Tissue and organ Engineering and Manufacturing
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Implanted Trachea Going Strong - A 5 year Follow Up Report

Implanted Trachea Going Strong - A 5 year Follow Up Report | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Five years after receiving a tissue-engineered airway, the 30-year-old Colombian patient is doing well, having experienced no immunological complications associated with the procedure.

Via Jacob Blumenthal
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Some feedback after 5 years. This encourages me to walk this track: RESULTS and not only successful experiments

 

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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, October 25, 2013 5:01 AM

A 5 year follow-up report on the first  tissue-engineered airway transplantation, has been published in The Lancet journal. In 2008, Claudia Castillo got a new trachea made from a decellularized human trachea that formed the scaffolds, that was then seeded with autologous epithelial and stem cells. 5 years later, the researchers report that the tissue-engineered trachea  remained open over its entire length, is well vascularised, completely re-cellularised with respiratory epithelium, and had normal ciliary function and mucus clearance. In addition, No stem-cell-related teratoma formed and no anti-donor antibodies developed.

These wonderful results encourage tissue engineering researchers to continue and test this therapeutical approach in other fields of regenerative medicine.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2962033-4/abstract?rss=yes

 

 

 

Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing
How to make living organs, not artificial
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Microencapsulation of Live Cells in Synthetic Polymer Capsules  

Microencapsulation of Live Cells in Synthetic Polymer Capsules   | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
In this study, a modified electrospraying approach was successfully utilised to fabricate core–shell particles encapsulating live cells. The effect of each jetting parameter on encapsulation efficiency, yield, and size was studied systematically using DOE methodology.
 
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Microencapsulation of Live Cells in Synthetic Polymer Capsules: Extending the currently available toolkit for cell microencapsulation, these biodegradable, semi-impermeable cell-laden microcapsules may find a range of applications in areas such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery.
 
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WPI Team Grows Heart Tissue on Spinach Leaves

WPI Team Grows Heart Tissue on Spinach Leaves | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Researchers face a fundamental challenge as they seek to scale up human tissue regeneration from small lab samples to full-size tissues, bones, even whole organs to implant in people to treat disease or traumatic injuries: how to establish a vascular system that delivers blood deep into the developing tissue.

 
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Sometimes you just need to look around to find a solution which is already there before inventing a complex, expensive construct
 
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Neuroscience researchers restore leg movement in primates

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“Breakthrough for Bone Regeneration via Double-cell-layered Tissue Engineering Technique”  

“Breakthrough for Bone Regeneration via Double-cell-layered Tissue Engineering Technique”   | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Official site of TMDU, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. TMDU is the national university located in the heart of Tokyo.
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gennady's curator insight, January 29, 8:45 AM
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Human Neuron Transplants Treat Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

Human Neuron Transplants Treat Spinal Cord Injury in Mice | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Chronic pain and loss of bladder control are among the most devastating consequences of spinal cord injury.
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Faster way to harvest bone marrow stem cells, better for donors

Faster way to harvest bone marrow stem cells, better for donors | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
A hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) being mobilised from the bone marrow microenvironment into a blood vessel.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:
Harvesting bone marrow stem cells in hours instead of days, and without side effects. Stem cell therapies a step closer
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Stem Cells Capable of specifically Repairing Skull and Face Bones

Stem Cells Capable of specifically Repairing Skull and Face Bones | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

A team of Rochester scientists has, for the first time, identified and isolated a stem cell population capable of skull formation and craniofacial bone repair in mice—achieving an important step toward using stem cells for bone reconstruction of the face and head in the future,

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Very interestingly, this team has demonstrated that stem cells within Axin2 cell populations are responsible for bone formation, repair and regeneration in the skull and face bones, and that separate and distinct stem cells are responsible for formation of long bones in the legs and other parts of the body, for example.

 

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Nano-shells deliver molecules that tell bone to repair itself

Nano-shells deliver molecules that tell bone to repair itself | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
ANN ARBOR—Scientists at the University of Michigan have developed a polymer sphere that delivers a molecule to bone wounds that tells cells already at the injury site to repair the damage. Using the
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Good idea: activating cells already present instead of injecting foreign materials

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New material for creating artificial blood vessels

New material for creating artificial blood vessels | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
TU Wien and MedUni Vienna have developed artificial blood vessels, which are broken down by the body and replaced with its own tissue.
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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1742706114003869

 

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MIPT Researchers Grow Cardiac Tissue on “Spider Silk” Substrate

MIPT Researchers Grow Cardiac Tissue on “Spider Silk” Substrate | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Genetically engineered fibers of the protein spidroin, which is the construction material for spider webs, has proven to be a perfect substrate for cultivating heart tissue cells, a group of researchers led by Professor Konstantin Agladze found.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Fantastic results. This will not only be useful for cardiac cells but for other organs also.

