Your new post is loading...
Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
The 5th IATIS conference is taking place at Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil, from 7th to 10th July 2015. The theme of the conference is ‘Innovation Paths in Translation and Intercultural Studies’. Below you will find a dynamic online version of the conference programme which you can adjust to your needs and preferences. A static version of the programme will also be available on the conference website to de downloaded as PDF on compact and extended formats.
This platform is intended for helping participants verify what activities they have to or will be able to attend and assess what presentations they want to attend. Here you can generate your own programme by selecting those activities and presentations you want to participate.
This page shows a simplified version of the programme. If you want to know more about a session, you can click on its name in order to see its details. When you click on an activity name (i.e. "Welcoming reception"), a small window appears showing its details. In order to close that window, you have to click anywhere else on the page or press "esc".
In order to select the common activities you have to or want to attend (i.e. plenary lectures, ceremonies, coffee breaks, etc.), you can check or uncheck the check-boxes next to them. These boxes are checked by default.
As regards the presenations sessions which will be held on different rooms (i.e. panels, individual communications sessions, posters, etc.), you can check only one session on each time slot. These activities are not checked by default, as it depends on each participant to create her/his own schedule based on her/his needs and preferences.
At the bottom of the page you will find the button "Generate programme", which will generate your own programme based on the activities you selected in this page. After generating the programme, you can download and/or print your own schedule in two different versions: compact or extended.
In case you wish to consult the book of abstracts of the 5th IATIS Conferente, you can visit the conference website at: http://www.iatis.org/index.php/iatis-belo-horizonte-conference (It will be posted soon)
Obs: There may still be minor changes on the programme, for example: a change of order within a session that should not interfere with other sessions. It should be noted that these changes will not interfere with your compact schedule; only the complete version may have minor changes.
Gaspard Sebag and Stephanie Bodoni, Bloomberg News
BRUSSELS — The European Union threatened to levy fines on Google that would be large enough to act as a deterrent after accusing the U.S. search-engine giant of squeezing out rivals in the comparison-shopping market.
The EU's competition watchdog told Google it could face a fine based on its AdWords revenue stemming from European users, according to a version of the statement of objections released to complainants and seen by Bloomberg. The EU also said it may tell Google to make changes to how its shopping services are displayed.
The European Commission "intends to set the fine at a level which will be sufficient to ensure deterrence," the EU regulator said in the document. The regulator "considers that, based on the facts described in this statement of objections, Google committed the infringement intentionally or, at the very least, negligently."
The EU's patience with Google ran out after three settlement bids failed to satisfy critics, who said the owner of the world's most-used search engine was wielding its power over search results to unfairly promote its own services and paid ads. The EU has been probing allegations since 2010 that Google's search page isn't fair when people seek services online.
Microsoft, Expedia, publishers and others asked the EU to examine complaints that Google favors its own services over competitors and hinders specialized search engines that compete with it.
The commission sent the full version of the document to Google in April, accusing the Mountain View, California-based company of abusing its dominance of the search-engine market by unfairly favoring its comparison shopping service above rivals since 2008. Sending antitrust objections, which lay out where the EU thinks Google is breaking the law, pushed the investigation into new territory.
Fines could be based on factors including revenue from Google's AdWords services relating to clicks from European users; revenue from its price-comparison website; and revenue from product queries on its search engine, the commission said in the complaint.
The commission said it has reached the "preliminary conclusion that Google's practice of positioning and displaying more favorably, in its general search result pages, its own comparison shopping service compared to competing comparison shipping services constitutes an abuse by Google in the relevant markets for general search services."
Many of the EU's biggest fines have been handed out to U.S. technology companies. Intel Corp. got a record penalty of $1.2 billion in 2009; while a probe into Microsoft spiraled as regulators targeted different business areas and fined the company a total of 2.24 billion euros.
Aside from financial penalties, the commission threatened to impose changes on Google's business practices.
These may include a demand to use the same underlying processes and methods when ranking rival price-comparison websites on its search page. Google would have to use the same display features and tell users clearly where results originate.
The commission declined to comment on the content of the statement of objections. Google representatives didn't immediately respond to e-mails seeking comment.
Google still has to respond to the EU's objections and can then also request a closed hearing with regulators to make its case. While Google was given 10 weeks to respond to the April complaint, the company can seek an extension.
"We will have an open mind to hear what Google will come back with, which means it could go different ways and a settlement is of course also a possibility," EU Competition Commission Margrethe Vestager said in Brussels a week after sending the complaint.
The commission is continuing its probe into other concerns about Google's search advertising, such as exclusivity requirements and "undue restrictions" on advertisers, continues. The EU is also looking at the legality of Google's copying of rivals' web content.
On the most advanced case regarding shopping, the EU said it's concerned that Google doesn't subject its own service to its algorithm which ranks search results on quality and relevance to the user.
NEW YORK ( TheStreet) -- As part of the European Commission's ongoing antitrust probe into Google (GOOG - Get Report), the competition watchdog reportedly told the search giant it could face a fine based on its AdWords revenue that's derived from European users.
And the fine would be a hefty one, large enough to act as a future deterrent, according to Bloomberg, which cited a version of the commission's statement of objections.
The report says the European Union also may ask Google to alter how its shopping services are displayed. In April, the commission sent a Statement of Objections to Google, outlining its view that Google's comparison shopping service abuses the company's dominant position in general Internet search.
Among its concerns about Google's conduct, the commission said it found that Google's comparison shopping products are systematically displayed prominently at the top of search results, without regard to the most relevant results.
In a speech on April 17, 2015, the European Commission said, "Our preliminary view in the Statement of Objections is that in its general internet search results, Google artificially favours its own comparison shopping service and that this constitutes an abuse. Our investigation so far has shown that, when a consumer enters a shopping-related query in Google's search engine, Google's comparison shopping product is systematically displayed prominently at the top of the search results. This display is irrespective of whether it is the most relevant response to the query. Thus, Google's commercial product is not subject to the same algorithms as other comparison shopping services."
It added, "Dominance in one market is used to create an advantage in a related market. The advantage in the related market does not appear to reflect the merits of Google's comparison shopping service, but rather results from Google using its considerable power on the market in which it is dominant."
The commission gave Google ten weeks to respond, which the company has yet to do.
Call for papers, Volume 7, 2015
- Full Title: Sayyab Translation Journal (STJ)
- Linguistic Field(s): Translation
Subject Language: English
- Language pair: English-all
- Call Deadline: 30-Oct-2015
Sayyab Books (London) announces the 2015 volume of its journal, Sayyab Translation Journal (STJ), an international journal of translation, interpreting, and intercultural studies.
Aim: STJ brings professional and academic interests closer in addressing issues related to translation, interpreting and intercultural studies. Submissions on other languages are also welcome, provided they involve translation. STJ welcomes high quality original research, as well as review articles and book reviews.
STJ is published provisionally as one volume per year. Contributions (6000-7000 words) to the 2015 volume of STJ, scheduled to appear in December 2015, should be submitted by e-mail to email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com no later than 30 October 2015.
For enquiries, style sheet, and suggestions or comments, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com or read the Author Guidelines.
