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Lexique

Lexique | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Les termes utilisés dans les jeux vidéos sont souvent barbares. Heureusement, cette page vous propose de découvrir les expressions les plus souvent utilisées dans les MMORPG. N'hésitez surtout pas à me contacter si vous pensez qu'un terme à sa place sur cette page.

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
Curated by Charles Tiayon
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Webster's new words of year include 'culture'

Webster's new words of year include 'culture' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
NEW YORK -- A nation, a workplace, an ethnicity, a passion, an outsized personality. The people who comprise these things, who fawn or rail against them, are behind Merriam-Webster's 2014 word of the year: culture.

The word joins Oxford Dictionaries' "vape," a darling of the e-cigarette movement, and "exposure," declared the year's winner at Dictionary.com during a time of tragedy and fear due to Ebola.


Merriam-Webster's Top 10 words of 2014
Culture

Nostalgia

Insidious

Legacy

Feminism

Je ne sais quoi

Innovation

Surreptitious

Autonomy

Morbidity
 
Merriam-Webster based its pick and nine runners-up on significant increases in lookups this year over last on Merriam-Webster.com, along with notable, often culture-driven -- if you will -- spikes of concentrated interest.

In the No. 2 spot is "nostalgia," during a year of big 50th anniversaries pegged to 1964: the start of the free speech movement, the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the birth of the Ford Mustang and the British Invasion heralded by the landing of the Beatles on U.S. soil for the first time.

Nostalgia was followed by insidious, legacy, feminism and a rare multiword phrase that can be looked up in total, in a foreign language at that: the French "je ne sais quoi."

The Springfield, Massachusetts-based dictionary giant filters out perennial favorites when picking word of the year, but does that formula leave them chasing language fads?

"We're simply using the word culture more frequently," said Peter Sokolowski, editor at large for Merriam-Webster. "It may be a fad. It may not. It may simply be evolution."

Sokolowski noted that the reasons words are looked up aren't just about not knowing what they mean. Sometimes, he said, we seek inspiration or a way to check in on ourselves. Of more than 100 million lookups on the website each month and a similar number on the company's app, culture enjoyed a 15 percent year-over-year increase.

Percentage-wise, it doesn't sound like much, but the raw number in that stratosphere is large, Sokolowski said. He wouldn't disclose actual numbers, though, citing the proprietary nature of that data for a company still privately held.

Sokolowski is a lexicographer, not a mind reader, so his observations about why any single word takes off in terms of lookups is well-informed but theoretical.

"The word culture's got a cultural story. We have noticed for years that culture has a cyclical spike every year at around Labor Day. That is to say back to school time during the month of September, so we've been watching this word spike at that time for years," he said by telephone from Springfield. "In recent years we've seen similar spikes at the end of semesters during finals."

But traffic throughout the year indicates that culture is a "chameleon," Sokolowski said. "When you put it next to another word it means something very different. For example, 'consumer culture' or 'rape culture,' which we've been reading about lately."

There's the "culture of transparency" in government and business, and "celebrity culture," and the "culture of winning" in sports, he noted. "It's a word that can be very specific, like 'test prep culture,' or it can be very, very broad, like 'coffee culture."'

One standout reference that caught Sokolowski's eye in The New Yorker's December issue is from a new book, "How Google Works," which includes a description of a software fix by a few engineers that made ads more relevant on the search engine:

"It wasn't Google's culture that turned those five engineers into problem-solving ninjas who changed the course of the company over the weekend," wrote the authors, former Google CEO Eric Schmidt and former head of product development Jonathan Rosenberg.

"Rather it was the culture that attracted the ninjas to the company in the first place."

Before the word culture exploded, Sokolowski said, "we used to talk about 'society' a lot. Certain groups are taking 'society' out of their names now. It seems to be receding. Part of that seems to be because it's elitist. We're using the word culture more frequently in that place."

Not all lookup spikes are quite that complex. The reason "je ne sais quoi" landed at No. 6, for instance, is "dead simple," he said.

The fast-food drive-in chain Sonic, known for TV spots featuring two goofy dudes eating in a car, had them munching on boneless chicken wings in September.

"I've finally found myself a wingman," goofy guy No. 1 says of the wings he hopes will make him a chick magnet.

"Oh right," sneers goofy guy No. 2, "gonna give you that certain je ne sais quoi."

Responds No. 1: "Jenna said what?"

They mine the word play a couple more times, but you get the picture.

"Since September when this ad came out this word has been close to the Top 10 or in the Top 10 of our lookups almost every single day," Sokolowski said.

Fast-food aside, he called this year's list a relatively sober one.

Insidious, for example, received a bump early in the year when a new trailer was released for "Insidious: Chapter 3," a prequel in the horror film franchise "Insidious," out in June. The word surfaced in a big way again, on Oct. 8, when a Texas hospital released a statement on the death of Thomas Eric Duncan, the first confirmed Ebola patient in the United States.

The statement spoke of his courageous battle and the hospital's profound sadness when he "succumbed to an insidious disease, Ebola."

Rounding out the Top 10 are innovation, surreptitious, autonomy and morbidity.

"This is a fairly sober list. It was a fairly sober year," he concluded.
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How machine learning and image recognition could revolutionise search

How machine learning and image recognition could revolutionise search | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Text in documents is easy to search, but there's a lot of information in other formats. Voice recognition turns audio – and video soundtracks – into text you can index and search. But what about the video itself, or other images?
Searching for images on the web would be a lot more accurate if instead of just looking for text on the page or in the caption that suggests a picture is relevant, the search engine could actually recognise what was in the picture. Thanks to machine learning techniques using neural networks and deep learning, that's becoming more achievable.
Caption competition

When a team of Microsoft and Facebook researchers created a massive data dump of over 300,000 images with 2.5 million objects labelled by people (called Common Objects in Context), they said all those objects are things a four-year-old child could recognise. So a team of Microsoft researchers working on machine learning decided to see how well their systems could do with the same images – not just recognising them, but breaking them up into different objects, putting a name to each object and writing a caption to describe the whole image.
To measure the results, they asked one set of people to write their own captions and another set to compare the two and say which they preferred.
"That's what the true measure of quality is," explains distinguished scientist John Platt from Microsoft Research. "How good do people think these captions are? 23% of the time they thought ours were at least as good as what people wrote for the caption. That means a quarter of the time that machine has reached as good a level as the human."
Part of the problem was the visual recogniser. Sometimes it would mistake a cat for a dog, or think that long hair was a cat, or decide that there was a football in a photograph of people gesticulating at a sculpture. This is just what a small team was able to build in four months over the summer, and it's the first time they had a labelled a set of images this large to train and test against.
"We can do a better job," Platt says confidently.
Machine strengths

Machine learning already does much better on simple images that only have one thing in the frame. "The systems are getting to be as good as an untrained human," Platt claims. That's testing against a set of pictures called ImageNet, which are labelled to show how they fit into 22,000 different categories.
"That includes some very fine distinctions an untrained human wouldn't know," he explains. "Like Pembroke Welsh corgis and Cardigan Welsh corgis – one
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You are what you search - IOL SciTech | IOL.co.za

You are what you search - IOL SciTech | IOL.co.za | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Washington - No matter how tightly you hold your secrets, Google probably knows.

The search engine is, after all, the world's largest clearinghouse for information, so embedded in our daily lives that “Google” has become an easy synonym for “search.” We turn to it for advice on relationships and midlife crises, weekday hangovers and pregnancy symptoms, disasters natural, social and financial. The vast majority of Internet users has looked for medical information online. If you search “I am lonely,” 100 million results come up.

Taken together, the sum total of your Google search history tells an intimate story not only about who you are, but what you want and what you fear.

“Someone once said that what you look for is way more telling than information about yourself,” the philosopher Luciano Floridi told the Telegraph earlier this year. “This is something Google and other search engines understood a long time ago.”

That's what makes Google's annual year in search so incredibly interesting. On one hand, the report recaps — as it always does — the year in global news: millions of searches for ISIS, Ebola, Robin Williams, the World Cup. But more interesting than these searches, I think, are the quieter glimpses of our collective, unseen id: The things we all think about or confide to Google, but that we'd never voice elsewhere. Things like “how to get rid of stretch marks,” “how to travel alone,” and “what to wear on a first date” — all of which ranked among Google's most popular search terms this year.

Whereas Facebook or Twitter or every other network that produces these end-of-year “reviews” can only consider the material we broadcast consciously — that we want to incorporate into our public identities — Google has a more intimate look. It knows not who we say we are, but who we are actually.

Google is, incidentally, not the only site with this eerie omnipotence: Any time you share personal information with a website, even in an apparently throwaway capacity, you give that site a data point that it can collate into a larger picture of who you are. OkCupid, one of the more data-forward sites in the online dating space, has made a big to-do of publishing reports based on users' browsing data, which would seem to indicate unconscious biases and habits that many people aren't aware of, themselves.

Likewise any site running any kind of personalisation algorithm: As Amazon.com or Netflix or Facebook log your behaviour on their sites and suggest new shoes or movies or posts you might like, they're essentially drawing conclusions about who you are and what you care about. In all likelihood, those conclusions will differ from the ones you have about yourself — and by all accounts, they'll be more truthful. (No matter what heights of culture or sophistication you pretend to publicly, there is no denying the unflinching, pretension-puncturing honesty of the Netflix recommended-movie queue. My top recommendation, as of this writing, is Disney's The Emperor's New Groove.)

In the aggregate, of course, these “revelations” aren't, always: The fact that the world's women worry about stretch marks, for instance, should surprise no one who's ever perused the magazine rack in the grocery store check-out aisle. And still, there's so much quiet pathos wrapped up in that little Internet query, repeated millions of times across millions of browsers.