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Stem-Cell Treatment for Blindness Moving Through Patient Testin

Stem-Cell Treatment for Blindness Moving Through Patient Testin | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Advanced Cell Technology is testing a stem-cell treatment for blindness that could preserve vision and potentially reverse vision loss.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The treatment is based on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells that have been grown from embryonic stem cells. A surgeon injects 150 microliters of RPE cells  under a patient’s retina, which is temporarily detached for the procedure.

The treatment will be tested both on patients with Stargardt’s disease (an inherited form of progressive vision loss that can affect children) and on those with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss among people 65 and older.

 

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Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency - Nature


Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, January 30, 2014 1:14 AM

Researchers from Harvard medical school, report on a new method for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This method is termed stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency or STAP. The researchers suggest that a strong external stimuli such as a transient low-pH stressor can induce reprogramming of mammalian somatic cells, into  pluripotent cells. This could be a very big breakthrough in generation of iPSCS, that until now required nuclear transfer or introduction of transcription factors.

Reference: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7485/full/nature12968.html

 

Leran more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

 

Join my Facebook group for more stem cell scoops:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/STEMCELLSNET/

 

Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, January 31, 2014 3:18 PM

This is fascinating and also just bizarre. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by defintition iare getting more complex, more random. That does not mean the biology is not there, the approach does not work, but I am most happy when stem cell approaches are well studied, well defined, and rigorous. I do not think much of ESCs or IPSCs (or MSCs) for many reasons both obvious and subtle, but the stem cell biology is amazing. I remember when the first nature article was reported where skin cells were injected with OCT4, NANOG, STAT3, KLM5, and CMyc? That event led to the hypothesis that ESC biology was held in the master transcriptional regulators, especially NOS and NOS genes.  Then other approaches accomplished the same, such as simple epigenetic engineering. Small molecuale induction, culture conditions with modificatoins, etc. But this is just wild.I have not seen the article, and I am sure they do a good job explaining their results, but off the cuff I cannot imagine how this works. Acidic pH is not a strong stressor in my opinion, and I cannot extropolate biology from in vivo modeling to help me think about this (except intradiscal), but it is quite striking if true. Indeed, it is almost as if all those times while culturing cells and forgetting to change the media (with a drop in pH), I was making IPSCs. (bad humor) My only comment is to not get to excited just yet because they do not do much other than some basic assays to show ESC biology occuring.  A good start though. But still an unexpected and exciting response. I wish I had thought of that!

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Standartization issues to be taken care for the development of cell therapy products

Standartization issues to be taken care for the development of cell therapy products | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
To manufacture stem cells for cell therapy, standards for other materials critical for the cells' growth and survival must also be considered. (Do you know what ancillary materials are needed in order to manufacture a cell therapy?

Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Wherever Standartization appears it means there is going to be a widespread industrialization process, and that there are already strong stake holders wanting to have an advantaged position to start the race.

 

But this is good for the industry in general.

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Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, January 25, 2014 10:24 AM

As a real world example, without naming the companies, at this time, there are two adult stem cell biotechnology companies that are very similar and of interest, pursuing the treatment of the same disease process and tissue anatomy. Company A is US based, and has the benefit of 8+ years of research, volumes of R&D and results / data, and all its data, IP, and outcomes, are documented, patented, and published. Company A has a more relevant / appropriate stem cell therapeutic, approach, and dose. Company A doses the tissue and disease process with 5 - 10*4 stem cells, and reports efficacy that ranges from 95% - 100%, and averages around 97% in all studies, and safety profiles that collectively considered to be near 100%. Conversely, company B is based in a very different geographic locale, and has fast tracked its R&D from literally announcing its intent, to entering clinical studies in less than 2 years. Company B has very little data to support its stem cell therapeutic, dosing, and approach. Company B doses the tissue and disease process with 5 x 10*7 cells (roughly 1000X higher than company A), and reports efficacy in some studies that is ~1-5%, and without detail admits in other studies no efficacy at all, and finally, reports a safety profile that is roughly 80 -90%. Company B is regulated in a very different area in the world and in a manner that is not rigorous, efficient, or consistent. Despite the dramatic differences between the two, company B continues to release financial reports, and press, that are positive and suggest present growth and real potential for growth going forward. Even more confusing, their valuation within the stock market they are publicly traded in, and public opinion of the company in general, by the public, current investors, and market analysts, remains stable, and at times even positive, and give the company a high valuation. These groups seem to be easily manipulated by efforts by the company to downplay negatives, explain away these results, and maintain a strong marketing front. I make the comparison here, to point out the relevance of my comments above for Pluristem Tx which similar in many respects to Company B, and to compare both to company A, US Biotec

