ses prises de position politiques, littéraires, philosophiques et artistiques. 

Ce dictionnaire permet en outre de cerner le rayonnement de l’œuvre de Char à l’étranger grâce au relevé exhaustif des traductions publiées dans les grandes aires linguistiques du monde.

Une attention particulière a été accordée à la lisibilité des notices et à la précision scientifique des informations et des sources : chaque notice comporte les références précises des citations de Char, des corrélats et une brève bibliographie avec mention et pagination des sources critiques, bibliographie qui est reprise et complétée à la fin du dictionnaire. Enfin, une table des notices et un index de vingt pages permettent de circuler aisément dans l’ensemble de l’ouvrage.     (D. L.)

Responsable : Danièle Leclair
Url de référence : 
http://www.classiques-garnier.com
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The Only R-word in Our Dictionary is RESPECT

The Only R-word in Our Dictionary is RESPECT | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
My name is Mary-Ellen Powers, and I would like to share with you my story of social acceptance and overcoming bullying.

Academically, I did well in school and was mainstreamed in a normal classroom setting with help of a teacher aide or Special Education teacher as needed. Although, I struggled with peer acceptance my entire life.

When I was a child, I didn't have many friends, but I had a small group of friends. As I became a teenager, I struggled with peer acceptance. I didn't know why some of my friends were starting to leave me out, or why I wasn't invited to 'hang out' with them after school or on weekends. I was shy, and overweight. When my friends started to date, I was left behind as boys called me fat, ugly, and the most hurtful insult of all, retarded. I lost a great deal of self-confidence and it took me years to gain it back.

I discovered Special Olympics during my junior year of high school. I attended a bowling practice, and my life changed! Everyone was so kind and accepted me for who I was instantly. The first person I met is one of my best friends today. I first started competing in bowling and aquatics. I started to gain my self-confidence back.

High School was a bit better for me socially. Some of the people who bullied me in middle school grew up and started to be friendly with me and my friends who were in the Special Education classes. Because of Special Olympics, I developed the confidence to be the trendsetter and attend my senior prom alone and I had a fun night with my friends!

I received my diploma with my graduating class and went on to Salve Regina University to receive state certification for teacher assistants. I spent nine great years working as a teacher assistant at Meeting Street, an inclusive school for children and young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities and their typically developing peers.

In 2002, I was introduced to the Special Olympics Athlete Leadership Programs. I went through global messenger training, and became an athlete trainer in the program. I joined the State Summer Games planning committee as the athlete representative. I joined the camera crew, then later co-host of Special Olympics Rhode Island Magazine, a television show where the cast and crew are made up of Special Olympics Rhode Island athletes. I have had many great opportunities interviewing sports figures, celebrities, and of course Eunice Kennedy Shriver while traveling to some amazing places, such as Ireland and Japan and Morocco. Because of Special Olympics and the Athlete Leadership Programs, I gained so much. I competed in more sports. I gained real, genuine friendships and restored self-confidence. I discovered my voice has grown stronger, and I can confidently stand up for what I believe in...educating people to be kind and accepting to people who have intellectual disabilities. It also led me to finding my dream job working for Special Olympics Rhode Island as the Administrative Assistant!

When the 'Spread The Word To End The Word' campaign started over 7 years ago, I was asked to be the athlete representative for Special Olympics Rhode Island. I felt it was the perfect opportunity for me to give back to those who are still afraid to stand up for themselves. I wanted to be that person I was afraid to be when I was bullied.

Why did the term 'Mental Retardation' turn into slang? No one really knows, but it did catch on. The word 'retarded' has become a synonym for 'slow and stupid.' Because of that, those of us with that medical diagnosis are hurt by it every time it is used in that context. It is offensive. Even when it is not directed at us, we are still being hurt by it. According to some of my friends who are athletes in Special Olympics, when they hear the word 'retard' being used in that context, they feel hurt, anger, sadness, disgust -- and I even heard "It's like a knife cutting into my heart." It feels like a knife cutting into my heart seeing my friends hurt by it and it needs to stop! The medical diagnosis 'Mental Retardation' has been changed to 'intellectual disabilities,' that's how much an impact this campaign has made on the community! Even celebrities and sports figures took the pledge!

