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Synonyms : Other way to say

Synonyms : Other way to say | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
There's always an another way to say.
Here's synonyms for some verbs and adjectives.
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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World |

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Language barriers broken through words of diversity, inclusion

Language barriers broken through words of diversity, inclusion | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Richard Jones was in the process of buying a home when he encountered a situation that people who are heterosexual do not often have to go through.
When Jones was purchasing a home with his partner, they could not be listed as such because it was not in the system, so they went from being partners in person, to “roommates” on paper.
Jones, who is communication studies professor, presented on the discourse of heteronormative practices along with Linda Scholz, also a communication studies professor, during a workshop called “Speaking the Language of Diversity and Inclusion” Monday evening.
This discussion was also part of the Making Excellence Inclusive initiative to help diversify and bring an inclusive environment and dialogue to Eastern’s campus.
A heteronormative practice is the perception of heterosexism in mainstream being seen as the norm while ignoring practices or lifestyles identified with people who are LGBT, according to the presentation.
“It’s kind of like the coming-out process all over again,” Jones said.
Jones said a way to combat situations like this is to never assume. He said an example of this was when word of he and his partner buying a home spread around his job, the assumption was that Jones’ partner was buying a home with his wife and not another man.
“Apparently I’m the wife,” Jones said.
Those assumptions exemplify what Jones and Scholz classify as the dominant and non-dominant groups in society.
Those who enjoy status in the dominant group are able to have more cultural and socializing power, as well as getting to set the status quo for what is perceived as “normal.”
People who operate under the social constructs of the non-dominant group are less privileged both economically and socially than others.
Scholz used the example of racial assumptions, mentioning how more police are at social gatherings for African-Americans on campus because of the notion that they are more violent.
Racial assumptions and how they impact people are what lead into Scholz mention the notion of “whiteness” and white privilege.
“White experiences are the ones that are centralized,” Scholz said.
White identity is universally seen as the standard that produces a “color blind” logic as well as discriminatory hiring.
Scholz said when a white faculty or staff member walks around the Eastern community, they have to navigate differently than those who are African-American.
However, that does not mean white people cannot challenge and will not speak on issues dealing with racism, nor does that mean African-Americans cannot perpetuate racism and whiteness.
The workshop also mentioned several other languages dealing with diversity and inclusion.
Jones said one recent popular term is misogyny, which is the hatred of women or an act of slut shaming. He said it is one of the issues that happens jokingly between people, but also casually ignored.
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National Grammar Day — A Day to Write Good

National Grammar Day — A Day to Write Good | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
(WTNH)– Just about everyone has a grammar pet peeve. Maybe the misuse of apostrophes drives (drive’s?) you up a wall. Perhaps seeing “your” when it should read “you’re” makes your (or is it you’re?) head hurt. March 4th is a day to celebrate writing good (writing “well’… don’t worry, we know).

National Grammar Day was started in 2008 by a woman named Martha Brockenbrough. She’s an author who cares deeply about using words properly. She created the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar (SPOGG). The group has a blog, though it hasn’t been updated in a few years.

This year, the day’s “host” is Grammar Girl, Mignon Fogarty. She’s written books on grammar and maintains a large presence on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+. If a certain grammar rule has you confused, the Grammar Girl’s even got a checklist to help set you straight.

There are events and webinars being held around the country to “celebrate” National Grammar Day. And the idea behind all of them — the idea behind the day itself — is to encourage writers to avoid common grammar mistakes and appreciate the English language.

And why is Grammar Day March 4th? Because, it’s not just a date… it’s a command (march forth) which has been turned into a song.
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Keeping The French Language Alive In Quebec

Keeping The French Language Alive In Quebec | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The Parti Quebecois is leading the polls for next month's provincial election in Canada. If they win a majority, they intend to tighten Quebec's already established language laws. NPR's Arun Rath talks with linguist Julie Sedivy about keeping Quebec's language French.

Copyright © 2014 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.


This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR West. I'm Arun Rath.

If you've been to Montreal, you may have been greeted in stores with the phrase bonjour hi. That friendly greeting could soon be illegal. The Parti Quebecois, which advocates for establishing Quebec as a sovereign state, is leading the polls for next month's provincial election. Saving French, Quebec's official language, and banishing English is a passionate concern for the PQ.

If they win a majority, they intend to tighten Quebec's already established language laws. Businesses will be fined for saying bonjour hi or advertising in English. And education in English will be restricted. Julie Sedivy is an associate professor of linguistics at the University of Calgary. She says the idea behind language laws is to preserve a culture and establish French as the language of the workplace in Quebec.

JULIE SEDIVY: During the '60s and '70s, despite the fact that French speakers were in the majority in Quebec, English was really the language of power and the language of commerce. So since then, there's been a very focused attempt to reverse that and to make French the language that is heard in the workplace and in the government as the official language.

So the reason bonjour hi is controversial is because it signals a symmetry, right, a willingness to engage in either English or French as the language of commerce. And that runs counter to the goal of trying to establish French very firmly as the language that you expect and have to hear in the workplace.

RATH: Why is this so important, the French language issue in Quebec?

SEDIVY: The pull of English globally is extremely strong and magnetic. I think of it as kind of a linguistic equivalent of the Borg, you know, from Star Trek. We are the Borg. You will assimilate resistance as futile, that whole idea. And there's evidence that immigrant populations into North America very rapidly lose the languages that they came with in the space of a couple of generations. This is even true for Spanish speakers who come from Mexico, for example.

And this is being felt all over the world. To some extent, it's also happening with other powerful languages such as Russian or Spanish. In fact, Latvia, just about 15 years ago, implemented language laws that were very consciously modeled after Quebec's language laws in response to what they perceive to be the magnetic pull of Russian and the desire to preserve Latvian as the national language.

RATH: Last month, Quebec Minister of Immigration and Cultural Communities Diane De Courcy, she said that Montreal is not a bilingual city. Quebec is not a bilingual Quebec. The last time I was in Montreal, speaking English was not a problem. This is just rhetoric, yeah?

SEDIVY: Yeah. The reality is quite different. If you look at bilingualism rates across Canada, roughly 10 percent of Canadians outside of Quebec speak French. So that's a relatively small percentage, despite the fact that this is one of the two official languages. Within Quebec, about four times as many francophones in Quebec are French-English bilingual as people outside of Quebec.

So despite the fact that French restricts language choice to the extent that it does, that the opportunities to be educated in English are dramatically curtailed, the desire to learn English is still so great that four times as many French-speaking Quebecers will understand and speak English as the reverse being true outside of Quebec. And I think that's where some of the renewed interest in further restricting the language laws is coming from.

RATH: Julie Sedivy is an associate professor of linguistics at the University of Calgary. Thank you.
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The Pentagon Has to Learn a New Language: English

The Pentagon Has to Learn a New Language: English | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
If the Pentagon wants to solve its budget problems, it's going to have to solve its communication problem first.

For years, the Defense Department has been trying to explain to Congress why the sequester's military budget cuts are a threat to national security. But thus far, it hasn't gone well.

When they were fighting the 2013 cuts, Pentagon officials opted for colorful language, describing the upcoming cuts as "fiscal castration" or "a doomsday mechanism." But they would also illustrate their points with a slew of Pentagon buzzwords. Officials would insist, for instance, that the cuts would harm military "readiness," often without explaining exactly how they would degrade the military's ability to fight.

None of that persuaded Congress to spare the Pentagon from the sequester, but this week marks the start of another attempt. The Pentagon offered up a pared-down $496 billion budget proposal for next year, some $45 billion less than what it originally expected. It is facing hundreds of billions of dollars' worth of additional reductions in the coming years.

And as Defense officials fight for funding—to the tune of $115 billion above the caps Congress imposed over five years—they remain plagued by the communication failures of their past, but they're determined to find a more effective way forward.

Their first step: acknowledging their past approach failed.

"We aren't communicating. We were not able to communicate the impact of sequester last year," acting Deputy Defense Secretary Christine Fox told an audience Wednesday at the conservative American Enterprise Institute think tank. "Because we talked about readiness, and nobody knows what readiness is.... We go into Pentagon-speak, I get it."

Pentagon officials are already taking a new tack on their informational charm offensive: a little straight talk.

It's not just that Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel previewed his budget proposal a full week before the giant tome lands on lawmakers' desks on March 4. His deputies—Fox, his comptroller Robert Hale, and chief weapons buyer Frank Kendall—are all over Washington at industry conferences and think tanks explaining exactly what was cut in the budget, and what was spared, and why.

