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Education system should suit different types of learners

Education system should suit different types of learners | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

For some, the education system in the United States is less than ideal. One contributing factor is budget cuts targeted toward education. These policies are well-intended, but a country’s future is largely determined by its education and the professionals it is able to produce.
I believe that Western countries, because of labor and minimum wage laws, are losing the battle to keep companies within their borders, because other countries are successful at attracting labor-oriented companies because of their loose labor laws. These laws are often attractive to Western companies trying to maximize their profits, but this comes at the cost of worker exploitation and lower standards of living in those countries.
However, in the service sector, I believe countries like the United States are very successful because the work force is well-equipped for knowledgeable service sector jobs.
And this is the reason why my family came to the United States. The higher education system provides for better opportunities, but standardized testing and inadequate consideration for different types of learning come at a larger cost than we expected.

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Vatican alters draft report translation about gays

Vatican alters draft report translation about gays | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
VATICAN CITY (AP) - The Vatican is watering down a ground-breaking overture to gays - but only if they speak English.

After a draft report by bishops debating family issues came under criticism from many conservative English-speaking bishops, the Vatican released a new English translation on Thursday.

A section initially entitled "Welcoming homosexuals" is now "Providing for homosexual persons," and the tone of the text is significantly colder.

The initial English version - released Monday along with the original - accurately reflected the Italian version in both letter and spirit, and contained a remarkable tone of acceptance to gays. The other translations were similarly faithful to the Italian and didn't deviate in tone.

Conservatives were outraged, and the English was changed.

The first English version asked if the church was capable of "welcoming these people, guaranteeing to them a fraternal space in our communities." The new version asks if the church is "capable of providing for these people, guaranteeing ... them ... a place of fellowship in our communities."

The first version said homosexual unions can often constitute a "precious support in the life of the partners." The new one says gay unions often constitute "valuable support in the life of these persons."

Other changes were made in other sections of the text, but without significantly altering the meaning or tone.

The Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, said English-speaking bishops had requested the changes on the grounds that the first translation was hasty and error-ridden.

When Lombardi was shown how significantly the meaning had changed, he pledged to investigate and didn't rule out a third version.

Lombardi stressed that the original Italian remains the official text, and noted that the draft is being revised top-to-bottom for a final report which will go to a vote among bishops on Saturday.

If two-thirds approve it, the report will form the basis of discussions in dioceses around the world before another meeting of bishops next year, and ultimately a teaching document by Pope Francis.

Based on the complaints to the original text and the number of amendments proposed Thursday, the drafting committee appointed by the pope has its work cut out for it if it wants to get a two-thirds majority.

The Vatican released summaries of the amendments from the 10 working groups that have been negotiating all week. They are near-unanimous in insisting that church doctrine on family life be more fully asserted and explained - that marriage is between a man and woman, open to children - and that faithful Catholic families should be held up as models and encouraged rather than focus on family problems and "irregular" unions.

The English-speaking working groups were among the most critical. The one headed by Cardinal Wilfred Fox Napier of South Africa complained about the translation of the draft report and used the new "providing for" homosexuals language of the revised English translation, suggesting that he or someone in his group might have requested the change.

On Thursday, Francis added Napier, as well as an Australian bishop, to the drafting committee that will compose the final document. It was widely noticed that Francis' initial appointees were largely progressives whom he named after conservatives were elected to head the working groups proposing the amendments.

African bishops, who are among the most conservative on family issues, were not included in his initial picks.

___

Follow Nicole Winfield at www.twitter.com/nwinfield

Copyright 2014 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
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CUCR’s Columbus Article: A translated guide

CUCR’s Columbus Article: A translated guide | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
On October 13th, Spectator published a spread that asked: “What does it mean that Columbia doesn’t celebrate Columbus Day?” The Columbia University College Republicans submitted “Dismissing Columbus Can be Closed-Minded,” an article that calls for more open-minded discussions regarding controversial issues, including European colonialism and the observance of Columbus Day. Reading beneath the article’s flowery language is a hassle, so I’ve compiled and translated several important quotes to make it easy:
“The problem, however, arises when disagreement with the celebration of Christopher Columbus takes the form of closed-minded protests and provocative demonstrations, such as the anti-Columbus Day 'die-ins' last year, or the Native American Council’s repeated calls to ‘take back Manhattan’… The fruitful evolution of an idea, political or not, always requires an interlocutor—some person or persons with which the idea can be discussed, debated, and hopefully improved."
Translation: A protest commemorating the slaughter of your people is totally valid—so long as you’re willing to consider both sides of the story. Your protest can’t be unorthodox or make people uncomfortable, either.
 
“Looking back on the historical role of figures like Columbus is always challenging; how we choose to remember the past with nuance and accuracy is difficult but necessary.”
Translation: In order to have a more objective view of history, we need to see the good and bad in all historical figures.*
*Unless that historical figure is communist leader Che Guevara, in which case, feel free to host No Che Day.
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Vatican Caves To Conservative Bishops, Backtracks On 'Welcoming' Gay People - VIDEO |News | Towleroad

Vatican Caves To Conservative Bishops, Backtracks On 'Welcoming' Gay People - VIDEO |News | Towleroad | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Following protests from conservative bishops, the Vatican has backtracked on reports earlier this week that it had planned to be “welcoming to homosexual persons,” according to the Huffington Post.

The Relatio post disceptationem report from the Extraordinary Synod on the Family faced a severe backlash from conservatives, some of whom accused the leadership of the conference of misrepresenting the proceedings to advance its agenda. The section on homosexuality was especially divisive because it was the first Vatican document that reflected Pope Francis’ earlier announcement that he would take a  nonjudgmental approach to homosexuality.

Homophobic American Cardinal Raymond Burke [pictured below] who chairs the Vatican’s highest court of canon law - and in 2010 said that discrimination against LGBT people is “perfectly just and good” - has been one of the most outspoken critics of the report. He said “the document lacks a solid foundation in the Sacred Scriptures and the Magisterium” and accused the bishops leading the meeting of advancing “positions which many Synod Fathers do not accept.”

Following the conservative backlash, Vatican leaders stressed that “welcoming homosexual persons” is not an official declaration of the synod. The less inclusive phrase “providing for homosexual persons” has now been substituted.

Notably, the revision is in English translation only - the published Italian, Spanish and French translations have not been changed and still use language meaning "welcoming homosexual persons."

Watch Vatican spokesperson Father Federico Lombardi discuss the new translation, AFTER THE JUMP...

 
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For a Better Brain, Learn Another Language

For a Better Brain, Learn Another Language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There’s a certain sinking feeling one gets when thinking of the perfect thing to say just a moment too late. Perhaps a witty parting word could have made all the difference. There is no English word to express this feeling, but the French have the term l’esprit de l’escalier—translated, “stairwell wit”—for this very phenomenon.

Nor is there an English word to describe the binge eating that follows an emotional blow, but the Germans have kummerspeck—“grief-bacon”—to do just that. If we had the Swedish word lagom—which means something is just right—the English explanation of Goldilocks’ perfectly temperate soup could have been a lot more succinct. Or the term koi no yokan, a poetic Japanese turn of phrase that expresses the feeling of knowing that you will soon fall in love with the person you have just met. It’s not love at first sight so much as an understanding that love is inevitable. Keats and Byron could have really used a word like that.

There are many words that English speakers don’t have. Sometimes Anglophones take from other languages, but often, we have to explain our way around a specific feeling or emotion that doesn’t have its own word, never quite touching on it exactly.