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Sugar-coated nanomaterial excels at promoting bone growth 

Sugar molecules on the surface of the nanomaterial provide its regenerative power. The researchers studied in vivo the effect of the "sugar-coated" nanomaterial on the activity of a clinically used growth factor, called bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). They found the amount of protein needed for a successful spinal fusion was reduced to an unprecedented level: 100 times less of BMP-2 was needed. This is very good news, because the growth factor is known to cause dangerous side effects

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Amber

Amber | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
The study investigated the age-associated changes in the capacity of stem cells to form bone tissue and identified a potential therapeutic target which opens new avenues to develop novel therapeutic target-specific biomaterials for restoring a child-like bone healing capacity in adults suffering from severe fractures and bone degeneration.
 
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Scientists find key protein for spinal cord repair in zebrafish

Scientists find key protein for spinal cord repair in zebrafish | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration. Scientists now performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are up-regulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. They found that connective tissue growth factor A (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events. Mutations in ctgfa disrupted spinal cord repair, and transgenic ctgfa overexpression and local delivery of human CTGF recombinant protein accelerated bridging and functional regeneration. This study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration.

Reference:Mayssa H. Mokalled, Chinmoy Patra, Amy L. Dickson, Toyokazu Endo, Didier Y. R. Stainier, Kenneth D. Poss. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Science,November 4, 2016. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf2679

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Paralyzed man regains use of arms and hands after stem cell therapy

Paralyzed man regains use of arms and hands after stem cell therapy | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Doctors at the USC Neurorestoration Center and Keck Medicine of USC injected an experimental treatment made from stem cells and other cells into the damaged cervical spine of a recently paralyzed 21-year-old man as part of a multi-center clinical trial. Two weeks after surgery, Kristopher (Kris) Boesen began to show signs of improvement. Three months later, he’s able to feed himself, use his cell phone, write his name, operate a motorized wheelchair, and hug his friends and family. Improved sensation and movement in both arms and hands also make it easier for Kris to care for himself, and to envision a life lived more independently.

 

“Typically, spinal cord injury patients undergo surgery that stabilizes the spine but generally does very little to restore motor or sensory function,” explains Charles Liu, MD, PhD, director of the USC Neurorestoration Center. “With this study, we are testing a procedure that may improve neurological function, which could mean the difference between being permanently paralyzed and being able to use one’s arms and hands. Restoring that level of function could significantly improve the daily lives of patients with severe spinal injuries.”


Via Kathy Bosiak, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Stanford researchers improve understanding of COLLAGEN,  could improve bioengineered tissues

Stanford researchers improve understanding of COLLAGEN,  could improve bioengineered tissues | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
New insights into the characteristics of collagen, the protein that provides structure and stability for cells but which also stretches like Silly Putty, could help scientists design techniques for regenerating tissues.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:
Great material to master and use for bioprinting.
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skin cells reprogrammed to kill glioblastoma cells

skin cells reprogrammed to kill glioblastoma cells | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Skin cells turned cancer-killing stem cells hunt down and destroy the deadly remnants inevitably left behind when a brain tumor is surgically removed

 

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

"In summary, our results provide the first evidence that iNSC can treat diseases of the CNS and demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of iNSC-based therapy for GBM. We found that iNSCs migrate to GBM, secrete anticancer molecules and regress GBM with the same efficiency as WTNSC drug carriers. Stem cell-based therapy for GBM has recently entered clinical trials for primary and recurrent GBM, and trials for breast cancer and neuroblastoma will be launched soon. With continued development, iNSC technology will have an impact on the design of these trials as a viable alternative drug-delivery vehicle with the potential for autologous treatment."

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Scientists Prove Feasibility of “Printing” Replacement Tissue

Scientists Prove Feasibility of “Printing” Replacement Tissue | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
 Using a sophisticated, custom-designed 3D printer, Wake Forest Baptist regenerative
medicine scientists  have proved that it is feasible
to print living tissue structures to replace injured or diseased tissue in
patients.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Several proof-of-concept experiments demonstrated the capabilities of ITOP. To show that ITOP can generate complex 3D structures, printed, human-sized external ears were implanted under the skin of mice. Two months later, the shape of the implanted ear was well-maintained and cartilage tissue and blood vessels had formed. 

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Artificial intestines created including nutrient-absorbing villi that might help humans with gut disorders

Artificial intestines created including nutrient-absorbing villi that might help humans with gut disorders | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

David Hackam spends much of his work day at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center removing blackened sections of dead intestine from sick babies. But someday the pediatric surgeon may have a way to restore ravaged intestines—thanks to his work growing the organ in the lab. Starting with stem cells from the small intestines of human infants and mice, Hackam and his colleagues have for the first time grown intestinal linings on gut-shaped scaffolds that could one day treat bowel disorders like necrotizing enterocolitis and Crohn’s disease. They have found that the tissue and scaffolding are not rejected, but instead readily assimilate in lab animals. Most strikingly, the scaffold allowed dogs to heal from damage to the colon lining, restoring healthy bowel function.