The Pentagon's budget, too, is finally spelling out exactly what will suffer if Congress does not give them extra money, after years of failing to plan for the worst. For example, the Army, which will shrink by some 40,000 troops in next year's request, could lose another 30,000 troops the following year if the military does not get more money. The Pentagon will have to retire an aircraft carrier; the entire KC-10 tanker fleet will be cut.

After years of vague warnings, the Pentagon's newfound transparency means members of Congress will finally be able to feel the political impact on their districts from defense cuts of this magnitude.

Still, it is not going to be easy to explain to Congress that the tradeoffs in the military's budget for next year are meant to preserve its core ability to fight—even if it means doing away with key programs lawmakers want. Or how the Pentagon is planning for the best, in case lawmakers decide to dole out more money and avert the worst-case scenario in future years. "If we tried harder, we couldn't have made this budget more complicated," Fox said. "There are actually multiple budgets embedded in this submission."

So officials, by their own admission, are adapting in how they talk about the budget pressures.

Fox brought up an NPR interview she did recently as an example. "I talked about having your teenager driving to Ohio in a snowstorm," she said. A parent naturally wants to make sure the teenager can drive, that the car works, and that there's a spare tire if it breaks down, Fox explained. She said she is open to testing out the department's message on focus groups of nonmilitary people.

The Pentagon's next challenge is to convince lawmakers that every pet priority they want to add in the "tightly crafted" budget package means something else officials believe is critical must be removed. Fox said Hagel asked her to put together a "tiger team" armed with facts and strong arguments to defend the budget request.

"We're going to do everything in our power to explain those tradeoffs, if they force us, as they have every year, to keep things we don't want to keep," Fox said. "There's not slop here. We have to take it out somewhere else."

Kendall, undersecretary of Defense for acquisition, technology, and logistics, is also becoming aware of how using loaded metaphors and scary language is not necessarily the best alternative to bland Pentagon-speak or acronym soup. Kendall said the department "cried wolf" about the devastation the sequester cuts would wreak before they took hold. "What we did in '13 was sort of the death of 1,000 cuts," he said.

This year, sequestration just got real. The Pentagon in previous years was able to blunt the full impact of the sequester by using funds left over from previous years; delaying potentially billions of dollars' worth of contracts; and taking advantage of changes in the law that gave the department more flexibility. There were few highly visible consequences to the cuts they warned against.

Lawmakers, with some new visual aids, are starting to read the tea leaves—and staking out their priorities. Republican Sen. Kelly Ayotte of New Hampshire is campaigning for the A-10 aircraft the Air Force wants to retire, for instance, and Democratic Sen. Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut is seeking Pentagon commitments on the Pave Hawk combat-rescue helicopters.

Now that the cuts are starting to hit close to lawmakers' homes, the Pentagon could finally have a chance to undo them. 
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Why Marketers Are Not Ready For The Internet Of Things

Why Marketers Are Not Ready For The Internet Of Things | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Sorry, it's true. Most brand marketers -- especially in search -- are not mentally ready for the Internet of things, and their company's infrastructure is not physically ready. That doesn't mean the strategy isn't high on the list of priorities for CMOs or senior marketing executives. Several studies suggest the topic is high on the list of priorities for 2015. Perhaps the disconnect falls in the "not now" thought process. 

Research from the Economist Intelligence Unit found that CMOs and senior marketing executives believe the IoT will not have the biggest effect on marketers until 2020.

Still, eMarketer points to research from Gartner forecasting that IoT devices worldwide will rise from 4.88 billion to a tad bit more than 25 billion between 2015 and 2020. This "network of physical objects" connected through IP addresses will dominate search engine marketing, both in terms of optimization and paid search. SEO professionals will want to optimize inanimate objects like soda machines or electronic billboards to serve up in search results depending on the location of the wearable devices or mobile phone.

Retargeting will cross from offline to online. Let's say you search for a dress on the Anthropologies Web site from your laptop computer in the morning before breakfast. At noon, you put on your iWatch before walking out the door for a lunch meeting. On the way you pass an electronic billboard advertising a sale at Anthropologies. The electronic billboard would not need a beacon to transmit the signal about the sale to your smartwatch, but rather an IP connection. Optimizing the ad to serve up in directions or high in local or nearby results would also do the trick.

This means marketing departments will need a new mix of skills, from SEO to native advertising and skills to markup HTML pages. Search marketers will need to learn how to identify hardware as well as pieces of content that live on the Internet, so search engines like Google, and Bing can index them in search results. It's a topic we will discuss at the June MediaPost Search Insider Summit.

Unfortunately, few marketers are prepared for this type of thinking. It became apparent in December during the MediaPost Search Insider Summit when marketers couldn't see the connection between search engine marketing and signals from inanimate objects that would serve up on the screen of wearable devices or in mobile phone search engine results based on historic searches saved in browser queries or on the hardware of the phone.
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Tanzania dumps English as its official language in schools, opts for Kiswahili

Tanzania is set to become the first sub-Saharan African country to use an African language as the medium of instruction throughout the schooling years.
As part of far-reaching plans to reform education, President Jakaya Kikwete’s administration announced last week that, going forward, education in Tanzania will have Kiswahili as the sole language of instruction.
Currently, public education in Tanzania is bilingual, as it has been since the country’s independence from the British in 1961. At primary level, students are taught in Kiswahili, with English a part of the curriculum as a language subject. At secondary school level, and all the way up to university, the learning process is reversed, with English becoming the medium of instruction.
As someone who is a product of this education, I am pleased that Kikwete is bringing some clarity to a system that has for generations left students confused and not necessarily proficient in either language.
But is it smart policy?
Kiswahili, commonly called Swahili in the west, has been the foundation through which Tanzania has built its sense of national cohesion. The country boasts over 130 ethnic groups , all with their own languages and cultural traditions. Yet for a region that has struggled with ethnic conflicts (see Rwanda and Kenya), we have escaped such problems largely due to the unifying force of Kiswahili. The nature of Kiswahili itself, a language constituted out of Arabic, Bantu, English and German, reflects our diversity and our history. It has given us a sense of collective identity and the means through which we feel connected to our fellow countrymen.
But over the last thirty years, Tanzania has gone through some profound changes. From the post-independence hey days of the 60s and 70s, where the country and its young leader “Mwalimu” (teacher) Julius Nyerere were revered for being at the frontline of the anti-colonial fights, the country has endured its share of struggles. The socialist experiment of our founding father Mwalimu Nyerere failed. We were forced to endure painful economic reforms in the 1980s. And now, we are evolving into a free-market economy that has brought growth but struggles to bridge the inequality gap. Along the way, we seem to have lost our confidence and a sense of who we are.
Perhaps this bold assertion of cultural self-affirmation could act as a clarifying force on what it means to be Tanzanian once again.
But on the other hand, as one local newspaper put it, “in a globalised [sic] economy where English dominates almost everything—from trade to politics—it is not clear which way Tanzania wants to go in the next five decades” with this decision.
The policy is the opposite of the trend in the region, for example. Some African countries are adopting English-medium education, seeing it as an important conduit to engaging global investors. Rwanda, a former Belgian colony, “downgraded” French and adopted English as its official language in education in 2008. Gabon, another Francophone state, followed suit in 2012.
In Tanzania, foreign investors have complained about the lack of capacity in the labor force, with English language skills being a major area of concern. The decision to turn English into a foreign language could exacerbate this problem.
“In terms of barriers to entry, language has always been cited as an issue,” says Ahmed Salim, Senior Associate at Teneo Intelligence, a political risk consultancy that works with U.S investors with interests in the region. “However, in terms of overall impact, the main challenge will be felt long-term when companies set up shop in Tanzania and are left with hiring staff that are either bilingual Tanzanians or from neighboring Kenya or Uganda. This will somewhat hinder Tanzania’s competitive advantage in the future.”
The question then is: can we be economically competitive on our own terms? Some point to China and Japan as examples of countries who have managed to do it. May be we can too? Only time will tell.
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Linguistique et Littérature n° 2 : Émile benveniste : vers une poétique générale (S. Bédouret-Larraburu & C. Laplantine, dir.)

Linguistique et Littérature n° 2 : Émile benveniste : vers une poétique générale (S. Bédouret-Larraburu & C. Laplantine, dir.) 
Information publiée le 5 mars 2015 par Perrine Coudurier

Référence bibliographique : Linguistique et Littérature n°02 : Émile benveniste : vers une poétique générale (S. Bédouret-Larraburu & C. Laplantine, dir.), PUPPA, 2015. EAN13 : 22624112.