We aren't being politically correct, or the 'word police.' We are compassionate people who have been hurt by the sting of that one word and we don't want anyone else hurt by it. Words DO hurt! We may learn at a slower rate, but we are not retarded. All we want is to be accepted, and respected! In fact, the only R-word in our dictionary is RESPECT!

This post is part of a series produced by The Huffington Post and the Special Olympics in conjunction with Spread the Word to End the Word awareness day onWednesday, March 4. To find out more about the Spread the Word campaign, please visit the website. Join us in taking the pledge at R-Word.org. After you pledge #Respect at r-word.org, carry the torch for respect in Special Olympics' #UnifiedRelay. Learn more here. Read all posts in the series here.
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CatholicHerald.co.uk » St Joan of Arc: Holiness beyond comprehension

CatholicHerald.co.uk » St Joan of Arc: Holiness beyond comprehension | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A statue of Joan of Arc in France (CNS)
A new book offers a fresh perspective on the life of St Joan

Watching the last episode of Wolf Hall last week, one could not help but feel sympathy for the hapless Queen Anne Boleyn. It was clear that she was innocent of the charges of gross sexual misconduct laid against her, that her trial was trumped-up and that she had to die for political reasons: as Cromwell put it baldly, Henry wanted an heir, she hadn’t produced one, he was eyeing up her successor and she wouldn’t go quietly.

This episode put me in mind of that of another innocent young woman, also put to death unjustly for reasons of political expediency, whose trial, which has been recorded for history in all its tragic grandeur, was a mockery – and a disgrace to the Church which held it. I mean, of course, St Joan of Arc, burned at the stake in Rouen on May 30 1431 by the English, with support from their French and allies.

The two women were also accused of witchcraft, a convenient excuse in those days to persecute women who had fallen foul of society’s rules. But there the comparison ends. No-one would pretend that Anne Boleyn was a saintly person; she seems to have conspicuously lacked even the human virtues of her predecessor, Catherine of Aragon. Joan, on the other hand, who was entirely rehabilitated in a re-trial of 1455 and later canonised in 1920, comes across from the records as an extraordinary young woman: chaste, honourable, charitable to her enemies and to the poor – and steadfast in courage and in her piety and faith. Across the centuries her personality leaps from the medieval page in all its simplicity and purity. Interrogated by her judges as to whether she thought she was in a state of grace, she simply replied that if she was, she hoped God would keep her in it and if she was not, that he would put her in it.



I mention her because at the same time as watching Wolf Hall, I was reading The Maid of Orleans: the Life and Mysticism of Joan of Arc by Sven Stolpe, first published in 1949 (the author, a Swede, had converted in 1947) and now reprinted by Ignatius Press. It is well worth reading. Joan’s life has inspired many interpretations, such as George Bernard Shaw’s wordy polemic, Mark Twain’s brilliant historical recreation and Marina Warner’s depiction of her as an early champion of feminism. Stolpe sets himself the task of stripping away the myths and legends to discover the genuine mystic behind them. Perhaps, as someone new to the Church himself, he was staggered by discovering such a mysterious historical episode, dominated by such a heroic and unusual figure.

It is clear, as Stolpe admits in his postscript, that his interpretation of Joan’s life has been heavily influenced by the brief writings of the French writer, Leon Bloy. According to Bloy the sacrifice made by Christ on the Cross is constantly replayed in history by his chosen ones, such as the martyrs. Thus Joan’s mission can be seen as suffering for the sins of mankind in union with Christ. Stolpe grasps the summit of Christian heroism in his remark that “no-one who does not sacrifice himself can serve as a tool of God”.

Completely dismissing the (modern, secular) charges against Joan that her “voices” were the result of a hysterical or schizophrenic-type mental disorder, he compares her to another mystic, Catherine of Siena, remarking insightfully that “the spheres she entered are not accessible to such persons as have allowed their spiritual body to wither away and to make their spiritual poverty into an arrogant omniscience, denying all that in their spiritual blindness they cannot see, in their cowardice do not dare to believe, in their egoism have not the strength to love.” In other words, the holiness of saints such as Joan is beyond the comprehension of ordinary people. The author also remarks, “When the devil cannot prevent the appearance of a noble and pure soul, he revenges himself by distorting the picture of this soul in the minds of others.”