Subject: Translation/ Sayyab Translation Journal (STJ)
The United Nations in New York is organising a 2 months paid internships to prepare candidates for the upcoming Language Competitive Examination that will take place in june 2016. The internship will start in February 2016.
Would it be possible to let your respective young graduates know about this possibility? Candidates to the internship will need to have the required UN language combination, i.e. French A, English and Spanish C or French A, English and Russian C.
I am enclosing the notice with all the necessary details and please feel free to share it with colleagues and/or young graduates from your respective universities.
Alain Mabanckou, author of Broken Glass, a finalist in this year’s Man Booker international prize. Photograph: Murdo Macleod
Thursday 11 June 2015 17.34 BST Last modified on Thursday 11 June 2015 17.36 BST
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share via Email Share on LinkedIn Share on Google+
Thanks. Thanks a lot, Comment is free, for asking me to come up with a list of the top 10 “must read” translated novels. As one Twitter user wrote, when I, panic-stricken at the riches that lay before me, asked for recommendations: “Isn’t this like … an endless list of the greatest books of all time?”
It’s timely, though. Yesterday, Nick Barley, director of the Edinburgh international book festival, said that British “reading habits are something of an embarrassment”. And last week Marina Warner, who chaired the Man Booker international prize this year, said we could be “oddly provincial in outlook” when it comes to literature. Just 3% of books published in the UK have been translated from a foreign language, according to a recent report.
Nobody needs me to tell them that Anna Karenina, Madame Bovary and Don Quixote are quite good
In compiling my list, I decided to steer clear of the classics. Nobody needs me to tell them that Anna Karenina, Madame Bovary and Don Quixote are quite good. So I’ve included personal favourites, recent prizewinners, top sellers, suggestions from Twitter, and the wise recommendations of friends and colleagues: it’s an eclectic list. But of course I’ve got this wrong – no Murakami! No Cercas! No Knausgaard! No Bolaño! Anyway, this is my top 10, in no particular order, as of 11 June 2015 (they could be different tomorrow).
Tell me yours. Let’s talk about translated literature – or else Nick Barley might tell us off again next year.
The End of Days by Jenny Erpenbeck, translated by Susan Bernofsky
Winner of this year’s Independent foreign fiction prize, which has done sterling work for years in highlighting fiction in translation, this imagines the five possible lives and deaths of one woman in the 20th century. Judge Boyd Tonkin said it “packs a century of upheaval” into its pages, is “both written and translated with an almost uncanny beauty”, and is a “jewel of a book” in which both WG Sebald and Virginia Woolf would “recognise a kindred spirit”.
My Brilliant Friend by Elena Ferrante, translated by Ann Goldstein
Mystery surrounds the Italian novelist’s identity, but there is no doubt about her brilliance. This is the first of her Neopolitan novels portraying the friendship of Elena and Lila as the girls grow up; her books are “intensely, violently personal, and because of this they seem to dangle bristling key chains of confession before the unsuspecting reader”, said James Wood in the New Yorker.
In the Beginning Was the Sea by Tomás González, translated by Frank Wynne
A couple, Elena and J, move to the remote Colombian coast in search of an idealised hippie lifestyle; things rapidly go wrong, as is hinted, brilliantly, early on: “The other bedroom, where they would later open up the shop and where, later still, the corpse would be bathed, was completely empty”. I love the fact this was first published by the owner of the Bogotá nightclub where González worked, in 1983.
Signs Preceding the End of the World by Yuri Herrera, translated by Lisa Dillman
A friend says this is the best book he has read in years. It’s the story of Makina, a young woman who leaves Mexico to search for her brother in the US, bringing along both a message for her brother from their mother, and a package from a Mexican gangster called Mr Aitch.
The Summer Book by Tove Jansson, translated by Thomas Teal
Everyone knows, and everyone loves, the Moomintrolls. Here is Jansson with a novel for adults, about a six-year-old called Sophia and the summers she spends with her grandmother on a small Finnish island. “Tove Jansson was a genius,” said Philip Pullman of the book. “This is a marvellous, beautiful, wise novel, which is also very funny.”
Facebook Twitter Pinterest
George Szirtes, Hungarian poet and translator who translated 2015 Man Booker International prize winner László Krasznahorkai’s work. Photograph: Graham Turner/the Guardian
Satantango by László Krasznahorkai, translated by George Szirtes
The winner of this year’s Man Booker international prize, set in a Hungarian town where the drunken villagers are deceived by a newcomer who might be the devil. Theo Tait wrote in the Guardian: “This is an obviously brilliant novel. Krasznahorkai is a visionary writer; even the strangest developments in the story convince, and are beautifully integrated within the novel’s dance-like structure.”
Death and the Penguin by Andrey Kurkov, translated by George Bird
Kurkov chronicles the life of Viktor, an obituary writer who has only his pet penguin Misha for company, and who waits mournfully for his work to be published. “Not only had none of them died, but not one had so much as fallen ill,” he says of his subjects, before he begins to suspect that something sinister is going on. The New York Times praised his dark humour.
Alex by Pierre Lemaitre, translated by Frank Wynne
I adore Scandinavian crime, but let’s not let the Scandis get all the attention (and I say that as someone who lives in Norway). Pierre Lemaitre writes horribly disturbing, excellently plotted French thrillers. In the award-winning Alex, the eponymous heroine is kidnapped and subjected to a horrendous ordeal; commandant Camille Verhœven just hopes he can find her before her time runs out. Stephen King, who said this week that he avoids novels in translation, makes an exception for Lemaitre and calls him “a really excellent suspense novelist”. A cracking thriller.
Broken Glass by Alain Mabanckou, translated by Helen Stevenson
The Congo-Brazzaville author, a finalist for this year’s Man Booker international prize, tells the story of Congolese bar Credit Gone Away. Narrator Broken Glass, an alcoholic French teacher, recounts the comings and goings of customers in a notebook provided by the bar’s owner, planning to throw himself into the River Tchinouka after he writes the final words. “The real meat of Broken Glass is its comic brio, and Mabanckou’s jokes work the whole spectrum of humour,” wrote Tibor Fischer in his review.
The Last Lover by Can Xue, translated by Annelise Finegan Wasmoen
This has just won the best translated book award, a prize run by Three Percent, a resource for international literature based at the University of Rochester. Judges said it pushes the novel “into bold new territory” and is “radiantly original”. Following the lives of characters including Joe, a clothing company sales manager in an unnamed western country, his wife Maria and customer Reagan, it’s a “Chinese vision of the west”, said the Independent, and a “delirious cross-cultural hall of mirrors”.
For more suggestions here’s an excellent list from Publishers Weekly; past winners of the best translated book awards; past winners of the Independent foreign fiction prize; and the excellent Complete Review website. Happy reading – and please don’t hesitate to tell me who I have unforgivably failed to include …
Les Français ne sont pas bons en orthographe. En grammaire, ce n'est guère mieux. Le baromètre Voltaire a listé neuf fautes courantes, cachées dans cette lettre. Trouvez-les!
Why working too many hours can end up hindering your productivity.
It seems that, like death and taxes, we cannot escape increasing demands on our time in the workplace.