Linguistique et Littérature n° 2 - Émile benveniste : vers une poétique générale


PUPPA, 2014

ISSN 2262-4112


Présentation ;

Émile Benveniste (1902-1976), grand linguiste français du xxe siècle, spécialiste avant tout du domaine indo-européen et auteur d’une linguistique générale qui reste un fondement pour la réflexion sur le langage et les langues, s’est intéressé toute sa vie au langage poétique. Cet intérêt apparaît ponctuellement dans ses travaux sur le langage, les langues et cultures ou encore dans quelques textes plus « littéraires ». Ses travaux de linguistique générale ouvrent déjà, en eux-mêmes, sur le problème du langage poétique, et permettent de faire du poème un champ de réflexion possible pour le linguiste. On sait maintenant, grâce à la publication de ses manuscrits sur « la langue de Baudelaire », qu’il avait engagé l’écriture d’un important travail critique sur cette question : « La théorie de la langue poétique est encore à venir . Le présent essai a pour but d’en hâter un peu l’avènement ».
Ce volume cherche à mettre en regard les travaux inachevés, parvenus jusqu’à nous sous forme de notes manuscrites, avec les Problèmes de linguistique générale. Il constitue les actes du colloque « Émile Benveniste et la littérature » qui s’est tenu en avril 2013 à Bayonne. Les contributions rassemblées ici questionnent de manières diverses le rapport d’un linguiste avec le langage poétique, ses méthodes d’investigation, ses préoccupations terminologiques, et poursuivent en même temps, avec lui, la recherche actuelle d’une poétique.

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This bus driver welcomes passengers in 25 languages

This bus driver welcomes passengers in 25 languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
This bus driver welcomes passengers in 25 languages
Thursday, March 05, 2015

This bus driver is on a mission to make his passengers feel welcome – he greets the entire coach in 25 languages.

But Paul Waplington’s greetings don’t stop there – he also makes sure that passengers get a high-five before switching to his safety briefing.

Waplinton, from Nottingham, who has been driving for 16 years, said: “I see every customer as an individual and that’s why I wanted to take the time out to learn their different languages.

“People are amazed when I am able to greet them in their own language and I just love seeing the surprise on their faces. It’s all about delivering an excellent services to customers.”

The 43-year-old drives the National Express 450 service from Nottingham’s Broadmarsh Bus Station to London Victoria Coach Station.

In case you weren’t tuned in to all of his languages – the 25 includes numerous European languages plus Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Hungarian, as well as a number of different Indian dialects.
© Irish Examiner Ltd. All rights reserved
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St. Barts Is Like the Galapagos for Linguistic Diversity

St. Barts Is Like the Galapagos for Linguistic Diversity | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Beyond the glitz of tourism, St. Barts natives speak in unique varieties of French

By Marissa Fessenden
MARCH 5, 2015 2:15PM
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The island of Saint Barthélemy isn’t just a popular vacation playground for the rich and famous — it’s also a destination for scholars of languages. Though it is tiny, St. Barts in the Caribbean’s Leeward Islands is home to four different languages, all connected to the island’s history. In the Christian Science Monitor, Ruth Walker, describing the findings of a 2013 book by linguist Julianne Maher, writes:

Today St. Barths is a French territory of eight square miles and about 8,000 people. Professor Maher’s map shows the island’s four sections with their languages: St. Barth Patois in Sous le Vent (the leeward, or western, end); St. Barth Creole in Au Vent (the windward, or eastern, end); “Saline French,” named for local salt ponds, in the center; and English in Gustavia, the capital, built by internationally minded Swedes.

Maher’s book is called The Survival of People and Languages: Schooners, Goats and Cassava in St. Barthélemy, French West Indies; it alludes to three traditional communities on the island—the seafarers, the herdsman and the farmers. The island may be small, but has such strict boundaries that these communtiies all have different blood types, Walker reports. And different languages.

After French settlers arrived in the 17th century, three dialects arose and diversified. Now, the Patois is different from that found in Cajun French or Canadian French; the creole is similar to that of Martinique; the Saline French was mostly spoken by older people, at the time Maher visited, and "very fast." English in the capital cropped up when France’s King Louis XVI gave the island to the Swedes in 1784. Sweden returned St Barts to France in 1978.

Gathering recordings of the different dialects for required hard work, Maher writes in the introduction to her book:

The St. Barths were suspicious of outsiders and their language varieties were used only with family or close friends, not with strangers. And to record their speech? Absolutely not! Initial contacts were very discouraging.

The reluctance, she suggests, lingers from the disparaging attitude that surrounding islands and France took toward people from St. Barts. But dozens of visits over the years built up enough trust for Maher to document the languages. 

The island is more than just a good place to study how distinct languages can emerge even in a small population. It’s also a place to study how languages die. Maher, Walker writes, tells the story of the island’s languages with "an awareness of reporting on phenomena that are vanishing almost as she writes. Many of those she interviewed have since died."

Saline French is "probably already gone," and St. Barts Creole is in decline. Standard French is gaining ground (even pushing English out). But St. Barts Patois is hanging on as a mark of St. Barts identity. But as the isolation of the past fades in the face of tourist traffic and increasing prosperity, that too may change. Maher notes:

My hope is that the reader will come to appreciate not only this distinctive society but also its courage and fortitude in its centuries-old struggle with adversity." 

The Survival of People and Languages: Schooners, Goats and Cassava in St. Barthélemy, French West Indies (Brill's Studies in Language, Cognition and Culture)
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The Golden Age for Spanish language women writers and beyond - The Daily Princetonian

Professor Ronald Surtz has been teaching with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures at Princeton since completing his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1973.

“The profession chose me,” Surtz explained. “Spain and Spanish literature have always interested me.”

Surtz said he finds the study of Spanish culture particularly compelling because of its uniqueness among its European neighbors.

“People think they know Spain,” Surtz said, “but in reality Spain is constantly surprising. It doesn’t really fit the European model.”

This spring, Surtz is teaching SPA 301: Topics in Spanish Literature of the Golden Age – Women Writers of Spain and Latin America. The Golden Age of Spanish literature spanned from the early 16th century to the late 17th century.

He finds this topic intriguing because it explores the voices of dissidents and often times suppressed groups in Spanish history. The course also relates to Surtz’s own research: He recently traveled to Spain to write the first English translation of the visionary sermons of a 16th century Spanish nun. According to Surtz, works such as this illustrate “a combination of the old, customary traits with the new, imaginative traits in a blend of orthodoxy with unorthodoxy.”

Surtz is particularly interested in the works of female writers because of their refusal to submit to the social norms of their time.

“They didn’t have it easy,” Surtz said. “Female writers needed to justify what they were doing to their contemporary society. During that era, women publishing books was almost like walking naked in the streets.”

The course is conducted entirely in Spanish, but most of Surtz’s students are not Spanish concentrators. Instead, these students already have some familiarity with Spanish language and culture and are seeking to engage more deeply with the literature, he said.

Surtz incorporates a mixture of old and new into the classroom when he outlines the books that the class will read during the semester. He assigns readings with which he is well acquainted as well as readings that are relatively new to him.

“The core of this course is similar to what it was 20 years ago,” Surtz explained. “But as the course evolves, there is a growing expansion into modern texts.”

In addition to works from the Golden Age of Spain, Surtz also includes readings from the 19th and 20th centuries, hoping to build on the framework of the literature from earlier centuries. Many of these modern texts deal with themes such as the Spanish Civil War, but are, according to Surtz, “refracted through the lens of female characters.”

Surtz finds the movement from historical to modern texts particularly poignant because these new texts bring a fresher feel to the course.

“Literature is organic,” he said. “It grows over time.”
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N. Carré, De la côte aux confins. Récits de voyageurs swahil

N. Carré, De la côte aux confins. Récits de voyageurs swahili 
Information publiée le 5 mars 2015 par Perrine Coudurier

Nathalie Carré, De la côte aux confins. Récits de voyageurs swahili

Paris : CNRS Editions, 2014

EAN 9782271075970


Prix 25EUR.

Présentation de l'éditeur :

Au tout début du XXe siècle paraissaient, sous l'impulsion cololiale allemande, les premiers récits de voyages écrits par des Africains dans une langue africaine : lesSafari za Wasuaheli, collectés par Carl Velten auprès de quatre informateurs et relatant des expéditions menées dans les années 1890. Nés en swahili, entre oralité et écriture, alphabets arabe et latin, ces textes sont les témoins passionnants d'une rencontre entre les mondes, européen, arabe, et africain. 

Liés ou non à la colonisation, ces récits sont le fruit des auxiliaires : guides, traducteurs, caravaniers indépendants longtemps restés les "compagnons obscurs" des européens. Ils offrent ainsi un regard croisé sur l'histoire africaine du XIXe sicèle; explorateurs et colonisateurs sont bien là, mais apparaissent sous un jour moins héroïque que dans leurs propres relations.