“The reason why we borrow words like savoir faire from French is because it’s not part of the culture [in the United States] and therefore that word did not evolve as part of our language,” says George Lakoff, a professor of cognitive science and linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley.

Multi-linguals are more perceptive to their surroundings and better at focusing in on important information. It’s no surprise Sherlock Holmes was a skilled polyglot.
“Speaking different languages means you get different frames, different metaphors, and also you’re learning the culture of the language so you get not only different words, but different types of words,” Lakoff told me.

But the benefits of speaking multiple languages extend past just having access to different words, concepts, metaphors, and frames.

Multilingualism has a whole slew of incredible side effects: Multi-linguals tend to score better on standardized tests, especially in math, reading, and vocabulary; they are better at remembering lists or sequences, likely from learning grammatical rules and vocabulary; they are more perceptive to their surroundings and therefore better at focusing in on important information while weeding out misleading information (it’s no surprise Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot are skilled polyglots). And there’s certainly something to be said for the cultural pleasure of reading The Odyssey in ancient Greek or Proust’s In Search of Lost Time in French.

“Cognitive traps,” or simple mistakes in spelling or comprehension that our brains tend to make when taking linguistic shortcuts (such as how you can easily read “tihs senetcne taht is trerilby msispleld”), are better avoided when one speaks multiple languages. Multi-linguals might also be better decision-makers. According to a new study, they are more resistant to conditioning and framing techniques, making them less likely to be swayed by such language in advertisements or political campaign speeches. Those who speak multiple languages have also been shown to be more self-aware spenders, viewing “hypothetical” and “real” money (the perceived difference between money on a credit card and money in cold, hard cash) more similarly than monolinguals.
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Paraguay contributes Guarani to the 60 languages in Polyglot Quixote

Paraguay contributes Guarani to the 60 languages in Polyglot Quixote | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Polyglot Quixote, an edition of the second part of the Cervantes' work with its chapters translated into 60 languages, now includes a section in Guarani, prepared by the Paraguay's Secretariat of Language Policy at the request of the municipal government of the Spanish town of El Toboso, its promoter.

The project of the La Mancha municipality, home of the peerless Dulcinea, the love of Don Quixote's life, seeks to bring together that number of different languages, including all those spoken in Spain, for its launch in 2015, meant to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the publication of the adventures of the legendary knight errant.

The version in Guarani, the official language of Paraguay along with Spanish, will be Chapter 55 and is "a very faithful, careful translation," Domingo Aguilera, president of the Academy of the Guarani Language, told Efe on Thursday.

Aguilera said that when the team of translators found no elements common to both languages, they used Guarani expressions that transmit the same idea.

He gave as an example the passage where Don Quixote's squire Sancho Panza has a grumbling stomach and says it's all the same to him if he eats carrots or partriges as long as it calms his hunger - which was replaced by the Guarani expression "tuichaguie ta iro yepe rae," which roughly translates as "it doesn't matter what it tastes like as long as there's enough of it."

"Don Quixote of La Mancha," the first to two novels about the last knight errant, was translated into Guarani by the late Felix Gimenez Gomez, one of Paraguay's most outstanding poets and writers in that language.

Some 57 percent of Paraguayans only communicate in that pre-Columbian language, according to the last national census taken in 1992. EFE
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Variety makes you (mentally) fit

Variety makes you (mentally) fit | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
FOR years, researchers in bilingualism have been touting striking findings about how bilingualism affects the brain. Two of the most memorable involve “executive control” and delayed dementia. With the first, bilinguals have shown that they are better able to focus on demanding mental tasks despite distractions. In other studies, it has been estimated that bilinguals see the onset of dementia, on average, about five years later than monolinguals do.

This week comes new evidence* for the pile: researchers led by Roberto Filippi of Anglia Ruskin University have found that young bilingual pupils did a better job answering tricky questions with a noisy voice in the background than a monolingual control group did. The study was small (just 40 pupils, only 20 in each group). But its robustness is helped by the diversity of the bilinguals, who spoke Italian, Spanish, Bengali, Polish, Russian and others in addition to English. The experimenters tried to distract the pupils with random unrelated recordings in English (which all the pupils spoke) and Greek (which none of them did). The bilinguals did significantly better at ignoring the Greek distraction. (They did just a bit better with the English one.)

The researchers in this line of inquiry tend to share a common hypothesis: that being bilingual is a kind of constant inhibitory mental exercise. With two languages in the mind, nearly everything has two labels (words) and nearly everything can be expressed in two different kinds of sentences (grammar). Every time a thing is named, an alternative must be suppressed. Every time a sentence is constructed, the other way of constructing it must be suppressed. Blocking out distracting information is exactly what researchers find that bilinguals do well. And as for dementia, the effect seems to be a kind of analogue to physical activity over the course of a lifetime keeping a body fit. Mental exercise keeps the brain fit, and bilingualism is just that kind of exercise. (Crucially, the most striking findings relate to native bilinguals. The effects are weak to nonexistent for those who merely have a passable ability, infrequently used, in a second language.)

Why bilinguals seem to do better in quite a few differently designed studies does, however, need more research. Another paper published earlier this year** failed to replicate a cornerstone 2004*** study of the bilingual-advantage research. The new study, using elderly participants, found that Asian-language-plus-English bilinguals in Scotland, as well as Gaelic-English bilinguals, did no better than monolinguals on a task that required ignoring a visual distraction. The authors of the 2014 study speculate that the 2004 study used a crucially different kind of bilingual. Those studied in 2014 in Scotland were not frequently required to switch between their languages. The Gaelic-English bilinguals had not been educated in Gaelic, and presumably spoke it to a small group of friends and family, and only in certain settings. The Asian-language speakers had been educated earlier in their Asian tongues, but in Scotland spoke their heritage language only at home, and used English more outside home and family circles. The researchers in the 2004 study tested pupils educated in both languages, those more likely to have two ready labels for a wide range of vocabulary, and who were forced to switch often. 

If the advantage accrues to those who switch more often—and especially those who use more than one language with the same people (like Puerto Rican New Yorkers who rapidly switch back and forth between Spanish and English in the same two-person conversation)—then we are left with a refined version of the “fitness” analogy. Just as recent exercise trends stress variety over repetition, moving between languages, not just knowledge of two of them, may be a key part of the bilingual advantage. Amazingly, some parents still think bilingualism might harm a child's development. Perhaps selling bilingualism as an elite, varied exercise—a kind of Crossfit of the mind—might convince more parents to give it a try.

 

* Filippi, R., Morris, J., Richardson, F., Bright, P., Thomas, M.S.C, Karmiloff-Smith, A., and Marian, V., “Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension”, Bilingualism: Language & Cognition 2014.

** Kirk, N., Fiala, L., Scott-Brown, K.C. and Kempe, V., “No evidence for reduced Simon cost in elderly bilinguals and bidialectals”, Journal of Cognitive Psychology 2014.

*** Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Klein, R., and Viswanathan, M., "Bilignualism, aging and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task", Psychology & Aging, 2004. 
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Celkon Campus One With 21 Languages Support Launched on Snapdeal at Rs 2599

Celkon Campus One With 21 Languages Support Launched on Snapdeal at Rs 2599 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
After launching the Campus Nova A352E handset in the Indian market last week, Celkon has launched their new affordable Android 4.4 handset in the country.
Recommended: Apple iPhone 6 Officially Available in India: Top 10 Online Deals to buy
The Campus One, now available for purchase, is Celkon's latest attempt to grab market share in the low-end smartphone market. The phone is priced at Rs. 2,599, making it one of the cheapest Android 4.4 (KitKat) powered smartphones in the country.
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WordFest: Calgary-born Nancy Huston crosses continents, languages and generations for new novel, Black Dance

WordFest: Calgary-born Nancy Huston crosses continents, languages and generations for new novel, Black Dance | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Nancy Huston is surprisingly specific when asked how inspiration struck for her new novel, Black Dance.

It came while taking a nap in Romania.

The nap part is important because, somewhere in that netherworld between wake and sleep, the Calgary-born novelist began thinking about the notion of a “passive” protagonist. The Romania part is important because she was in the country at the time to give a lecture on “passivity in the context of the Eastern European countries.”

“It also occurred to me that passivity is really an important force in human life generally,” says Huston, in an interview from her home in Paris. “So I decided to work with a character who was passive.”

From there, various threads of inspiration began to interact. A trip to Ireland had Huston researching the historical friendship and common ground between the Quebecois and the Irish fighting for independence. She was inspired by bilingualism, a natural concern for a born-in-Alberta anglophone who nevertheless wrote her first works of fiction in French. She thought about the capoeira, a Brazilian fight-dance, and the mechanics of filmmaking. She thought about her late father, a Fort Macleod native who has been the model for many of the “beautiful losers” in the author’s 25 books of fiction.

Eventually all of this coalesced to tell the epic and darkly comic life story of dying screenwriter Milo Noirlac, a “passive” hero if there ever was one.

“Things happen to him,” explains Huston. “He is not someone who takes initiative, or who responds violently to anything, or gets indignant about anything. He’s passive in the capoeira sense of the term; dealing with the blows that he is going to be dealt and then moving and taking things into account and continuing to dance and continuing to watch and observe.”

Black Dance tells the story of Milo’s strange life, including his origins as a baby born to a drug-addled native teen prostitute named Awinita and drunken Irish father. But it stretches back even further, spanning 100 years and chronicling his family’s roots in Ireland, where Milo’s grandfather Neil Kerrigan fights the British occupation and hangs with James Joyce and William Yeats before being exiled to Quebec to stew in his failed literary ambitions amid his increasingly bitter family.

Dying in a hospital room, Milo’s sprawling story unfolds like a screenplay complete with stage directions and the occasional scathing note from his lover and longtime director Paul Schwarz.

If this all sounds complicated, it is. The miracle is how well the plot flows together, dancing across time, language and continents while incorporating both laugh-out-loud comedy and harrowing tragedy.

“I have an outline,” says Huston with a laugh, when asked about her writing process. “I’m a pianist and love to work in rhythms and I’ve always enjoyed passages in musical pieces that have one rhythm against the other. I wanted to do something like that. One character we would be with for 50 years, (Neil Kerrigan) for a shorter period of time and with Awinita, we are only really with her for a year. The words travel at different rates, different speeds through these three chronologies. I really like the fact that a non-chronological progression sparks different meanings. The past can shed light on the present, of course, but the present also sheds light on the past.”

Complicated structures have been a hallmark for the author, who has lived in Paris since the early 1970s and has enjoyed fame as a literary star. But she spent her first 15 years in Calgary before her father shipped the family to “the middle of the woods” in New Hampshire in a “big, converted school bus.” It was at her new high school that Huston fell in love with both the French language and creative writing. She went to college in New York, but by 1973 had decamped to Paris to study.
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Modern languages department host German film screenings, lecture

The modern languages department will host German Visions of the USA at 4 p.m. Friday, Oct. 17, 109 Justin Hall. The event will start with the documentary film "Little Dieter Needs to Fly" by Werner Herzog, 1997, and the documentary short "Werner Herzog Eats His Shoe" by Les Blank, 1987.

German film scholar Brad Prager, University of Missouri, will present "From Horizon to Horizon: Werner Herzog and His Cinematic Hallmarks" at 6:30 p.m.

On Saturday, Oct. 18, the department will show two feature films at the Manhattan Arts Center, "Bagdad Cafe," by Percy Adlon, 1987, at 1 p.m. and "Schultze Gets the Blues" by Michael Schorr, 2003, at 3 p.m.

All films are English-language with English subtitles when German is spoken.

The event is funded by the modern languages department and by an International Incentive Grant from the Office of International Programs. It is free and open to the public.
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Klingon speakers rejoice: the golden era of fictional languages is now

Klingon speakers rejoice: the golden era of fictional languages is now | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
For most language-learning software companies, Spanish is bread and butter.

But at least one company is obliging fans’ desire to be subsumed into the world of Game of Thrones. Living Language has released a comprehensive course on Dothraki, an invented tongue belonging to the show’s nomadic, horseback warriors sometimes called the “blood riders”.

The interest in invented languages, like Klingon and Elvish, appears a fanciful, if fruitless, pursuit to most. But to those who spend their time engineering aes
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Najat Abdulhaq on the Emergence of the ‘Arab Jew’ in Contemporary Arabic Literature

Najat Abdulhaq on the Emergence of the ‘Arab Jew’ in Contemporary Arabic Literature | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This past summer, as part of a workshop on “The Possibilitiies of Arab-Jewish Thought,” Najat Abdulhaqspoke about “Rethinking Narratives: The Emergence of the ‘Arab Jew’ in Contemporary Arabic Literature,” a talk recently posted to SoundCloud. Abdulhaq discusses the phenomenon and speculates about reasons behind this blossoming of new novels: 

“I think it’s a phenomenon that started in 2006, 2007,” political scientist and economist Abdulhaq said as she opened her talk. The authors of these books, she said, are for the most part “not Arab Jews.” Abdulhaq said there were difficulties with this terminology, but in any case: “They are not them, they are not their grandchildren, they are not related to them directly.”

This new interest, she said, is not limited to novels. “Not at all. The avant garde were the [Arab] filmmakers.”

Yet Arab Jewish characters have recently appeared in a wide range of recent novels. Abdulhaq went on to list off a number of recent novels, in order to demonstrate the breadth of the phenomenon. These are a few; several of them are already in translation:



Diary of a Damascus Jew, Ibrahim al-Jubain, 2007
The Tobacco Keeper, Ali Badr (2008, trans. 2012)

Diary of a Jewish Muslim (2008, trans. 2014) and Days of Diaspora (2010, trans. 2012), and also Dreams of Return, Kamal Ruhayyim

The Last Jews of Alexandria, Mutaz Fatiha (2008)

The Handsome Jew, Ali al-Muqri (2009)

Jewess in My Heart, Khawla Hamdi (2012)

The Last Jew of Tamentit, Amin Zaoui (2012)

The Maze of the Last One, Mohammad al-Ahmed (2013, trans. 2014)

Tattoo, Rasha Adli, (2014)

Abdulhaq also said that she knew about others, for instance by a Libyan author, but the print run was so small it was difficult to find. She also mentioned Egyptian novelist Nael Eltoukhy’s blog, as he writes about translating Hebrew literature into Arabic, including Hebrew writers with Arab backgrounds.

This is not just a few disparate novels, Abdulhaq says. It’s a phenomenon because it’s not limited to one country. “And I don’t think that the writers had an agreement among each other, that they had a workshop and then decided, ‘Come on, we’re going to write novels about it.'”