Although some employers are starting to recognize the unsustainability of the “more, more, more” approach to work, it still falls mainly to each of us to manage an ever-growing workload. That can be particularly tricky in an environment where total devotion to work is seen as a prerequisite for success.
In fact, from a strictly practical standpoint, total devotion to your job may well lead to lower quality work, particularly if what you do involves creativity and problem-solving. Research now supports what many of us know to be true: Our best creative insights and breakthroughs often come when we are not at work. For instance, students who were given a task known to encourage mind-wandering performed better on a subsequent task requiring creative thought than students who were given no task or a task that demanded their entire attention. I suspect this is why my best ideas come to me when I’m out for a walk or a jog — I let my mind wander and it finds the solutions I need.
No one is surprised to find that workers performing physical labor require breaks, and eventually reach a limit past which their work performance begins to suffer. We understand that as muscle exhaustion, and although it’s not fully understood, we do know that it is related to prolonged periods of use. We also know that our brains are the single largest consumer of energy in our bodies, and we are all familiar with the feeling of mental exhaustion.
Science does not fully understand mental fatigue any better than muscle fatigue, but the idea that we can demand infinite work from our brains, with no decrease in performance quality, makes no sense to me. It also runs counter to my experience as a project manager: I have often witnessed people — who are past what I call their “work limit” — make avoidable mistakes that wreak havoc on project timelines. I have also noticed this effect in myself.
Therefore, I consider it part of my managerial role to ensure that my team does not work crazy hours — not just because I’m a decent person, but because that is how I can best protect my project from risk. As a worker myself, I try to protect my own schedule so that I can deliver my highest-quality work. That means I set boundaries on my work life.
The first step for me was to understand my own optimal work schedule. How I discovered it was the result of a certain amount of serendipity:It started in graduate school when the traditional tools of more hours, caffeine, and junk food failed to help me solve a particularly difficult problem, but taking a weekend off did.
I didn’t really understand the dynamic until many years later, when I was working at a large contracting firm. We “charged hours,” meaning that I accounted for my time in 15-minute increments so that we could charge our customers accurately. That process taught me to be conscious of how I spent my time at work. There was no charge code for “reading random things on the Internet,” after all. But the real breakthrough was when one of my projects fell behind schedule, and we were authorized to charge (and be paid for) more than 40 hours a week. I was at a point in my life where money mattered more to me than free time, and I was extremely motivated to charge as many hours as I ethically could.
I maxed out at 55 hours a week. There was more work available to do, but I discovered that after about 55 hours, I just wasn’t able to do it. There was no charge code for “staring slack-jawed at my computer screen,” either.
It turns out that my optimal work week is between 35 and 40 productive hours, which typically translates into 40 to 45 hours of being “at work.” I can stretch that up to 55 hours a week, for up to one or two months at a time, but not for much longer than that. And whenever I do, my productivity falls. Knowing that makes it easier to give myself the night off when I need it.
The next step was understanding my preferred normal work schedule, which turns out to be really quite normal, indeed. I prefer to do the majority of my work Monday through Friday, during standard business hours. I’ll work a few nights a week if I have something urgent to complete. And I rather enjoy spending an hour or two on Sunday mornings drinking tea and writing. But I take Saturdays completely off. If I keep my work within those boundaries, I am more productive than if I try to take time off in the mornings and work late on weeknights, or take all my weeknights off and work on Saturday.
Your work limit and preferred normal schedule are probably different from mine. The key is to understand your own optimal parameters, so you can avoid working outside of them whenever possible.
Since I prefer to limit my work hours, I have to make the most of the time I am working. I try to limit mindless time-wasting activities. If I’m going to take a break, I take an actual break. I find that a deliberate 15-to-30-minute break restores my energy, while the shorter, unconscious breaks that creep into my day just drain my productivity. There is some research to support this, but there is also evidence for individual variability. Perhaps the best advice is to be aware of the impact of your activities on your energy levels and productivity, and adjust accordingly.
Research also suggests that periods of disengagement from work are quite beneficial. That includes evenings and weekends. I try to make sure I don’t drain my “work energy” needlessly, and only put in extra hours when they’ll make a real impact. I have worked to get better at estimating how much time tasks will actually take, and I always know my priorities and deadlines. That way, I know whether or not I need to take a task home at night or whether it can actually wait until the next day. My management of my own personal workload improved immensely when I learned project-management skills: Many of those skills transfer directly to personal practices.
Finally, I’m deliberate about saying “yes” to extra work. If I agree to do something that isn’t in my main job description, I make sure I know how the extra work will benefit me, even if the only benefit is the warm, fuzzy feeling I get from helping someone else meet their goals. If I say yes to something that is going to push me outside of my preferred work schedule or over my work limit, I recognize that upfront and have a plan for managing it. For instance, I might I schedule a half-day for myself after that project is over, to allow myself to rejuvenate and approach the next task at full strength.
Your natural work patterns may be different from mine, and therefore your methods for managing boundaries may need to be different. But I suspect all of us can benefit from thinking about these issues, and actively defining our boundaries instead of letting our work flow into every available minute of our lives. That may earn us points in the “overworked olympics,” but chances are, it won’t actually allow us to get more work done in the long run.
Announcing Vitae's New Discussion Groups!
Want to swap strategies and share insights with other academics?
Sign up for Vitae and join the conversation in one of our new discussion groups: Adjunct Life, Flexible Academics, On Scholarly Writing, or Advising in Academia.
Join VitaeSigning up is fast, easy, and FREE.
Melanie Nelson is a consultant focusing on scientific information management and project management. She has a Ph.D. in the biosciences from the Scripps Research Institute, and more than 10 years' experience managing projects and people.Find her on Twitter at @melanie_nelson.
- See more at: https://chroniclevitae.com/news/1022-setting-boundaries-on-your-workload?cid=oh&utm_source=oh&utm_medium=en#sthash.LXkdxLv3.dpuf
Lisez l'article : Perles du bac : faut-il rire ou pleurer ? sur votre mobile.
A long-standing back and forth between a West Quebec newspaper and the body that enforces that province’s language laws has come to a head with an injunction that compels the newspaper separate its French and English pages, the co-publisher says.
“We’ve had to completely re-organize the paper, to considerable effort,” said Lily Ryan, co-publisher of the Pontiac Journal.
On April 16, the bilingual biweekly paper with a circulation of more than 9,000, was told it had to follow Quebec’s language law rules regarding English-only advertising, which is forbidden on French-language pages. The paper serves the bilingual Pontiac region — and the paper’s motto is “unifying all of the Pontiac.”
“We go to restaurants in both languages. We make love in both languages,” Ryan quipped.
She explained that the injunction gave the newspaper 30 days to comply with the legislation or face fines as much of to $20,000 if it didn’t.
“Part of the beauty of publishing in a bilingual community is that there’s a lovely diversity, and on the other hand because these arbitrary regulations add layers of complexity to publishing in ways that go beyond the normal, I really feel like the government is getting in the way of publishing, so it’s a freedom of the press issue for me,” Ryan said.
Ryan and the Office québecois de la langue française, the body that regulates language use, began negotiations in February 2012, Ryan said. As a bilingual paper, it’s affected in particular by a section of the Charte de la langue française — which regulates publishing and signage in the province — that pertains to advertising.