“Future generations will be able to trace our interests as a society,” Floridi said, “just by looking at what we were looking for.” - The Washington Post

* Dewey writes The Post's The Intersect web channel covering digital and Internet culture. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/
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Clannad Kickstarter Project Adds English Translation for Side Stories

Clannad Kickstarter Project Adds English Translation for Side Stories | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
North American visual novel distributor Sekai Project announced on Sunday that the Clannad crowdfunding campaign had reached its second stretch goal to release an English translation and PC port of the Clannad Hikari Mimamoru Sakamichi de side stories.

The side stories started out as a series of drama CDs that were eventually included in the PlayStation Portable edition of the game in 2008 and added as DLC to the PlayStation 3 edition in 2011.

Sekai Project added the additional stretch goals in November.

The first stretch goal at US$200,000 was for HD assets. VisualArt's/Key currently has assets as 1280x960, and now Sekai Project is asking them to process it at 1280x720 for widescreen support. The campaign had reached this first stretch goal before the company had announced it.

The third stretch goal, at US$380,000, will be for an all-new Clannad anthology manga that Sekai Project will release in the West before it is released in Japan. Those interested in pledging for the manga ahead of time can add US$12 to their pledge for a digital version and US$15 for a physical version. Sekai Project announced on Sunday that the Kickstarter project is less than $55,000 to reach the goal. Should the Kickstarter reach the third goal, Sekai Project will get Clannad one-shot and Black Gate manga author Yukiko Sumiyoshi (art seen below) to join Juri Misaki and ZEN to work on the anthology manga.

The campaign reached its US$140,000 goal after less than 24 hours, earning a digital and physical edition of the game. As of press time, the campaign has earned US$328,563 and has 17 days left to go.

Sekai Project stated that its English release will be "almost the same as the original 2004 release of CLANNAD first edition." The company plans to release a full-voiced edition with Mai Nakahara, Ai Nonaka, Mamiko Noto, Kikuko Inoue and others, but will not record an English dub.

The game inspired an anime movie and two television anime series. The series follows delinquent high school student Tomoya Okazaki, who one day meets a strange girl named Nagisa Furukawa who is a year older, but is repeating her last year of high school due to illness. Tomoya becomes involved with Nagisa and her hopes of restarting the school drama club.

The original game is celebrating its 10th anniversary and is receiving a PlayStation Vita port in Japan. The visual novel has already been ported to PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PSP, Xbox 360, and phones.

Key has produced such visual novel franchises as Little Busters!, Kanon, and Air — all of which inspired anime and manga adaptations.

[Via Siliconera]
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La Última Actualización De Chrome Viene Con Mejoras En la Seguridad Y Una Traducción Fácil – Canal Noticias

La Última Actualización De Chrome Viene Con Mejoras En la Seguridad Y Una Traducción Fácil – Canal Noticias | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
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How Long To Nap For The Biggest Brain Benefits

How Long To Nap For The Biggest Brain Benefits | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Napping can be great! But sometimes when you wake up after a nap, you feel groggy and almost as if you are more tired now than you were before taking the nap. Why does this happen? According to Dr. Michael Breus “If you take it longer than 30 minutes, you end up in deep sleep. Have […]
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Microsoft Translator updated with new languages | Pocektnow

Microsoft Translator updated with new languages | Pocektnow | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
With the branding change that most, if not all Microsoft services received recently, don’t feel odd if this headline doesn’t remind you of the now defunct Bing Translator. Microsoft is now naming everything under its current brand, and these changes even include some hefty updates for some services. Today we learn that Microsoft is adding more functionality to some of its services, and that even includes tools to translate.

Microsoft Translate was recently updated to version 3.2, and the changes include voice support for different versions of English, French and Spanish. These changes include support for the Mexican version of Spanish, and the Canadian version of French, along with English as spoken in Canada, Australia and India. You will also find support for Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and Russian languages.

If you’re like some of us that constantly need a translator on the Go, this will give you more reasons to go the Microsoft route.

Source: Microsoft Translator
Via: Windows Central
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Some Notes on “New Expressions,” by Jacob Ciocci

Some Notes on “New Expressions,” by Jacob Ciocci | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Editor’s Note: We’d been hearing a lot about New Hive over the last year, so when we heard curator Lindsay Howard was working with artists to commission works for the multimedia platform we were very curious. We invited Jacob Ciocci, the latest artist commissioned by New Hive, to discuss his process and work.

*    *    *

“New Expressions,” Jacob Ciocci’s eight-page online commission for NewHive, describes a how-to guide for creating animated paintings. This collection explores the ways in which creativity has been commodified for the masses, as a result of DIY culture, arts and crafts stores, and lifestyle specialists like Martha Stewart. While he embraces a paint-by-numbers-style approach to art-making, Ciocci remains aware of how these recipes, or the digital interfaces that integrate them, influence the creative process. “New Expressions” is viewable on NewHive here, and below is an extended artist statement. —curator Lindsay Howard

*

The following are notes on my commissioned project for NewHive entitled “New Expressions.”

1. Think Outside The Box

I repeat a single phrase across many pages of this project: “Think outside the box.” The box has been a recurring theme for me for over 10 years — a stupid metaphor from an old comic I made in 2001 that I use because of its flexibility and vagueness, and ability to mean different things at different times.

For this project, the phrase refers to a website’s graphical user interface. Although I’m thinking about NewHive specifically, an interface can be any system that has rules; a right and a wrong way to do things, a process that comes with a set of instructions, or a limiting force that one cannot escape. It reminds me of this Philip K. Dick quote, if you replace the word “reality” with “an interface”: “Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn’t go away.”

NewHive is a website that became available to the public earlier this year. It allows users to create rich multimedia websites without having to know HTML or CSS. It’s a powerful tool for creating websites quickly and intuitively. After watching the site for about six months, I started thinking about how the design and interactivity on NewHive communicated certain biases and beliefs, and how that affects the kind of work that’s created on the site. (Of course, even the most open platforms have biases — and it’s these biases, along with the ideology expressed through marketing language, that I often use as raw material when working with any new tool or interface.)

For example, I’ve always been fascinated by how frequently arts and craft terms (such as paintbrushes, scissors, and erasers) are used as metaphors in various digital technologies, from MacPaint to KidPix to Photoshop. They incorporate these familiar icons and images so users adapt more quickly, and to imply that the platform is easy to learn. But the shift in context creates a set of rules that the user must acquaint themselves with whenever they use a new platform. No tool or canvas is truly blank.



(For more on the topic of defaults, I recommend looking at Guthrie Lonergan’s blog post from 2007 comparing default versus hacking technology as it relates to the first and second generations of Net Art.)

2. The Big Box

I’m also inspired by craft stores, such as Michaels and Jo-Ann Fabric and Craft Stores, which specialize in providing resources for seamstresses, scrapbookers, jewelry makers, floral designers, and others. Similar to default preferences or tutorials on the internet, craft stores specialize in providing simple how-to guides for creativity, whether it’s “paint by numbers,” recipes by Martha Stewart, or even branding on a tube of paint — there are biases written into every piece of material. These biases are complex, and partially subconscious: an artist could spend a lifetime reinterpreting and examining these products. While defaults are most strongly tied to digital tools, they’ve actually been used in an analogue way for a very long time …

3. Rules Set You Free

Getting back to the idea of the box …

“New Expressions” (and many of my other rules-based animated paintings) are about exploring biases, defaults, and conventions by setting up my own set of instructions, with the idea that rules can set you free. Similarly to how Puffy Dimensional Fabric Paint or Adobe Illustrator comes with a how-to guide, I create my own arbitrary systems for creating artworks. For this project, that process is outlined below:



The secret behind any kind of creative culture, whether digital or analogue, is the idea that success comes as a result of working within the rules of the interface. I see a connection here to strategies employed by many radical, avant-garde, or experimental artists, such as Sol Lewitt. It could be argued that there’s an essential difference between following someone else’s instructions (Martha Stewart) versus creating your own (John Cage), but the truth is that, because everyone’s inspired by their peers, surroundings, and any other limitations as we create, no creative system is ever truly original or unique.

It seems as if creative people are attempting to create a space where they feel free, by following rules (or multiple sets of interconnected rules simultaneously) such as the rules of minimalism, social practice, hacking, or noise music. The act of refusing rules is itself a kind of rule. I see this last part, the rule of breaking rules or seeking out the unknown or being a creative pioneer, as being the most conventional rule of all — and relating directly to the entrepreneurial spirit of American capitalism (see, for example, the pervasive use of the term ‘disrupt’ by technology companies).

4. New Expressions

The word “expressions” comes from an earlier version of NewHive, which they used to describe web pages that had been created using their toolkit. I think of this term as relating to the Jo-Ann and Michaels mentality described above, which is echoed in phrases like “experience the creativity” (a prompt used in a previous marketing campaign). NewHive, Tumblr, Pinterest, and MySpace could be interpreted as 21st century crafting cultures — even their branding is sometimes aligned with craft culture in various ways, through font, color scheme, and language choices. It’s impossible to create an entirely neutral creative interface, and I’m personally most drawn to sites where users, simply by using the interface, make the rules or conventions of the interface visible.