Abdulhaq said that she found, in the novels, “Common aspects despite big differences in the details. All of them tried, in one way or another, to reconstruct Jewish figures in the countries like Iraq or Egypt or Tunisia or in Syria also. And most of them are based seemingly true biographies. They have been changed for fiction, but meeting authors and talking to them, yes they know, or they heard or they met someone, and they did the research. It also depends how deep it is, but there is a connection.”

These novels, she said, don’t fit with the official discourse of Arab Jewry. And, importantly, “they do not concentrate on conflict. They do not narrow the whole issue…to the Arab-Israeli conflict. From my point of view, the whole issue of the Arab Jews was a hostage of this conflict. The conflict like kidnapped a history of an important part of the Arab world history. And froze it.”

These authors, she said, “go beyond it, and they start questioning.”

The authors are certainly not drawing on official histories, she said. For the most part, she said, the histories of Arab Jews are not studied at Arab universities, with some exceptions, like the AUC’s Prof. Khaled Fahmy.

Abdulhaq threw out some ideas about why this topic might now be appearing: the historical dynamic, nostalgia (“maybe this wish of, ‘We had so good time when we were all together and we loved each other”), and some Arab Jews, such as Ella Shohat, resisisting Israel’s apartheid measures.

Abdulhaq wondered: “Are we dealing with a post-nationalist discourse, which is finding its place in novels?”

Audience members at the talk suggested other possibilities. Yasir Sueliman, Chair of the International Prize for Arabic Fiction, suggested that novelists are always looking for new topics and subjects, and they’re looking for things that haven’t been dealth with in the past. This might also go a way towards explaining the attraction.

Others suggested that authors could be writing for translation, or that this was not post-nationalist, but rather a more inclusive form of nationalism.

Abdelhaq also suggested that, “Most of the novels [that she mentioned] have amazing sales numbers,” which I’m not sure about. Yet certainly a number of them have been well-reviewed, and have been listed for prizes, such as Ali Badr’s and Ali al-Muqri’s novels.

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Nueva edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española | RCN Radio

Nueva edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española | RCN Radio | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
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Nueva edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española
ENTRETENIMIENTO11:23 am
Foto AFP
Por: EFE
 
La nueva edición del "Diccionario de la Lengua Española" se presenta este jueves en la sede de la Real Academia Española (RAE). Esta versión se ha revisado en profundidad para dar una visión "mucho más moderna y dinámica" del léxico actual.
 
A esa revisión se refería el director de la RAE, José Manuel Blecua, en una reciente entrevista en la que también hablaba del "cuidado exquisito" que ha tenido la Academia en procurar evitar el carácter machista de algunas definiciones, pero "sin que esto quiera decir que se haya acabado con todo el machismo en el Diccionario".

"Tampoco se ha acabado con el machismo en la sociedad, y el Diccionario, como es reflejo de una sociedad, contiene visiones sociales que son inevitables, forman parte de nuestra historia", decía Blecua.

La presentación a la prensa será este jueves por la tarde en Madrid, y en ella intervendrán, además de Blecua, el secretario de la RAE, Darío Villanueva; el académico director de la obra, Pedro Álvarez de Miranda; el secretario general de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, Humberto López Morales, y la directora de Espasa, Ana Rosa Semprún.

Al día siguiente, los Reyes presidirán la presentación pública de la XXIII edición del Diccionario, en un acto que se considera la sesión institucional de clausura del III centenario de la RAE. Asistirán los directores de las veintidós Academias de la Lengua Española.

La obra incluye 19.000 americanismos

Y es que todas las Academias han colaborado en la elaboración del Diccionario, la obra de mayor repercusión de cuantas publica la RAE. Y han dado el visto bueno a las novedades que se han ido acordando desde que en 2001 vio la luz la XXII edición.

La editorial Espasa publicará simultáneamente, en todo el ámbito hispanohablante, el nuevo Diccionario de la RAE. Tendrá 93.111 entradas, frente a las 88.431 de la edición anterior de 2001, y recogerá 195.439 acepciones, entre ellas casi 19.000 americanismos. En esta edición se han introducido cerca de 140.000 enmiendas que afectan a unos 49.000 artículos.

La tirada inicial es de 100.000 ejemplares. En España se publicará en un solo volumen y costará 99 euros. En América se editará en dos volúmenes, y su precio será el equivalente a 70 euros (unos 88 dólares).

La versión digital del Diccionario comenzó a funcionar en 2001. Su éxito lo refleja la cifra de consultas que recibe, unos cuarenta millones al mes, procedentes en gran medida de España, México, Argentina, Colombia, Perú y Estados Unidos.

El pasado mes de marzo, cuando la RAE entregó el original del Diccionario, adelantó que se incluirían palabras como "bótox", "cameo", "dron", "pilates", "impasse", "feminicidio", "multiculturalidad" y "precuela". También estarán mileurista (utilizada solo en España), tuit, tuitear, tuitero y red social.
 
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Vatican alters draft translation about gays

Vatican alters draft translation about gays | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
VATICAN CITY — The Vatican is watering down a ground-breaking overture to gays — but only if they speak English.
After a draft report by bishops debating family issues came under criticism from many conservative English-speaking bishops, the Vatican released a new English translation on Thursday.
A section initially entitled “Welcoming homosexuals” is now “Providing for homosexual persons,” and the tone of the text is significantly colder.
The initial English version — released Monday along with the original — accurately reflected the Italian version in both letter and spirit, and contained a remarkable tone of acceptance to gays. The other translations were similarly faithful to the Italian and didn’t deviate in tone.
Conservatives were outraged, and the English was changed.
The first English version asked if the church was capable of “welcoming these people, guaranteeing to them a fraternal space in our communities.” The new version asks if the church is “capable of providing for these people, guaranteeing ... them ... a place of fellowship in our communities.”
The first version said homosexual unions can often constitute a “precious support in the life of the partners.” The new one says gay unions often constitute “valuable support in the life of these persons.”
Other changes were made in other sections of the text, but without significantly altering the meaning or tone.
The Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, said English-speaking bishops had requested the changes on the grounds that the first translation was hasty and error-ridden.
When Lombardi was shown how significantly the meaning had changed, he pledged to investigate and didn’t rule out a third version.
Lombardi stressed that the original Italian remains the official text, and noted that the draft is being revised top-to-bottom for a final report which will go to a vote among bishops on Saturday.
If two-thirds approve it, the report will form the basis of discussions in dioceses around the world before another meeting of bishops next year, and ultimately a teaching document by Pope Francis.
Based on the complaints to the original text and the number of amendments proposed Thursday, the drafting committee appointed by the pope has its work cut out for it if it wants to get a two-thirds majority.
The Vatican released summaries of the amendments from the 10 working groups that have been negotiating all week. They are near-unanimous in insisting that church doctrine on family life be more fully asserted and explained — that marriage is between a man and woman, open to children — and that faithful Catholic families should be held up as models and encouraged rather than focus on family problems and “irregular” unions.
The English-speaking working groups were among the most critical. The one headed by Cardinal Wilfred Fox Napier of South Africa complained about the translation of the draft report and used the new “providing for” homosexuals language of the revised English translation, suggesting that he or someone in his group might have requested the change.
On Thursday, Francis added Napier, as well as an Australian bishop, to the drafting committee that will compose the final document. It was widely noticed that Francis’ initial appointees were largely progressives whom he named after conservatives were elected to head the working groups proposing the amendments.
African bishops, who are among the most conservative on family issues, were not included in his initial picks.
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New version of Quran with Persian, English translations released

New version of Quran with Persian, English translations released | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Mahdi Khosravi said that the English part was translated by Ali Gholi Gharaei and the Persian one by Hossein Ostad vali.