The only aspect of Joan’s life and mission that has always puzzled me slightly is why God should have wanted her to intervene, seemingly in a purely political way, in the fortunes of France at that time. As an article by Anthony Peregrine in the Telegraph last Saturday on a new museum in Rouen dedicated to her life, puts it rather more flippantly: “Why God should be so anti-English is the sort of imponderable that has infuriated us for centuries.” Perhaps the answer lies in the speech made by Bishop Felix Dupanloup of Orleans in 1869, when he was trying to bring alive the saint to his fellow countrymen as a great patriot and Catholic, that “in freeing her country [she] also saved it from the heresy that might have become a danger in the future.”
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500 Australian English words added to Oxford Dictionaries

500 Australian English words added to Oxford Dictionaries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Australian English has an amazingly rich seam of vocabulary. In its latest update, OxfordDictionaries.com has added more than 500 Australianisms.
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Apology 101: How to Save Your Reputation | SEJ

Apology 101: How to Save Your Reputation | SEJ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Every small business owner out there is bound to deal with some kind of social media snafu. Customers might complain on review sites like Yelp, they might share photos of shoddy service on Facebook, or they might craft snarky hashtags on Twitter about a company’s name or products.

Small business owners have to respond to all of these attacks to save their reputations. But many business owners (understandably) get writer’s block. They don’t know what to say. That’s especially true when the attacks come due to some kind of business mistake.

And if they hire an SEO firm to step in during the crisis, we might also be momentarily stumped. What’s the right way to apologize? Here is my foolproof business apology template, along with some notes about apology pitfalls.



Apology Dos
When a snarky complaint comes about due to a genuine mistake made by a business (and many complaints fall into this category, unfortunately), there’s a quick and straightforward way to handle the issue. Companies should issue an apology that contains these words.

“I am Sorry”
An apology isn’t really an apology without these three little words. Using them allows you to demonstrate that you really do feel remorse for causing an issue that prompted a complaint. Starting an apology with these words helps you show you are ready to take responsibility for what has happened in the past.

A good example comes from dreamy Benedict Cumberbatch, who was forced to apologize for using a slur during an off-the-cuff interview. In his statement to People, the English actor used only one sentence of introduction before simply stating his apologies. It’s a classy way to start out.

“Here’s What Happened”
People who complain often want to know just went wrong. An apology should provide them with that data. Otherwise, the complaints will keep on coming in until people feel as though the issue has been addressed in a complete and comprehensive manner.

US Airways had to take this approach last year, when the company inadvertently sent out a NSFW photograph via Twitter. In the apology provided to a local news station, representatives outlined exactly how that little gem of an image was captured and sent back out.

A detailed explanation helps to highlight the fact that there’s been an investigation and that people are aware of the issue and how it came to be. That can quell any bubbling concerns about a coverup or a conspiracy.

“We’ll Make Sure it Doesn’t Happen Again”
While explaining what happened is always a great idea, it’s best to build on that success by outlining just what you plan to change in order to keep the future gaffe free. Putting in two lines about the policies you’ll change, the people you’ll hire or the groups you’ll fire can demonstrate how serious you are about solving the problem for good.

“If You Have Additional Concerns, Contact Me Here”
When it comes to social media, the quicker you can stop the chatter about a problem, the better. That’s why providing an open line of communication is an excellent crisis mitigation step.

If you can, set up a special mailbox for complaints, or put a few more people on the clock to answer questions. Then, man those phones and boxes like crazy and make sure every issue is addressed. You’ll keep the issue quiet, while keeping those complainers happy.

Apology Don’ts
It’s remarkably easy to mess up an apology and do more reputation damage than you ever thought possible. Here are three common errors that could make your apology so much less effective.

Adding Fuel to the Fire
If you’re asked to apologize, either for your own business or for a client, resist the urge to get up on your high horse and punish the speaker. Sure, you might be offended or upset, but those feelings shouldn’t wend their way into your response.

There are tons of examples of people who doubled down on mistakes. A recent example comes from the capital, where a Florida lawmaker made a few disparaging comments about another state. When the people of that state demanded an apology, the lawmaker responded with comments about hell freezing over, according to local news reports. Now, the issue is even bigger than it would have been, had the lawmaker simply provided an apology.