5. Stuff Floating On Top of Other Stuff

The aesthetic of objects or shapes floating in space or on top of one another is another thread that runs through my visual work. This approach has to do with the tools that are available through digital imaging interfaces: a seemingly infinite number of possible layers, drop shadows, and geometric shapes. I’ve always wondered where this particular set of visual conventions started — it is so weird if you stop and think about it. What are the historical references for layering and stacking, or even for the “polygon” tool? Again, a person could spend their whole life unraveling this story …

Floating shapes might harken back to early 3D imaging where cubes and spheres floated because the software was not able to understand gravity yet, and the shapes were simple because more complex shapes looked awkward in comparison. I imagine that the programmers were referencing 20th century Surrealist painting:



My earliest experiences with these kinds of shapes took place inside of the Trapper Keeper notebooks where I would store my handmade doodles. Trapper Keeper notebooks, similar to NewHive (or MySpace, or Tumblr, or the Mac Interface), were a place to store creations, but were also a branded space built to reinforce or encourage a sense of wonder or infinite creative freedom. Perhaps influenced by Abstract Illusionist painting from that period, or a trickling down of Memphis Design aesthetics, the hardcovers of Trapper Keeper notebooks often featured floating shapes, drop shadows, squiggles, intricate repeating patterns (see: Nathalie Du Pasquier) and a sense of constant motion or accelerating speed: all tropes that soon dominated the visual language of the doodles I created on the inside pages of these books.



6. Making Media Easy

The repeating audio loop in this project comes from this YouTube video entitled “Splatter Painting My Converse” uploaded by Allie Brault. I appreciate this video because it was probably made using iMovie — one of the most iconic media-making tools of our lifetime. For me, making media easy is actually about making media obvious, which is an important component of any creative culture. It’s important to remember that we’re not inventing newer and better ways of doing things, but are instead reconfiguring old ways. An illusion of newness and progress is one of the most pervasive, and ultimately destructive, agendas imaginable.

A telescope does not discover a new continent, a spaceship does not travel to a new planet, a microscope does not discover a new atom, and Facebook is not a new way of connecting. All of these tools take what constitute “reality” and spin it faster and faster inside the centrifuge of human culture and experience, until all of the pieces that make up “reality” are ground up into tinier and tinnier particles, which have the illusion of seeming “new” based on their re-organized attributes. Content is not created — it’s re-configured. Experiences are not new — they’re distortions of themselves. That’s why I love the name NewHive. If there’s one thing that the hive mind of the internet has taught me, it’s that nothing is new.

7. One Final Note

I believe that even the most cutting-edge post-MFA artist out there is “painting by numbers” or “dragging and dropping” their way through a creative system. They follow the rules of their own parameters. It might not be splattering puffy paint or turning on and off Photoshop filters, but navigating complex social relations. They are rules all the same. To put it plainly, every artist’s approach is conventional, which is something I’m starting to see become more clear as the art world gets eaten by popular culture. Of course, this description of the post-MFA artist includes me. I’m not exempt from these systems, in fact: I LOVE THE SYSTEM — I LOVE THINKING INSIDE BOX!!!
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National unity through inter-tribal marriages

National unity through inter-tribal marriages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The end of year is here. It is the Christ­mas season and a holiday period when people make out time to go home to the country sides and villages to see loved ones whom they have been away from in the course of the year. This is also a pe­riod for checking out on prospective brides, traditional marriage preparations as well as the introduction of prospective brides and grooms who may have met each other in the cities or outside their own locality of origin. The would-be brides and grooms would have met each other and fallen in love in the city without the customary search party who are concerned specialists in “hunting” for wives for their sons due for marriage. They met and fell in love based on their appreciation of each other’s desirable traits not minding the dif­ference in tribe. A good percentage of these people chose people of different ethnicity and are about to venture into inter-tribal marriage. They are many of such young men and women today, and most often they have the listening ears of their parents and kindred more than ever before in the rapidly evolving sociocul­tural milleu of Nigeria.

Despite the seeming divisive tone of some members of the political class on pages of na­tional dailies, and the tribal leanings of some posts on threads in today’s online community, there is a quiet but steady increase in the pro­cess of integration going on in today’s Nigeria. I think it is spreading hope for a greater Ni­geria just like the Nigerian pop music sector is doing- where musicians are becoming more comfortable featuring other artists of different linguistic groups or outrightly singing in other Nigerian languages in a fusion of linguistic plurality. The bug is inter-tribal marriage and it is spreading fast. Inter-tribal marriages hold even greater promise for the unification of Nigeria because as they say, blood is thicker than water. The burgeoning number of Nige­rians venturing outside of their tribal roots to find love and union is encouraging the gradual ethnic blending that in the long run may help to obliterate the tensions resulting from our some­times sharp ethnic divisions especially when is­sues bordering on sharing of national “cake” or the protection of gained advantages are involved. A few decades back, it was a strange kind of union as relatives armed with their preconceived notions and stereotypes often worked hard to scuttle the marriage of their own to the would-be spouse from the other ethnic group.

A year ago, at the wedding ceremony of my brother in-law, one of the guests, referring to my father-in-law (Dr. Abah Adulugba), noted that his family has become a mini Nigeria be­cause with two previous marriages involving his daughter and son were between a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law from other Nigerian tribes. The wedding ceremony in question was between Oche from the Idoma tribe in Benue State and Imabong, an Ibibio lady from Akwa Ibom State. A cursory look at marriages especially in met­ropolitan cities in Nigeria would prove that in­ter-tribal marriages are fast becoming the norm rather than the exception. Look around your environment and you will surely see people you know who have chosen love above other consid­erations. Those who previously had hard stance against inter-tribal marriages are beginning to be more tolerant of this trend.

A number of factors such as education, mi­gration and religion encourage the trend. When people meet in schools which are important cen­tres of socialization outside their primary func­tions of inculcating knowledge, they understand themselves better due to attendant social interac­tions. Educated people tend to have broadminded approach to dealing with people and issues. The trend is not only limited to the educated people it is permeating all the rungs of the social ladder. So unlike in the past, a good number of people searching for spouses have as their uppermost crite­ria, love and compatibility and no longer tribe.

As people travel out of their villages or tribal domains for education, employment and other en­gagements, they live in metropolitan cities where they share work environment, residential areas and churches with people from diverse ethnic back­grounds, chances are that you may find true com­panionship and love among these people from out­side of your ethnic origin. Sustained interactions cause people to see through the stereotypes that abound among the different groups of Nigerians. Most of the stereotypes and notions about others are actually based on ignorance and are most times totally false. Even if stereotypes are true in some cases, it is important to understand that individual differences exist and this fact, to a large extent, has strengthened the faith in our common humanity since the beginning of time.

Have you found love in another tribe and are bothered about the perceived challenges? Inter-tribal marriages do have challenges and so do intra-tribal or intra-village marriages in all their peculiarities. These challenges most times are the construct of our primordial mentality and thus can be mentally dealt with. Issues such as suspicion and tribal pride (my-tribe-is-better-than-yours behav­iour), language and other cultural differences are some of the challenges that people cite as impedi­ments to inter-tribal marriages. If handled with ma­turity, these issues can be turned into advantages.

More than ever before there are more children of mixed parentage in Nigeria and there will con­tinue to be such increase as Nigerians from various ethnic groups continue to embrace each other in marriages. Are there disadvantages or otherwise in having parents from two divides? One major chal­lenge is the issue of identity which result mainly because of disobedience to the rules of marriage and not necessarily as a result of the ethnic origin of a spouse. It is important to note that a child could learn as many as five different languages be­tween ages one to five. So the issue of language spoken in the home could be managed in a better way instead of the prevailing situation in most inter-tribal marriages where their children speak only English language without adequate knowl­edge of any of the ethnic languages of the par­ents. The relegation of our Nigerian languages may not be totally blamed on inter-tribal mar­riages though, because there are many intra-tribal (Yoruba+Yoruba or Igbo+Igbo) families where English language is the only language spoken. Some actually do not care about their children’s inability to speak their languages; they argue that there are no special advantages in speaking ethnic languages after all English is the formal medium of communication, in all important textbooks in school, the media and all government businesses-legislature, judiciary and executive. Such people argue that many Ni­gerians deploy their tribal languages mainly if they want to keep secrets from, cheat or to abuse another tribe close by. Those involved in inter-tribal marriages and others must view their lan­guages as a medium that carry the nuances of every culture, and as a result, it is important to accommodate it, inter-tribal marriage or not.

It was interesting coming across a young man named Onoja , from the Middle Belt whose flu­ency in the two languages of his parents was quite good. It was like having the bests of two worlds I thought to myself. He reminded me of the thrilling presentations of Chief Bisi Olatilo, the multi linguist and media mogul who could speak the three major Nigerian languages of Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba, this, he deployed to enrich his presentations in the media, making his listeners happy and garnering for himself a massive followership.

.Enekwachi writes from Lagos.
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It took a while for Sondheim’s ‘Into the Woods’ to make it to the big screen, but it was worth the wait

It took a while for Sondheim’s ‘Into the Woods’ to make it to the big screen, but it was worth the wait | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
It’s taken 27 years for Stephen Sondheim’s Broadway musical “Into the Woods” to make it to the screen. But in the expert hands of director Rob Marshall (“Chicago”), the musical mash-up of Grimm’s fairy tales gets a lush and loving screen translation.

The film is perfectly cast. Meryl Streep is clearly having the time of her life as the Witch, in both crone and glamorous incarnations, who sends a childless baker (James Corden) and his wife (Emily Blunt) into the woods to fetch items that will undo a curse that she long ago put on his family.

The genius of James Lapine’s original book of the musical, and the first two thirds of his screenplay adaptation, is how their quest cleverly weaves together beloved fairy tales.

The baker and his wife must find a cow as white as milk – cue Jack, of beanstalk fame (Daniel Huttlestone); a cape as red as blood – cue Little Red You-Know-Who (Lilla Crawford); hair as yellow as corn – cue Rapunzel (Mackenzie Mauzy); and a slipper as pure as gold. In familiar versions, that slipper is glass, but if the shoe fits, you know it belongs to Cinderella (Anna Kendrick).

The stellar cast is rounded out by Christine Baranski, who was born to play Cinderella’s stepmother; Tracey Ullman, a delight as Jack’s long-suffering mother; and you’ve gotta love any film whose credits include: “and Johnny Depp as the Wolf.”