“The certain audience of the new version mostly lives abroad and we negotiated with Islamic Culture and Relation Organizaion (ICRO) to transport a number of the new version to abroad but we failed,” Khosravi said.

The book has been approved by Astan Quds Razavi, however they had no budget to support the new version, he added.

“Because of the phrase-to-phrase translation style, learning the new version of the Quran is easy,” Khosravi stated.

The translation by Hossein Ostad vali and the one by Ali Gholi Gharaei were chosen as the Book of the Year in translation, respectively in 2011 and 2001.
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At the Synod: Corrections and New Committee Members (UPDATED) | Catholic World Report - Global Church news and views

At the Synod: Corrections and New Committee Members (UPDATED) | Catholic World Report - Global Church news and views | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Two minutes into the press briefing at the Vatican press office today, Fr. Lombardi announced that Cardinal Gerhard Mueller, prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, said he did not state that the Relatio was "shameful" as has been reported widely. He said the newspaper report was in error, because he does not "speak in that style." We await more clarification as to how such an error happened.

The second major development: Fr. Lombardi reported that "the Pope decided to act" by adding two new members to the writing committee that will synthesize the reports from the small circles of language-based discussions meeting this week. There have been loud grumbles about the makeup of the original group appointed by Pope Francis for its lack of geographic range. The two new appointments are Cardinal Wilfrid Napier of South Africa and Abp. Denis J. Hart of Melbourne.

And the third development: the new translation of paragraph #50 of the Relatio now reads, "are we capable of providing" space for homosexuals, while the first translation into English read, "welcome and accompany." This change touched off a flurry of challenges from members of the press, because the verbs remain the same in Italian, which is the official language of the Synod. Earlier reports indicated that the translation was inaccurate and misleading.

This new translation on the section about homosexuality in the midterm report is being met with mild scorn by some journalists who viewed the change as an attempt to calm the English protests that doctrine had been abandoned.

UPDATE:

It has been widely reported that a Cardinal Kasper of Germany dismissed much of the African interventions as concerns that are "impossible to resolve."  The German prelate has also said, according to a Zenit interview on Wednesday, that "they (Africans) should not tell us too much what we have to do." The rumor floating about the press office is that Kasper's comment touched off a small vortex within the synod. The subtext is that Cdl. Kasper worries that the Africans are opposed to his themes of communion for divorced and civilly married. African and Asian bishops also want a more doctrinally faithful pastoral approach for homosexuals.

Perhaps this morning's addition of Cdl. Napier of South Africa to the writing committee is coincidental. Some, however, speculate that it was engineered by prelates who believe that the perspective of the non-Western bishops is a critical contribution to the synod deliberations. The challenge to remain Catholic makes the heroic witness of the Africans all the more significant—they have not been persecuted by social pressure to conform, rather they have maintained their faith in the face of violence, beheadings, and burned villages; their bishops, said Cardinal Timothy Dolan of New York, have "mopped up the blood of their people".

Cardinal Dolan also reports that during the synod he has been inspired by the African bishops. "We in the west" are tempted to dilute the teachings, to worry about our popularity. However, said Cdl. Dolan, the Africans know they are not called to be popular but "to propose the truth". The American cardinal declared the African testimonies as "prophetic." It is worth three minutes to view Cardinal Dolan's remarks in a brief video on his blog.

 
About the Author
Mary Jo Anderson 

Mary Jo Anderson is a Catholic journalist and speaker whose articles and commentaries on politics, religion, and culture appear in a variety of publications. She is a frequent guest on EWTN's “Abundant Life,” and her monthly “Global Watch” radio program is heard on EWTN radio affiliates nationwide. She was appointed to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops National Advisory Council (NAC), 2010-2014 and served as member of the NAC Executive Committee in 2011.
 
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SahilOnline : detail news :: Nawayathi language recognized among 180 Indian languages

SahilOnline : detail news :: Nawayathi language recognized among 180 Indian languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Bhatkal: -With the efforts of Nawayath Mehfil, it has been possible to make Nawayathi as one amongst the 7 recognized languages of Karnataka and amongst 180 languages of India.- Said Mr. Abdurrahman Mohtesham talking to SahilOnline here on Friday, October 17.

Sham Kumar, language census survey employee of central government had visited the Nawayath Mehfil office for the 12th language census survey in order to collect the data about the Nawayathi language. He asked the members to provide him the history of the language and said that the department will video tape the language and lips and jaw movement and also pronunciation and submit it to the language divisional office at Kolkata.

They are planning to record the language of the 2 males of below and above the age of 50 and 2 females of below and above 50 as they want the preserve the originality of the language.

He also added that there are 1600 languages all over India and in some cases there are only handful of people left speaking some languages. If they die the language will become extinct. In order to preserve them, efforts are being put by the department to record all the language and its history.

Mr. Mustafa Tabish, Mr. Irfan Mohtesham were also present.
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Language Commissioner Graham Fraser on language rights in Quebec

Language Commissioner Graham Fraser on language rights in Quebec | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
QUEBEC CITY — Quebec anglophones fear they will lose some of their influence in healthcare establishments, following the tabling of Bill 10, an Act to overhaul Quebec’s healthcare system.

Do they have reason to worry? Global’s Caroline Plante sat down for a one-on-one interview with Canada’s Commissioner of Official Languages, Graham Fraser.

CP: Mr. Fraser, welcome!

GF: Thank you, it’s great to be here.

CP: Mr. Fraser, we’re used to hearing you talk about French. We’re spinning that around today and talking about English as a minority language in Quebec. How does your office help the anglophone community here?

GF: I’ve visited probably every part of Quebec to meet with members of the English-speaking community, and I’ve also met with Quebec government ministers to convey some of the challenges that I’ve heard about. My formal responsibility is only in areas of federal jurisdiction, so when I deal with provincial governments or provincial institutions I really serve as a kind of ambassador.

Watch: Bill 10 explained and analyzed
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Google Keyboard v3.2 Update Brings 8 India Language Support Including Tamil

Google Keyboard v3.2 Update Brings 8 India Language Support Including Tamil | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Building deeper relationship with the Indian users Google has today updated its keyboard app with several new regional language support.
Recommended: Apple iPhone 6 Officially Available in India: Top 10 Online Deals to buy
The talk is about the version 3.2, that adds 8 new languages including, Bengali (India), Hindi (Compact), Kannada (India), Malayalam (India), Marathi (India), Tamil (India), Tamil (Singapore), and Telugu (India) to the Google keyboard. This means that at the settings option will now show separate menu for languages, appearance and layout, multilingual options and more.

Obviously, the update will bring in some bug fixes, as well, like every minor update does. However, it is said that the update won't work with Android L preview+. Unfortunately, Google has still not released the Google Keyboard for Indian users on Google Play. However, it comes pre-installed on Android One devices.
Recommended: Samsung Galaxy Note 4 Now Available At Rs 58,300: Top 15 High-End Smartphones Rivals
Back in July, Google Keyboard v3.1 update brought support for several languages including, Indian English, Basque, Galician, Swiss Italian, and Latin American Spanish.
For those that are eager to get the latest version, it's available for download here. You might want to be guided for the process, so hit the source link below to download it.
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Traveling While Arab

Traveling While Arab | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
CAIRO — Some years ago, I was invited to a literary festival in London whose slogan was “change the world.” I had some festival brochures in my hand as I went through the usual entry process at Heathrow Airport. But before I reached the exit, I was surprised to be stopped by a police officer. He examined my passport and leafed through the brochures. Then he asked, “How do you wish to change the world?”