Defending Your Work
It’s very tempting to sprinkle a few words about your great work in your apology. Typically, these little sneaky messages end up buried in sentences that should be all about explaining how the problem took place. But instead of being dispassionate and explaining the facts, a botched apology will contain a lot of excuses.

Consider the Nationwide statement about the Super Bowl 2015 ad about early childhood death. The company felt compelled to respond after people complained about the sad content of this spot during an event that was meant to be fun and lighthearted. Many people expected an apology, but instead, the statement contained information about how many people clicked on a website the ad pushed. This isn’t likely to soothe people who were offended.

Speaking Too Quickly
It sounds counter intuitive, I know, but speaking up too quickly about an issue can lead to yet more problems. Consider this: In a study published in Science Direct, researchers found that apologies given later were more effective than apologies given earlier. Apparently, allowing a little time to lapse between an issue and an apology allows the wounded party to express his/her concerns. The apology that comes from that listening process seems to have more power.

Dashing off an apology just as soon as an issue hits the water, without doing any investigation into the problem or considering who the wounded party might be, can lead to apologies that ring a little hollow and that don’t really solve the problem.

A good rule of thumb: When you know the scope of the problem and have solutions in place, that’s the time to issue a heartfelt apology stuffed full of detail. If you feel compelled to speak before then, a simple statement that suggests that you’re aware of the issue and working on a solution might help. Just resist the urge to speak out until you know just what you’ll need to say to make the issue go away for good.

Following Up
Once you have a good apology going, share that thing far and wide. Pop it up on your social media accounts, put it on your company website and be sure you’re making the most of all of the hard work you’ve done to address the concerns that are swirling.

And finally, be sure that you keep the promises you’ve made in that apology. After all, there’s nothing worse than a company that keeps making the same mistake, over and over again. Do that, and all the apologies in the world aren’t likely to help. Once you’ve identified an issue, you simply must fix it.

I know it’s difficult to share war stories, but I’d love to hear some from you. Do you have an epic tale of woe and redemption to share? What did your apology say, and how did it go over? Please share in the comments section, so we can all learn together.

 
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Envolverán a Qro. con el folklor de Amalia Hernández

Envolverán a Qro. con el folklor de Amalia Hernández | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Los boletos para “Así te envuelve México” se encuentran disponibles bajo el sistema e-ticket./foto: Especial
Hablar del Ballet de Amalia Hernández es, sin duda, la traducción de la cultura, folclor, ritmo y sabor de México
Gina Trejo

Hablar del Ballet de Amalia Hernández es, sin duda, la traducción de la cultura, folclor, ritmo y sabor de México. Con 63 años de vida, esta compañía es toda una institución y escuela que ha capturado y conquistado a más de 45 millones de espectadores en todo el mundo. Querétaro tendrá la oportunidad de ser testigo del colorido y talento de bailarines y músicos que se presentarán este 12 de marzo en el Auditorio Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez a las 8:30 horas con el espectáculo ‘Así te Envuelve México”.

“La música, la magia, el color, la energía, la danza, la comida, la luz de México te envuelve. No te puedes escapar. La gente que ha estado en México, en la provincia, que ha estado en Bellas Artes, queda marcada. Por eso hemos denominado así el espectáculo, porque México te captura, no te suelta, y el ballet es parte de esta magia, de la cultura”, comentó Salvador López López, director general del Ballet Folklórico de México de Amalia Hernández.

Por primera vez, el Ballet Flolklórico deleitará a los queretanos con un espectáculo que enmarca la diversidad y la riqueza cultural de nuestro país a lo largo de una selección importante de la obra de Amalia Hernández que desde hace muchos años no se presentaba en la ciudad.

Así mismo, el ballet estará acompañado por el coro que interpretará música de la revolución, de los aztecas, en náhuatl, purépecha, y le da un balance y una riqueza al espectáculo.

Como un homenaje a la gran Amalia Hernández, ‘Así te Envuelve México’ concluirá con la música de ‘Huapango’ de José Pablo Moncayo, pieza que engloba los sonidos y rincones del país, y que invita a que los mexicanos apreciemos lo nuestro.