But the breakout surprise of the cast is Chris Pine, who nearly steals the show with comic perfection as Cinderella’s vain, suave Prince.

While the original Broadway production was played with broad satirical strokes that basically mocked the original tales, the greatest strength of Marshall’s film is that the actors play it for truth – which makes their desires and travails that much more compelling.



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Kendrick’s Cinderella is a genuinely conflicted young woman, and Streep’s Witch is movingly protective of her imprisoned daughter Rapunzel. Her song “Stay With Me” is the most vocally demanding number in the film, which Streep pulls off with dramatic aplomb.

The biggest problem with the play, which is diminished, yet still a problem in the film, is its sudden change in tone after the “happily ever after” finale of Act One.

Recent re-imaginings of classic tales have effectively explored what made villains of their villains – such as Broadway’s “Wicked” and the film “Maleficent.” But in an attempt to modernize the vision, the final third of “Into the Woods” has characters suddenly behaving out of character, while some are clumsily dispatched for the sake of pathos that is not dramatically earned.

Fans of the stage play, who adore it warts and all, will most likely adore the film. It’s lively, epic, and gorgeous to look at – and costume designer Colleen Atwood had better make room on her mantel for a fourth Oscar.

Filmgoers who aren’t familiar with the show, and aren’t used to musical soliloquies in movies, may or may not wholeheartedly embrace it. But “Into the Woods” is jam-packed with visual, musical, and comic delights that ultimately sweep away its shortcomings.
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Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series-No 13 (2014): Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: A translation perspectiv Adriana Şerban & Reine Meylaerts

Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies (LANS – TTS) is the journal of the Department of Translators and Interpreters, Artesis University College Antwerp.

No 13 (2014)Multilingualism at the cinema and on stage: A translation perspective
Adriana Şerban & Reine Meylaerts
Table of ContentsIntroductionIntroductionPDFReine Meylaerts, Adriana Şerban
ArticlesLa parole aux images, ou Multilinguisme et traduction dans les films de John McTiernanPDFSylvain AgiboustNarratives of Translation and Belonging in Multilingual Performance: The Case Study of 20/20PDFJozefina KomporalyBilingual performance and surtitles: translating linguistic and cultural duality in CanadaPDFLouise Ladouceur« Words are not simple play things! » : L’hétérolinguisme théâtral chez Louis Patrick LerouxPDFNicole NoletteThe power of the treacherous interpreter: Multilingualism in Jacques Audiard’s Un prophètePDFGemma KingThe interpreter as traitor: Multilingualism in Guizi lai le (Devils on the Doorstep)PDFKayoko TakedaYinglish in Woody Allen’s films: A dubbing issuePDFFrédérique BrissetCode-switching and screen translation in British and American films and their Italian dubbed version: a socio-linguistic and pragmatic perspectivePDFSilvia MontiAlfred Hitchcock presents: Multilingualism as a vehicle for… suspense. The Italian dubbing of Hitchcock’s multilingual films.PDFGiuseppe De BonisTranslating French into French: The case of Close Encounters of the Third KindPDFSimon LabateThe translation of multilingual films: Modes, strategies, constraints and manipulation in the Spanish translations of It’s a Free World …PDFIrene De Higes AndinoHow multilingual can a dubbed film be? Is it a matter of language combinations or national traditions?PDFElena Voellmer, Patrick ZabalbeascoaTranslation techniques in voiced-over multilingual feature moviesPDFKatarzyna SepielakStrategies for rendering multilingualism in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearingPDFAgnieszka Szarkowska, Jagoda Żbikowska, Izabela KrejtzThe visual multiplicity of films and its implications for audio description: A case study of the film What Dreams May ComePDFAnna MaszerowskaTo Feast or not to Feast : les défis d’Henry V à la traduction audiovisuellePDFNicolas SanchezMultilingualism in opera production, reception and translationPDFMarta MateoThe reasons for and implications of multilingualism in Une bouteille à la merPDFThomas Buckley
Book ReviewsMartens, D., & Vanacker B. (Eds.) (2013). Scénographies de la pseudo-traduction. Les Lettres romanes, 67(3–4).PDFRonald JennRomanelli, S. (2013). Gênese do processo tradutório. Editora Horizonte : Vinhedo. 181 p.PDFChristiane StallaertBallard, M. (2013). Histoire de la traduction. Repères historiques et culturels. Bruxelles : De Boeck. 234 p.PDFChristine LombezLafarga, F., & Pegenaute, L. (Eds.) (2013). Diccionario histórico de la traducción en Hispanoamérica. Madrid/Frankfurt: Iberoamericana/Vervuert. 515 p.PDFIlse LogieCrezee, I. H. M. (2013). Introduction to healthcare for interpreters and translators. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 338 p.PDFMatilde Nisbeth JensenDancette, J. (2014). Analytical dictionary of globalization and labour – Dictionnaire analytique de la mondialisation et du travail – Diccionario analítico de la mundialización y del trabajo (DAMT).PDFGeorg Löckinger

ISSN: 2295-5739
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‘Tangy, Chewy, Salty’ – a word from the translator with Sarah Irving

‘Tangy, Chewy, Salty’ – a word from the translator with Sarah Irving | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
he watches these shadows forming on the ceiling of her room, the picture emerging from them. In her fantasy, her gaze drifts across the image: those eyes surging with all the pent up desire of a great river in a romantic city like Paris; that nose belonging to a man proud of his origins, rooted in his land; those two cheeks, plump like reddened apples, tempting the onlooker to nibble gently at them; that broad forehead showing beneath the jet-black hair which hangs down to his eyebrows, without overshadowing the radiance of that moon-like face…

Extract from ‘The Whore of Gaza’ by Najlaa Ataallah in The Book of Gaza (Comma Press, 2014), translated by Sarah Irving

Interview by Rebekah Murrell

On the Gazan short story form

The proliferation of the short story form in the region has led to Gaza becoming known as ‘the exporter of short stories and oranges’. What struck you as being uniquely Gazan about the storytelling in the collection?

I’m not sure how much I’d want to claim a specifically Gazan aesthetic to these stories so much as a particularly Palestinian one. Obviously it occurs in writings from other parts of the world, but to me it feels very Palestinian to have such a matter-of-fact but all-pervasive sense of the place of resistance in everyday life. Ordinary actions often seem to take on extra meaning in this context, and I guess in the Gazan environment that is even more concentrated than for Palestinians in the West Bank and the State of Israel, because the situation in Gaza is so intensified by the population density and the scale of the encirclement and the military attacks. And that also affects internal social relations and individual relationships; perhaps the short story form comes into its own there, because it allows short bursts of that intensity.

 

On translating both group and individual experiences

In a space so densely populated by people and politics, both individual and group psychologies are paramount to the stories written out of it. How did you respond to the writers’ exploration of both the personal and the political?

I think the main issue for me was appreciating the extent to which, in a context like Gaza, the personal and political overlap so much – but also that this is something which is enforced by circumstances, not necessarily because people want it to be like this. To at least some extent, most of us in the West have the luxury of drawing those lines, or if we want to, of politicising the personal in our lives (or not). That’s not the case in a place where ‘politics’ – in the broadest sense, and often the most militarised sense – are there everyday. So in relation to often very nuanced stories like those in The Book of Gaza, which present complex and un-ideological images of life, it’s very much a question of finding ways to respect the implications that choices and statements might have in that environment, where things that might be ‘personal’ become ‘political’ but in potentially unexpected and problematic ways.

 

On getting to know Gaza

The stories undercut the standardised image of Gaza presented in international media, instead detailing the streets, homes, cafés, shops, bedrooms, corridors, cars, and even smells of the region. How important do you think it was to the contributors to present their version of Gaza, to draw a map of Gaza as home?

One of the main things I’ve always heard from Palestinians, whether from Gaza, the West Bank or in ’48 or the Diaspora, is that they’re passionate about wanting to dispel the stereotypes – of terrorists or of poverty and refugees. Gaza is perhaps the most extreme example of that, because we only tend to hear about it in the media when it’s facing another onslaught from Israel. But this is a place that is busy and full and bustling and where people’s spirit survives. That’s not to romanticise the situation, or to claim that there is somehow something especially resilient about Palestinian people, any more than there is really a special British thing called ‘Blitz spirit’. People are resilient and steadfast because they have to be, and I think these stories – full of sex and food and cars and lovers and the beach – just demand that readers respect the people of Gaza in their own particular brand of resilience. For sure, the writers of these stories live the news headlines – the bombings and massacres and horrors – but they also live all the bits in between, the everyday bits, and it’s really clear that that’s what they wanted people to read.

 

On women writers

You translated Najlaa Ataallah’s ‘The Whore of Gaza’, a self-conscious, visceral and affecting exploration of what it is to be a woman in Gaza. What did you find particularly powerful about hearing the female voice in the Gazan short story form?

It was a total thrill to see how many women were in the collection and to translate a story like Najlaa’s. It completely defies all the preconceptions that people might have about women in Gaza, but the twists of the story also defy the preconceptions that the reader might go in with from the title and opening. I think it’s a really psychologically and socially complex story, and I loved the challenge of trying to get that over into English, and the opportunity to show English readerships that Palestinian women writers from Gaza are very much willing to push the boundaries – to write about themes that would be confrontational coming from a British or American writer, let alone one from what most people’s idea of Palestine is.

 

On politics

Do you think The Book of Gaza and other works by Palestinian writers have an important role in the current conflict? Do you think literature can play a part in politics? 

I think it has to, on the level of small-p politics if not big-P politics. One of the biggest problems in the Western grasp of the issue of Palestine has, I think, been the dearth of real Palestinian voices in the media, in literature – anywhere that people can hear them. I defy anyone to read the stories in the Book of Gaza, with their accounts of ordinary people and daily life, and then to watch TV footage of entire blocks of flats in Gaza City being shelled and bombed, and not feel differently for having a sense of who the people are that live in those flats, who are being made homeless and their possessions – all their momentos – destroyed, or who are being maimed and killed. For sure, no government minister is going to stop an arms shipment to Israel for having read The Book of Gaza, but maybe one of their constituents might write a letter or sign a petition. It all goes into the mix.