“This is my up-and-down process through these three years. I thought I was conforming, and then they changed the way that they were interpreting the law,” Ryan said of the language office.
Requests for an interview from the Office de la langue française were not answered, but a statement on its website — though it does not name the Pontiac Journal specifically — explains that the law does not apply to the language or layout of articles. It says there is no obligation to create specific sections, but it also states that all advertising must be bilingual or in French, and that English-only ads would be allowed only in English sections of the paper.
As of the newspaper’s first edition in May, it now has an English section, though further rules mean the French must be dominant in the arrangement of the paper, Ryan said, pushing the English-only section to the back of the publication. That doesn’t mean that there cannot be bilingual pages. It’s just that where there is a mix of English and French stories, advertising needs to be in both languages.
Ryan said her staff have been frustrated by the changes.
“They really see this as the government telling them how to do their job,” she said. “It’s not just journalism. It affects advertising sales more than anything else, really.”
That’s mainly because advertisers are now relegated to certain parts of the paper or it would cost more to create and place the larger bilingual ads, and the paper can’t afford to give away that extra space.
The Office de la langue française’s investigations can be spontaneous but are also done on the basis of a complaint.
“It’s absurd to me that one complaint can affect a newspaper and a whole community to such a dramatic way,” Ryan said. “Anyone who is an extremist with nothing to do can put us through hell like this. It’s really not fair.”
The paper did receive a number of letters of support from readers.
“A true, free and proud Quebec is capable of dealing with two languages,” wrote Eileen Payette from Campbell’s Bay.
Richard Tardif, executive director of the Quebec Community Newspaper Association, said conflicts with the language office are rare, in part because most of the newspapers in his association are purely anglophone.
“It’s those papers that say they’re bilingual and serve a bilingual community … that have this problem,” Tardif said. “Well, it’s the [language office’s] problem. It’s not our problem.”
Le ministre responsable des langues officielles du Nouveau-Brunswdick a présenté jeudi deux projets de loi importants pour la communauté francophone de la province.
Donald Arseneault a déposé un projet de loi qui vise à ce que le découpage des circonscriptions électorales provinciales tienne davantage compte des communautés linguistiques.
L'autre projet de loi obligera les associations professionnelles à offrir des services dans les deux langues officielles. Il s'agit de deux dossiers qui étaient devant les tribunaux. Après de longues négociations, le gouvernement libéral s'entend avec les francophones.
Les deux projets de loi mettent ainsi fin à deux poursuites devant les tribunaux.
Dans le dossier des circonscriptions électorales, une commission avait tracé une nouvelle carte en 2013, qui a été contestée devant les tribunaux parce qu'elle ne tenait pas compte de plusieurs communautés d'intérêts francophones.
« On augmente le quotient de 5 % à 15 % aussi pour le niveau extraordinaire reste à 25 % plus ou moins 25 % qui inclut aussi le côté linguistique », a déclaré le ministre Arseneault.
Cela devrait permettre la création de circonscriptions plus petites, ou plus grandes, lorsqu'il s'agit de réunir dans une seule circonscription une communauté francophone.
Cette loi toutefois n'aura pas d'effet avant une dizaine d'années, lors du prochain redécoupage des circonscriptions.
Michel Doucet, directeur de l'Observatoire international des droits linguistiques de l'Université de Moncton
L'avocat Michel Doucet représente l'Association francophone des municipalités et la Société de l'Acadie du Nouveau-Brunswick qui contestaient en cour le dernier redécoupage électoral.
« Le fait de reconnaître les deux communautés linguistiques comme étant une considération importante, c'est très certainement un acquis très substantiel pour la communauté francophone », a déclaré Me Doucet.
Les associations impliquées dans le litige entendent réagir dans les prochains jours. Mais par voie de communiqué, elles se disent satisfaites de la décision du gouvernement provincial.
« Les demandeurs et leurs conseillers juridiques sont d'avis qu'il va s'agir là de gains importants pour la communauté acadienne et francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick dans le dossier de la carte électorale », peut-on lire dans le communiqué de presse envoyé par la SANB et l'AFMNB.
Changement pour les ordres professionnels
L'avocat Michel Doucet représentait aussi une cliente qui avait intenté une poursuite pour que les associations professionnelles offrent des services dans les deux langues officielles.
La nouvelle loi adoptée en 2013 précisait que les associations professionnelles devaient offrir des services dans les deux langues officielles, mais à leurs membres seulement. Le gouvernement va plus loin aujourd'hui.
« On leur donne une année afin d'offrir non seulement à leurs membres, mais également au public les services dans les deux langues officielles », a déclaré le ministre Donald Arseneault.
« C'est un changement très important dans la loi. Un changement certainement qui va accroître pour la communauté francophone l'accès à l'égalité pour s'assurer qu'elle soit traitée toujours sur un pied d'égalité avec la majorité lorsque vient le temps de faire affaire avec les associations professionnelles », soutient Me Doucet.
Après avoir réglé deux dossiers linguistiques importants, Michel Doucet garde espoir que le gouvernement règlera aussi celui d'Ambulance Nouveau-Brunswick, qui traîne depuis des années.
La Romarimontaine Valérie Mallard, présidente de l’association « Didi Bahini » vient de participer à la mission menée par Medilor au Népal. Professeur d’anglais au lycée Malraux à Remiremont, elle a accompagné les équipes médicales et apporté ses compétences linguistiques, elle qui maîtrise l’anglais et le népalais. « Je suis très heureuse d’avoir pu me rendre utile et surtout, j’ai la satisfaction d’avoir pu aider un peuple que j’aime tant », raconte celle qui part chaque année au Népal. Investie auprès d’un foyer qui accueille des enfants défavorisés, Valérie Mallard a même pu intervenir directement auprès de cette structure partenaire de l’association « Didi Bahini ». Sur place, dans l’urgence, Haushala Zimba a endossé le rôle de coordinateur et envoyé les secours dans des villages reculés où les touristes ne vont pas. C’est là que s’est terminée la mission de Medilor qu’accompagnait l’enseignante romarimontaine. Les professionnels de santé ont pu ausculter les enfants. Valérie Mallard, quant à elle, accueillait les patients. « On allait dans de petits villages. Je faisais le tri et j’aiguillais les gens selon leurs pathologies. Ça leur apportait du réconfort de voir que je parlais népalais. Ils me racontaient leurs histoires. Nombreux sont ceux qui souffrent de stress. Ils ressentent des secousses lorsqu’ils sont couchés alors que ce ne sont les battements de leur cœur. » La Romarimontaine parle en connaissance de cause puisque sur place, elle a senti le sol trembler et se dérober sous ses pieds.
