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Multi-culture media growing fast as immigration increases in capital

Multi-culture media growing fast as immigration increases in capital | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Hunsdeep Rangar is an effervescent 36-year-old who likes to say he was “made in India, packaged in Canada.” Bridging the two cultures has become his passion, and multicultural media is his vehicle.

Rangar is producer and host of Mirch Masala Radio, Ottawa’s only South Asian drive-home show. Broadcasting five days a week on CHIN Radio, the House of Commons information analyst spins an hour of the drive-home staples of news, weather and traffic, mixed with updates on health, arts, culture and a heavy dose of music from Bollywood and local artists with roots in India, Pakistan and elsewhere in the region. A second hour is hosted by a rotating crew of Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu-speaking hosts, all volunteers.

Read more: http://www.ottawacitizen.com/news/Multi+culture+media+growing+fast+immigration+increases+capital/6519193/story.html#ixzz1tF63qekZ

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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How to improve students' writing

“There is a really big issue in the transition from school to university, and it’s getting bigger,” said Dr Adam Smith, UCL History. He is talking about first-year students and the difficulty they face in adapting to undergraduate essay-writing.

The problem, he says, stems from changes made to the A-Level curriculum over the past 10-15 years. As mark schemes for A-Level essays become more prescriptive, so students grow used to being spoon-fed essay plans. In some cases, that has left them unprepared to deal with the rigours of a university humanities programme.

His Provost’s Teaching Award-winning solution was to create Writing History – a first-year module unlike anything else on the programme.

In just its first year, it was better attended and more popular than any other compulsory course, with 100 percent of students agreeing the course was ‘good’ or ‘very good’. Every feedback respondent also said they’d benefitted from small group teaching – one of the hallmarks of the course – and Dr Smith’s colleagues agree student essays have improved as a result. 

Although he is quick to point out the style and structure of Writing History might not work for every discipline, there are a number of elements that others could find useful. Here are his key tips for improving essay-writing among undergraduates:

1 No-one likes generic skills courses, so don’t teach writing in isolation

I didn’t want to create a generic skills course. People find them boring. So we link Writing History to the topics that students are studying in their other modules.

The course kicks off with a few introductory lectures that introduce academic writing and research. After that, we match small student groups to tutors who have expertise in a subject the students are currently studying. As a result, the group can use examples and exercises that make sense to everyone and help them with those other courses.

You can’t artificially divorce content from form. That consideration was really key to the concept of the course and saved it from being a generic skills course that students would probably have hated.

2 Small group teaching offers major benefits

I’m really passionate about this. Across higher education there is still an obsession with contact hours. I think this is misplaced. Students don’t care about contact hours – they care about the quality of the contact.

One of the things that is completely new on this course is we break students into very small groups of three or four. That is what students really like and that’s what’s distinctive about it.

In these small groups, we then set practical writing exercises and discuss them with each other. It’s an opportunity to build confidence and ask questions in a situation that isn’t intimidating. It also gets them into the habit of peer assessment.

I don’t think you can’t replicate that in a standard seminar group or lecture.

3 When it comes to writing exercises, start small

All tutors have some leeway in designing their own tasks. What they have in common is the use of small writing assignments and group discussion.

In advance of my first tutorial session, I set a question relevant to my specialism. Students are asked to email their 150-word responses to me and the other students in the group. Then, in the tutorial, we pick them apart and discuss each other's. Why have they chosen those words? Have they communicated the idea they wanted to get across?

The discipline of writing 150 or 200 words is phenomenally helpful. It doesn’t sound like a lot of work, but is very difficult.

Other tasks include writing a synopsis of a book or condensing an argument in a short paragraph. I also present sentences taken from different parts of an essay and ask them to consider where they may have come from – the intro, the main body or conclusion. From here, we work up to planning and writing essays.

4 There is no formula for a perfect essay, but there are some key principles

A-Level students become used to receiving essay templates and detailed guidance. In Writing History, I present some key principles, but it is vastly less prescriptive than what they would be used to.

Really, the main thing I’m trying to do in laying out principles is explain the terminology tutors will be using in their feedback. I’ve noticed over the years I’ve been teaching that students can be confused by terms such as sources and structure, and I felt we weren’t spending enough time translating them. We are so ingrained in academic writing, we forget how difficult that initial introduction can be.

5 Feedback on the first attempt is crucial

Every History student writes their first essay in the context of this course. They each get to produce a first draft that they can discuss with their tutor. They then get feedback before producing a final draft.

Because students feel they are under a different assessment regime and aren’t sure what is expected of them, they are understandably anxious about writing, so the idea that the first time they give it a go they will get quality feedback on a draft is immensely reassuring.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

“There is a really big issue in the transition from school to university, and it’s getting bigger,” said Dr Adam Smith, UCL History. He is talking about first-year students and the difficulty they face in adapting to undergraduate essay-writing.

The problem, he says, stems from changes made to the A-Level curriculum over the past 10-15 years. As mark schemes for A-Level essays become more prescriptive, so students grow used to being spoon-fed essay plans. In some cases, that has left them unprepared to deal with the rigours of a university humanities programme.

His Provost’s Teaching Award-winning solution was to create Writing History – a first-year module unlike anything else on the programme.

In just its first year, it was better attended and more popular than any other compulsory course, with 100 percent of students agreeing the course was ‘good’ or ‘very good’. Every feedback respondent also said they’d benefitted from small group teaching – one of the hallmarks of the course – and Dr Smith’s colleagues agree student essays have improved as a result. 

Although he is quick to point out the style and structure of Writing History might not work for every discipline, there are a number of elements that others could find useful. Here are his key tips for improving essay-writing among undergraduates:

1 No-one likes generic skills courses, so don’t teach writing in isolation

I didn’t want to create a generic skills course. People find them boring. So we link Writing History to the topics that students are studying in their other modules.

The course kicks off with a few introductory lectures that introduce academic writing and research. After that, we match small student groups to tutors who have expertise in a subject the students are currently studying. As a result, the group can use examples and exercises that make sense to everyone and help them with those other courses.