 

In three words…

Describe the collection in three words.

Tangy, chewy, salty

 

About the translator

Sarah Irving is a writer, translator and editor. Read some of her writing at http://sarahirving.wordpress.com.

 

Read more about The Book of Gaza and its editor Abu Atef Said on the World Bookshelf
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The 10 qualities of a successful entrepreneur

The 10 qualities of a successful entrepreneur | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Entrepreneurship is as important as innovation for national and global economic growth. “Innovation is essential, and we need it. But the real magic starts with entrepreneurs,” according to Gallup Poll’s Jim Clifton and Sangeeta Bharadwaj Badal. “Entrepreneurs create customers. And customers, in turn, create jobs and economic growth,” they add.

Countries need thinkers and doers. “Entrepreneurship is the horse, and innovation is the cart,” Clifton and Badal explain. Creativity, ideas, discovery and innovation are one side of the growth coin – the other side is commercialisation.



Their new book, ‘Entrepreneurial StrengthsFinder,’ delves into the psychology of the entrepreneur. What are the personality characteristics and behaviours that lead to venture creation and success? Can one learn to be an entrepreneur, or is it a quality a person is born with?

The book and online questionnaire (accessible by a special code for those who buy the book) help aspiring founders answer these questions to discover their innate entrepreneurial talents along with areas of improvement for individuals and teams. The 161-page book is compact and makes for an engaging and thought-provoking read, for entrepreneurs as well as management consultants and coaches.

Just as there are tests for IQ and sports abilities, the authors advocate conducting tests on students and employees to see who are natural-born entrepreneurs and who can be nurtured to launch startups. This also has implications for transforming cities into innovation hubs; local government leadership and community activism has helped Austin become a creative hub (as compared to Albany).

“Each city has its own unique entrepreneurial talent – and each must find it, maximise it, and retain it,” Clifton and Badal advise. This can be done via testing, accelerated development programmes, specialised courses, meaningful internships and coaching.

Gallup conducted research on 2,500 entrepreneurs to understand what it takes to create a business, scale it, make profits and create jobs. The ten key talents of successful entrepreneurs are: business focus, confidence, creative thinking, delegation, determination, independence, knowledge-seeking, promotion, relationship-building and risk-taking.

Some level of talent is innate, some can be nurtured. Each of these traits can be classified in three levels: dominant, contributing and supporting. I have summarised the authors’ description of the ten talents along with challenges and action items in Table 1 below.

Table 1: 10 Talents of Successful Entrepreneurs
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Une carte de l'Europe pour dire "Joyeux Noël" dans toutes les langues - RTBF Etcetera

Une carte de l'Europe pour dire "Joyeux Noël" dans toutes les langues - RTBF Etcetera | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Une carte de l'Europe pour dire "Joyeux Noël" dans toutes les langues
ETCETERA | jeudi 25 décembre 2014 à 11h31
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En cette journée bien particulière du 25 décembre, le classique "Bonjour" est rapidement suivi, voire remplacé, par un traditionnel "Joyeux Noël". Cette locution est tout simplement synonyme de "Joyeuses fêtes" à l'occasion de Noël. Outre le bien connu "Merry Christmas" outre-Manche, l'Europe connaît une belle diversité de "Joyeux Noël" dans les nombreuses langues parlées sur le continent.

"Joyeux Noël" a de nombreuses variantes en Europe. - Jakub Marian
Mots clés

Europe, Langue, NOEL, traduction
Cette carte que propose sur son site Jakub Marian, un mathématicien, musicien et linguiste tchèque, montre en un seul coup d’œil comment l'expression "Joyeux Noël" se dit dans la plupart des langues européennes. Ou plutôt comment elle se décline à l'écrit, car il est évidemment bien difficile de transcrire la prononciation de cette locution parfois bien compliquée à maîtriser dans certaines langues.

Certains pays, comme bien entendu notre chère Belgique, possèdent plusieurs langues officielles, ce qui a d'autant plus compliqué la tâche graphique du linguiste. Il laisse ainsi en note plusieurs petites remarques.

Parmi celles-ci, la traduction en romanche n'est pas intégrée à la carte, reconnaît-il. Cette langue romane parlée par un minorité de quelque 60 000 personnes en Suisse traduit "Joyeux Noël" en "Bellas festas da Nadal".

Du côté du Royaume-Uni, il n'y a aucune langue officielle, si ce n'est, de facto, l'anglais. Seul le Pays de Galles a deux langues officielles : l'anglais et le gallois. Dans cette dernière, Jakub Marian précise qu'à Noël on se souhaite "Nadolig llawen".

Certains "Joyeux Noël" semblent plus difficiles à prononcer ou à lire que d'autres, notamment à l'est où l'alphabet cyrillique nécessite bien évidemment davantage de connaissances.

T.M. (@thomasmignon)
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Parlez-vous l’algérien ? - Magazine - El Watan

Parlez-vous l’algérien ? - Magazine - El Watan | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
C’est dans cette langue que nous avons appris à dire les premiers mots, à aimer et à rêver. C’est dans cette langue que nous pouvons parler vrai, loin du rigorisme de l’arabe et l’affectation du français. Cette derja que nous adorons malmener subit un traitement immérité : l’école la relègue au statut de «langue de la rue» et elle est parlée de manière bizarre dans les feuilletons de l’Entv. Une situation «socio-linguistique» qui participe, selon les experts de la question, à alimenter la «haine de soi»  …


Vous vous rappelez sûrement de ces premiers jours d’école, lorsque vous entendiez pour la première fois peut-être une langue différente de celle à laquelle vous étiez habitués (arabe dialectal ou berbère). Dès l’âge de six ans, l’enfant algérien est immergé dans un bain linguistique écartant ses langues maternelles. D’un coup il s’entend ordonner de ne plus prononcer la «langue de la rue», celle «du souk» ou el «âamya». C’est pourtant dans cette langue qu’il a appris à développer son imaginaire…

Dès notre plus jeune âge, nous avons été confrontés à ce que les linguistes nomment «la réalité diglossique» de notre pays. «La langue d’enseignement est artificielle et n’a rien à voir avec la réalité socio-linguistique du locuteur algérien», estime la socio-linguiste Zoulikha Mered dans une intéressante étude sur le colinguisme en Algérie. «Au premier palier de l’école fondamentale, on lui apprend à refouler sa langue maternelle pour entrer dans la ‘‘grammatisation’, mais en retour pour apprendre à s’exprimer et donc à affirmer sa personnalité on ne lui offre qu’une langue comme seule situation de dialogue, structure en question-réponse, alors qu’aux deuxième et troisième paliers, on lui impose une langue surnormée». Chérifa Ghettas, chercheure en sciences du langage, embraye : «La classe, qui est le lieu du dialogue et de la communication, devient le lieu de la censure. Ce climat étouffant, caractérisé par les interdits et les sanctions, hostile à la langue familière de l’enfant, va creuser davantage le fossé entre le parler de l’enfant et la langue de l’école.»

Au nom des constantes nationales (la langue arabe, la religion musulmane, la nation algérienne) instaurées à l’indépendance, l’enfant se retrouve contraint de refouler sa langue pour des enjeux qui le dépassent. Ibtissem Chachou, auteure d’un texte intitulé Enfant algérien à l’école, du pouvoir de la langue à la langue du pouvoir paru dans la revue Insanyat, s’interroge sur la langue qui permettra à l’enfant de continuer à «construire de manière cohérente son imaginaire».

Zoulikha Mered regrette la conception de la langue arabe «non comme un savoir-faire, mais comme un faire-valoir ou un moyen de coercition dont l’enjeu se situe en dehors de la langue elle-même». L’arabe enseigné à l’école serait, à l’en croire, «celui de l’âge d’or arabo-islamique que des ‘‘arabisants’’ conservateurs, nostalgiques du passé et défendeurs principaux du pouvoir éducatif inscrivent au programme d’enseignement de la langue arabe». La linguiste Zoulikha Mered utilise des mots durs pour décrire la situation socio-linguistique en Algérie. Il y aurait, d’après son diagnostic, «un intégrisme linguistique» qui a fini par complexer le locuteur et à construire des citoyens incapables de s’exprimer.

«L’école algérienne, dit-elle, par son manque de clairvoyance pédagogique et surtout par son intégrisme linguistique, a fini par consommer ce qui restait de l’identité algérienne. Et par l’ampleur des échecs scolaires qu’elle enregistre, elle a fait apparaître une nouvelle forme d’expression. Le public scolaire ne maîtrise ni sa langue maternelle ni la ‘‘arabiyya’’, et encore moins le français ou l’anglais à emprunter pour compenser son déficit linguistique à chacune de ces langues pour se faire comprendre».

Une «dépossession de notre vécu»

Ibtissem Chachou, socio-linguiste, insiste sur la nécessité d’une reconnaissance étatique de la «derja» et sa «réhabilitation». «Cette reconnaissance, écrit-elle, sera d’autant plus efficiente que si elle se faisait par le biais institutionnel de l’école, celle-là même qui lui consacre un traitement inégalitaire». La spécialiste pointe du doigt les ravages du dénigrement dont on fait preuve à l’égard de la langue maternelle sur la société. «Il en résulte, décrit-elle, des complexes, tels que le sentiment de culpabilité, l’insécurité linguistique et la haine de soi qui se manifestent dans le discours épilinguistique du locuteur algérien. En proscrivant l’usage dans les situations formelles d’enseignement/apprentissage, c’est tout un symbole fort de l’identité du locuteur qui se voit ébranlé.»