“Presentarnos en México para nosotros es fundamental, con nuestro público, tener éxito en México, eso habla de la importancia del trabajo de Amalia Hernández, yo creo que en los lugares donde tenemos más éxito es en provincia, a pesar de que en Estados Unidos, en Europa tenemos gran éxito, en provincia lo ven como propio, se identifica con nuestra cultura, con algunas danzas y esto nos llena de orgullo y nos empuja a seguir”.

El Ballet Folklórico de México de Amalia Hernández se ha presentado desde hace 55 años ininterrumpidos en el Palacio de Bellas Artes, recinto que ha logrado albergar las expresiones de las culturas populares y le ha dado cabida a esta institución del arte de la danza.

“Sin duda, la disciplina de la compañía a lo largo de estos años, por supuesto del enorme y hermoso talento de Amalia, que logró traducir la esencia de nuestra cultura y plasmarla en un escenario, hemos enriquecido la coreografía con mejores equipo de audio y tecnología, hemos incursionado en proyecciones y el ballet es un concepto muy amplio que está basado en la cultura nacional”.
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Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

Wolfgang Haak, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick Patterson, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Bastien Llamas, Guido Brandt, Susanne Nordenfelt, Eadaoin Harney, Kristin Stewardson, Qiaomei Fu, Alissa Mittnik, Eszter Bánffy, Christos Economou, Michael Francken, Susanne Friederich, Rafael Garrido Pena, Fredrik Hallgren, Valery Khartanovich, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Michael Kunst, Pavel Kuznetsov, Harald Meller, Oleg Mochalov, Vayacheslav Moiseyev et al.
AffiliationsContributionsCorresponding author
Nature (2015) doi:10.1038/nature14317
Received 29 December 2014 Accepted 12 February 2015 Published online 02 March 2015
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We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000–5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000–7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ~24,000-year-old Siberian6. By ~6,000–5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ~3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin9 of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
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There's No Direct Translation for Target's Latest Effort Aimed at Hispanics

There's No Direct Translation for Target's Latest Effort Aimed at Hispanics | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Effort Depicts Terms and Moments Unique to Spanish Cultures

By Ashley Rodriguez. Published on March 03, 2015. 0 Reprints Reprints


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Target aims to deepen its relationship with Hispanic consumers through a new ad campaign launching on March 8. Called "Sin Traducción," or "no translation," the push highlights Spanish terms and moments that have no direct English translation and are unique to Hispanic consumers.
For example, the first of two launch spots is named "Arrullo," which means "lullaby," and is often used to describe the right ambience and setting to put a baby to sleep. The second, called "Sobremesa," is about the period of time right after dinner in which family and friends linger at the dinner table to catch up or spend quality time together. "There will always be a part of you that simply doesn't translate," the ads point out.

"The Hispanic guest loves Target but were always looking to connect on a deeper level," said Rick Gomez, senior VP, brand and category marketing at Target. "'Sin Traducción' does exactly that. It's a way for Target to make a connection with our Hispanic guest on a deeper, more emotional level."
The strategy has personal significance for Mr. Gomez, who is Hispanic and whose first language was English. He can recall asking his parents to define words like "comadre" and "compadre," which have no direct translation.
The effort, created by LatinWorks, includes a mix of broadcast spots, digital advertising and experiential efforts.
The spots are meant to spark a larger conversation with the Hispanic community. The retailer will encourage consumers to share more terms and experiences from their cultures on social media, where Hispanics increasingly interact, using the hashtag #SinTraducción.
"Social is the cornerstone of the campaign," said Mr. Gomez, adding Facebook, Instagram and Twitter will be a focus. "This campaign is about fueling a conversation and getting people to talk about what those untranslatable words, feelings and phrases are."
The ads will run on Spanish-language TV networks in the U.S., such as Univision and Telemundo, and bilingual versions will air on English-language networks like USA during "Modern Family" and TBS during "The Big Bang Theory." Online versions will also run as pre-roll on digital platforms like Zefr's YouTube channel, PeopleenEspañol.com and Hulu.