You can’t artificially divorce content from form. That consideration was really key to the concept of the course and saved it from being a generic skills course that students would probably have hated.

2 Small group teaching offers major benefits

I’m really passionate about this. Across higher education there is still an obsession with contact hours. I think this is misplaced. Students don’t care about contact hours – they care about the quality of the contact.

One of the things that is completely new on this course is we break students into very small groups of three or four. That is what students really like and that’s what’s distinctive about it.

In these small groups, we then set practical writing exercises and discuss them with each other. It’s an opportunity to build confidence and ask questions in a situation that isn’t intimidating. It also gets them into the habit of peer assessment.

I don’t think you can’t replicate that in a standard seminar group or lecture.

3 When it comes to writing exercises, start small

All tutors have some leeway in designing their own tasks. What they have in common is the use of small writing assignments and group discussion.

In advance of my first tutorial session, I set a question relevant to my specialism. Students are asked to email their 150-word responses to me and the other students in the group. Then, in the tutorial, we pick them apart and discuss each other's. Why have they chosen those words? Have they communicated the idea they wanted to get across?

The discipline of writing 150 or 200 words is phenomenally helpful. It doesn’t sound like a lot of work, but is very difficult.

Other tasks include writing a synopsis of a book or condensing an argument in a short paragraph. I also present sentences taken from different parts of an essay and ask them to consider where they may have come from – the intro, the main body or conclusion. From here, we work up to planning and writing essays.

4 There is no formula for a perfect essay, but there are some key principles

A-Level students become used to receiving essay templates and detailed guidance. In Writing History, I present some key principles, but it is vastly less prescriptive than what they would be used to.

Really, the main thing I’m trying to do in laying out principles is explain the terminology tutors will be using in their feedback. I’ve noticed over the years I’ve been teaching that students can be confused by terms such as sources and structure, and I felt we weren’t spending enough time translating them. We are so ingrained in academic writing, we forget how difficult that initial introduction can be.

5 Feedback on the first attempt is crucial

Every History student writes their first essay in the context of this course. They each get to produce a first draft that they can discuss with their tutor. They then get feedback before producing a final draft.

Because students feel they are under a different assessment regime and aren’t sure what is expected of them, they are understandably anxious about writing, so the idea that the first time they give it a go they will get quality feedback on a draft is immensely reassuring.

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The rate rant in the translation industry

The rate rant in the translation industry | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Guest article by Sébastien Devogele - "One of the most frequently recurring discussions between translators and interpreters is the infamous rates debate".
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Thibaut Courtois sert de traducteur pour Diego Costa

Thibaut Courtois sert de traducteur pour Diego Costa | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
En plus d'occuper la place de numéro entre les perches, le gardien des Diables aide Diego Costa à s'intégrer.
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ETRI Unveils the New ‘Genie Talk’ an Instant Translation App - Be Korea-savvy

ETRI Unveils the New ‘Genie Talk’ an Instant Translation App - Be Korea-savvy | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
SEOUL, Sep. 2 (Korea Bizwire) – An instant automatic translation application for a smartphone has been newly released so that with its …
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Autumn Reads - New Literary Fiction in Translation

Autumn Reads - New Literary Fiction in Translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This is the appeal of literary fiction in translation. We may cross over into different worlds, but similar themes emerge that help us better understand our own experiences and histories....
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Local authors reissue book about 1856 Polly Frisch murders

Local authors reissue book about 1856 Polly Frisch murders | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
PERRY -- In 1856, in the Genesee County town of Alabama, a series of cold blooded killings by Polly Frisch would stun her family, friends and the neighboring community.
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AICA :: México ya tiene Biblias traducidas en 100 lenguas indígenas

AICA :: México ya tiene Biblias traducidas en 100 lenguas indígenas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Una organización étnica logró traducir la Biblia, el Nuevo Testamento y la Constitución Federal a más de 100 lenguas indígenas, dijo el presidente de la Unión Nacional de Traductores Indígenas (UTI), Luis Eduardo Chávez Aquino, quien señaló que el libro más antiguo del mundo se logró traducir solo en 10 lenguas, mientras que el Nuevo Testamento en 130 lenguas, y la Constitución en 13, principalmen...
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guerre des langues - rts.ch - Infrarouge - Forums

guerre des langues - rts.ch - Infrarouge - Forums | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
il est très important de parler plusieurs langues et de les apprendre est assez facile pour les jeunes enfants dès 4 ans, plusieurs pays le prouvent. Par contre, en Suisse,ils existent un vrai problème. les romands détestent les suisse-allemandes et leurs dirigent, voir la presse de tous bord, les tessinois sont ignorés, pas d'obligation d'apprendre leurs langues, ou est la cohésion? Les romands sont ils juste un peuple de vexé? la cohésion n'existe plus depuis fort longtemps.C'est chaqu'un pour soi en crachant sur l'autre, d’ailleurs je déteste le mot Röstigraben c'est primitive.Prenez l’exemple d'autre pays ou l'on ce dénigre moins
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il est très important de parler plusieurs langues et de les apprendre est assez facile pour les jeunes enfants dès 4 ans, plusieurs pays le prouvent. Par contre, en Suisse,ils existent un vrai problème. les romands détestent les suisse-allemandes et leurs dirigent, voir la presse de tous bord, les tessinois sont ignorés, pas d'obligation d'apprendre leurs langues, ou est la cohésion? Les romands sont ils juste un peuple de vexé? la cohésion n'existe plus depuis fort longtemps.C'est chaqu'un pour soi en crachant sur l'autre, d’ailleurs je déteste le mot Röstigraben c'est primitive.Prenez l’exemple d'autre pays ou l'on ce dénigre moins
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art-ramasamy-marecek-zabokrtsky.pdf

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Tiwi Islands students take part in writing workshop for Indigenous Literacy Day

Tiwi Islands students take part in writing workshop for Indigenous Literacy Day | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Students from the farthest reaches of Australia produce a book in two days.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

You can't get much farther north than the Tiwi Islands and still remain in Australia. The islands lie 80 kilometres across the Beagle Gulf from Darwin, and are home to about 3000 people.