Générosité de 9 000 €
A Thimi Bode, là où est implanté le foyer de l’association Cyf (Children and Youth First) soutenu par l’association romarimontaine de Valérie Mallard, cette dernière a pu partager directement avec ceux qui en avaient besoin les dons recueillis pour le Népal. Pas moins de 9 000 € ont été rassemblés. « Cet argent a d’ores et déjà été investi pour le ravitaillement d’urgence des personnes sinistrées, pour trouver des logements temporaires et semi-temporaires, pour l’assistance aux enfants et l’assistance médicale » , détaille la Vosgienne. « J’ai pu voir concrètement tout ce que l’aide financière a pu apporter aux gens. Les Vosges se sont mobilisées et ce n’est pas fini. » Sur place, les Népalais se sont installés dans des tentes. Les plus chanceux ont trouvé un toit sous des dômes faits en taules et petit à petit des préfabriqués sont construits afin d’abriter les sinistrés. « Tous les namastés que j’ai pu voir en remerciement sont surtout destinés à toutes les personnes qui se sont mobilisées pour le Népal. Je n’ai été que le prolongement de cette main tendue. » L’association « Didi Bahini » reçoit encore régulièrement des dons. En argent et en matériels. D’ailleurs, de nombreuses tentes doivent être envoyées au Népal, « mais les frais de port sont astronomiques. On cherche un transporteur » , s’inquiète la Romarimontaine. Fin juin, son amie Sunita Gurung accompagnée de son fils de 10 ans, Sonam, viendra la rejoindre à Remiremont. La découverte de la vie himalayenne sera à l’ordre du jour de soirées de rencontres mais la thématique de la solidarité reviendra sans nul doute au cœur des échanges franco-népalais.
Plus de renseignements www.didibahini.sitew.fr/#Accueil_. A
À la fois lecteur et auteur, le traducteur littéraire est au cœur d’un métier qui intrigue, et sur lequel repose l’existence même d’une littérature universelle. Dépositaire de la confiance de l’auteur qu’il traduit comme de celle des lecteurs, il est un pivot essentiel des échanges culturels.
ATLAS, association qui s’est donné pour objectif de faire connaître l’importance de ce rôle, organise le Printemps de la traduction, en partenariat avec un réseau de librairies indépendantes. Cette nouvelle manifestation investit différents lieux culturels franciliens pour une série de lectures, d’ateliers, de rencontres avec les lecteurs, de conférences, de jeux traductifs, et se conclut par un pique-nique littéraire.
Pour cette première édition, les sept ouvrages sélectionnés sont :
Sara, de Stefan Agopian, traduit par Laura Hinckel (Éd. Jacqueline Chambon)
L’accident de téléportation, de Ned Bauman, traduit par Catherine Richard (Éd. Joëlle Losfeld)
Taipei, de Tao Lin, traduit par Charles Recoursé (Éd. Diable Vauvert)
Les Aventures d’Augie March, de Saul Bellow, traduit par Michel Lederer (Éd. Gallimard, Quarto)
Canevas, de Benjamin Stein, traduit par Sacha Zilberfarb (Éd. Gallimard, Du monde entier)
Tout ce qui m’est arrivé après ma mort, de Ricardo Adolfo, traduit par Elodie Dupau (Éd. Métaillé)
Americanah, de Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, traduit par Anne Damour (Éd. Gallimard, Du monde entier)
Autres temps forts : Eric Caravaca fera la lecture d’une nouvelle de Borges, Pierre Ménard auteur du « Quichotte », dans la traduction de Paul Verdevoye. À la Maison de la Poésie, Vassilis Alexakis parlera d’autotraduction, tandis qu’à l’Hôtel de Massa (SGDL), Agnès Desarthe jouera avec les missions impossibles auxquelles les traducteurs sont tenus. Le dernier jour, un final champêtre permettra à chacun de partager coups de cœur et petits plats à l’occasion d’un pique-nique littéraire sur les pelouses du parc de la mairie de Gif-sur-Yvette, et d’offrir à son voisin un livre traduit en français qui l’a marqué.
« Le Printemps de la traduction » dévoile le rôle essentiel que jouent les traducteurs dans la vie littéraire et culturelle, une vie dont ils préservent l’éclectisme et l’universalité.
RESPONSABLE : ATLAS (Association pour la promotion de la traduction littéraire)
URL DE RÉFÉRENCEhttp://www.atlas-citl.org/le-printemps-de-la-traduction/
ADRESSEParis et Ile-de-France
Henriette Walter, l'une des linguistes les plus réputées de France, professeur émérite de linguistique, a le talent de mettre cette discipline à la portée du grand public. Présidente de la Société internationale de linguistique fonctionnelle et membre du Conseil supérieur de la langue française, elle est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur la langue française, dont plusieurs ont été honorés de prix prestigieux.
Le latin et sa vivante progéniture dans les langues d'aujourd'hui, son incroyable diversité, ses différentes métamorphoses. Cette langue dite "morte" garde néanmoins de nos jours une place de choix dans nos usages, sous des formes qui ont évolué et dans une quantité incroyable d'éléments lexicaux qui ont traversé les siècles. Ne dit-on pas couramment lavabo, duplicata, recto verso ... etc (et caetera) ?
De nombreux encadrés, anecdotes, devinettes et autres "récréations" facilitent la manière d'aborder ce sujet, même si l'on n'a pas étudié le latin. Quant à ceux qui l'étudient, -il en reste-, ils y trouveront intérêt et plaisir.
Sans être un manuel d'apprentissage, le latin est examiné sous toutes ses formes, classique ou tardif, juridique ou liturgique, et même... de cuisine ! Un chapitre entier est consacré aux bases latines, nombreuses, dans le lexique anglais. Henriette Walter met donc en lumière cette situation paradoxale : une langue morte (le latin classique) qui donne d'incontestables signes de survie dans les échanges contemporains, à l'écrit comme à l'oral !
On apprend bien des choses sur les langues issues du latin : de l'Italie ancienne, de l'Espagne (catalan, galicien, castillan...), sur le portugais, le français et aussi sur le roumain, son héritage slave et germanique, son influence sur le hongrois. Henriette Walter nous offre ainsi une meilleure connaissance et des remarques utiles pour tous les pays de l'Europe, y compris ceux dont la langue n'est pas romane.
Un ou deux chapitres restent un peu "pointus": la structure phonique, l'intervocalique, les systèmes consonantiques, etc...
Une petite note pour mentionner le nom de la traductrice du Petit Nicolas en latin m'aurait fait plaisir (Elizabeth Antébi, fondatrice du Festival international latin-grec...)
Henriette Walter parvient-elle à nous convaincre que le latin peut devenir la langue de la mondialisation ? Ses arguments mériteraient d'être plus développés.
EN DEUX MOTS:
Chacun des ouvrages d'Henriette Walter enrichit nos connaissances sur la langue française. Celui-ci, en plus, m'a permis de mieux connaître nos langues soeur, dont le Portugais et le Roumain. Mais c'est sans doute l'italien, à toutes ses époques, qui est ici le mieux mis en valeur, avec un joli voyage dans toutes les régions de l'Italie !
"On devrait se demander si, par son truchement, le latin, trop vite relégué au rang de langue morte, ne se trouve pas, en définitive, mais comme en filigrane, au coeur même du paysage linguistique du XXI è siècle en proie aux effets de la mondialisation."
Henriette Walter: et si le latin était au coeur de notre avenir ?
Il a fait part des travaux menés en vue de faire de la Turquie un pays éminent dans le monde pour le tourisme de santé
Le ministre de la Santé, Mehmet Muezzinoglu a fait savoir que l'Unité de soutien médical international proposait des services en 6 langues avec 26 traducteurs.