His demeanor was apprehensive, so I took the question seriously and started explaining, in simple terms, that I was an author invited to the festival, that I had not personally chosen the slogan but it implied changing the way people think by means of writing. He seemed persuaded but, all the same, took my passport and I had to wait half an hour before it was returned.

I could provide scores of similar anecdotes. My literary works have been translated into 35 languages, and so I have traveled to various countries for numerous seminars and book signings. Despite the amicable way I am treated by people in the book world, in airports I am just another Arab, a potential terrorist.

I have no complaint about security measures because they have obviously been instituted for my protection as a passenger. Most security personnel perform their duties in a polite and exemplary manner, but some use the procedures to slight you or to make you understand that you are unwelcome or inferior.

The purpose of customs officers at airports is to catch smugglers, but if you look Arabic, or if you are black, or if you are a woman in a head scarf, they make a beeline for you and ask you a series of provocative questions that I doubt have anything to do with smuggling.

“How many cartons of cigarettes have you got with you?” asked an officer, before she opened my suitcase. I replied that I had a single carton. “Are you sure about that?” she responded with a smirk, implying that I was lying.

I cope with these irritations by considering them part of the hassles of my work, but sometimes it becomes too much. Once, at John F. Kennedy International Airport, I was held for two hours because I objected to the officer’s attitude; another time, at Nice, in France, an officer summoned me by curling his index finger, a gesture I find disrespectful. He examined my passport and instead of asking me the purpose of my trip, simply demanded, “What are you doing here?”

“I’ve come to buy some cows,” I told him, in earnest. He looked confused: “Cows? But your passport gives your profession as ‘dentist!"’

“There are some dentists,” I explained (for that is my professional occupation), “whose hobby is collecting cows, and I’m one of them.”

We stood there exchanging sidelong glances until, finally, he returned the passport and let me proceed.

A French police officer of Tunisian origin named Sihem Souid, who worked at Orly Airport in Paris, objected to the racist treatment of Arab and African travelers. She and seven of her colleagues complained about the behavior of other police officers, but nothing was done. Ms. Sihem went on to publish a book, “Omerta dans la police,” that exposed the racist practices at Orly, including the story of an African woman whom an officer referred to as a “filthy black,” and who was strip-searched and photographed, while the officer looked on, laughing.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
Why do some officials mete out this kind of racist treatment at airports?

Clay Routledge, an associate professor of psychology at North Dakota State University, argues that some people crave control, and discriminate against others in order to gratify that desire and boost their self-esteem; for others, racism might provide a stark worldview in which “good” whites and Christians were ranged against “evil” blacks and Muslims. According to the scholar Edward W. Said, in his 1981 book “Covering Islam,” Arabs and Muslims were generally portrayed in the Western media as either oil sheikhs or likely terrorists, while Islam itself was presented as a poorly defined and misunderstood abstraction.

It is true, of course, that terrifying and barbarous crimes committed by terrorists in the name of Islam have cast a shadow over the image of all Muslims. But the most basic rule of justice is that criminal responsibility lies with the individual, and not “by association” with a group that happens to share the same religious or ethnic identity. Can all Americans be held responsible for the torture of Iraqi detainees in Abu Ghraib prison?

In fact, the number of Arab and Muslim victims of Islamic extremist terrorism far exceeds the number of Western victims. In the last two years alone, terrorists in Egypt have killed more than 400 Egyptian police officers and soldiers.


Christianity has had its phases of persecution of so-called heretics, sects, Jews and Muslims, as well as its wars of religion, its inquisitions and crusades. Over centuries, such crimes were carried out in the name of a faith that today preaches love and tolerance. No one religion is more bloodthirsty than another, or has a monopoly on violent extremism. Just as Islam can be followed as a humane religion that urges tolerance, so, too, can it be twisted by some into a belief system that justifies terrorism.

If we want to make this world a better place for our children, we have to teach them that, different as we may be in color, sex, culture or religion, we are all human beings who feel and think and suffer in the same way. We must put aside our prejudices and deal with one another on the basis of equality and individual responsibility. Only then will a black or Arab traveler in a Western airport be treated just like anybody else.

Alaa Al Aswany is the author of the novel “The Yacoubian Building” and other books. This article was translated by Russell Harris from the Arabic.
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Let's speak the languages we dream in

Let's speak the languages we dream in | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The vexed question of language dominated last Wednesday evening’s launch of my novel The Texture of Shadows at the auditorium of the Steve Biko Centre in Ginsberg in the Eastern Cape.

Earlier in the day I had visited the museum, library and archive. Stammering with memory and unresolved aspirations, the images, artefacts and an encounter with the widowed Ntsiki Biko at the centre took me back to the heyday of the black consciousness movement, as did the visit to Biko’s well-tended grave. It had originally been planned as a mausoleum. Uncomfortable with ostentation in a region struggling with the deaths of young people from HIV and Aids, the Steve Biko Foundation quickly scotched this notion.

One was struck by the age disparity of the audience at the launch. It was comprised mainly of very young people and very old people, as though the cohorts of those aged between their mid-20s and mid-30s had simply disappeared. This, therefore, meant those who had just woken up to the realities of what it meant to be young, black and poor in a democratic state had a shared experience with those who were once young, black and poor in an apartheid state.

It is impossible – unless one is fatally oblivious to one’s surroundings – to ignore the effect of language, of English, when one is faced with an audience that is overwhelmingly black. The Eastern Cape is a region once blessed with an unerring cultural instinct; it gave us Enoch Sontonga, SEK Mqhayi, Tiyo Soga and AC Jordan, and it formed the epicentre of the struggle against apartheid.

Today, in the Eastern Cape, there is no mistaking the decline of isiXhosa as a language of discourse. Whereas KwaZulu-Natal, for instance, boasts a vibrant resurgence of isiZulu, from the initiatives at tertiary institutions to burgeoning isiZulu-language newspapers such as Ilanga and Isolezwe and an isiZulu version of the Sunday Times, the Eastern Cape has lost most of its flagship isiXhosa titles.

The indigenous languages might experience differing degrees of marginalisation, with some possibly getting a better deal, but the stubborn fact is that they are all being marginalised.

Though some black people might find this unpalatable, I believe that we are the main architects of the destruction of our languages. For a reason that’s possibly not hard to find, we have relegated our languages to second-class status. Even in instances where we could have communicated differently, we have opted to use English – even in meetings where almost all members of the community speak one indigenous language or another.

Leaders address congregations of black people, at funerals, rallies or in media broadcasts, in a language hardly spoken by the community – sometimes barely by the leader himself. This makes us easy victims of misinterpretation. We’re also likely to reflect what we’re thinking in, say, Setswana or Tshivenda, in English, with disastrous consequences. This is possibly why we have no parallel when it comes to interlocutors claiming to have been quoted out of context.

Now, the man or woman “on the ground” has no choice but to listen and make the best of a bad bargain when faced with official bombast in English. Parents are the ones who will scrimp and scrape to put their child into school, for the simple optimistic reason that their charge would, one day, use the education to deliver them from poverty. English is the most important element of a code to decipher the hieroglyphics of power and prestige.