Nous transportant de la côte jusqu’aux Grands Lacs, le long des pistes commerciales ou lors d’expéditions de « pacification », ces récits nous livrent tout un pan de l’histoire caravanière du continent. De l’Afrique à l’Europe, jusqu’en Russie et aux confins de l’Asie, ils nous permettent de relire les contacts de culture – plus ou moins violents – à l’oeuvre au XIXe siècle.

Cet ouvrage constitue la première traduction française de ces textes, enrichie de présentations qui situent en contexte ces récits étonnants.

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BBC to screen Barbican's Antigone starring Juliette Binoche

BBC to screen Barbican's Antigone starring Juliette Binoche | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Ivo van Hove's production will be transmitted on BBC4 in the Spring
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Guatemalan rappers promote Mayan language, stories to youth

Guatemalan rappers promote Mayan language, stories to youth | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
In this Feb. 9, 2015 photo, hip-hop musicians Yefrey Pacheco, left, Rene Dionisio a.k.a. Tz´utu Baktun Kan, center, and Juan Martinez a.k.a. "Dr. Native" perform a Mayan ritual at the base of the San Pedro Volcano in San Pedro Atitlan, Guatemala. The band, Balam Ajpu, which means Jaguar Warrior or Warrior of Light, raps in the ancient Mayan Tz'utujil language. "Since the time of the (Spanish) invasion, the (Mayan) worldview was persecuted, even almost snuffed out, but now it's returning to life, relying on music and sustaining itself in art," said Dionisio. "Our commitment as artists is to rescue the ancient art.” (AP Photo/Sonia Perez)(Credit: AP)
GUATEMALA CITY (AP) — A group of Guatemalan musicians is on a mission to breathe life into a pre-Columbian language and heritage through a thoroughly modern genre: hip-hop.

Calling themselves Balam Ajpu, which means Jaguar Warrior or Warrior of Light, they rap in the ancient Mayan Tz’utujil language with the goal of making it cool for kids and teaching them their ancestors’ stories and ways.

Their debut album, “Tribute to the 20 Nawuales,” or spirits, is set to be released to coincide with the March 20 spring equinox. The musicians rap in both Tz’utujil and Spanish, blending a hip-hop beat with marimba and natural sounds like bird songs and running water.

“Since the time of the (Spanish) invasion, the (Mayan) worldview was persecuted, even almost snuffed out, but now it’s returning to life, relying on music and sustaining itself in art,” said group member Rene Dionisio, who uses the stage name Tz’utu Baktun Kan. “Our commitment as artists is to rescue the ancient art.”

Three years in the making and completed in mid-February, the album’s songs pay tribute to each of Guatemala’s 22 provinces plus Mexico’s Chiapas and Yucatan, encompassing the region where the Mayan civilization hit its apex around A.D. 250 to 950.

The lyrics came from a young Mayan priest named Venancio Morales, who serves as the group’s spiritual guide. Starting with the project’s genesis and as recently as this month, he performed prayer ceremonies where he entered into a trance and dictated in Tz’utujil what the songs should say.

“These are the ancient stories / that were told to us / by our first mothers and fathers / who asked our creators for the wisdom to sow our essence,” goes the track “B’atz’,” or “Child of Time.”

Much of the album is dedicated to exploring the concept of spirits represented by animal glyphs in the Mayan mythology. The record also provides a handy guide for listeners to find their own “nawuales” based on birthdate.

“We all have a ‘nawual,’ and by listening to the songs the people identify with theirs,” Dionisio said.

Balam Ajpu members said Tz’utujil lends itself to hip-hop rhythms as well as any other language, and their music is faithful to the percussive tradition of their ancestors.

“They used the beat of the drums in their ceremonies, in their battles,” said Juan Martinez, a.k.a. “Dr. Native.” ”So did others, such as African peoples.”


The group performs in communities like Quetzaltenango, San Marcos, San Pedro la Laguna and Solola, in the highlands west of Guatemala City.

Wearing face paint and traditional garb, they swing incense-burners that smoke up the air. Ceremonial flutes and rattles contrast with the occasional improvised beatboxing.

Tz’utujil hip-hop has a long way to catch up with more mainstream music, but the group is picking up admirers.

“I love their rhymes,” said Weedman Corona, a 14-year-old budding rapper who took in a performance in San Marcos. “They taught me to make rhymes, now I have my own and I also hope to release my own songs soon.”

Proto-Mayan, from which Tz’utujil and other Mayan tongues descended, is believed to have existed for thousands of years. It’s not clear exactly when Tz’utujil first developed, but it remains a first language for many in parts of Guatemala.

While experts say Tz’utujil is not in danger of extinction, it and other Mayan languages are greatly overshadowed by Spanish in commerce, pop culture and other aspects of daily life.

“The children and young people we meet sometimes start singing and they do it in Spanish, even though they don’t speak it very well,” Dionisio said. “I tell them to do it in their (native) language, since it comes out more naturally.”

The group is already working on a second record, which will explore the 13 “energies” associated with the “nawuales” as established by the Mayan calendar.

Balam Ajpu recently held a ceremony in a sacred spot on the slopes of the San Pedro volcano, in Solola, to give thanks for the new album with offerings of corn, alcohol, incense and flowers.

About 41 percent of Guatemala’s population is indigenous, according to official numbers, though some groups estimate the true figure to be at least 60 percent. Some 22 Mayan tongues are spoken in the country.

In a country plagued by gang activity and high homicide rates, Balam Ajpu sees its music as an instrument to teach young people to live in harmony with others and nature by returning to the principles of the Mayan calendar.

“This is our cultural registry of the past for future generations,” Dionisio said.

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Telenor's Tech Trends at MWC - Mobile Internet Will Break Into Global Mass Markets This Year

Telenor's Tech Trends at MWC - Mobile Internet Will Break Into Global Mass Markets This Year | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Telenor presented its tech trends at the ongoing Mobile World Congress 2015, sharing insights and views on the global state of connectivity, technology and the quickly closing gaps between the developed and emerging worlds. Telenor highlighted how the continuous evolution of devices from feature phones to smartphones are fueling the growth of internet-powered services in every part of the world. Telenor whose business presence covers a large part of Asia and Eastern Europe apart from its base in Scandinavia, has been unveiling a number of initiatives that enable masses in the emerging markets to have internet access on mobile devices, via sponsored data, and via solutions such as Opera Web Pass. With more affordable internet connected devices, Telenor expects the year 2015 to onboard a lot more people onto the mobile Internet culture.
The following are the excerpts from Telenor's top five trends as shared at the MWC: :

#5 – A continuing trend that envelopes others: Mobile networks and distribution networks are enablers of fundamental services and sustainability work on part of NGOs, companies, governments and communities around the world. Distribution networks are a key part of this, too. We are currently using the 1.2 billion physical touch points to help people get access to network products and are now further developing this capacity to educate and help people use new services. This includes helping them convert physical cash into digital currencies so that they can fully participate in the digital economy.

#4 – Connected sensors will help users take more power over their health and homes in 2015. Increased value from network-connected sensors, whether in phones, watches or single purpose devices (health equipment) will maximize opportunities in many markets in the areas of health and the Internet of Things, as examples. The customizability and always-on features of mobile phone sensors represent one of the most important game changers in decades.

#3 – We’ve been saying that local content is a driver of internet uptake and gives the digitally inexperienced more reasons to use mobile technology. One of the main reasons many people in undeveloped markets do not want to use the internet is because there is a great lack of relevant local content in local languages. And in 2015, the rising demand for local content from customers as well as skyrocketing internet penetration will be matched by the local production if it. We’ll see more locally relevant content and local-language input technology and social networks – generated by organizations like Wikimedia, armies of volunteers, and entrepreneurial local startups. In 2015, local content will be king, and we hope to see at Mobile World Congress other ideas that take on these challenges.

#2 – Mobile money goes big – in both advanced and emerging economies. Worldwide, nearly half of smartphone owners would prefer to use their phone to pay for goods and services and 80% say the smartphone will replace their entire wallet by 2020 – starting with Europe, the U.S. and areas of the Asia Pacific as mobile money goes mainstream. We also expect many more, local applications of mobile finance geared to unbanked or remote communities – representing hundreds of millions of people in younger mobile markets like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

#1 – This is the year mobile internet will truly break into the mass market in the world’s most populous emerging economies – like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Smartphones soared in 2014, but internet penetration in markets like these is still less than 15%. But 2015 will mark the beginning of a climb like nothing we have ever seen. We expect internet penetration to reach 80% of our subscriber base by 2017 and we think national rates will reflect this. This will in large part be encouraged by partnerships with organizations like Wikimedia to make content free to use, as well as smarter packaging like Telenor has finessed with Opera Mini, Whatsapp and Facebook to help people lower megabyte consumption and increase affordability and accessibility.
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John Baird's Twitter account prompts scrutiny of language commissioner

John Baird's Twitter account prompts scrutiny of language commissioner | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
When a minister tweets, is it ever really a personal account, or should he or she be required to abide by federal laws and responsibilities?