Aussi, est-il essentiel, à en croire Ibtissem

Chachou, de valoriser les langues maternelles afin d’éviter à l’enfant une «dépossession de son vécu». «Il est important, dit-elle, que l’enfant se sente accepté par cette école avec ce que sa maghrébinité charrie comme spécificités sur les plans linguistique, culturel, historique et sociologique. L’objectif est qu’il puisse s’accepter pour pouvoir accepter l’autre, cet autre menaçant parce qu’inscrit et présenté dans une logique manichéenne d’exclusion de tout ce qui n’est pas admis comme ‘‘soi’’, un soi qui est ailleurs d’habitude systématiquement survalorisé au détriment de cet autre stigmatisé qui peut n’être parfois que cet enfant lui-même, évoluant en milieu extra-scolaire, parlant une langue sensiblement et/ou complètement différente et baignant dans une culture qui l’est, elle aussi, relativement de celle enseignée à l’école.»

Elle appelle à la reconnaissance et la valorisation des parlers populaires à même de soulager «l’apprenant du poids des incohérences» et retrouver ainsi son ««moi perdu». «L’enjeu, écrit-elle, en est la réhabilitation de l’identité historique d’un peuple et le retour au rationnel : remplacer la haine de soi par l’amour de soi sans narcissisme, car il y va du passé, du présent et de l’avenir de l’enfant algérien, ce futur citoyen que seule la réhabilitation scientifique de la substantifique moelle de son identité pourrait lui permettre de rétablir le courant avec les siècles délibérément obscurcis de son passé et d’assumer positivement sa diversité culturelle et son plurilinguisme devant enfin l’enrichir au lieu de l’appauvrir, le libérer au lieu de le handicaper et l’avantager au lieu de le désavantager».

La réhabilitation de la derja permettra aussi, clament les experts, de se réconcilier avec notre culture, du théâtre de Mahieddine Bachtarzi, à la poésie de Mohamed Benmsayeb en passant par la chanson de Aïssa El Djermouni et les contes de l’Ahaggar et du Djurdjura….

Amel Blidi
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Experts call for nurturing of language professionals - Headlines, features, photo and videos from ecns.cn|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns

Experts call for nurturing of language professionals - Headlines, features, photo and videos from ecns.cn|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Experts have called for the nurturing of special language talents, to facilitate the country's strategic plan to develop the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.

More than 50 language experts and education officials gathered at Beijing Foreign Studies University on Saturday for China's first special language strategic development forum, where they discussed the formation of a special language think tank and the training of more language professionals.

"Special language development and talent training is facing opportunities and challenges at the same time as China is advocating and participating in the 'one belt and one road' construction," said Peng Long, president of Beijing Foreign Studies University.

According to studies conducted by BFSU researchers, due to their less developed economies and a shortage of interpreters, some nearby countries and regions lack an understanding of China. Their residents have to access Chinese news through a commonly used language, such as English, and some information is lost in translation.

Major countries value special language development. Harvard University in the United States has classes in more than 90 languages and the University of Moscow offers more than 120.

BFSU has 60 language programs and the president looks to increase that to 90 languages by 2020.

The development of special languages is important for China to communicate well with the world, said Sun Xiaomeng, dean of the Asian and African studies school at BFSU.
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La RAE hace árbol con diccionarios | El Diario Ecuador

La RAE hace árbol con diccionarios | El Diario Ecuador | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Constituido por más de mil ejemplares de la última edición que anualmente realiza el “Diccionario de la Real Academia de la lengua española” (DRAE), el árbol navideño hace homenaje al idioma español y a las festividades.

.
 INÉDITO. La Real Academia de la Lengua Española se ha sumado para festejar la Navidad de una manera atípica: creando un árbol en base a puros ejemplares del DRAE situado en la escalinata del pasillo principal de la sede de la organización, la última actualización de estos diccionarios fue hace dos meses. El director electo del DRAE, Darío Villanueva, explicó los detalles de la iniciativa; con este particular adorno finaliza la temporada de conmemoración del tercer centenario de la edición y a su vez evoca la importancia del diccionario en el idioma, la cual es la obra escrita más influyente entre las personas hispanoparlantes.
 
 SERÁN DONADOs. Este árbol está estructuralmente conformado por una base piramidal de seis metros y medio de altura y con una base de 2,20 metros. En los archivos de la Academia o en los la editorial Espasa, la cual publica el diccionario, no hay registros de algún árbol con estas características. “En el mundo de la comunicación es importante romper moldes, y no nos consta que se haya hecho algo semejante”, aseguró Villanueva. Cada diccionario que conforma el árbol está plastificado para prevenir su deterioro ante los cambios del clima, porque luego de las festividades estas publicaciones serán donadas a bibliotecas públicas.
 
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Un día como hoy en la historia judía: nació Franz Rosenzweig, colaborador en la traducción de la Torá

Un día como hoy en la historia judía: nació Franz Rosenzweig, colaborador en la traducción de la Torá | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
 Itongadol/ AJN.- El filósofo y teólogo judeo-alemán Franz Rosenzweig nació el 25 de diciembre de 1886 en la ciudad de Kassel. Fue uno de los más importantes pensadores del siglo XX. Y colaboró con Martin Buber en la traducción de la Torá del hebreo al alemán.
 
Fue criado en el seno de una familia judía asimilada, heredera de la emancipación y del judaísmo liberal, que buscaba integrarse en el mundo moderno burgués. Sus padres eran Georg Rosenzweig y Adele Alsberg, quienes asistían sólo a las fiestas importantes en la gran sinagoga de la comunidad liberal en Kassel y tenían compromisos con las instituciones de ayuda comunitaria judías.
 
Sólo por su tío abuelo Abraham (Adam) Rosenzweig, el joven Franz fue guiado en los modos de la vida tradicional judía y en el aprendizaje del hebreo.
 
A petición de su padre estudió medicina a partir de 1905 en Goettingen, Friburgo y Múnich. De esta época data su estrecha amistad con su primo Rudolf Ehrenberg y con Victor von Weizsäcker. Después de concluir sus estudios en 1907 fijó su interés por la historia de la ciencia y la filosofía, estudios que realizó en Berlín y Friburgo. En 1912 obtuvo su doctorado con una tesis Sobre Hegel y el Estado en Friburgo.
 
Dos acontecimientos marcarán su vida: la Primera Guerra Mundial y el redescubrimiento del judaísmo. Su participación directa en la guerra confirmó sus reservas respecto a la filosofía de Hegel, que justificaba la muerte de los individuos en nombre de causas superiores y le llevó a romper de manera definitiva con el idealismo. Su opción por el judaísmo fue poco tiempo antes, en 1913. Mientras pensaba en convertirse al cristianismo visitó casi por casualidad una pequeña sinagoga en Berlín en Yom Kipur. Tenía la intención de acercarse a las tradiciones de sus antepasados. Al finalizar el servicio religioso estaba convencido que deseaba dedicar el resto de su vida al estudio y a la enseñanza del judaísmo. Para ello permaneció en Berlín bajo la influencia del filósofo Hermann Cohen, exponente del judaísmo liberal.
 
En su obra principal, La estrella de la Redención (1921), Rosenzweig analiza cómo la unicidad de cada ser humano, la realidad del mundo y la trascendencia de Dios ponen en jaque la idea de totalidad, mostrando cómo estas tres singularidades encuentran sentido, una en relación a la otra. La creación une el mundo a Dios, la revelación permite que el ser humano sea orientado por la palabra divina y la redención le da como tarea la salvación del mundo, esencialmente por medio del amor.
 
A pesar de la clara separación en tres volúmenes de La estrella de la Redención se aprecia una correlación con su idea de un Neues Denken «nuevo pensamiento», un marco filosófico nuevo y que para muchos está construido a partir de las conversaciones y epistolaria con sus amigos — Hans Ehrenberg y Eugen Rosenstock, Rudolf Ehrenberg y Viktor von Weizsaecker (GS III, 151), como también Martin Buber, Ferdinand Ebner, y al final de su vida Gabriel Marcel y Eberhard Grisebach. Ayudó a crear el judío Casa de Estudio gratuito en Frankfurt, y colaboró con Buber en una nueva traducción de la Biblia.
 
A principios de 1922, sufrió una esclerosis que gradualmente lo paralizó y limitó su habilidad para escribir y para hablar. No obstante continuó con su labor utilizando una máquina de escribir especial y, más adelante, cuando ya no se podía mover, mantuvo comunicación a través de los imperceptibles signos que emitía. Finalmente falleció en 1929 en la ciudad alemana de Rosenzweig.
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Group aims to ‘master’ public speaking | www.mpacorn.com | Moorpark Acorn

Group aims to ‘master’ public speaking | www.mpacorn.com | Moorpark Acorn | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Seven years ago, after seeing an ad in the Acorn for an upcoming meeting of the newly formed Moorpark Toastmasters Club, Dan Waldman decided to take a chance and attend.

The meeting changed his life.

A self-described introvert, the 56-year-old real estate agent said he was scared to death of standing up and speaking in front of people, but the experience of his first few speeches as a member of Toastmasters transformed the way he communicated with others.

“There were words in me that wanted to come out and I couldn’t express myself,” Waldman said. “I felt like my opinion didn’t matter until I started to speak for myself.”

Toastmasters International is a nonprofit organization that was developed in 1924 by Dr. Ralph C. Smedley.

The organization now has more than 10,500 Toastmasters clubs and over 200,000 members in about 90 countries.

The clubs follow general guidelines that teach members how to prepare and deliver public speeches. A good opening, a solid middle and a good closing are speech essentials.

Toastmasters provides a supportive environment for those who want to learn how to speak in a professional setting. The idea is borne out of the fact that those who speak well have greater success in all walks of life.