Dans un reportage exclusif à la Radio la Voix de la Turquie à Bursa, Mehmet Muezzinoglu a fait savoir que les Turcs et étrangers pouvaient contacter l'Unité de soutien médical international en composant le 444 27 28 partout dans le monde.
Mehmet Muezzinoglu a fait savoir que les services dans cette unité étaient menés avec 26 traducteurs en anglais, français, allemand, russe, arabe et persan.
Le ministre de la Santé a fait savoir que rien n'empêchait les ressortissants turcs vivant dans un autre pays de profiter des services de santé en Turquie, ajoutant qu'ils avaient seulement à faire parvenir les documents demandés aux services médicaux.
Il a fait part des travaux menés en vue de faire de la Turquie un pays éminent dans le monde pour le tourisme de santé.
Concernant les médecins de famille, M. Muezzinoglu a mis l'accent sur l'importance de répondre immédiatement au besoin de médecins en Turquie dont principalement de médecins de famille.
Mehmet Muezzinoglu a souligné que les travaux étaient en cours pour des services de dentistes de famille.
This week we celebrated Africa Day. Africa has come a long way since the founding of the Organisation of African Unity in 1963, currently known as the Africa Union (AU). The African Union, comprises of 54 member states, brought together to collectively address the challenges Africa has faced, namely, armed conflict, climate change, and poverty.
Africa has certainly transformed itself as is widely considered to be the last frontier. Over the last decade, Africa has been the second fastest growing region in the world after Asia. With over a billion people (50% below the age of 24) Africa will boast the highest proportion of working age population by 2040.
That’s more than China and India. Africa has the largest untapped natural resources in the world and over 60% of the world’s arable land. Africa’s time has come.
There is an old African proverb that says “Unless the lion has his own storyteller, the hunter will always have the best part of the story”.
Africa needs to tell its own story and it is about time that Africans tell their own story of Africa Rising.
“Africa is a place replete with possibilities”, stated Kgalema Motlanthe the vice-president of the Republic of South Africa.
It is no more a secret that Africa is fast becoming more significant in the global landscape. Even the highly-regarded Economist magazine had to acknowledge its folly when it initially referred to Africa as “The hopeless continent” on the 13th May 2000. On the 3rd March 2013, that same magazine referred to “Africa Rising: The hopeful continent” on it’s front cover.
Africa has enjoyed over two decades on uninterrupted growth. Since 1992, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), has grown steadily and even as the world went into recession post the financial crisis in 2008, Africa continued to grow.
The growth in Africa has been driven partly by commodity prices and a host of other factors. According to the world’s leading consultants Mckinsey and Company, “natural resources, and the related government spending they financed, generated just 32% of Africa’s GDP growth from 2000 through 2008. The remaining two-thirds came from other sectors, including wholesale and retail, transportation, telecommunications, and manufacturing.
Economic growth accelerated across the continent, in 27 of its 30 largest economies. Indeed, countries with and without significant resource exports had similar GDP growth rates.”
Sadly, Zimbabwe has not participated in the African growth story over the last 15 years.
In what’s been coined the “lost decade”, Zimbabwe’s GDP contracted by over 50%. Since dollarisation in 2009, growth recovered somewhat but since 2014 growth has once again stagnated.
So what does Africa look like today? According to Mckinsey and Company, Africa’s collective GDP is over US$1,6 trillion, that’s similar in size to Russia, India and Brazil. I often refer to Africa as the forgotten Bric. Consumer spending exceeds US$860 billion and is one of the fastest growing consumer markets in the world. It’s little wonder why global consumer companies like Nestle have started to take Africa more seriously.
Africa has the fastest growing mobile market in the world with over 316 million subscribers since 2000.
In 2000, there were no more than 20 000 fixed line phones in Nigeria and a 10 year waiting list. Today there are over 134 million mobile phone subscribers in Nigeria. This has completely transformed the way people do business in Africa. According to leading research, a 10% increase in mobile penetration increases total Factor Productivity by 4,2% in the long run and contributes over 0,25% to per capita GDP per annum in Africa.
Africa has 60% of the world’s uncultivated land suited for crop production, but has 30% of the world’s malnourished and only 3% of global agricultural exports. Africa needs to cultivate a strategy to develop agriculture.
Smallholder farmers will be key to African efforts not only to feed itself, but also to become a major food supplier for the rest of the world. Africa’s agricultural potential is clear. Productivity can also be boosted through the use better farming methods, fertiliser and irrigation.
African cereal yields are just over one-third of the developing world average, for example, linked to the fact that as much as 80% of Africa’s agriculture still depends on rain not irrigation.
Some African governments see the efficiencies of large-scale commercial farming as a means to fulfil this potential. But Africa cannot increase its food production, create jobs, and reduce poverty on the scale required without unlocking the potential of smallholder agriculture.
Nearly two out of three Africans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Indeed, Africa’s rapidly growing youth population makes job creation an urgent matter for many of the continent’s governments.
So what will Africa look like tomorrow?
GDP is projected to grow to US$2,6 trillion while consumer spending is expected to exceed US$1,4 trillion by 2020. Africa will have the highest proportion of working age population in the world by 2040, far exceeding China and India.
That certainly poses a challenge for many governments across Africa. Over the next three decades Africa needs to create over one billion jobs. That’s no easy task.
This transformation has not gone unnoticed and is reflected by the significant increase in FDI flows to Africa. Over the last decade FDI flows to Africa have increased over seven fold from less than US$10 billion in 2000 to over US$80 billion in 2013.
This trend is expected to continue as long as Africa’s growth story remains intact.
The recent fall in commodity prices especially oil has negatively impacted growth in a number of African countries including Nigeria and Angola.
Despite this the IMF projects SSA to grow by 4,5% in 2015, and 5,1% in 2016, making it the second fastest growing region in the world after emerging and developing Asia. Against this backdrop Zimbabwe is expected to grow by 2,8% in 2015 and 2,7% in 2016.
As we look back at the last 52 years it will be interesting to see what the next fifty years looks like. Africa has enjoyed tremendous success over the last 50 years and especially the last two decades.
Unfortunately, Zimbabwe has not participated in the African renaissance and risks being left behind as the rest of Africa continues to march ahead. Let’s hope we can get our act together and turn this economy around. Let’s hope that Zimbabwe can catch up and partake in the African renaissance.
Les services bilingues aux points d'entrée des aéroports et des frontières partout au Canada ont connu de nets progrès au cours des dix dernières années.
Et la situation devrait s'améliorer en raison des mesures prises par l'Agence des services frontaliers du Canada (ASFC), selon le commissaire aux langues officielles Graham Fraser.
Dans un rapport de vérification rendu public jeudi, le commissaire aux langues officielles fait état de la situation à la suite d'une vérification réalisée de mars à juillet 2014 afin de déterminer si l'ASFC remplit ses obligations linguistiques envers le public voyageur.