Those blurred lines around government information have raised questions since social media came on the scene, and are now getting a closer look from an unexpected corner.

Canada's commissioner of official languages has launched an investigation into John Baird's Twitter account to determine if the foreign affairs minister is running afoul of federal laws around bilingual communication.

REACTION: Should a minister's social media accounts be considered personal? CBC readers weigh in
Graham Fraser had received a complaint that Baird's tweets were often only in English, and decided the situation was worthy of further scrutiny.

The case is being used by the watchdog's office to examine the larger issue of ministerial social media accounts and whether they fall under the Official Languages Act.

In a similar case, New Brunswick's official languages commissioner recommended in 2011 that officials should post messages in both official languages when they are communicating as a representative of the government.

'A lot ... related to his role as minister'

"If you look at the minister's account, a lot of it is related to his role as minister. There's enough in there that warranted accepting looking at it," said Nelson Kalil, a spokesman for Fraser.

"All ministries have responsibilities with regard to communicating with the public and using their social media, so it's a nice template for us to have look at that responsibility."

Baird's department has responded by saying that the Twitter account in question —  @HonJohnBaird — is his personal account, and does not fall within the ambit of the Official Languages Act.

Baird's Twitter profile describes him as "Canada's foreign minister and MP for Nepean-Carleton."

A majority of his posts are on foreign affairs issues; some are repeated in French, others are not.

Some tweets appear only in English on his personal account, and then are posted in French on the department's Twitter account.

Baird had a previous Twitter account, @JohnBairdOWN, which is now defunct.

Minister's office 'surprised' at investigation

"We are surprised that the official languages commissioner has chosen to investigate the Minister's personal Twitter account that falls outside of the scope of the Act," said Baird's spokesman Rick Roth.

"The Minister's personal Twitter account is just that, his personal account. That said, he tweets from that account in both of Canada's official languages."

The issue of personal versus public has also come up with Prime Minister Stephen Harper's social media accounts, which include a mix of official and partisan messages.

His office has argued that as both prime minister and leader of the Conservative party he must dabble in both, saying there is nothing untoward about government staff overseeing his posts on official matters.

Likewise, Harper's weekly video diary, 24/Seven, is published to YouTube by bureaucrats using taxpayer-paid resources, but includes content taken by political staff, such as footage of the prime minister's wife Laureen.

Still, MPs and ministers often change their Twitter addresses altogether during election campaigns, ostensibly to draw the line between their official government profiles and their partisan ones.
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Evolution of language sparks concerns in Laos - The Nation

Evolution of language sparks concerns in Laos - The Nation | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
"Language speaks about a nation, while mannerisms speak about family roots." This popular phrase reminds Lao people to use and speak their own language accurately despite its changing nature.

It is important to note from the start that one cannot be stuck entirely in the past as to do so is to ignore the fact that language evolves and new terms are needed to describe the myriad of changes taking place in modern society.

However there is also a need to preserve the integrity of the national vernacular otherwise it threatens to be diluted by outside influences and the adoption of parlance from other common languages such as Thai and English, for instance.

Laos is one of many countries that has its own spoken and written language, not to mention the many other ethnic languages which also abound, and the Lao language should be preserved as part of the national culture.

Lao school textbooks even describe the Lao language as "abundant," suggesting there are more than enough descriptive terms in existence today to cover most situations in everyday life and society.

However in the modern day, there are concerns emerging that the younger generation in general and also the media sometimes speak in strange terms that are adapted from other languages.

Television, the media generally and these days increasingly social media and globalisation are having a big influence on the younger generation and more young people are taking up and adapting non-native terms for use among their peers.

Laos is part of a global family, so it is unlikely that we can completely escape foreign influences on the national language, especially from English as the global language and language of commerce or from Thai which has common roots with Lao in its Bali and Sanskrit past and also widespread influence through the Thai media which spills over into Laos.

As a former colony under the French, Laos also came under its influence but the very occasional French word pales into insignificance when compared with those adopted from English and especially from Thai.

It should be noted though, that in some situations, Lao people have no choice but to use these terms, especially modern words for which there has been no historical precedent or those that improve communication by giving a more precise or accurate meaning.

Let us take for example the English term "online" that we now use every day. In English you might refer to the digital conversation as being part of "online society" while in Lao it is described as "sang khom online," with "sang khom" referring to society.

In this instance there is no comparable Lao word for online so the easiest thing to do is to use the English equivalent. Generally speaking, people seem to have no choice but to use foreign terms in situations such as this.

Another such example is "social media" which while there are Lao words for social and media, when combined the Lao term would refer more to 'media for society’ and would not be associated with internet based social networks . For this reason the English version is preferred.

"Gig" is another classic example of an adopted word which is widely used, this one amongst the older generation as well as the youth.

To have a "gig" means you have a lover without obligation or commitment. The newly developed term "gig" probably has its origins in English but its use is also widespread in Laos.

So having highlighted some examples, why is the use of correct language a matter to all of us?

Well in some situations it certainly is. For example in the media, if we adopt terms from foreign languages for the sake of convenience we will run the risk of contributing to the dilution of the national language.

Regardless of whether it is on television, radio or in print, if the reporters and hosts use new terms in their publication that are unfamiliar they will cause confusion amongst their audience. Also they are unlikely to escape criticism from linguistics people that they are failing to preserve and promote the local language.

However, speaking realistically, language has its own evolution and each day new words are being created for use in different situations and to make communication better, so it is up to the individual to use it correctly to represent their personality, identity and culture.

Language experts advise that the use of the language and terms should be done in such a way as to preserve its resilience. While language is alive and always evolving care should be taken to avoid the unnecessarily rendering of older terms as obsolete because they are part of the roots of the language, which is central to the identity of society.

Vice President of the National University of Laos Associate Prof. Dr Phouth Simmalavong is of the view that if there is already a local Lao term in existence but people chose not to use it and adopt a foreign term instead then this is illegitimate.

There would be many hundreds of Thai words in use unnecessarily but for the sake of example a couple of English words which enjoy widespread use even though there are Lao equivalents include 'party,’ 'serious’ and 'take care.’

However Dr Phouth acknowledged that sometimes using foreign terms is unavoidable. "In some cases, it is necessary to use some non-native terms because we don’t have such a term, for example 'computer,’ we can’t translate it in Lao as the equivalent of a human brain or 'sa mong khon’" he said.

Dr Phouth explained that language in principle is a symbol; it is like part of our physical body and if people do not use it will become paralysed. "It is the same with language, if people do not use it, it will die."

He believes that some terms including many agricultural terms in Laos will continue to die off as more of the population moves to the cities and is subjected to increasing outside influence.

New terms, however, can also make communication richer and for the sake of understanding some terms for which there is no equivalent it is easier to adopt common foreign terms rather than try and bring a new local word into common parlance.

Anything to do with computers and electronics which are ubiquitous the world over could serve as such an example, 'USB’ or 'wifi’ for instance.

However Dr Phouth warned that "There are some people that we call cultural assimilationists that accept other languages and don’t use their own even though those words exist," stressing that they will be slowly losing their own language as they do so.

"Those who assimilate more, they will lose their identity. It is considered as inappropriate if people use only 80 percent of the Lao language," Dr Phouth said.

Linguistic experts compare language usage to more visible traditions and stress that using the national language is like wearing traditional national dress.

The clothes that people wear represent a part of their identity and make them recognisable and it is important to recognise that language is no different and in fact runs a lot deeper than dress as it is more central to identity.

In this digital era, said Dr Phouth, no matter where people hide they can’t escape from information that has gone viral on the internet and social networks .

"However the most important thing people need to keep in mind is that we have to understand who we are, which includes what our culture is and the nation we belong to, because that is what makes us who we are," he said.
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Annihilation of an Oral language

Annihilation of an Oral language | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Annihilation of an Oral language
Ananta Yusuf

Artwork by Taiara Farhana Tareque, Replicated from wikipedia.
What would people do if their language disappeared into oblivion? What would happen to a culture when its language is extinct? These questions might pop up in one's mind when s/he learned that Achik, the oral language of the Garos, is on the verge of extinction.