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"We thought it'd be really interesting to recognize this dual world that she lives in," said Mr. Gomez. "She's going back and forth between her Hispanic traditions and her American culture."
While the campaign is running, it will be Target's most significant investment aimed at the Hispanic market, Mr. Gomez said. He declined to reveal the budget, but said Target remains committed to investing to reach that audience.
Target is a long-time investor in Hispanic media. In 2013, the company spent $51.5 million on Hispanic U.S. measured media, or 3% of its total spend for the year, according to the Ad Age DataCenter. It was the 28th largest spender in Hispanic media that year, and has been among the top 50 advertisers in the category since Ad Age began measuring it in 2004.
The marketer took home an ANA Multicultural Excellence Award in 2011 for a radio campaign involving a mariachi band that sang Target prices for various items in Spanish.
But "Sin Traducción" is different than Target's other efforts. It's the first push aimed solely at Hispanics. Target's previous campaigns were developed for a general audience and then tailored for the Hispanic market. By crafting the effort from the start with Hispanics in mind, Target aims to form a deeper bond with the audience.
"This would be our first campaign that is built from the ground up based on Hispanic insights," said Mr. Gomez. "That's a reflection of the evolving marketplace and our evolving guest," he said, adding that Target's core consumers are increasingly millennial and Hispanic.
As part of the push, Target will also have a presence at Hispanicize 2015, a conference taking place next month in Miami that features key influencers in the Hispanic community.
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Poetic panorama

Poetic panorama | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
AVONDALE PHD STUDENT’S NEW ANTHOLOGY RECEIVES CELEBRITY-LIKE ACCLAIM 
The launch of an anthology of modern Romanian poetry has solidified the status of an Avondale PhD student in the country’s canon of literature.

The publication of Daniel Ionita’s Testament: Anthology of Modern Romanian Verse 2nd Edition has reached “near-celebrity coverage in Romania as a highly significant event and literary work,” says translating assistant and brother-in-law Associate Professor Daniel Reynaud, an academic at the college of higher education.


Interviews on state-owned television broadcaster TVR, positive reviews by literary critics and recitations by Romanian actors and folk musicians have supported the launch.

Ionita’s first publication Testament, an anthology of translated Romanian poetry featuring English translations of 55 poets and 80 poems, proved popular in Romania. The country’s foremost contemporary literary critic and historian Alex Stefanescu, writing about the anthology on the Literary Confluence website, describes Ionita as being “adept in selecting his poems, which are attractive from the first reading. He has developed an aesthetical consciousness [in translating] and is perhaps one of the last romantics among anthology writers.”

Ionita’s second publication Hanging Between the Stars is a compilation of his own poems written in English and in Romanian and self-translated into both languages. Testament: Anthology of Modern Romanian Verse 2nd Edition is a revision and expansion—93 poets and 125 poems—of the first publication.

Stefanescu also writes about the appeal of the second edition of Testament in “convincing an English language reader, who has perhaps never heard about Romania, to pick up and read Romanian literature.” Another Romanian literary critic, Florin Ionescu, describes the second edition as “a cultural product with deep temporal scale—an entire literary history with globalisation integrated.” It is, he adds, a “true poetic panorama of diversity that defines Romanian literature.”

And what of the author himself? Ionita says translating poetry is a “long, narrow and dangerous path between two languages.” He associates the adventure of translation with “passion, courage and insanity.”
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Google hints at seamless translation into any language

Google hints at seamless translation into any language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Android to become central nervous system — including seamless translation into any language
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Seamless translation into any language via a “lightweight wearable” could soon be a reality, suggested Google’s mobile czar Sundar Pichai during today’s session at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.
This would have enormous benefits for the travel industry, as it would breakdown one of the most insurmountable barriers for international travel: the inability to communicate with someone who speaks a different language.
Pichai continued to basically confirm rumored reports of several other Google initiatives, each of which have implications in a travel industry shifting to the mobile-first reality.
What does $452 million get you, exactly?