 

The study is a “great breakthrough,” says Hans Clevers, a stem cell biologist at the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, the Netherlands, who was not involved in the new research. Clevers was the first to identify stem cells in the intestine, and his lab developed the technique Hackam’s team used to grow intestinal tissue.

 

The idea of making replacement organs by growing cells on a scaffold is not new; other researchers have done so with bladders and blood vessels. But Hackam’s lab-grown intestine—described last week in Regenerative Medicine—comes closer to the shape and structure of a natural intestine than anything created before. In the past, gut lining has been grown on flat scaffolds or petri dishes, where it tended to curl into little balls with the food-absorbing surface trapped inside.

 

Hackam’s group overcame that with their scaffold, made from a material similar to surgical sutures that can be formed into any desired intestinal size and shape. Hackam’s scaffolds are tube-shaped like a real gut, with tiny projections on the inner surface to help the tissue grow into functional small intestine villi, tiny fingers of tissue that help absorb nutrients. “They can now make sheets of cells that can be clinically managed,” Clevers says. “Surgeons can handle these things and just stick them in.”

 

To grow the gut lining in the lab, the researchers painted the scaffold with a sticky substance containing collagen, dribbled it with a solution of small intestine stem cells, and then let it incubate for a week. They found that adding connective tissue cells, immune cells, and probiotics—bacteria that help maintain a healthy gut—helped stem cells mature and differentiate.

 

In one set of experiments, the researchers sewed intestines grown from mouse stem cells into the tissue surrounding the mice’s abdominal organs. The lab-grown intestines developed their own blood supply and normal gut structures, even though they were not connected to the animals’ digestive tract. “Using the mouse's own stem cells, we can actually create something that looks just like the native intestine,” Hackam says. The next step, he says, is “to hook it up.”

 

First, though, they set out to test the new scaffold in dogs. Because the end of the digestive tract is easier to access than the small intestine, the researchers removed sections of colon lining from dogs and replaced it with pieces of scaffolding. The dogs made a complete recovery: Their gut lining regrew onto the scaffold and functioned normally to absorb water from the colon. Within weeks, the scaffolding dissolved and was replaced with normal connective tissue. “The scaffold was well tolerated and promoted healing by recruiting stem cells,” Hackam says. “[The dogs] had a perfectly normal lining after 8 weeks.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Pancreatic cancer breakthrough: scientists turn cancer cells into normal cells

Pancreatic cancer breakthrough: scientists turn cancer cells into normal cells | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

“Presently, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is treated with cytotoxic agents, yet the average survival for  patients post-diagnosis is merely six months, and the improvements in therapies are measured in days,”


Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic cancer. It’s primarily caused by a mutation in the oncogene called Kras that causes the digestive enzyme-secreting cells (acinar cells) to differentiate into a destabilized duct-like cell type, which is cancerous. The disease is often called a “silent” cancer because it rarely shows early symptoms—it tends to be diagnosed at advanced stages when it causes weight loss, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

 

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Tissue Engineering & Bioprinting: Research to Commercialization Agenda

Tissue Engineering & Bioprinting: Research to Commercialization Agenda | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

This is a must go for all interested in bio-printing.

Featruring those behind the quantum leaps forward in tissue engineering and manufacturing

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Liver cells grown with new reprogramming method

Liver cells grown with new reprogramming method | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, February 24, 2014 11:48 AM

Researchers from the Gladstone institute published a new method for generation of functional hepatocytes from human fibroblast cells. In the new method, they directly reprogrammed fibroblast cells towards hepatic faith, without going through an iPSC, pluripotent stage. In order to test their functionality, the induced hepatic cells were transplanted into mouse models of liver failure where they  proliferated and displayed hepatic functionality.

Full paper:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13020.html


Learn more about liver development and stem cell protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/liver




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Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique

Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique
CBS News
This image from the journal Nature shows a mouse embryo formed with specially-treated cells from a newborn mouse that had been transformed into stem cells.

Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Once again, a simple as breathing method for performing a complex task bringing amazing results. Who was that who said "any stupid can do complex things, but you need a genius to make it simple"?

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Ella Buzhor's curator insight, January 30, 2014 6:59 AM

Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) is the technique that enables somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotent cells by exposure to sublethal stimuli, without the need to introduce "Yamanaka" factors. This technique provides faster and safer way to yield higher quantities of pluripotent cells that might be further utilized for regenerative medicine.

I think that reprogramming technique maybe the game changer!!!


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7485/full/nature12969.html