This indigenous group, who live in Madhupur  Garh, Mymensingh, Netrokona and Sylhet, has a long drawn history and culture. Achik is amongst the half of the world's 7,000 languages that are expected to disappear over the next hundred years. Should this extinction ring alarm bells amongst the world civilisation or is it just a way of natural elimination?

The Garo language does not have traditionally written manuscripts, but they believe that the customs, traditions, and beliefs are handed down from generation to generation orally. However, legend says they did have a written manuscript ages ago. Garos believe that when a famine hit the Garo tribe in Tibet several years back, their leader Jappa Jalimpa and the elders of the tribe sat under a tree to decide the future course for the people. It was decided by them that the tribe would leave the place in search for a more habitable land to survive. Thus a long pilgrimage began which ended after they crossed long drawn valleys and rivers to settle at the valley of the Brahmaputra River.

Before the journey, Jappa Jalimpa handed over the written manuscript, etched on goat skins, to a man to bring them to safety. However, during the journey the man starved and was forced to eat the skins to survive the ordeal. He kept his crime a secret from the tribe. And that's what wiped out their written language, believe the Garo people. Gradually, in the midst of re-establishing new life and social order, the Garos forgot their written language.  
Interestingly, the National Education Policy 2010 states that indigenous children should be taught their oral language up to class three in school. However, the implementation of the policy is still to see the light of the day. Education and Cultural secretary of Tribal Welfare Association of Madhupur Garh says, “We are trying to save our language. In our homes we speak in Achik but I don't think it is helping us to save our language on a larger scale. The government should take steps to implement the education policy. I believe only that can save our oral language and history.”

The extinction of a language forces people to lose their view of their collective past as Jhumur says, “When a people lose their language, they lose an ancient view of how the human race and the world came into being and your birth into a specific culture.”

When a language dies, a community loses an enormous cultural heritage, the framework of families and most importantly, the connections and associations that define a culture. Annihilation of an oral language gives birth to a new complexity of identity.
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Why studying Chinese language, culture is important
- Herald Independent

Why studying Chinese language, culture is important<br/> - Herald Independent | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
As a Chinese teacher, I am certainly interested in the motivations of students to learn Chinese language. I asked them what had led them to the learning of Chinese language and culture. Some of them gave me simple answers such as “I like Chinese movies,” “I like Chinese food,” “I like the Great Wall and I want to see it in China someday.” Others had big reasons with much more to do with their career plans or profound academic interest.

“Learn Chinese is the first step of my career, because I am going to work in China. I have a feeling that my opportunity is there,” an American college student studying Chinese language in PC said. I met him two weeks ago on the lunar New Year party in Clinton.

Due to his clear purpose, he had made himself one of the top students among his classmates. He tried to talk only in Chinese at the dinner time on the party.

“Maybe the most efficient way to catch the language is to marry a Chinese woman,” a Chinese teacher said.

It was obviously kind of a joke, but the student said he had the same plan. That reminded me of the students in Nepal. Many of them are really doing jobs related to Chinese language. Some are tourist guides in travel agencies; some office managers in Chinese or Nepali companies; and others have even started their own business with Chinese businessmen.

People benefit from the tighter and tighter connection between the two countries in tourism and business. And also, happy marriage did happen. Pradeep, who was learning Chinese in Tribhuvan University in 2008 when I was teaching in Nepal, married a Chinese teacher in 2009. And now they are living a happy life with their twin daughters.

Culture is another important reason.

“It is the rich heritage of novels, short stories, poetry, drama that has attracted me to the further and further path of Chinese language,” a student from Thailand said.

She was right. China is one of the world’s oldest and richest continuous cultures, over 5,000 years old. With full scholarship, she has achieved her master’s degree on Chinese language and literature in Hebei University of China. Today, many universities in China are providing scholarships for students who get high scores in HSK (a Chinese proficiency test).

There is no doubt that a new language opens doors for you to a new culture, new people and new world. Currently Mandarin Chinese is spoken by more than 1 billion people around the world, about one fifth of the global population. In addition to the People’s Republic of China, it is also spoken in the important and influential Chinese communities of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Mongolia.

Wise parents know they need to prepare their kids to navigate a global workplace in which knowledge of languages and cultures other than our own will provide a key competitive advantage for higher-paying jobs.

As China is one of largest trading partners of the United States and many United States companies do business in China and have long-term investments there, more and more American parents have chosen Chinese language for their children.

While talking about the reasons why his son Filip Livingston is learning Chinese, my friend Allen Livingston said, “… knowing the future business relationships between China and America will hopefully open doors for him and give many possibilities.”

So, people learn Chinese for different reasons. If you join, you may be able to open up new career paths, make a whole new world of friends, see things you never would have been able to see before, and discover a totally new part of the world.

Guo Guangwei is a lecturer at the University of International Business and Economics in China and is an instructor at Midlands STEM Institute in Fairfield County.
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France : Face aux critiques, Najat Vallaud Belkacem défend l’enseignement des langues d’origine

France : Face aux critiques, Najat Vallaud Belkacem défend l’enseignement des langues d’origine | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Depuis que le contenu du rapport secret du Haut Conseil à l’Intégration a été révélé, plusieurs élus de l’opposition réclament la suppression de l’enseignement des langues et cultures d’origine dans les écoles françaises. Mais la ministre de l’Education, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem s'est faite l'avocat de l’enseignement des langues d’origine. Détails.

La séance des questions au gouvernement en France hier, mercredi, était très attendue. Et pour cause, le député UMP Bruno Le Maire avait annoncé qu’il demanderait la suppression de l’enseignement des langues et cultures d’origine (ELCO) dans les écoles.
Il s’est appuyé sur le rapport confidentiel du Haut Conseil à l’Intégration remis aux services du chef du gouvernement, dont le contenu a été révélé cette semaine par la presse. Le document en question s’inquiète des conséquences de ces cours sur les enfants d’immigrés. « Susceptibles de renforcer les références communautaires, les ELCO peuvent conduire au communautarisme », indiquent les auteurs du rapport, tel que rapporté par Le Figaro. Certains estiment même que cet enseignement majoritairement dispensé dans les écoles primaires est du « catéchisme islamique ».
S’appuyant sur la note du Haut Conseil à l’Intégration, Bruno Le Maire estime qu’en raison du « mauvais » résultat de ce programme scolaire qui « n’a pas favorisé l’intégration et le sentiment d’appartenance à la nation française, mais le repli sur soit et le communautarisme », le gouvernement devrait y mettre un terme. De plus, il estime que le temps réservé à ces cours (1h et demi à 3 heures par semaine) devrait plutôt servir à l’apprentissage du français afin de garantir une meilleure maitrise de la langue par enfants et ainsi limiter les échecs. La semaine dernière déjà, c’était le Front National qui s’en prenait aux ELCO avançant quasiment les mêmes raisons.
L’arabe au choix pour tous les Français
Mais la ministre de l’Education, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, ne voit pas les choses de cet œil. Les élus de l’opposition faisant comme une fixation sur la langue arabe, elle a rappelé que les ELCO « ne concerne pas seulement la langue arabe, mais aussi le croate, le serbe, le portugais, l’espagnol [et] est encadré par des règles et accords de coopération bilatérale ». En effet, le Maroc a signé des accords avec la France et envoie des enseignants pour dispenser des cours d’arabe aux élèves désireux.
La ministre d’origine marocaine a également rappelé que son département réalise « des contrôles pour veiller à ce que le règles de la laïcité s’y appliquent et des inspections sont régulièrement envoyées dans ces cours ». Najat Vallaud-Belkacem reconnait que « les temps ont changé » depuis la mise en place des ELO en 1977 mais, elle ne se déclare pas pour leur suppression. Elle préconise plutôt que l’accent soit mis sur l’ouverture de ces cours à tous les élèves d’origine immigrée ou non, et qu’ils soient intégrés au temps scolaire comme n’importe quelle option, comme l’anglais notamment. Ainsi, les enseignants titulaires pourront assister aux cours, afin d’éviter toute dérive.
L’ex porte-parole de François Hollande n’a pas dit si elle s’inscrit dans la même logique que son prédécesseur qui voulait renforcer l’enseignement de la langue arabe, pour faciliter et renforcer les échanges économiques de l’Hexagone avec les pays arabes. Mais à la veille des départementales, il est évident que le sujet va continuer à faire débat.
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UNDP Jobs - 54383- Translation/Terminology Consultant

UNDP Jobs - 54383- Translation/Terminology Consultant | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
TRANSLATION/TERMINOLOGY CONSULTANTLocation :New York City, UNITED STATES OF AMERICAApplication Deadline :12-Mar-15Additional CategoryManagementType of Contract :Individual ContractPost Level :International ConsultantLanguages Required :
English   French  Starting Date :
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)16-Mar-2015Duration of Initial Contract :3 MonthsExpected Duration of Assignment :3 Months


As the United Nations’ leading development agency, UNDP produces and translates an extensive range of web content, documents and publications containing specific terminology pertaining to its key practice areas --- crisis prevention and recovery, democratic governance, poverty reduction, and sustainable development. Up-to-date and properly-defined terminology is essential to achieving quality languages services and reducing the reputational risk associated with inconsistent translations. 