This “seamless translation” future could soon be a reality thanks to Google’s recent $452 million investment in secretive virtual reality technology company Magic Leap. The company promises that “technology can be awesome; vastly, hugely, mindbogglingly awesome,” although it has yet to reveal what exactly it’s developing that’s worth such a major investment by a player such as Google.
For the first time, Pichai hinted at what this technology could be, saying on stage in an interview with BloombergBusinessWeek’s Brad Gold:
I work closely with [Magic Leap]. If you see the experience of what they’re delivering where you can be looking at the real world and you bring computing to work in thatcontext I think is very powerful. Think of the same translate experience we showed you [in a video about Google Translate]… while it’s great the phone does get in the way.
The magic is seeing things in another language but having what it means in context. I think these are really powerful use cases. I’m very positive that we will evolve these things. It’ll take some time.
Google Translate already serves “”over one billion translations a day,” Pichai said from the stage. And this number is managed even with the relatively clunky interface that the app currently provides.
The app just doesn’t smoothly facilitate human interaction. Here’s how the app currently aids travelers in translation — note how the actress has to hold her finger up to tell her speaking partner to wait:

The Magic Leap idea suggests a futuristic wearable that could automatically translate a conversation on the go. Pop in some earbuds, and then as you speak, the watch’s speaker spits out a translation to your speaking partner. As that person responds, the translation is heard through the ear buds.
If that were to become a reality, it’s possible that Google Translate could then become the core of a traveler’s tool kit. This would offer organic placements for Google Now, Google Flights and Google Hotel Finder. It would create a central nervous system for the traveler, which would be a technologically produced monopoly on the travel experience.
As far as Google Now, Pichai was very clear about the desire to see that service even more deeply integrated into the everyday, saying, “We want to push the stuff you need to you before you know you need it.”
The traveler journey could include an automated translate button within itineraries that would push to the user’s mobile phone after emerging from a long-haul flight at a foreign airport. It would automatically tell your taxi driver where you need to go — or, in the driverless car future, that would just happen without even having to click anything!
Google vs Uber
Google’s ongoing driverless car efforts took a very intriguing turn when reports emerged last month that it might actually go head-to-head with Uber as far as offering these driverless cars as taxis. This could put Uber at a huge competitive advantage, as the highest cost is always the share paid to the driver. Uber, in turn, announced its own research facility for driving technology.

Pichai claims that there will be no changes to the mapping relationship with Uber — ” Our self driving team has a partnership approach, you’ll see more on that front soon” — yet it’s hard to imagine that there aren’t serious conversations in Uber’s C-suite about creating its own sustainable mapping solution for that moment when Google pivots into true head-to-head competition.
Google vs U.S. wireless carriers
This one isn’t exactly a direct conflict, as Google will need to partner with an existing mobile network to make it happen — Google plans on launching Nova as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO). Initial reports suggest that the smaller two national carriers, Sprint and T-Mobile will jump on board in a likely bid to further challenge the dominant players, AT&T and Verizon.
But why would Google want to become its own wireless carrier?
First off, it’s already trying to bring Internet to the 4 billion non-connected people worldwide via massive balloons and as part of its ambitious connectivity initiative Project Loon. “We want to break down the barriers on how connectivity works,” Pichai said.

There’s also Project Titan, which Pichai confirmed on stage, which deploys solar-powered drones to hover over specific areas of the world to create a mesh layer of Internet connectivity. The company obviously benefits by increasing the number of internet users in the world, and, beyond simple connectivity, the speeds must also be sufficient to allow fast and regular access to content.
The mobile shift also means that there are fewer computers needing home-wired connections, and so Google must ensure that mobile users also have fast and regular access to content. Otherwise, there are fewer opportunities to serve ads.
A mobile network also allows it to develop hardware specifically for its own network, gaining advantages while also expanding the reach of the Android ecosystem.
Finally, an additional carrier increases competition and thus puts downward pressure on pricing — theoretically users could have more data for less. This, of course, means that Google could serve more ads as people use their phones more often.
The Wall Street Journal suggests that the network would also be able to seamlessly switch between Sprint and T-Mobile (as well as available Wi-Fi networks), depending on who was offering the speediest connections. This is a huge plus for consumers reluctant to switch to one of the smaller carriers due to reduced coverage — and also ensures the fastest speeds for advertising-supported content consumption.
Android Pay vs Apple Pay
Given the runaway success that is the Apple iPhone 6, everyone is jumping head-first into the digital/mobile payments game. No one wants to get left behind and Apple has managed to pull ahead with a significant early lead. Pichai confirmed that Android Pay is indeed a thing, and will have “NFC components” to facilitate mobile transactions.
Apparently, it will be different from Google Wallet, as Android Pay is an API that will allow developers to add in digital payment functionality within apps. This will be a boon to travel app developers who want to offer “the other half,” a.k.a. those users on Android phones, the same simple payment functionality that Apple Pay delivers. Google Wallet will then be built off of that API just like any other payment integration or service.