All this, however, is a carry-over from an unaddressed past. It is a past that hangs over the present and gives it shape and content. It is a past of inequalities and iniquities where for centuries language has been used to subjugate and brainwash. One might say that we fared a lot better than the slaves plucked from Africa to enrich the West and give it the arrogance to turn a scornful gaze on the continent and call her children benighted and shiftless. This past goes to the very heart of our culture.

One would like to believe that bodies such as the Pan South African Language Board, which is charged with protecting and promoting people’s linguistic rights, are doing their best. Their efforts, however, are subverted by attitudes that come from policy weaknesses.

One believes that South Africa is a country with a wide gulf between intention and implementation. As a former regulator in broadcasting and telecommunications, I’m still baffled by the fact that today, in 2014, we still have local content quotas.

Go anywhere in the world – in Brazil, for instance, you’re under no illusion on hitting Rio that you’re in Brazil. The music, the films, the telenovelas are all homegrown. Local content is the norm.

I will not go into the shark-infested waters of affirmative action in a country that is overwhelmingly black.

On the question of language, an issue arises about black writers writing in English. I remember our poet laureate, Keorapetse Kgositsile, telling me how Mazisi Kunene used to refer to the English used by African writers as “Fanakalo”.

When this came up at the launch, I had a moment of déjà vu, taken back to some of the no-holds-barred debates among writers and scholars at the Africa Centre on Covent Garden, or at a book fair hosted by the Camden Centre on Bidborough Street, in the London of our exile. There, you’d have the celebrated Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiong’o holding forth on why he would henceforth write in his native Kikuyu. Someone, perhaps Nuruddin Farah, would counter that Ngugi was free to hold such views because he knew he would be translated almost immediately on publication.

My belief is that writers have to write. They have to use the tools at their disposal. Language is one of the major tools. But the language has to be informed or underpinned by skill, because writing is a craft.

One of the biggest problems facing South African writers of every stripe is impatience to be published. The second, which leads wannabe writers to file off intemperate missives, is to take rejection personally and ascribe race or some form of negrophobia as the reason. In my short life on this earth I have come across numerous disappointed white writers; two or three of them have blamed transformation for their rejection.

South Africa has been blessed with writers such as the late Nadine Gordimer, who understood that, sometimes, people – black and white – had to write in the colonialist’s language to write against the colonialist. I believe that language has to be appropriated and tempered – what we call “ukukokotela” in the parlance of the street – and express what needs to be conveyed.

English has become another language. This is what the world has to confront. Yet the writer who has appropriated English, in whatever form, has to know that it is a language laced with poison.

Gabriel Okara wrote The Voice, a novel of immense beauty, in the Ijaw idiom of Nigeria. Reading this story of struggle and commitment, the reader forgets that the vehicle carrying the story forth is English, and the sensibility towards redemption is Nigerian.

This, however, does mean that the powers that be have to be more coherent in the championing of all our languages. The scholars, publishers, writers and researchers have to collaborate in this quest.

There are commissions galore on the question of language, but they have to be harmonised. Our institutions have to resuscitate literary prizes for literature in indigenous languages. These are baby steps. The bigger step is for government to intervene and take control and remember it is governing in the interest of the majority.

Or else there’ll be service delivery protests by people who will demand to be addressed in the languages of their dreams.

The Texture of Shadows is published by Picador Africa. Mandla Langa’s previous novel, The Lost Colours of the Chameleon, won the 2009 Commonwealth Writers’ Prize Best Book award, Africa region
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The Daily — Study: Aboriginal languages and selected vitality indicators, 2011

Over 60 Aboriginal languages are spoken in Canada today. Aboriginal languages are important to the identity of many First Nations people, Inuit and Métis in Canada.

There were 213,490 people who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue in the 2011 Census of Population. The Cree languages, Inuktitut and Ojibway were the most frequently reported Aboriginal languages. Dene, Innu/Montagnais and Oji-Cree were other Aboriginal languages with a mother tongue population size of 10,000 or more. About 25 Aboriginal languages were reported as mother tongue by less than 500 people. Some examples are Squamish, Tlingit, Sarcee, Oneida and Gwich'in.

According to the 2011 National Household Survey, about one in six Aboriginal people can conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language. Among the three Aboriginal groups (First Nations people, Métis and Inuit), the proportion reporting an ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language was the highest among Inuit. In 2011, 63.7% of Inuit reported being able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language, mostly Inuktitut. The proportion was 22.4% among First Nations people and 2.5% among Métis.

More than 52,000 Aboriginal people were able to converse in an Aboriginal language that was different from their mother tongue, suggesting that these individuals acquired an Aboriginal language as a second language. Conversely, about 14,000 Aboriginal people who reported an Aboriginal mother tongue have lost their ability to converse in that language.

The assessment of language vitality through the measurement of various factors, such as absolute number of speakers, trends in the population size, proportion of speakers within the total population and second language acquisition, can provide information to better understand the situation of a language in Canada and its potential linguistic continuity. The report illustrates how the 2011 Census of Population and the 2011 National Household Survey can be used to measure some of the factors that provide information related to the vitality of Aboriginal languages.

Definitions, data sources and methods: survey numbers survey number3901 and survey number5178.

The publication Aboriginal Languages and Selected Vitality Indicators in 2011 (Catalogue number89-655-X) is now available from the Browse by key resource module of our website under Publications.

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (613-951-4636; mediahotline@statcan.gc.ca).

Date modified: 2014-10-16
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Are All Leaders Extroverts? | Horizons Newspaper

Are All Leaders Extroverts? | Horizons Newspaper | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Lead from the back — and let others believe they are in front.” According to the late Nelson Mandela, this was the key to becoming a great leader. Energetic antics and moving speeches may be effective for some, but often times the power of a calm composure can be just as beneficial. It is easy to stereotype all leaders as extroverts who are overly-energetic and larger-than-life. They are the go-getters and overachievers of the world. However, it is often overlooked that some of our greatest leaders, such as Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Gandhi, and Mother Teresa, were all introverts. This then begs the question: Do all great leaders have to be extroverts?
Many consider Abraham Lincoln as a man of few words. However, this composure is what made Lincoln one of the best leaders in American history. His ability to listen to different point of views helped him analyze complex situations, and his ability to control his emotions allowed him to manage heated quarrels or disagreements. However, his introversion did not necessarily mean that he lacked any communication with his fellow politicians or the American people. He was able to effectively communicate with others about a broad range of subjects and this ability allowed him to lead successfully.
To Mahatma Gandhi, the most powerful tool in leadership is restraint. A self-professed introvert, he has acknowledged that his shyness aided him with his “discernment of truth,” and that it was his true strength. A slight man at just 5 feet 5 inches and thin as a rail, Gandhi was far from the striking politician in a tailored suit. However, Gandhi’s power did not come from his physical presentation, but rather from his humility and ability to constantly practice what he preached. Just like Gandhi, Mother Teresa’s leadership style was not defined by charismatic speeches or attention-grabbing spectacles. Instead, her humbleness and soft-spoken guidance are what set her apart from other leaders.
So why are introverts such powerful and effective leaders? Firstly, their composure allows them to remain calm during stressful situations. Instead of blurting out the first thing that comes to mind, they are able to think and filter their thoughts before forming them into words. Their listening skills are often impeccable due to their quiet natures, allowing them to appeal to others as well as gather critical information that is often overlooked by those attempting to woo the masses.
Often times, introverts are completely humble about their skills and accomplishments, allowing them to focus their attention on the purpose of an action rather than its reward. In addition, their tendency towards leading from the back instills a sense of meaning to their position. By no means are they seeking the attention and fame associated with leading. Instead, they are often devotedly committed and loyal to their purpose or cause.
Now this does not mean that all larger-than-life leaders are lacking the capability to lead effectively, nor does it suggest that every introverted leader is destined for greatness. Every situation requires a different strategy and leader, and this should be considered when facing any problem. Nevertheless, great introverted leaders defy the stereotype that every person in a position of power should be overly charismatic and energetic. In some cases, the most powerful position in the room resides in the chair of the person who has done the most, yet said the least.
According to Donald H. McGannon, “Leadership is action, not position.” So next time a leadership position is thrust your way, consider that power associated with leading from the back and the true meaning of being a leader.
 