However, today nine schoolgirls from the islands are sitting around a table in the middle of Sydney as part of a workshop overseen by the Indigenous Literacy Foundation.

The view of the city from the 13th floor office of Harper Collins is distractingly gorgeous, but they're hard at work sketching out illustrations and working through the text for what will shortly become a book, helped along by children's author Alison Lester and the ILS's program manager, Tina Raye.

The story didn't exist mere hours ago: the entire process from coming up with the idea through to sending the finished text and pictures off to print will take a grand total of two days.

Advertisement 

The story they've worked up together tells the day-to-day life of Mia, a fictional Tiwi Islands girl. She attends school, deals with the pressures of her family and community, and aspires to be a singer like her hero, Jessica Mauboy. She could be any one of the students laughing and talking around the table.

It will be the second book that has come out of the ILS's work with the Tiwi Islands. Bangs the Owl – star of Bangs 2 Jurrukuk, the result of last year's workshop – has pride of place in the middle of the table.

All of the girls are students at Tiwi College. They board at the school during the week – which makes sense, as teacher Dianne "Tic Tac" Moore explains that the trip from the town to the school can take half a day via troop carrier during the wet season. The girls also field an Australian rules team which, as Moore proudly asserts, have never been defeated in competition.

The girls are not only using their time in Sydney to write this book: they're also presenting Bangs 2 Jurrukuk at the Opera House on Wednesday as part of the Indigenous Literacy Day celebrations.

Gabriella Lorenzo is one of the student writers. She shyly explains that her grandmother was of the Stolen Generation and that it was important for Mia's story to touch on that experience. She's been enjoying the trip and working with the girls on the book, but she doesn't aspire to be a writer when she finishes school.



Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/tiwi-islands-students-take-part-in-writing-workshop-for-indigenous-literacy-day-20140902-10b8or.html#ixzz3CBMe7BdI

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Anthro X: An anti-seminar in culture and cognition

Anthro X: An anti-seminar in culture and cognition | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As mentioned in my previous post, this term I'm running a special course on the topic of culture and cognition, for six of the students in my Culture, Language and Cognition course from last term, ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

As mentioned in my previous post, this term I’m running a special course on the topic of culture and cognition, for six of the students in my Culture, Language and Cognition course from last term, all of whom were highly successful and, because I’m advising them in one way or another, are highly motivated to do some more work in this field.    I’m running this as a joint directed study – it looks like a seminar, and acts like a seminar, but keeping it ‘directed’ allows me to schedule it and manage enrollment more effectively.   I’m calling it ‘Anthro X’ as a conscious homage to the late physicist Richard Feynman, and his ‘Physics X’ informal seminars at Caltech. 

Last term’s course was skewed a little towards ‘cognitive anthropology’ construed narrowly, within the American tradition outlined by Roy D’Andrade in his The development of cognitive anthropology (1995).  This sort of work is obviously important, but hardly scratches the surface of the broader subject of ‘culture and cognition’ (across anthropological subfields and related disciplines).  It’s that broader field where I position my own work on number and numeracy, and thus, where I decided to go in this new course.  I chose recent book-length works, all from the past ten years, and a heavy skew towards the past two years. Partly that’s because these particular students already have a broad reading background in the older material, so are more than ready for contemporary stuff.  Partly it’s because they’ll be writing book reviews, which they’ll be posting here in the weeks to come.  Partly it’s because I haven’t read half this stuff myself, and assigning it to students provides me a good incentive to do so. 

Anyway, here’s the planned reading list – comments and questions are welcome!

Bloch, Maurice. 2012. Anthropology and the cognitive challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

C

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Is this just another privileged white man writing about Indigenous affairs? –

Is this just another privileged white man writing about Indigenous affairs? – | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Recent articles at Croakey have highlighted efforts to decolonise healthcare practice and HIV research. How might policy-making be different – in both process and outcomes – if efforts were made to decolonise what remains a heavily colonised system? This and other questions are raised by Dr Tim Senior’s sixth Wonky Health column, which examines the Forrest [...]
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"Mokusatsu", l'erreur de traduction américaine qui a détruit Hiroshima - RTBF Societe

"Mokusatsu", l'erreur de traduction américaine qui a détruit Hiroshima - RTBF Societe | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Il aura suffi d’une erreur de traduction pour que des dizaines de milliers d’hommes et de femmes disparaissent, emportés par le souffle nucléaire d'Hiroshima. Un simple mot mal interprété a changé la face du monde et le sens de l’histoire. "Mokusatsu" était un mot à double sens qui, pour les Japonais, fut une arme à double tranchant.
Charles Tiayon's insight:


Il aura suffi d’une erreur de traduction pour que des dizaines de milliers d’hommes et de femmes disparaissent, emportés par le souffle nucléaire d'Hiroshima. Un simple mot mal interprété a changé la face du monde et le sens de l’histoire. "Mokusatsu" était un mot à double sens qui, pour les Japonais, fut une arme à double tranchant.


Le site Slate consacre un dossier fouillé à un fait historique peu connu. Pour mettre fin à la guerre du Pacifique, les Alliés envisageaient de lancer un énorme débarquement baptisé "Opération Downfall". Le jour J serait le 1er novembre.

Mais quelques mois avant l'attaque ultime, l’Empire du Levant reçut une demande de reddition en forme d’ultimatum. Le Japon voulut y répondre de manière ambigüe par le mot "Mokusatsu" qui avait la particularité d’avoir plusieurs sens: "Ignorer avec mépris" ou "sans commentaire ".

Un mot qui devait permettre de gagner du temps

Le Japon cherchait à l’époque à négocier une reddition en sauvant l’Empire et comptait pour cela sur l’aide de la Russie. Il lui fallait donc gagner du temps par une réponse équivoque, et "Mokusatsu" semblait convenir à merveille.

Une note de la NSA explique aujourd’hui comment cette mauvaise traduction fut considérée comme "un exemple typique de leur esprit fanatique et kamikaze", alors que ce mot avait été choisi par les diplomates nippons pour calmer l’armée japonaise tout en ménageant les Alliés.