«Au cours des dix dernières années, l'Agence des services frontaliers du Canada a réalisé de nets progrès en vue de se conformer à la Loi sur les langues officielles. Maintenant que la voie est tracée, nous pouvons nous attendre à ce que le service du public s'améliore aux frontières», indique dans ce rapport le commissaire Fraser.
La langue des signes devient officielle en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée
PORT-MORESBY, mardi 26 mai 2015 (Flash d’Océanie) – Le gouvernement de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée a officiellement proclamé la langue des signes comme étant désormais la quatrième langue officielle de ce pays mélanésien de plus de sept millions d’habitants.
Selon la nouvelle politique entérinée par le gouvernement, sur proposition de sa ministre des religions, de la jeunesse et du développement des communautés, Delilah Gore, tout événement officiel, que ce soit une conférence de presse, une réunion ou une manifestation, devra se faire en présence de traducteurs interprètes du langage des signes, aux fons de diffusion.
Dans le même temps, les médias de ce pays devraient bénéficier de programmes de formation de manière à être en mesure de relayer correctement et intelligiblement ces messages.
Selon ma ministre, cette mesure vise en premier lieu à faire en sorte que les droits et besoins des sourds, malentendants et muets soient pris en compte
Les trois autres langues officielles de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée sont l’Anglais, le pidgin mélanésien et le Motu.
OTTAWA | Le Commissaire aux langues officielles, Graham Fraser, demande à l’Agence des services frontaliers du Canada d’instaurer un mécanisme de surveillance formelle pour vérifier si ses employés accueillent les voyageurs dans les deux langues officielles au pays, le français et l’anglais.
«Une offre active de service en français et en anglais ainsi qu’un service de qualité égale dans les deux langues officielles sont essentiels, particulièrement en raison du rapport de force qui existe aux frontières, a déclaré M. Fraser. Lorsque les voyageurs pensent qu’ils seront redirigés et retardés s’ils demandent un service en français, ils sont moins susceptibles d’exercer leurs droits linguistiques.»
Dans un rapport de vérification publié jeudi, le commissaire fait huit recommandations après avoir examiné si les voyageurs recevaient des services de qualité égale en français et en anglais aux points d’entrée aux aéroports et aux frontières terrestres au Canada.
Le rapport indique que l’Agence des services frontaliers a réalisé de nets progrès au cours de la dernière décennie pour se conformer à la Loi sur les langues officielles.
Mais le rapport note aussi que l’Agence ne compte pas suffisamment d’agents et de surintendants bilingues pour fournir des services de qualité égale aux voyageurs partout au Canada.
Le rapport signale qu’en juillet 2014, il manquait 341 agents des services frontaliers bilingues.
Au Québec, l’Agence des services frontaliers exige que tous ses agents et surintendants soient bilingues.
Miami-Dade’s schools chief felt the push back and heard questions from skeptical media, then wisely postponed scheduled changes to the way the district teaches foreign languages, especially Spanish, to its students. He said that the district will fine-tune the curriculum first. Good move.
“This summer we’ll create a task force made up of educators, parents and stakeholders to help us come up with the best way to teach Spanish in the 21st century in a community going through a generational change,” Superintendent Alberto Carvalho told the Herald Editorial Board on Wednesday.
For now, Mr. Carvalho told the Board, he’s tabling expansion of recent changes and said he will keep the existing style of teaching Spanish in place, welcome news to those who rightly found fault with his plans to improve Spanish learning by making it more intensive, but unavailable to all.
“This has never been about getting rid of bilingualism; it’s about improving the way we teach Spanish. The old way is not working and parents let us know,” said Mr. Carvalho. He says he understands the value of bilingualism in a global economy. The district, he says, spends $20 million a year providing world languages to students.
In calling for a time-out to gather more input, Mr. Carvalho put the best interests of the students first. He said the district’s goal has been to improve the effectiveness of the Spanish instruction it now offers.
The changes began to take form three years ago, prompted by parents’ demand for a truly bilingual education for their kids. MDCPS began exploring ways to overhaul how it teaches students a second language.
The district decided to phase out traditional, 30-minute-a-day Spanish classes.
But the new approach prompted outcry from some who called the change “elitist.” They include some parents, yes, but also an association of Spanish teachers, the NAACP, the League of United Latin American Citizens, among them. They opposed the district’s plan to create the “extended foreign language” curriculum, a more-intensive program that would immerse students — make that some students — into Spanish.
However, those students who are not capable of keeping up in the more-rigorous program — though they would be able to learn something more than the basics — would get nothing, nada.
And there were other challenges with the new plan. Many Spanish-language teachers said that they would be forced to conduct classes in Spanish in math or others subjects in which they are not certified to teach.
Among the critics were NAACP leaders who know the value of speaking a foreign language and want to ensure that African-American and other minority students do not get shut out. And also Rosa Castro Feinberg, who, in 1988, was the first Hispanic woman elected to the Miami-Dade School Board. She told the board that she opposed the idea that all students would not receive any bilingual instruction unless they’re in the intensive program. She called the proposed plan “exclusionary” and “elitist.”
“It will have tons of economic ramifications,” she said. No one, least of all the students, can afford that.
Mr. Carvalho listened to the community’s concerns and acted. He’s right to give the proposed bilingual-education makeover more scrutiny before it’s implemented. The goal, after all, is to ensure students are served, not shortchanged.
Researchers looking at setting up an Aboriginal language Wikipedia say the site will have to change if it is to accommodate cultural differences.
Nyungar man and University of Sydney lecturer Clint Bracknell is one of a group of academics, along with others from the University of Western Australia and Curtin University tackling how to create a Wikipedia version in the language of his people.
If successful, it will become the first Wikipedia in an Indigenous Australian language.
The site is now accessible in 288 languages. Proposals for other language versions must meet certain criteria, including “a sufficient number of living native speakers to form a viable community and audience”.
Its founder, Jimmy Wales, once described Wikipedia as an attempt to “create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language”.
Although Wikipedia had been “supportive”, Bracknell said there were several hurdles to be overcome: “Any language that’s not predominantly written is going to require greater flexibility in terms of uploading audio and video.”
The top-down, authoritative writing style of the site also posed issues for Nyungar culture, Bracknell said, when their knowledge was so closely tied to country, family and other relationships. “Just having knowledge in text form and online, divorced from those connections, is a bit strange,” he said.
A “Nyungarpedia” would not be a direct translation of the English-version Wikipedia and could be as simple as a word list with pictures, with linked entries. A page about “yonga”, the Nyungar word for kangaroo, could then have “a story about yonga, an entry about yonga meat, and an another about hunting, for example, with audio and visuals”.
Bracknell said the legitimacy of oral accounts by community elders would have to be given greater recognition. “Wikipedia comes out of a European tradition in which a book is a significant source,” he said. “Whereas we have [journalist] Daisy Bates who has written all sorts of things in books about Aboriginal people that aren’t true.”
The Nyungar language is spoken at home by 369 people in Australia, according to the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics, a rise from 240 people in 2006. Their ancestral lands are in south-west Western Australia.
Despite the challenges, Bracknell said the internet posed a huge potential for maintaining the health of Aboriginal languages and other minority languages.
By connecting language users across vast distances – “a Nyungar-speaking student could be living in France and still interact with Nyungar people back at home, or cousins working elsewhere” – and prevent a language from going out of use, he said.