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À Sant-Maloù Gwersac'h le nouveau panneau de ville bilingue !

À Sant-Maloù Gwersac'h le nouveau panneau de ville bilingue ! | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La nouvelle plaque de Saint-Malo “de Brière” bilingue a été présentée (ph. 7) au public, lors de la fête à Anne de Bretagne le dimanche 28 septembre (1) à 15 h 20. Dévoilée par le maire Alain Michelot de Saint-Malo-de-Guersac en présence de Martine Hédin (2), elle fut très applaudie.
Le maire de Saint-Malo de Guersac Voir le site expliqua que ce nom breton de la commune, « s'il n'est pas attesté dans d'anciens documents, est tout à fait adéquat grâce aux recherches de l'Office de la langue bretonne ».
Deux documents aimablement communiqués par Martine Hédin :
Le PDF 1 : Étymologie de la forme bretonne, émanant des études de Ofis ar brezhoneg (3).
Le PDF 2 : L'histoire et la légende de Saint Malo.
Après la pose des panneaux sur place aux entrées du bourg sur la D 45, Martine Hédin a bien voulu nous procurer les photos qu'elle a prises ce matin, sous la pluie !
Notes

(1) (voir ABP 35326) pour la matinée. Le récit de l'après-midi y sera ajouté dès que possible, avec photos, videos, interviews...
(2) Martine Hédin, conseillère municipale, très impliquée, et dans l'organisation de la fête et dans la décision du panneau bilingue.
(3) Voir le site de l'Office public de la langue bretonne. Et Voir le site pour sa page de recommandations à respecter lors d'un projet de bilinguisme, dont ce paragraphe : L'utilisation des mêmes polices d'écriture, couleur et taille de caractères pour les deux langues est requise : ainsi, il n'y a pas de hiérarchisation des 2 langues. ■
etymologie_gwersach.pdf Étymologie de la forme bretonne de Saint-Malo de Guersac. Source : Ofis ar brezhoneg - Mairie St-Malo de Guersac
legende_saint_malo.pdf L'histoire et la légende de Saint Malo. Source : Mairie de Saint-Malo de Guersac
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La nueva edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española se presenta mañana

La nueva edición del Diccionario de la Lengua Española se presenta mañana | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La nueva edición del "Diccionario de la Lengua Española" se presenta mañana en la sede de la Real Academia Española (RAE), y será el momento de conocer las características de esta obra de referencia, que se ha revisado en profundidad para dar una visión "mucho más moderna y dinámica" del léxico actual.

A esa revisión se refería el director de la RAE, José Manuel Blecua, en una reciente entrevista con Efe, en la que también hablaba del "cuidado exquisito" que ha tenido la Academia en procurar evitar el carácter machista de algunas definiciones, pero "sin que esto quiera decir que se haya acabado con todo el machismo en el Diccionario".

"Tampoco se ha acabado con el machismo en la sociedad, y el Diccionario, como es reflejo de una sociedad, contiene visiones sociales que son inevitables, forman parte de nuestra historia", decía Blecua.

La presentación a la prensa será mañana por la tarde, y en ella intervendrán, además de Blecua, el secretario de la RAE, Darío Villanueva; el académico director de la obra, Pedro Álvarez de Miranda; el secretario general de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, Humberto López Morales, y la directora de Espasa, Ana Rosa Semprún.

Al día siguiente, los Reyes presidirán la presentación pública de la XXIII edición del Diccionario, en un acto que se considera la sesión institucional de clausura del III centenario de la RAE. Asistirán los directores de las veintidós Academias de la Lengua Española.

Y es que todas las Academias han colaborado en la elaboración del Diccionario, la obra de mayor repercusión de cuantas publica la RAE. Y han dado el visto bueno a las novedades que se han ido acordando desde que en 2001 vio la luz la XXII edición.

La editorial Espasa publicará simultáneamente, en todo el ámbito hispanohablante, el nuevo Diccionario de la RAE. Tendrá 93.111 entradas, frente a las 88.431 de la edición anterior de 2001, y recogerá 195.439 acepciones, entre ellas casi 19.000 americanismos. En esta edición se han introducido cerca de 140.000 enmiendas que afectan a unos 49.000 artículos.

La tirada inicial es de 100.000 ejemplares. En España se publicará en un solo volumen y costará 99 euros. En América se editará en dos volúmenes, y su precio será el equivalente a 70 euros.

La versión digital del Diccionario comenzó a funcionar en 2001. Su éxito lo refleja la cifra de consultas que recibe, unos cuarenta millones al mes, procedentes en gran medida de España, México, Argentina, Colombia, Perú y Estados Unidos.

Desde que se publicó la anterior edición del Diccionario, las Academias han ido volcando en la versión electrónica miles de novedades y de modificaciones. Mañana habrá ocasión de conocer una selección de las acordadas en los últimos meses.

Algunas de ellas ya se hicieron públicas el pasado mes de marzo, cuando la RAE entregó el original del Diccionario y adelantó que se incluirían palabras como "bótox", "cameo", "dron", "pilates", "impasse", "feminicidio", "multiculturalidad" y "precuela". También estarán mileurista (utilizada solo en España), tuit, tuitear, tuitero y red social.

En la edición en papel se han incluido, además, voces como "audioguía", "cortoplacista", "hipervínculo", "medicalización", "naturópata" y "serendipia". Para consultarlas en la versión electrónica habrá que esperar a que la RAE la actualice.

Pero, desde hace años están disponibles en internet miles de nuevos artículos y de palabras enmendadas, acordadas por las Academias de la Lengua Española, entre ellas la acepción de matrimonio homosexual, que entró en el Diccionario en junio de 2012.

En esa fecha se incluyeron también voces como blog, bloguero, chat, chatear, cienciología, friki, espanglish, euroescepticismo, okupa, página web, papamóvil, SMS y tableta electrónica.

El libro electrónico llegó en 2010 a la edición digital del Diccionario, como también lo hicieron términos como abducir, ambientalista, anticrisis, anticelulítico, buñueliano, grafitero, "jet lag", y otros coloquiales como cultureta, muslamen y obrón.

Hay innumerables expresiones de tipo coloquial que han entrado en el Diccionario en estos últimos años, como chiste verde, costar un riñón, estar al loro, animal de bellota o cuerpo de jota.

Y otras no coloquiales, entre ellas acoso moral, cerrar filas, mayoría silenciosa, diálogo social, animal político o terapia ocupacional.
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