La mauvaise traduction du document par les Alliés eut, au contraire pour effet de convaincre le président Truman qu’il ne servait plus à rien de discuter et qu’il fallait prendre une décision rapide. A la perspective de lancer un vaste débarquement le 1er novembre, il préféra donc le largage immédiat des bombes atomiques qu’il savait prêtes à l’emploi. Et ce furent les deux champignons nucléaires sur Hiroshima, le 6 août, puis Nagasaki, le 9 août.

L’article de Slate conclut en disant que " L'Histoire est émaillée d'erreurs de traduction aux conséquences diplomatiques plus ou moins graves, Mais jamais avant ‘Mokusatsu’ un quiproquo n’était devenu casus belli. "

Ambiguïté russe

Tout dernièrement, les déclarations du Président Poutine concernant le "statut étatique" de la zone (prorusse) d’Ukraine aurait également été une mauvaise traduction. Son porte-parole Dmitri Peskov a déclaré qu’il ne s’agissait "absolument pas" de donner le statut d’un Etat aux régions rebelles, mais de prendre en compte leurs intérêts. En politique, L’expression " ne pas pouvoir s’entendre " prend souvent tout son sens.

RTBF

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Writing a Book, From Start to Finish

Writing a Book, From Start to Finish | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

One of my newsletter subscribers, Job Dalomba [jobdalomba.com] suggested that I write a post how how to do “book projects from start to finish, and share any ideas on how to get started.” Philip Jenkins and I have been posting lately about how to choose a research subject, but I loved this suggestion and want to sketch my book writing process here.

My experience as a book author is heavily shaped by my Ph.D. training as a historian and professor’s job at Baylor. Publishing a book that gets read by more than just a few people ordinarily requires some kind of platform. My platform is a combination of credentials, professional position, previous publishing record, and social media and web presence. My position at Baylor also means that I not only have time and support to write, but publishing is part of my annual performance review. I am mindful that many aspiring writers do not have this kind of built-in support, or platform. But if your professional situation does not necessarily come with publishing support, that does not mean you can’t publish. It can just make it harder to make yourself known to prominent publishers and the book-buying market.

The beginning of a book project comes with an idea of a gap to be filled, or a figure or topic that needs a new angle. In history, this requires expertise in the existing literature on a topic. For example, when I conceived the topic for my book on the Great Awakening (published in 2007), there were two main gaps I believed I could fill. One was about scope: no one had really w

Charles Tiayon's insight:

One of my newsletter subscribers, Job Dalomba [jobdalomba.com] suggested that I write a post how how to do “book projects from start to finish, and share any ideas on how to get started.” Philip Jenkins and I have been posting lately about how to choose a research subject, but I loved this suggestion and want to sketch my book writing process here.

My experience as a book author is heavily shaped by my Ph.D. training as a historian and professor’s job at Baylor. Publishing a book that gets read by more than just a few people ordinarily requires some kind of platform. My platform is a combination of credentials, professional position, previous publishing record, and social media and web presence. My position at Baylor also means that I not only have time and support to write, but publishing is part of my annual performance review. I am mindful that many aspiring writers do not have this kind of built-in support, or platform. But if your professional situation does not necessarily come with publishing support, that does not mean you can’t publish. It can just make it harder to make yourself known to prominent publishers and the book-buying market.

The beginning of a book project comes with an idea of a gap to be filled, or a figure or topic that needs a new angle. In history, this requires expertise in the existing literature on a topic. For example, when I conceived the topic for my book on the Great Awakening (published in 2007), there were two main gaps I believed I could fill. One was about scope: no one had really w

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South Africa: Adult Literacy Programmes - Our Weapon to Fight Poverty

South Africa: Adult Literacy Programmes - Our Weapon to Fight Poverty | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) in partnership with the Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA) will celebrate the International Literacy Day on Saturday, 6 September 2014 to be hosted at Kloof Mine Stadium, in Westonaria. The event will celebrate the achievements and importance of Adult Education and Training in the mining sector.
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«Mokusatsu», l’erreur de traduction qui a changé le cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale

«Mokusatsu», l’erreur de traduction qui a changé le cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Il s’en est fallu d’un rien pour que la bombe atomique ne soit pas larguée sur Hiroshima, précipitant la capitulation du Japon, le 2 septembre 1945. D’un mot, pour être précis. Souvent présentée par les linguistes comme la plus grave erreur de traduction de tous les temps, l’interprétation du terme «Mokusatsu» est au coeur d'un des pires carnages du XXe siècle.
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Thibaut Courtois sert de traducteur pour Diego Costa

Thibaut Courtois sert de traducteur pour Diego Costa | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
En plus d'occuper la place de numéro entre les perches, le gardien des Diables aide Diego Costa à s'intégrer.
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Primary school language lessons not translating to secondaries

Primary school language lessons not translating to secondaries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
All primaries must now teach a foreign language, but which one, and where do differing choices leave secondaries? Anna Bawden
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7 Ways to Fake-Pronounce Any Foreign Language

7 Ways to Fake-Pronounce Any Foreign Language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
People who speak languages other than English are sometimes impressed by how well I and other linguists pronounce words or names in their language, even if we don't speak a word of it. But it’s not magic: Here are seven basic principles that linguists use to fake-pronounce foreign languages but...
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The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective

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Oloron : rentrée bilingue pour plus de 400 élèves

Oloron : rentrée bilingue pour plus de 400 élèves | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
De l’immersion en béarnais à l’apprentissage de l’espagnol à parité horaire, focus sur les différentes offres d’enseignement de langues dès le plus jeune âge. Entre la maternelle et le...
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Time for serious US-Africa partnership is now

Time for serious US-Africa partnership is now | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

It was the first of its kind between a sitting US President and African leaders. According to the White House, the meeting, built on the President’s trip to Africa in the summer of 2013 and aimed at strengthening ties between the US and one of the world’s most dynamic and fastest-growing regions. That the summit was a testament to the growing relevance of Africa in global geopolitics is not in doubt. It is the “youngest and fastest-growing continent, with young people that are full of dreams and ambition,” President Obama said in an address to delegates. And as the continent’s influence continues to grow, the US intends to make Africa “a good partner, an equal partner, and a partner for the long term,” he added.