Under the supervision of the Language Services Manager, the Translation/Terminology Consultant will take part in translation and terminology management activities in English and French.

Duties and Responsibilities
  • Assist the Language Services Manager in the handling of translation management;
  • Help manage translation requests from English into French and/or Spanish; occasionally into Arabic, Chinese and/or Russian of web content, press releases, media advisories, speeches, internal communications products, corporate publications, etc.
  • Liaise with translators and translation companies and provide feedback;
  • Create and update terminological databases, glossaries, translation memories;
  • Attend the United Nations; Terminology Coordination Board (TCB) monthly meetings and draft a status reports on UNDP’s terminology creation/ consolidation process.

Expected deliverables:

Output :

  • Act as French language reviewer/editor/proofreader of web stories, blogs, press releases, media advisories, video transcripts, staff advisories, staff circulars, speeches from the Executive Office (monthly basis)
  • Create a translation memory and/or glossary of technical terms from at least one (1) from the translation of large UNDP volume publication (20,000 words) by end of assignment.

  • Solid translation and editing skills in French;
  • Knowledge of web content management system required, preferably Adobe CQ5
  • Knowledge Adobe Creative Suite: Photoshop, InDesign
  • Strong organizational skills and the ability to multi-task;
  • Attention to detail is crucial;
  • Responsible, responsive, and enthusiastic;
  • Interest in global issues and the United Nations;
  • Must be able to work in a multi-cultural environment and be aware of political sensitivities.

Required Skills and Experience


  • Advanced degree in translation, terminology, computational linguistics.


  • Two (2) years of experience as project manager, terminologist, computational linguist or translator, preferably within the United Nations system;
  • Previous experience in translation, editing for the web;
  • Very good knowledge of computer-assisted translation and terminology mining tools (Trados, MultiTerm, MemoQ, XBench, etc.).

Language Requirements:

  • Native fluency in French; and
  • Fluency in English.

Application Requirements:

Interested applicants should submit the following documents. Incomplete submission can be a ground for disqualification.

  • Updated P11 or Resume / CV;
  • Statement of Interest (Cover letter) with a brief narrative addressing the competencies mentioned above;
  • Financial Proposal for the assignment stating your daily fee for the assignment. . Any envisaged travel costs to duty station must be included in the financial proposal as a separate line.

Please group all your documents into one (1) single PDF document as the system only allows to upload maximum one document.

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UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.

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'Garden-pedia' authors get to the root of gardening terminology

'Garden-pedia' authors get to the root of gardening terminology | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
'Garden-pedia' authors get to the root of gardening terminology

How pergolas differ from arbors
Holly Rosborough / HANDOUT
"Garden-pedia" offers this definition of pergola: "A free-standing structure in the garden with posts and a ceiling made of slatted wood. Unlike arbors, pergolas are generally larger in size and designed to cover or shade an area."
Ha-ha, defined
Brian Robert Marshall / HANDOUT
A ha-ha is a sunken ditch that creates a barrier for animals on one side, and provides an unfettered view of the landscape on the other side. It's one of the many terms explained in the book, "Garden-Pedia."
Wallflowers, literally
Maria Zampini
Espalier, defined in the book "Garden-Pedia": "Growing a plant in a single plane, often vertically against a wall or other support structure." The authors also provide additional insight into this gardening technique.
Gardening, defined
John Lewis, JLPN, Inc, St. Lynns Press
"Garden-pedia," by Maria Zampini and Pamela Bennett, aims to help gardeners understand hundreds of horticultural terms.
By William Hageman
Chicago Tribune
contact the reporter Gardening Hobbies

Even experienced gardeners can benefit from handy guide, 'Garden-pedia'
How to tell a ha-ha from a hole in the ground: 'Garden-pedia' gets to the root of terminology
Maria Zampini has spent a lifetime in the garden industry. She's a fourth-generation nursery person whose family had a destination garden center in Ohio for more than 30 years. She's also the president and owner of UpShoot, a horticultural marketing firm that specializes in bringing new plants to market.

Lucky bamboo: A fortuitous plant for Chinese New Year

She knows the business. The problem is other people, who don't.

Orchids on sale: Color and style on the cheap
"I remember hiring individuals who had no experience with horticulture, and they'd stumble over some of the common terms we use," she said. "I also had it in the back of my mind we should have a little dictionary as part of our employee manual."

In her work as a writer for consumer magazines, she says she would catch herself using a term that not everybody knew. "You grew up hearing it, but they didn't. So I'd rewrite that sentence."

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She has finally solved the problem by writing, with horticulturist Pamela Bennett, "Garden-pedia: An A-to-Z Guide to Gardening Terms" (St. Lynn's Press), which codifies a lot of the terminology that new and veteran gardeners use. Bennett is the Ohio Master Gardener volunteer coordinator and director for Ohio State University Extension in Clark County.

"If someone looks for a term (online) it's very technical in nature," Zampini said. "We said it'd be nice if there was something more conversational in tone, and the average person can understand it."

'Allergy-Fighting Garden' plants solutions for those with allergies, asthma
When she and Bennett started brainstorming, they had 600 words. Those that the average gardener wouldn't use got scrapped. They ended up with about 300 terms, starting with "abiotic" (a nonliving organism) and ending with "zone" (a geographic area defined by average winter, or summer, temperature). As with many terms, there's additional commentary and helpful color photos. The zone definition also includes two full-color maps for the U.S. and Canada.

And even the expert learned a thing or two.

"There are terms I didn't know," she says. "There's one, a ha-ha. Pam came up with it."

And, as long as we're here: A ha-ha is a term for a sunken fence that creates a barrier for animals while allowing the viewer on the other, higher side an unfettered view. Typically, it involves a retaining wall between a sloping ditch on one side and higher ground on the other. "Think of this as a ditch that you can't see in the distance," the authors write, "but only when you come upon it — hence the name."

Zampini will be among the speakers at this year's Chicago Flower & Garden Show at Navy Pier. Her seminar, "Runway Stars: New Plants in Your Local Garden Center," is scheduled for 3:30 p.m. March 14.
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How Technology Is Changing Our View of Ancient Languages

How Technology Is Changing Our View of Ancient Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The Perseus Project is on a mission to make classical texts accessible to all.

Perseus and the head of Medusa in a Roman fresco at Stabiae. (Photo: Luiclemens/Wikimedia Commons)
For a scholar of ancient languages, Gregory Crane has blazed a very contemporary career path. Crane received his Ph.D. in classical philology at Harvard University before joining the university as an assistant professor. He has published books on Thucydides, widely regarded as one of the world’s first historians, and articles on Hellenistic Poetry. He’s also obsessed with algorithmic analysis and has spent decades building an online database that’s changing how we view the texts of the past, and, in the process, scholarship itself.

In the 1980s, when computer use was far from mainstream, particularly in academia, Crane created a Unix-based text-retrieval system for the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, also known as the Treasury of Greek Language. The TLG is a corpus—the linguistics term for a body of writing—that encompasses all of the classical Greek text we know exists, ranging roughly from the third century B.C.E. in Greece to Constantinople in 1453. “Ninety percent of everything that’s been written in the last 100 years was about 10 million words of [classical] text,” Crane says.

Since 1985, Crane has also been a part of the Perseus Project, first as co-director and now as editor-in-chief. The organization, which might sound like something a Bond villain would come up with for a missile that destroys the moon, is actually an open-source online library for those same classical texts. It’s stated mission is making “the full record for humanity as intellectually accessible as possible to every human being,” according to its website. Digital technology is making breaking down ancient languages that much easier—and that much more public.

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It’s not hard to see why Google might have an affinity for the project. It’s building a kind of online search tool for antiquity rather than the present.

“All of a sudden we have access to thousands of years of stuff,” Crane says. By packing the entire TLG corpus into a database at the Perseus Project, turning the words into searchable data, it has become possible to find new connections between languages. “If you have every word in Greek analyzed, you can answer questions like, ‘What English translation does this Sanskrit word correspond to?’” Crane says. “You can start to analyze parallel texts and do semantic analysis that you couldn’t do before.”