The club works.

“I saw a guy come in that was very shy like me,” Waldman said. “He could barely talk when he got in there; now he is able to give public speeches.”

Waldman became president of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club in 2012 and is now a division governor for Toastmasters International. He monitors 25 clubs in Southern California.

This year the Moorpark Chamber of Commerce named him ambassador of the year for his dedicated work in Toastmasters.

Barbara Orechoff is a founding member of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club and met Waldman when he came to his first meeting.

“Dan has turned completely around, and (Toastmasters) really made him blossom,” Orechoff said. “He was very quiet at first and now he is more like a renaissance man.”

In addition to giving prepared presentations, members practice impromptu speeches on random topics.

Waldman said learning how to speak publicly over the last seven years has been more of a transformation than an education for him.

“It is an emotional experience for me, not intellectual,” he said. “The butterflies in your stomach don’t necessarily go away, but you get them trained.”

Waldman said it doesn’t matter what the speech is about—the important thing is to get the ideas together in logical order. Even so, the most experienced speech maker can feel they’ve left something out.

“There are three speeches you give: the one you planned to give, the one you actually give and the one you wish you had given, on the way home,” he said.

Numbers at the Moorpark club fluctuate, and there are currently 14 members. Waldman encourages people to stop by—no reservation is needed.

“Whether it’s someone like me that struggles with public speaking or someone who just wants to hone their speaking skills, all are welcome,” he said.

The next meeting of the Moorpark Toastmasters Club will be 7 p.m. Wed., Jan. 7 at the Moorpark Chamber of Commerce office, 18 E. High St.
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'Near-miss' students offered second chance at university boot camp

'Near-miss' students offered second chance at university boot camp | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
"The emphasis is on writing skills, critical thinking, self-directed learning analytical skills, just really a top of skills they already have to set them up for success in higher education," Mr Payne said.

It just gives them a second chance - these are students who always expected to go to university, they were on track to go to university and for whatever reason, they missed out on their ATAR.
Phil Payne
He rejects the idea it meant the university was dumbing down.

"It's not about lowering standards, we're actually raising our standards, we've raised our ATAR over the past couple of years but, at the same time, we're providing every assistance to students to get them to that standard and set them up for success," he said.

If the students do not work, they do not pass.

"They have to achieve a pass mark of 60 per cent minimum and if they do so, that will enable them to have direct entry, semester one next year into the vast majority of our courses," said Mr Payne.

"It just gives them a second chance - these are students who always expected to go to university, they were on track to go to university and for whatever reason, they missed out on their ATAR.

"Because we're committed to giving students every opportunity to progress to higher education, we thought this was a program that would meet a specific demand."

The university allocated 80 places for the program and expects it to be popular when exam results are published at the end of the year.

Murdoch's Access Programs manager Gael Gibbs said the idea behind the program was to provide students with an intensive grounding in university life to get them used to being on campus and the tertiary approach to learning and teaching.

Mr Payne said they want to see capable students reach their potential.

"The last thing we want to happen is for a bright, able student to think they've missed out and think they'll never go on to higher education because of disappointing results which could be for any reason - they might have just had an off day on the exams," he said.
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The Messy Minds of Creative People | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network

The Messy Minds of Creative People | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

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Creativity is very messy.

According to one prominent theory, the creative process involves four stages:  preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. This is all well in good in theory. In reality, the creative process often feels like this:



Or this:



The creative process– from the first drop of paint on the canvas to the art exhibition– involves a mix of emotions, drives, skills, and behaviors. It’d be miraculous if these emotions, traits and behaviors didn’t often conflict with each other during the creative process, creating inner and outer tension. Indeed, creative people are often seen as weird, odd, and eccentric.

Over the years, scientists have attempted to capture the personality of creative people. But it hasn’t been easy putting them under the microscope. As psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who has interviewed creative people across various fields points out, creative people “show tendencies of thought and action that in most people are segregated. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an “individual,” each of them is a “multitude.”

So how can we possibly bring order to the messy minds of creators? A new paper offers some hope. Psychologists Guillaume Furst, Paolo Ghisletta and Todd Lubart present an integrative model of creativity and personality that is deeply grounded in past research on the personality of creative people.

Bringing together lots of different research threads over the years, they identified three “super-factors” of personality that predict creativity: Plasticity, Divergence, and Convergence.

The Super-Factors of Personality

Plasticity consists of the personality traits openness to experience, extraversion, high energy, and inspiration.* The common factor here is high drive for exploration, and those high in this super-factor of personality tend to have a lot of dopamine– “the neuromodulator of exploration“– coursing through their brains. Prior research has shown a strong link between Plasticity and creativity, especially in the arts.

Divergence consists of non-conformity, impulsivity, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness. People high in divergence may seem like jerks, but they are often just very independent thinkers. This super-factor is close to Hans Eysenck’s concept of “Psychoticism“. Throughout his life, Eysenck argued that these non-conforming characteristics were important contributors to high creative achievements.



Finally, Convergence consists of high conscientiousness, precision, persistence, and critical sense. While not typically included in discussions of creativity, these characteristics are also important contributors to the creative process.

The researchers found that Convergence was strongly related to Plasticity. In other words, those who were open to new experiences, inspired, energetic, and exploratory tended to also have high levels of persistence and precision. The common factor here is most likely high energy. Perspiration and inspiration feed off each other, leading to even higher energy levels.

Nevertheless, these three super factors were at least partially distinct. For instance, those with high openness to experience and inspiration weren’t necessarily rebellious, impulsive, critical, or motivated to achieve.

Stages of Creativity

Critically, these three super-factors differed in importance depending on the stage of the creative process. While it’s true that the creative process is messy, scientists have at least put some order on things by agreeing on two broad classes of processes that work in cooperation to lead to high levels of creativity: Generation and Selection.

Generation consists of idea production and originality. During this stage, it’s crucial to silence the inner critic and imagine lots of different possibilities. This stage is all about quantity of ideas.

Generation is necessary but not sufficient for creativity, however. Selection helps make the ideas not only novel, but also valuable to society. The Selection stage involves processes such as criticism, evaluation, formalization, and elaboration of ideas. As Furst and colleagues note, “The ultimate goal of Selection is thus to form a coherent final product by providing a constant check during its development.”

Looking at the super-factors of personality, the researchers found that Plasticity and Divergence were most strongly related to the Generation stage of creativity. In contrast, Convergence was most strongly related to Selection. This makes sense, considering that creativity involves both processes relating to novelty and processes relating to usefulness. Indeed, the researchers found that the interaction of Generation and Selection was associated with both the intensity and achievement of everyday creative activities.**

But hold up, you may say. How can creativity be associated with all of these things: openness to experience, inspiration, high energy, impulsivity, rebelliousness, critical thinking, precision, and conscientiousness? Isn’t that contradictory?



Which brings us back to the beginning of this article. Creativity involves many different stages. Those who are capable of reaching the heights of human creative expression are those who have the capacity for all of these characteristics and behaviors within themselves and are flexibly able to switch back and forth between them depending on the stage of the creative process, and what’s most adaptive in the moment.

I told you creativity is messy.

Happy New Year! Thanks for supporting Beautiful Minds in 2014. Look out in 2015 for more insights on intelligence and creativity as well as a new book on the latest science of creativity, co-authored with Carolyn Gregoire.


© 2014 Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved


* It should be noted that the researchers measured “extraversion”using the Big Five framework. Under this framework, extraversion consists of a collection of traits associated with high sensitivity to environmental rewards, including positive emotions, sociability, enthusiasm, novelty seeking, assertiveness, and self-confidence. This finding does not mean that introverts are less likely to be creative. In fact, research suggests that the sociability component of extraversion is not as strongly linked to creativity as the other components of extraversion. If anything, research shows that the capacity for solitude is essential for optimal creativity. The facets of extraversion that seem to be most crucial to creativity are those associated with high energy, novelty seeking, positive emotions, and assertiveness.

**Interestingly, selection alone was not related to creativity. In particular, they found that people who were really good at Selection showed reduced levels of creativity if their Generation skills were low. Therefore, Generation skills are essential to creativity, and while generation skills may compensate for lower levels of Selection ability, the highest levels of Selection in the world may not be able to help you create if you have very low Generation ability.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Andrea Kuszewski and Carolyn Gregoire for bringing those alternative conceptualizations of the creative process to my attention.

About the Author: Scott Barry Kaufman is Scientific Director of The Imagination Institute in the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania. Follow on Twitter @sbkaufman.
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Website Localization: 7 Handy Tips For The Enterprise Website

Website Localization: 7 Handy Tips For The Enterprise Website | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Is your company thinking about doing business outside the United States? Making your website relevant to potential customers in foreign markets will be an important step in marketing your product or service internationally.

When you think about international websites, the first thing that comes to mind is translation.

So I turned to Blake Dozier and Ignacio Garcia from Ingenuiti, a Virginia Beach, Virginia based company that specializes in eLearning translation and localization for international companies. Ingenuiti is a fellow program partner in Virginia’s VALET program for companies that want to export their products or services.

Importance of Website Localization to International Business Development
Now, you may think that your website should be your last priority when thinking about international business development. Dozier, though, offers a different opinion. “Your company website is critical to your international business development success — even more important than your print collateral.”

Because your website is available 24/7, more eyes will be on your website that could possibly earn you business or sales meetings. This means that you need to make your website relevant to people on those countries. Here are 9 website localization best practices that you need to keep in mind.

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1. Update your English website first.

“Make sure your English website meets your target audience’s goal first,” says Dozier. “If your website doesn’t first meet the informational needs of your target customers in America, it won’t work in foreign markets, either. You will waste a lot of money if you decide to change the English version after translations have already started, because you’ll have to pay for changes in multiple languages. Consider globalizing your English website, which is where you’d make it relevant for people around the world. You can do this by including multicultural images and avoiding images or phrases that might be irrelevant or offensive in other cultures.”