Africa offers immense opportunities in terms of abundant natural resources, new technologies, investments, access to potential markets, and new types of consumers. Little wonder why countries such as China, India, Malaysia, Turkey, and Brazil have been increasing their presence and investments in the continent. Although the US has been relatively slower to react to these dynamics, hosting the summit is a sign that it can no longer stay on the sidelines.

To emphasise this point, President Obama announced a series of steps the US is now taking to boost ties with Africa. First, he called on the US Congress to renew and enhance the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) which makes it easier for African countries to export products to the US.

He also promised continued partnership with Africa to build the necessary infrastructure for a flourishing economy. In this regard, the Power Africa Initiative, first made public last year to bring electricity to 20 million African homes and businesses, would be doubled to reach 60 million beneficiaries at a cost of $26 billion, he said. Similarly, American corporate giants, including Coca-Cola, Blackstone, GE and the hotel group Marriot, made commitments worth billions of dollars to expand their businesses in Africa.

Africa’s own priorities
But commendable as these measures may appear, they represent in the main what the US wants to do for Africa and not what Africa expects from America. The following suggestions emanating from a spectrum of African political and business leaders, academics, activists, and youths, represent the continent’s key demands from the Americans. After all, as an Africa proverb says, he who wears the shoe knows where it hurts most.

The African expectations could be broken down into six proposals that would enable the US partner the continent to achieve a robust economic growth and development presumably well in advance of 2063. The hope is that in 50 years’ time, Africa would have become a politically united continent enjoying inclusive growth and sustainable development, good governance, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law, a peaceful and secure Africa whose development is people-driven. The African Union has appropriately termed this “Agenda 2063″.

In light of this, Africa’s most urgent demand would be for US assistance in tackling insecurity and violence. Peace and security, the prerequisite for any sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development, is still a challenge for many African countries. Armed conflicts, maritime piracy, terrorism, transnational criminal networks, territorial disputes, cattle rustling, and organized crime are among the security challenges still facing many African countries.

Trans-border terrorism has recently appeared as a serious threat on the continent wellbeing. With US intelligence and military assistance, African countries like Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Mali, and Libya will be better placed to defeat terrorist acts unleashed by Islamic groups such as al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Ansar Dine, al-Shabaab, and Boko Haram.

Another area of possible collaboration is in strengthening democracy, human rights, and good governance. Though African countries have made some progress in terms of political and economic governance and human rights, challenges still remain. US-Africa partnership here would help in dispersing power from strong executives and empowering the ordinary folk. The US may also have to consider bolstering the African Governance Architecture (AGA), set up by African governments to develop appropriate responses and enhanced capacity to continental governance challenges.

Strengthening institutional capacity
Thirdly, the US can intervene to strengthen weak institutional capacity, which poses a major obstacle to long term economic growth and consequently sustainable economic development in Africa. For instance, the NEPAD Capacity Development Initiative, whose aim is to build the capacities of continental institutions in conjunction with the African Capacity Building Foundation, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, and the African Development Bank could leverage on America’s financial and technical support to enable it to focus on institutions of all types and at all levels that enhance the capacities of African countries to implement sound macroeconomic and social sector policies.

The ACBF, UNECA, and the AfDB could serve as the main institutions driving such a partnership at the continental level. Africa could equally use US assistance in the area of human capital development, which is an engine of economic growth and sustained economic development and transformation. Today, Africa’s urgent priority is to reduce poverty through strong and sustained economic development that benefits the poor and advances social services. Achieving human capital development is both critical and urgent for Africa’s development agenda and the ACBF which is already making positive contributions in this area could be further assisted by the US to do more.

Trade expansion and the broadening of Africa’s exports base offer huge economic growth potentials to African countries and their foreign partners. However, the majority of the countries have not fully benefited from trade with the US. This is mainly because the US trades more with mineral-rich countries like Angola, Nigeria, and South Africa. Also, African exports are less diversified and highly dependent on raw materials and simple processed products.

To address this challenge, the AfDB helped to establish the Africa Trade Fund (AfTra) to provide financing facilities and advance trade and trade-related activities in Africa. AfTra was set up in response to Africa’s need for greater integration into regional and global trading systems. The US-African partnership should aim to expand trade by investing in manufacturing, services, tourism, textile, and agriculture. Not only will this broaden the export base of African beneficiaries, it will equally help grow their industrial sector and create jobs for the army of unemployed. The review and extension of AGOA by the US Congress will doubtless bring great benefits to Africa.

Facilitating regional integration
It was heartening to hear President Obama during the summit indicate US desire to assist in this area. “I want Africans buying more American products. I want Americans buying more African products,” he told his guests. Clearly, there is potential for export expansion among African countries which can further grow regional export performance, with the US as a potential market. But US-Africa partnership should also aim at improving trade facilitation and capacity development, and the promotion of regional integration.

Finally, US investment inflows into Africa remain limited compared to China and the European Union. America needs to make strategic investments in infrastructure which is critical for a real and sustainable economic development of the continent. Besides, American partnership could assist in lowering the cost of doing business in Africa which is still relatively high compared with other regions.

The involvement of the US in driving the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa – the continental strategy for modernizing infrastructure at regional and continental levels – would greatly help to transform Africa’s poor infrastructure. PIDA’s focus is on transport, energy, trans-boundary water, and Information Communication Technology infrastructure which are necessary if the continent is to be successfully integrated.

In conclusion, the slowdown in the global economy, including in the US, raises some implications for how the US should see Africa. One spinoff of the trend could be an Africa-US cooperation that is beneficial to both the world in general and the US in particular in the medium to long term. Africa believes the US should see its economic development as an important tool in its quest to reignite its own economic growth and create jobs.