Android as the “central operating system”
The overarching message that Pichai left with the Mobile World Congress audience is that Android could be seen as a central operating system (our term, not his) for the connected world. With 8 out of 10 phones already being shipped with Android, the team is working to expand that out into cars and other transportation that will msot benefit from a connected ecosystem.
As Pichai said on stage, there’s just nothing that will stop his team from making Android that central operating system of connected hardware:
We’re working on Android beyond phones and tablets, watches, televisions, cars. VR is going to be a hugely important area that’s using Android as its foundation.
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Native American languages still not offered at UM

Native American languages still not offered at UM | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There are 10 distinct Native American tribes with 10 distinct languages in Montana, according to the Sacred Roots Language Society, but none of them are offered on campus. 
The group, which was created to promote and revitalize language, is working to change that. By using events to raise awareness, Sacred Roots has a goal to bring more indigenous languages to campus with the help of the student body and Missoula community.
Jessie Desrosier, University of Montana student and cofounder of Sacred Roots, said it took time to understand the importance of language, but he has since felt a duty to pass it on.
The need to revitalize indigenous languages is becoming urgent. According to Derosier, it is mainly older generations who are fluent in Blackfoot. His mother is also fluent, though she did not learn until later in life.
When she asked her parents and grandparents why they didn’t teach her, they told her it was because she was loved.
When boarding schools were established to assimilate Native American children to European-American ways in the early 20th century, speaking indigenous languages or mentioning spirituality often came with severe punishment.
“They did not teach their children because of fear,” Desrosier said.
Desrosier said his generation can bridge that gap by learning and promoting indigenous languages. Once he started school at UM, he noticed many Native students were interested in learning more about their ancestry in a college setting.
Although Blackfoot hasn’t been taught for the past two semesters, the Native American Studies department is looking for an instructor and plans to offer the class in the fall. The course was recently approved to fulfill the modern and classical languages general education requirement.
When Desrosier found out the Blackfoot language course wasn’t offered, he helped form Sacred Roots. He said losing the only indigenous language offered at UM was the final push he needed.
“It’s kind of crazy to have a Native studies program without any languages,” Desrosier said.
Desrosier said learning indigenous perspectives, philosophy and spirituality are incomplete without language.
“Learning them in the translated European version doesn’t give the real opportunity to learn and get the insight of what all these things mean,” he said. “Once the language is gone, the people don’t seem to exist.”
Sacred Roots has 34 active members and is focusing on raising awareness. For Valentine’s Day, they debuted their first project.
In a video posted on YouTube, 21 students said “I love you” in 11 indigenous languages. The project was simple, but for many students it had an important message.

For UM student Kenneth Flamand, it was a chance for self-expression.
“We are still here and we have our language, and in that we can still express ourselves,” he said. “There is more than one way to say I love you.”
Flamand's mother speaks Blackfoot, and he said he is proficient, but still learning.
Flamand joined Sacred Roots because he thinks it could be influential in spreading indigenous languages by raising awareness.
He said his ultimate goal is to see indigenous languages present in all public schools, not just on reservations. By offering different languages based on geographic locations to people at a younger age, Flamand said disappearing languages could be revitalized.
Sacred Roots is limited to promoting or speaking Montana’s indigenous languages, and has worked to attract students, faculty and community members who are interested in language.
Danielle Yarbrough, a linguistics graduate student, said she heard about the group because the Linguistics Club and Sacred Roots share a faculty advisor.
Yarbrough said she is part Hispanic, but never spoke Spanish, which made her feel like she was missing out on a part of her culture. After going to a few Sacred Roots meetings, Yarbrough said she wanted to get involved.
“The passion that’s in the group and the drive behind this cause is just really attractive,” she said.
Sacred Roots is planning a 5K fun run in April to promote health, while also raising awareness about the group. They are also planning to host films on Native American history, heritage and language.
erin.loranger@umontana.edu
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