2. Localize your website, don’t just translate it.

It’s important that you know your target geography before you translate. Localizing your website means that you’re focusing on a specific region or culture, not just a language.

“Companies need to be careful because you have to make sure the translation applies to the country you’re localizing for. For example, if you’re trying to sell in Mexico and translate your website into Spanish, you have to make sure you’re translating into Mexican Spanish. If you translate into European Spanish, you’ll alienate the Mexican market you’re trying to reach,” advises Garcia.

3. Know the difference between website translation and TEP.

Companies need to be careful when getting translation. What you actually need is ‘translation, editing and proofreading,’ called ‘TEP.’ This kind of website translation isn’t specific to website translation, but affects the quality of the translation you’ll get. Dozier says, “You get what you pay for. Beware of ultra low translation rates that include translation only. It is important to make sure you are comparing apples to apples when it comes to quotes for translation. The scope of work should include translation, editing, and proofreading.”

4. Get one language right.

“If you’re going to take the time and money to translate your website for international audiences, it’s better to do one language right than to have several languages and not get them right. If you translate your website, it has to be correct and accurate or you’ll lose credibility with that audience,” says Garcia. “Allocate your budget toward quality translations of less languages if necessary rather than going with the lowest cost provider to fit more languages in the budget. It’s not worth making all of the language versions look bad just so you have more languages.”

Occasionally we see companies use Google Translate to translate their websites, but this can actually be detrimental to their international business development efforts. “Websites that use Google Translate take the risk that the translation will sound unnatural, or even worse, be completely unreadable. If you’re serious about doing business internationally, you should have your website translated by a native speaker of that language,” adds Dozier.

5. Translate your navigation menus.

Garcia advises, “You need to be careful that you not only translate the content like a blog post or a new page, but also your navigation menus. It’s difficult for a person to navigate a website when the content is translated but the menus are in English.”

6. Choose the right photos.

Dozier advises companies to think about imagery on web pages they translate as well, saying that making your website culturally relevant is important, too. “Many cultures don’t have dogs as pets, so the picture on your website of a family with a dog should be replaced. If you use stock photos of people on your website, they should look like people in the countries that you’re hoping to develop business in.”

“Also, not all countries are as progressive as the United States when it comes to gender and racial issues, so any photography or videos you use on your website should be sensitive to that.”

7. Create a new, separate website for a target country for the best customer experience.

“If you are going to go to the trouble to customize images and content on your localized website, you may as well grab a different URL in your target country (like a .de address for Germany) and build a new website just for that country instead of just translating your existing website. Translating and localizing your existing website can take nearly as much effort as creating a new, dedicated website, and this can help your search engine optimization, too,” adds Garcia.

In summary, preparing your website for international business development efforts requires a lot more thought than simply translating the words on the website.
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Radio Prague - La vie rêvée de Dagmar Halasová

Radio Prague - La vie rêvée de Dagmar Halasová | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
C’est à Brno que nous vous emmenons pour cette nouvelle émission
spéciale à l’occasion de Noël. Dans un de ses vieux et beaux
quartiers
résidentiels de la capitale morave, appelé le quartier Masaryk, vit
Dagmar Halasová, philologue, traductrice et auteur de plusieurs livres.
Son beau-père,
František Halas, compte parmi les classiques de la poésie tchèque du
XXe
siècle, tandis que son mari, l’historien...
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French translation of Obama's inaugural speech ~ English to French translation

French translation of Obama's inaugural speech ~ English to French translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

I’ve read the French translations of Obama’s inaugural speech in Le Monde and Libération. They are very different and on the whole, I prefer the one in Le Monde: it is generally more sympathetic to Obama’s style. Compare Libé’s “Nous pouvons faire tout cela et nous le ferons” et Le Monde’s “Tout cela, nous pouvons le faire. Et tout cela, nous allons le faire.” for “All this we can do. All this we will do.” Le Monde’s translation isn’t more literal: it uses the same stylistic device, called anaphora, which repeats words at the beginning of the sentence to emphasize the determination and the unshakeable will of the speaker (an epiphora repeats the words at the end of a sentence). Unfortunately, I haven’t got time for an in-depth analysis, but I thought I’d offer the two translations of my favourite passage, as well as mine. This isn’t a translation competition: translating is a wonderful way to truly understand a text and I felt like grappling with this moving passage and sharing the result with you. Also, it’s interesting to see that three different translators arrive at three different translations. Feel free to offer your French translation in the comments.

Source
For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus — and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace.

Le Monde (Ariane Corbin-Favier)
Car nous savons que notre patrimoine bigarré est une force, et non une faiblesse. Nous sommes une nation de chrétiens et de musulmans, de juifs, d'hindous et d'athées. Nous sommes façonnés par toutes sortes de langues et de cultures venant de tous les coins du monde. Et parce que nous avons goûté le brouet amer de la guerre civile et de la ségrégation, et parce que, de ce chapitre sombre de notre histoire, nous sommes sortis plus forts et plus unis, nous ne pouvons pas ne pas croire que les vieilles haines cesseront un jour, que les sentiments d'appartenance disparaîtront, que le monde deviendra plus petit, que notre humanité commune va se révéler et que l'Amérique doit jouer le rôle qui lui revient en inaugurant une nouvelle ère de paix.

Libération (AFP)
Nous savons que notre héritage multiple est une force, pas une faiblesse. Nous sommes un pays de chrétiens et de musulmans, de juifs et d’hindous, et d’athées. Nous avons été formés par chaque langue et civilisation, venues de tous les coins de la Terre. Et parce que nous avons goûté à l’amertume d’une guerre de Sécession et de la ségrégation (raciale), et émergé de ce chapitre plus forts et plus unis, nous ne pouvons pas nous empêcher de croire que les vieilles haines vont un jour disparaître, que les frontières tribales vont se dissoudre, que pendant que le monde devient plus petit, notre humanité commune doit se révéler, et que les Etats-Unis doivent jouer leur rôle en donnant l’élan d’une nouvelle ère de paix.

My translation
Car nous savons que, loin d’être une faiblesse, notre patrimoine pluriel est une force. Nous sommes une nation de chrétiens, de musulmans, de juifs, d'hindous et de non croyants. Nous sommes le fruit du brassage de cultures et de langues originaires des quatre coins de la planète. Et parce que nous avons connu l’amertume de la guerre civile et de la ségrégation et que nous avons survécu, plus forts et plus unis, à ce chapitre sombre de notre histoire, nous ne pouvons nous empêcher d’être convaincus que les haines ancestrales s’éteindront un jour, que les lignes de démarcation s’effaceront, que les peuples se rapprocheront et que l’évidence de leur humanité commune éclatera aux yeux de tous ; et que l'Amérique sera au centre de l’avènement d’une nouvelle ère de paix.

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MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language

MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Building a moderately complex Web page requires understanding a whole stack of technologies, from HTML to JavaScript. Now a researcher from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has wrapped these technologies into a single language that could streamline development, speed up performance and better secure Web sites.

The language, called Ur/Web, provides a way for developers to write pages as self-contained programs. It incorporates many of the most widely used Web technologies, freeing the developer from working with each language individually.

“I think this is a language with potential broad applicability to reduce costs of Web development in many different settings,” said Ur/Web’s author, Adam Chlipala, an MIT computer science assistant professor. “It brings some well-ad understood software engineering advantages to aspects of the Web that have been handled in more ad hoc ways.”

Chlipala will present his work next month at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.

Developing a Web site requires understanding a range of different languages, as well as how they interact.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) offers basic formatting for the Web page, but there is a whole range of adjoining Web technologies that are usually deployed as well: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) provides a way to modify the look of a Web page, and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) structures data for additional processing and classification. JavaScript provides the foundation for writing the business logic for user interactions. And if data is stored in a database, a developer will need to know SQL (Structured Query Language) as well.

Ur/Web encapsulates all the capabilities of such Web development tools within a single language, which is compiled into machine executable code.

Because Ur/Web code is compiled, it can be substantially more efficient to run than code from commonly used Web development languages, Chlipala said.

“In Ur/Web, everything is based on transactions, where a single client request is handled by what looks like an uninterrupted execution of a single function,” Chlipala said. “The language implementation has optimizations in it to support running many requests in parallel, on real servers. But the programmer can pretend everything is a transaction and think in a simpler concurrency model.”

In addition to potentially lessening the cognitive burden for developers, Ur/Web’s top-down approach offers some safety mechanisms that could make Web sites more secure.

The language prohibits unintended interactions among different page elements. With this limit in place, embedded code for supplying ads could not interfere with a calendar widget elsewhere on the page, for example.

Also, like traditional programming languages such as C and Java—and unlike Web languages such as JavaScript—Ur/Web is strongly typed. This means all variables and functions must conform to a preset data type, which limits the ability of an attacker to send maliciously formatted data through a Web form. Ur/Web also supports variable scoping, or the ability to limit where a variable can be called within a program.

The language does have a potential downside. For the average Web developer, Ur/Web could require a “very steep” learning curve, Chlipala admitted. It is what is known as a functional programming language, a style of programming that treats programs as a series of functions, which can be computationally more efficient but harder to learn for a programmer versed in more widely used procedural or object-oriented languages.

Chlipala compared Ur/Web to Haskell, a functional programming language considered esoteric by many programmers yet loved by a dedicated community that praises its computational functionality.

Chlipala is one of a number of MIT researchers who have been pushing the frontiers of software programming languages of late. Another MIT researcher is designing a language called Sketch that can automatically complete sections of code for a program being written. Another MIT effort, dubbed Stack, is designed to identify parts of code that compilers routinely disregard but that nonetheless could be useful.
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