African countries, therefore, believe that Africa and the US should see Africa as part of the solution to the global economic crisis and invest in the continent for mutual benefit. The world needs a new driver of consumer demand, a new market and a new dynamo. This driver can be Africa.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

It was the first of its kind between a sitting US President and African leaders. According to the White House, the meeting, built on the President’s trip to Africa in the summer of 2013 and aimed at strengthening ties between the US and one of the world’s most dynamic and fastest-growing regions. That the summit was a testament to the growing relevance of Africa in global geopolitics is not in doubt. It is the “youngest and fastest-growing continent, with young people that are full of dreams and ambition,” President Obama said in an address to delegates. And as the continent’s influence continues to grow, the US intends to make Africa “a good partner, an equal partner, and a partner for the long term,” he added.

Africa offers immense opportunities in terms of abundant natural resources, new technologies, investments, access to potential markets, and new types of consumers. Little wonder why countries such as China, India, Malaysia, Turkey, and Brazil have been increasing their presence and investments in the continent. Although the US has been relatively slower to react to these dynamics, hosting the summit is a sign that it can no longer stay on the sidelines.

To emphasise this point, President Obama announced a series of steps the US is now taking to boost ties with Africa. First, he called on the US Congress to renew and enhance the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) which makes it easier for African countries to export products to the US.

He also promised continued partnership with Africa to build the necessary infrastructure for a flourishing economy. In this regard, the Power Africa Initiative, first made public last year to bring electricity to 20 million African homes and businesses, would be doubled to reach 60 million beneficiaries at a cost of $26 billion, he said. Similarly, American corporate giants, including Coca-Cola, Blackstone, GE and the hotel group Marriot, made commitments worth billions of dollars to expand their businesses in Africa.

Africa’s own priorities
But commendable as these measures may appear, they represent in the main what the US wants to do for Africa and not what Africa expects from America. The following suggestions emanating from a spectrum of African political and business leaders, academics, activists, and youths, represent the continent’s key demands from the Americans. After all, as an Africa proverb says, he who wears the shoe knows where it hurts most.

The African expectations could be broken down into six proposals that would enable the US partner the continent to achieve a robust economic growth and development presumably well in advance of 2063. The hope is that in 50 years’ time, Africa would have become a politically united continent enjoying inclusive growth and sustainable development, good governance, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law, a peaceful and secure Africa whose development is people-driven. The African Union has appropriately termed this “Agenda 2063″.

In light of this, Africa’s most urgent demand would be for US assistance in tackling insecurity and violence. Peace and security, the prerequisite for any sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development, is still a challenge for many African countries. Armed conflicts, maritime piracy, terrorism, transnational criminal networks, territorial disputes, cattle rustling, and organized crime are among the security challenges still facing many African countries.

Trans-border terrorism has recently appeared as a serious threat on the continent wellbeing. With US intelligence and military assistance, African countries like Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Mali, and Libya will be better placed to defeat terrorist acts unleashed by Islamic groups such as al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Ansar Dine, al-Shabaab, and Boko Haram.

Another area of possible collaboration is in strengthening democracy, human rights, and good governance. Though African countries have made some progress in terms of political and economic governance and human rights, challenges still remain. US-Africa partnership here would help in dispersing power from strong executives and empowering the ordinary folk. The US may also have to consider bolstering the African Governance Architecture (AGA), set up by African governments to develop appropriate responses and enhanced capacity to continental governance challenges.

Strengthening institutional capacity
Thirdly, the US can intervene to strengthen weak institutional capacity, which poses a major obstacle to long term economic growth and consequently sustainable economic development in Africa. For instance, the NEPAD Capacity Development Initiative, whose aim is to build the capacities of continental institutions in conjunction with the African Capacity Building Foundation, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, and the African Development Bank could leverage on America’s financial and technical support to enable it to focus on institutions of all types and at all levels that enhance the capacities of African countries to implement sound macroeconomic and social sector policies.

The ACBF, UNECA, and the AfDB could serve as the main institutions driving such a partnership at the continental level. Africa could equally use US assistance in the area of human capital development, which is an engine of economic growth and sustained economic development and transformation. Today, Africa’s urgent priority is to reduce poverty through strong and sustained economic development that benefits the poor and advances social services. Achieving human capital development is both critical and urgent for Africa’s development agenda and the ACBF which is already making positive contributions in this area could be further assisted by the US to do more.

Trade expansion and the broadening of Africa’s exports base offer huge economic growth potentials to African countries and their foreign partners. However, the majority of the countries have not fully benefited from trade with the US. This is mainly because the US trades more with mineral-rich countries like Angola, Nigeria, and South Africa. Also, African exports are less diversified and highly dependent on raw materials and simple processed products.

To address this challenge, the AfDB helped to establish the Africa Trade Fund (AfTra) to provide financing facilities and advance trade and trade-related activities in Africa. AfTra was set up in response to Africa’s need for greater integration into regional and global trading systems. The US-African partnership should aim to expand trade by investing in manufacturing, services, tourism, textile, and agriculture. Not only will this broaden the export base of African beneficiaries, it will equally help grow their industrial sector and create jobs for the army of unemployed. The review and extension of AGOA by the US Congress will doubtless bring great benefits to Africa.

Facilitating regional integration
It was heartening to hear President Obama during the summit indicate US desire to assist in this area. “I want Africans buying more American products. I want Americans buying more African products,” he told his guests. Clearly, there is potential for export expansion among African countries which can further grow regional export performance, with the US as a potential market. But US-Africa partnership should also aim at improving trade facilitation and capacity development, and the promotion of regional integration.

Finally, US investment inflows into Africa remain limited compared to China and the European Union. America needs to make strategic investments in infrastructure which is critical for a real and sustainable economic development of the continent. Besides, American partnership could assist in lowering the cost of doing business in Africa which is still relatively high compared with other regions.

The involvement of the US in driving the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa – the continental strategy for modernizing infrastructure at regional and continental levels – would greatly help to transform Africa’s poor infrastructure. PIDA’s focus is on transport, energy, trans-boundary water, and Information Communication Technology infrastructure which are necessary if the continent is to be successfully integrated.

In conclusion, the slowdown in the global economy, including in the US, raises some implications for how the US should see Africa. One spinoff of the trend could be an Africa-US cooperation that is beneficial to both the world in general and the US in particular in the medium to long term. Africa believes the US should see its economic development as an important tool in its quest to reignite its own economic growth and create jobs.