With the help of Optical Character Recognition software that turns letters into zeroes and ones, digitizing text is simple. But on its own, that data isn’t quite as valuable as it could be. “The problem with OCR-generated text is that there is not much metadata,” Crane says. All those words need to be tagged and collated before they can be properly studied. To solve that problem, Perseus has taken on a decidedly unacademic openness to the outside world. “We’re building an environment to support a global audience to work directly with the source material—Chinese, Greek, whatever,” he says.

In other words, the database has become participatory. Classics students as well as the wider public are invited to contribute translations, definitions, citations, and text corrections for when OCR fails—hundreds of thousands of users have already accessed the database. In return, the utility of Perseus’ information increases for everyone using it.

“The challenge is to be able to identify the structure of the collection, to analyze the text and find patterns over time or space,” Crane says. This means that the Perseus Project is able to track how ancient languages shifted and evolved not just across centuries text by text, but from place to place—“what’s going on in Germany versus Italy,” according to Crane.

Rather than generalizing historical grammar, “You want to be able to say, 37 percent of the time in the 17th century and 12 percent of the time in the 18th century, this happens,” Crane says. It’s bringing a technological edge to a field that has been driven by traditional scholarship. “Often what happens is that if you look at the data behind statements in the [academic] literature there’s either a lot of data that’s ignored or there’s very little,” the professor says.

Besides quantifiable scholarly benefits, the cooperative database has also lent a transparency to the rather obscure pursuit of understanding ancient languages. “It challenges us to think about other people, not just specialists—how to articulate many of the tasks that we perform in ways that other people can understand,” Crane says.

The burgeoning field of Digital Humanities provides the larger trend behind Crane’s work with Perseus. In fact, in 2010, Crane was given the Google Digital Humanities award for his ongoing research. It’s not hard to see why the technology company might have an affinity for the project. It’s building a kind of online search tool for antiquity rather than the present.

But where Digital Humanities is often devoted to figuring out how we use new technology to create culture, dissecting the behavior of ordinary users like they were cells under a microscope, Crane’s work is more about using technology to enliven a cultural arena that we had perhaps thought exhausted long ago.

Perseus isn’t just about breaking down ancient languages; it’s about our shared history, and how we can use the Internet to make that past more collectively accessible than ever before. “As a humanist, you’re really supposed to address human intellectual life,” Crane says. “It’s a chance to re-think the relationship between what we do as professional scholars and what other people are doing.”
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Linguistics offer insights | The Threefold Advocate

Can you read this? Of course you can. I think that now your next question might be: how in the world can I read these symbols? This is one of the questions that linguistics answers.

Linguistics can be defined as the scientific study of language, which is divided into branches such as phonology and morphology. Unfortunately, people usually have a misconception about what linguistics is. Most of the time, people relate linguistics with learning languages. I am not saying that linguistics does not have anything to do with all the languages of the world; on the contrary, all of them are essential, but it is not required to be bilingual or polylingual in order to take and understand the class.

This semester I am taking the class of linguistics, and I have to admit that it has been an enriching experience because it allows me to appreciate more, not only my mother language, but also the second language I am currently learning. For instance, one day the professor told us that all languages are linked by the universal grammar (UG), which are the linguistics rules that all languages share. We see examples in Japanese, French, German, Spanish and other languages that I did not know existed. This information makes learning other languages easier and faster because we already know certain rules that apply to the language.

Another benefit from the class is a better understanding of English. I used to have problems understanding how to produce certain sounds or some grammatical issues. Thanks to the knowledge I am acquiring, my pronunciation has improved as well as my writing skills. I feel more confident talking and writing, and writing in the Threefold Advocate is a good example of it. However, reading is not enough to improve; practice is also necessary.

For instance, when we were in the chapter of phonetics, we needed to know how to produce the sounds of the International Phonetic Alphabet, which are the symbols that I wrote at the beginning of this column. The first activity we needed to do was to know the parts of the mouth and how they work, then we started to exercise our mouth by making funny sounds and doing exercises with the mouth. It was an interesting and unusual experience; I have not done activities like that in other classes, even in my ESL classes. Each time I’m in class, the professor tries to surprise us with simple little facts that involve linguistics, and he always emphasizes the importance of linguistics in daily life.

If you are learning any language I highly recommend you to take the class. Even if you are not learning a second language, I also encourage you to take it. I guarantee that you will be surprised to discover all the knowledge you already have, but did not know about.

Velazquez is a senior majoring in communication. She can be reached at
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Novelón chino acabó y apareció traductor para capitán en Cartagena - Otras ciudades - El Tiempo

Novelón chino acabó y apareció traductor para capitán en Cartagena - Otras ciudades - El Tiempo | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Novelón chino acabó y apareció traductor para capitán en Cartagena

Con el intérprete se pudo legalizar la captura del extranjero, detenido con material bélico.

Por:  Redacción EL TIEMPO 11:58 a.m. | 5 de marzo de 2015
Foto: John Montaño/ EL TIEMPO
Wu Hong es el capitán del navío 'Da Dan Xia' que se encuentra atracado desde el pasado fin de semana en inmediaciones del muelle de Mamonal en Cartagena.
Luego del largo viacrucis que enfrentó la Fiscalía para encontrar un traductor de mandarín y que además tuviera conocimiento en términos jurídicos, el juez penal municipal, Juan Flórez García, con funciones de control de garantías, legalizó en la madrugada de este jueves la captura del capitán del barco chino Wu Hong, que transportaba, según la Fiscalía, 100 toneladas de pólvora, 99 núcleos de proyectil y 3.000 casquillos para artillería pesada.

En la audiencia, también se legalizó el allanamiento de la embarcación, que de acuerdo con las autoridades, tenía como destino la Habana, Cuba.

El procedimiento judicial tuvo que tener que suspendido debido al agotamiento que presentaban las partes que participaban en la audiencia. Se espera que se reanude en a las dos de la tarde de hoy.

Se conoció que a Hong se le imputarían los cargos por tráfico, porte o fabricación de armas de uso privativo de las fuerzas militares.

La búsqueda de un traductor se convirtió en una verdadero dolor de cabeza para la Fiscalía, ya que los pocos que se consiguieron con dominio del idioma mandarín no accedieron a las peticiones del ente acusador.

Solamente al caer la noche de ayer, se logró conseguir a la persona que sirvió como traductor.

Según el juez Flórez García, se trata de la misma persona que ayudó durante el allanamiento que terminó con la captura del capitán del barco chino, y que en un principio se negó a seguir colaborando.

El traductor llegó pasadas las once de la noche, hora límite para que no se vencieran los términos, Sin embargo, el juez explicó que en estos casos, donde es difícil conseguir a una persona para la traducción del idioma, es viable extender ese plazo por más horas, incluso días.

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Bilingual Proofreader/Translator job, Cape Town, Woodstock

Bilingual Proofreader/Translator job, Cape Town, Woodstock | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Bilingual Proofreader/Translator
Remuneration: negotiable Basic salary 
Location: Cape Town, Woodstock
Education level: Diploma
Job level: Mid
Type: Permanent
Reference: #Proofreader

Job description
The King James Group, a leading communication agency, is looking for a bilingual (English and Afrikaans) proofreader/translator to join our team of very passionate, very fun individuals. Our ideal candidate is someone who really, really can cross their t's and dot their i's. We're looking for a typo hunter, a grammar guru, an eagle-eyed spell checker who knows consistency is key.

Key responsibilities include but not limited to:

•Proofread a wide array of printed advertising media, such
as brochures, print ads, advertorials, billboards, etc. 
and etc.
•Check English and Afrikaans copy for spelling, grammar,
consistency and spacing.
•Translate copy from English to Afrikaans and vice versa.
•Copy editing.
•Work closely with the team of copywriters and
designers/art directors to ensure every piece of copy that
leaves the agency is faultless.
•Be able to quickly pick up the tone of voice used by the
different brands in the King James stable to ensure
consistency across all communication pieces.

Please note that this is a half-day position (8.30am to 2pm). The King James Group adheres to the principles of employment equity and equality.

When applying for this position, use the keyword 'Proofreader' in the subject line. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2015. If you have not received a reply within seven days of submitting your CV, please consider your application unsuccessful.

Send your CV to
Applicants must have valid South African identities.

• Exceptional attention to detail.
• Fluent in both English and Afrikaans written language.
• Editing skills.
• A minimum of three years' previous working experience in an advertising
agency/print publication/book publishing environment.
• A relevant qualification such as a language/copywriting degree or
• Comfortable with working closely with diverse individuals in the bustling
advertising agency environment.
• Able to work within set deadlines.

Posted on 05 Mar 13:01

Contact details

Or Apply with your Biz CV
- Create your CV once, and thereafter you can apply to this ad and future job ads easily.

See also: Proofreader
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