Have you ever thought about the word "do"? My advice is don't.
The word "do" is one of the bugbears of English that make our language incredibly difficult to master — for nonnative speakers and even for people born into the English-speaking world. Almost no one fully understands "do." The people who use it correctly do so through osmosis, not understanding.
To see what I mean, consider the formula for making questions in Latin-based languages like French. In other languages, to make a question, you often just take a statement and swap the places of the subject and verb. "Vous voulez fromage" (You want cheese) becomes a question when you switch the positions of the pronoun and the verb: "Voulez-vous fromage?" Simple.
There are exceptions, of course — situations trickier than this. But this is the basic formula. It's called inversion, because you invert the position of the subject and verb.
Try that in English. "You want cheese." "Want you cheese?" "He saw a great movie last weekend." "Saw he a great movie last weekend?" As we'll see in a minute, sometimes this process actually works in English.
But not in these examples. Examine all these questions and you can see that something is missing — a little-understood word known as a dummy operator. It's the word "do," and it's how we form questions like "Do you want cheese?" and "Did he see a great movie last weekend?"
"Do" has two main jobs. First, it's a regular old verb. "Do the dishes." "I don't do windows." "I do." In that job, it works the same as any other garden variety verb. But on top of that, it has a special job — that of dummy operator.
In grammar, an operator is an auxiliary verb that gets moved around to form questions and do a few other special jobs. It's part of a broader group called auxiliary verbs that work as helpers with other verbs.
English has a number of auxiliaries; "have" and "be" are the regular ones. We see them in sentences like "I have walked" and "I am walking." There are also modal auxiliaries like "can" and "must," as in "I can have dessert" and "He must leave."
These auxiliaries are operators, which means they can move around to do things like form questions: "Have I walked?" "Am I walking?" "Can I have dessert?" "Must he leave?"
Notice that when your sentence has an auxiliary verb, an inversion process like the one used in so many other languages works in English too. "I can leave." "Can I leave?" The problem is that not all English sentences have auxiliary verbs. "I walk." "Alex quit." "Ruby knows."
So to make these into questions, we call in a specialist — the dummy operator "do." "Do I walk?" "Did Alex quit?" "Does Ruby know?"
Here's how the Oxford English Grammar explains it: "Auxiliary 'do' is a dummy operator, since it functions as an operator in the absence of any other auxiliary when an operator is required to form questions, to make the sentence negative, or to form an abbreviated clause, as in 'My sister likes them, and I do too."
To me, the word "dummy" emphasizes how "do" doesn't have any meaning — not in these sentences, anyway. Modal auxiliaries like "can" tell us something about possibility. Basic auxiliaries like "have" change a verb's tense, telling us when something happened.
Auxiliary "do" doesn't. Like a dummy in a store window, it has no substance of its own. It's just there to help you arrange the things that actually matter.
JUNE CASAGRANDE is the author of "The Best Punctuation Book, Period." She can be reached at JuneTCN@aol.com.
Today social organizations, schools, and news portals, among others, are celebrating National Native Language Day in creative forms in Peru.
Perú21 features Yessica Sánchez, born into an Ashaninka community. (Photo: Perú21)
First Bilingual Awajún Civil Registry launches today
Run, run, as fast as you can
The rescue of a language: Speaking Jaqaru in Tupe
Throughout Peru today, a day of recognition for native languages is pervading everyday routines. Such as the homepage of local news portal, Perú21, who slyly changed headlines into the native tongue, Quechua.
Approximately 7.9 million native speakers of Quechua remain in South America in Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, and Argentina. The language is spoken in more than 10 dialects across the continent that are categorized in four different branches. Despite this large population of native speakers, Quechua, similar to a large number of native languages are under threat of extinction.
Ethnologue, an active research project for the last 50 years, has recorded 104 languages in Peru. Of these 93 are living and 11 are extinct; of the living languages, 15 are dying.
As speakers of English, and Spanish, and other widely spoken languages, it is hard to imagine the significance of losing one’s native language. Therefore to promote the beauty of native language and the preservation of national native languages, Peru celebrates Native Language Day today.
News agency Perú21 has put together an entire day of features, homepage variations including multiple native languages, and informative, fun videos to promote and give life to the variety of native languages spoken in Peru.
Click HERE to see special features with native speakers of Quechua, Aymara, Shipibo, Awajún, and Ashaninka from Perú21’s series entitled, #Todaslasvoces.
This article was brought to you by Inca Rail, a rail company loyal to sustainable tourism and quality service. Inca Rail is one of the founding members of TursimoCuida, an organization devoted to preserving Peru’s heritage by way of innovative projects.
TAGS: native language day, hillary ojeda
A bilingual newspaper in West Quebec says it's being ordered to segregate its English and French sections, a charge the Office Québecois de la langue Francaise denies. The Pontiac Journal was issued an injunction to comply with the province's language law or face a fine. It is a hot-button issue for both the French and English in Quebec and one that has the tiny bi- weekly paper sandwiched in between.
Putting a newspaper together is no easy feat; add to that Quebec's complicated language laws and a small paper like the Pontiac Journal can run into trouble.
‘This is the latest edition of the Pontiac Journal,’ says the paper’s publisher Lily Ryan, ‘and it complies with the law.’
Jean-Pierre Le Blanc with L'OQLF
Ryan says the first order from Quebec's Office Québecois de la langue francaise (L’OQLF) came in 2012, telling the newspaper to comply with the province’s law that dictates how French and English advertisements and articles are placed in the paper. Under section 58 of the French Language charter, commercial advertisements must be in French. They can be in another language, providing French is the predominant language. The L’OQLF adds that an English paper can have English-only ads but if a paper publishes in both languages, advertisements must be in French only or bilingual. A business can also decide to create distinct linguistic sections. The paper thought it had complied with that last article by having various English and French “sections” throughout the paper. But last month, Ryan says they were ordered to segregate the English and French sections in their entirety or face a hefty fine, up to $20,000.
‘That threat was significant,’ says Ryan, ‘so we ripped apart the paper and put it back together again with the concept of separating out the languages.’
The paper then published its own story on the issue and support in this largely bilingual community poured in.
‘I think we have to mature in this country and stop having that problem with English and French,’ says Habib Karnouk who reads the Pontiac Journal.
Doug Arthurs adds, ‘It's been going on for years and a lot of people are sick of it.’
‘The language police, I think, should be disbanded,’ concludes John Berrigan.
The L’OQLF denies it ordered the publisher to segregate its paper but says the law on advertising is clear.
‘The law is there, it is not the office who made the law,’ says Jean-Pierre Le Blanc with L’OQLF, ‘the office is there to apply it and we try to do it the best way and in a way to cause less problem.’
Lily Ryan says the newspaper's motto is "unifying the Pontiac". She says the decision of the Office of the Language Francaise is trying to undue that.
‘Nobody separates the languages in restaurants,’ she says, ‘Nobody separates the languages in the bedroom. Why are we doing this with the newspapers? We are reflecting back to the community what the community lives.’
Ryan says re-working the paper has been costly and time-consuming. She says they have no choice but to comply or face the consequences.