African countries, therefore, believe that Africa and the US should see Africa as part of the solution to the global economic crisis and invest in the continent for mutual benefit. The world needs a new driver of consumer demand, a new market and a new dynamo. This driver can be Africa.

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Catch the original, non-dubbed 'Godzilla' and two other movies not to miss this fall at the FIA

Catch the original, non-dubbed 'Godzilla' and two other movies not to miss this fall at the FIA | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

FLINT, MI--You won't find any transformers or superheroes at the Flint Institute of Arts Theater, no summer blockbusters or the latest romcom, but that doesn't mean you should overlook what they do have.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

FLINT, MI--You won't find any transformers or superheroes at the Flint Institute of Arts Theater, no summer blockbusters or the latest romcom, but that doesn't mean you should overlook what they do have.

"We always have kind of a balancing act, because we do want to bring in movies with recognizable names, but we're challenged," said Ed Bradley, FIA associate film curator. "Part of our mission is to educate as well, so we're looking for other movies." 

They bring in a mix of documentaries, foreign films, and movies that might not have been in mainstream theaters but, well, that's the point. This is one of the few places you can see them on the big screen.

The FIA recently announced its fall lineup, kicking off it's nine-month film season, and if you can't make it every week, we've picked out a few you shouldn't miss.

The biggest standout is the original "Godzilla." As in the original original. This is the movie that set the standard for poor dubbing--but there's not dubbing here. This movie, aside from the subtitles, will be just as you would have seen it in Japan in 1954.

It's also as you would have seen it in 1954 because this is one of those rare chances to catch an old movie on a big screen.

"That's part of what we do too. You can rent a movie and watch it, but to watch it with an audience and have that collective experience ... is different, even if it's a movie you're familiar with," Bradley said. "I think that's why people come to our movies. ... that's still the ideal way to see a movie." 

"Godzilla" screens Oct. 30, carrying on the tradition of having a Halloween-appropriate movie for the holiday.

One movie Bradley said he's particularly excited about this season is the first one they'll show, "Third Person."

Bradley said he likes to open the season with a film that has some familiar names to draw more people in, and this one has those names--James Franco, Liam Neeson, Mila Kunis, and Kim Basinger are all part of the cast.

The movie was written and directed by Paul Haggis, the same guy who made "Crash" in 2004 that followed multiple interweaving storylines, plots, and characters.

"This is another one of his ensemble romances/dramas/all kinds of other stuff, with lots of characters," Bradley said. The interlocking love stories are set in Rome, Paris, and New York.

"Third Person" will screen Sept. 5-7 at the FIA (all films are shown at 7:30 p.m. Fridays and Saturdays, and 2 p.m. on Sundays).

Bradley said he's also looking forward to the movie "Hateship Loveship" starring Kristin Wiig and Nick Nolte. Bradley describes the film as being about a rebellious teen who promotes a romance between her nanny (Wiig) and her father, a recovering addict. It screens Sept. 26-28.

Those aren't the only films, though. Take your pick--and if you think there's a better one that what we described, let us know in the comments.

Here's the rest of the season:

Sept. 12-14: "The Bachelor Weekend"

This 2014 Irish film was directed by John Butler. In it, Andrew Scott (Moriarty on TV's "Sherlock") "leads the cast of a laugh-out-loud comedy from Ireland in which a bachelor party in the great outdoors takes some unexpected detours," Bradley said.

Sept. 19-21: "Herb & Dorothy 50X50"

This movie is a follow-up to the award-winning documentary "Herb & Dorothy" that is according to the LA Times, "as engaging and unpretentious as its subjects" in which an elderly couple continue to find homes for their extraordinary art collection. The FIA will also run the first "Herb & Dorothy" on Sept. 18.

Oct. 3-5: "A Summer's Tale"

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Why You Should Write What You Love

Why You Should Write What You Love | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Some of you are probably like me. No, not in that way. I'm told this condition is one of a kind and that surgery will correct it enough so that small children and pets no longer tumble into cataton...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Some of you are probably like me.

No, not in that way. I’m told this condition is one of a kind and that surgery will correct it enough so that small children and pets no longer tumble into catatonic states upon seeing me.

No, I mean in the way that you sometimes struggle with what to write. Writing is a craft and storytelling is an art so the one part of you wants to just unbuckle all the straps affixing you to this mundane world so that you can leap into the chasm of madness that is creation. You and the Muse will art-fuck until the world explodes into pure narrative.

And yet, this thing we do is also a business. Which means you should proabably be writing Stories That Will Earn You Respect And Also, Sweet Cash Money.

Let’s talk about me.

(HA HA HA because that’s probably all I do here, isn’t it? Sorry about that.)

(Anyway.)

I am presently the author of a handful of published novels.

But, if you will gaze behind me, in my wake you will see a muddy rut filled with the sun-bloated corpses of many other books. Dozens of unfinished ones. At least five finished ones. Some interesting. Most not. All of them lacking in execution and any kind of writerly pizzazz.

I wrote a lot of books that sucked, a lot of books that just plain weren’t “me.” These were books I did not love, that didn’t come from any particular place inside this funky stump I call a heart, that failed to speak to me or speak about me in any meaningful way. They were books I wrote because I was chasing someone else’s ideas of what I should write. I tried writing fiction that seemed respectable and literary. I tried writing novels that would speak to the market, that would sell to some invented segment of the population who likes That Sort Of Thing. I wrote books that were desperate grabs at legitimacy (money, respect, fame, tweed suits with elbow patches, dignity). I knew I wanted to be a writer, but I apparently thought the way to do that was to stop writing the things I wanted to write (which somewhat sullied the idea of being a writer in the first place) and start writing the kinds of things that Other Writers Wrote.

You know: marketable works.

(Translation: derivative works.)

I was walking away from myself.

I was leaving the things I liked, or loved, or that interested me.

Which meant I was leaving my strengths behind.

Which meant I was abandoning my reasons for being a writer in the first place.

So, I’ll exhort you right now:

You should write what you love.

You should write the things that look like your heart, pulled open with prying fingers.

You should walk towards yourself as a writer, not away.

Why?

OH DON’T YOU WORRY, I HAVE REASONS.

REASON ONE: BECAUSE THE MARKET IS AN UNKNOWABLE ENTITY

I’m pretty sure that when Lovecraft wrote about gibbering entities outside time and space that, when gazed upon too closely, ruined man’s sanity the way a rock ruins a mirror, he was really writing a metaphor for the publishing industry and the book market. Nobody knows what the fuck is going on with the market. Publishers like to pretend they do, because that’s their job — but they’re still a bunch of old ladies passing around one eyeball between them.

You’ll hear, “Oh, vampires aren’t hot right now,” and then next thing you know, vampires are hot again. They didn’t get that way because the market was manipulated into being that way. The market didn’t randomly countermand itself and spontaneously grow a spate of new vampire novels. This happens because someone, some author, hears vampires aren’t hot right now and says, well, whatever, I’m going to write a vampire book anyway because I think vampires are cool as fucking shit, and then they write it and it hits the market and it does well. And then publishers are like YEAH, WE TOTALLY KNEW THAT VAMPIRES WERE GONNA BE SUPER-HOT RIGHT NOW and then another 100 derivative reiterations (and maybe 10 original iterations) hit the market and punch it so hard that two years later you hear the familiar refrain: vampires aren’t hot right now.

A lot of the truly amazing books are not ones an industry could’ve predicted. Like I said yesterday, Jeff VanderMeer’s Southern Reach trilogy is… fuck, I don’t even know how to describe them. Invasive… alternate Earth-punk? No, that’s not right. But it doesn’t feel like a trilogy that chased any market. It feels like a series that stands all by itself in a room of its own devising and design. It’s not following anything. It’s a leader: original, weird, amazing, and (if you’ve read Jeff’s work before) most certainly a product of his voice. (The third book,Acceptance, is also out today. Do your favor and go and read them all right now it’s okay I’ll wait here.)

The work that prevails rarely feels like it chases the market.

The work that gets its claws and teeth into you says, “Fuck you, market. I’m the market now. What? You don’t like that? Too bad.” Then it hits you in the face with a toaster oven and says, “YOUR MOM SAYS HI.”

Okay, I think I took that metaphor too far.

Point is: don’t chase the market.

You’re not a dog running after a car.

Be the car, not the dog.

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Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales - eju.tv

Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales - eju.tv | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Franz Rafael Barrios González La Sra. Genoveva Loza Balsa, en su sensata “Carta de reclamo por columna de María Galindo” (Página Siete, 25.06.2014), expres
Charles Tiayon's insight:

La Sra. Genoveva Loza Balsa, en su sensata “Carta de reclamo por columna de María Galindo” (Página Siete, 25.06.2014), expresa —con la indignación de muchos— su molestia por los improperios escritos por Ana María Galindo en su artículo Himno al revés, publicado el 6 de agosto.

En adición al compartido reclamo que efectúa la Sra. Loza, cabe señalar que Galindo, al escribir “canto el Himno y resbalan por mi boca las frases absurdas e incomprensibles de un texto arcaico que ningún significado tiene para mí y para nadie de los que me rodean”, ultraja públicamente el Himno de la nación. Asimismo, ultraja públicamente la bandera nacional al afirmar: “El rojo de la bandera es la sangre inútilmente derramada, el amarillo la abundancia derrochada por tiranos y clases dominantes de ayer y de hoy, y el verde la naturaleza que destruimos en nombre del desarrollo y de la riqueza de unos cuantos”.

Con lo cual habría adecuado su conducta al tipo penal descrito en el Art.129 (Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales) del Código Penal (CP), que dispone “El que ultrajare públicamente la bandera, el escudo o el himno de la Nación, será sancionado con reclusión de seis meses a dos años”.

De acuerdo con el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE), ultrajar implica: “Ajar o injuriar; despreciar (…)”. El mismo diccionario define la palabra “injuria”, como: “Agravio, ultraje de obra o de palabra (…)”. Por tanto, Galindo técnicamente incurre en público “agravio o ultraje de palabra”, al referirse sobre el himno y la bandera tricolor con los términos que usa. Asimismo, al escribir en la misma columna que: “(…) los héroes a caballo son mentira, son de barro, son de cartulina, los héroes son mezquinos, los héroes son falsos. No hay ningún héroe respetable”, también haría típica su conducta con respecto al Art.284 (Ofensa a la memoria de difuntos) del CP, que establece: “El que ofendiere la memoria de un difunto con expresiones difamatorias o con imputaciones calumniosas incurrirá en las mismas penas de los dos artículos anteriores”.

Cabe precisar que el delito de Ultraje a los símbolos nacionales subyace legislado bajo el nomen iuris “Delitos contra la seguridad interior del Estado”. Es decir que, para el ordenamiento jurídico u orden público vigente, los símbolos nacionales son un bien jurídico primordial, que hacen a las bases esenciales del Estado boliviano; específicamente, en lo que respecta a su identidad, o al sentido de pertenencia. Ahora bien, con respecto a la frase “la libertad de expresión es sagrada y está por encima de la ley —inclusive—”, que suele ser utilizada ante denuncias como la presente; para empezar, cabe señalar que dicha libertad justamente está reconocida por una ley (suprema, en este caso denominada Constitución).

Sin embargo, dicha libertad a su vez yace limitada por el mismo cuerpo jurídico que la reivindica. Por ejemplo, una persona no tiene irrestricta libertad de expresión como para “(…) de manera pública, tendenciosa y repetida, revelar o divulgar un hecho, una calidad o una conducta capaces de afectar la reputación de una persona individual o colectiva (…)”; ya que incurriría en difamación (Art. 282, CP). Una persona tampoco tiene irrestricta libertad de expresión como para “(…) por cualquier medio y de un modo directo ofender a otro en su dignidad o decoro (…)”, ya que incurriría en injuria (Art.287, CP). Por tanto, “no es así nomás” de ultrajar públicamente como hace Galindo esta vez contra los símbolos nacionales, y bajo el falso alcance de una libertad de expresión cada vez más “libertinaje(izada)”.

 

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