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Making organ donation a thing of the past

Making organ donation a thing of the past | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

At the cutting edge of modern medicine, Seifalian and his team are focusing on growing replacement organs and body parts to order using a patient’s own cells. There would be no more waiting for donors or complex reconstruction – just a quick swap. 

And because the organ is made from the patient’s own cells, the risk of rejection should, in theory, be eliminated

 

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Another one today about artificial organs.

 

This team has developed a "nano-polymer" which is shaped to the desired organ's shape. Then, inside a sterile bioreactor, it is seeded with patient's own stem cells treated to become the type of cells they need.

After they colonize the shaped polymer the resulting object is transplanted under the patient's skin so blood vessels and skin can grow.

 

The nose or ear are ready to implant in place.

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Tissue Engineering & Bioprinting: Research to Commercialization Agenda

Tissue Engineering & Bioprinting: Research to Commercialization Agenda | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

This is a must go for all interested in bio-printing.

Featruring those behind the quantum leaps forward in tissue engineering and manufacturing

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Liver cells grown with new reprogramming method

Liver cells grown with new reprogramming method | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, February 24, 11:48 AM

Researchers from the Gladstone institute published a new method for generation of functional hepatocytes from human fibroblast cells. In the new method, they directly reprogrammed fibroblast cells towards hepatic faith, without going through an iPSC, pluripotent stage. In order to test their functionality, the induced hepatic cells were transplanted into mouse models of liver failure where they  proliferated and displayed hepatic functionality.

Full paper:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13020.html


Learn more about liver development and stem cell protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/liver




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Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique

Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Stem cells made quickly in acid in possible game-changing technique
CBS News
This image from the journal Nature shows a mouse embryo formed with specially-treated cells from a newborn mouse that had been transformed into stem cells.

Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Once again, a simple as breathing method for performing a complex task bringing amazing results. Who was that who said "any stupid can do complex things, but you need a genius to make it simple"?

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Ella Buzhor's curator insight, January 30, 6:59 AM

Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) is the technique that enables somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotent cells by exposure to sublethal stimuli, without the need to introduce "Yamanaka" factors. This technique provides faster and safer way to yield higher quantities of pluripotent cells that might be further utilized for regenerative medicine.

I think that reprogramming technique maybe the game changer!!!


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7485/full/nature12969.html

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Cells silence X chromosomes in different patterns, sometimes skewing entire organs toward one parent

Cells silence X chromosomes in different patterns, sometimes skewing entire organs toward one parent | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Scientists have enlisted color coding in the effort to better understand X chromosomes, how they are shut down in certain cells and what it all means for men and women.

 

The X chromosome is part of the system that determines whether we become male or female. If an egg inherits an X chromosome from both parents, it becomes female. If it gets an X from its mother and a Y from its father, it becomes male.

 

But the X chromosome remains mysterious. For one thing, females shut down an X chromosome in every cell, leaving only one active. That’s a drastic step to take, given that the X chromosome has more than 1,000 genes.

 

In some cells, the father’s goes dormant, and in others, the mother’s does. While scientists have known about this so-called X-chromosome inactivation for more than five decades, they still know little about the rules it follows, or even how it evolved.

 

In the journal Neuron, a team of scientists has unveiled an unprecedented view of X-chromosome inactivation in the body. They found a remarkable complexity to the pattern in which the chromosomes were switched on and off.

 

In recent years, scientists have increasingly appreciated that our cells can vary genetically — a phenomenon called mosaicism. And X-chromosome inactivation, Dr. Nathans’s pictures show, creates a genetic diversity that’s particularly dramatic. Two cells side by side may be using different versions of many different genes. “But there is also much larger-scale diversity,” Dr. Nathans said.

 

In some brains, for example, a mother’s X chromosome was seen dominating the left side, while the father’s dominated the right. Entire organs can be skewed toward one parent. Dr. Nathans and his colleagues found that in some mice, one eye was dominated by the father and the other by the mother. The diversity even extended to the entire mouse. In some animals, almost all the X chromosomes from one parent were shut; in others, the opposite was true.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

INcredible.  
In some brains, for example, a mother’s X chromosome was seen dominating the left side, while the father’s dominated the right, so you cahn have both your mother's artistic sense and your father's acute abstract thinking power!

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DEPUY SYNTHES SPINE LAUNCHES NEW TISSUE IMPLANT FOR SPINE SURGERY, CONFORM SHEET™

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The new allograft implant, processed by the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF), has both osteoinductive (encouraging undifferentiated cells to become active osteoblasts) and osteoconductive (guiding the reparative growth of the natural bone) properties. Through a demineralization process, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are exposed, providing Conform Sheet its osteoinductive properties, while the cancellous structure of the scaffold provides osteoconductive characteristics. Conform Sheet is reportedly wickable: it readily absorbs various hydrating fluids including bone marrow aspirate, blood or saline. When combined with bone marrow aspirate, Conform Sheet becomes osteogenic (lays down new bone cells).

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Defining Key Design Criteria for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Defining Key Design Criteria for Cardiac Tissue Engineering | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

This is like the drawings and procedure. Sience is taking the engineering steps.

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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, December 5, 2013 2:50 AM

Cardiomyocytes, differentiated from either human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are used in cardiovascular research throughout the last decade. In addition to their regenerative capacities and promise for clinical application, these cells provide an unlimited source of...

(click the link below for the full story)

http://us4.campaign-archive1.com/?u=985051700e9649000fa0c0d4a&id=ed2c6547b5&e=f1b990f7f8

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FDA Grants Approval for Spinal Cord Injury Treatment Trial

FDA Grants Approval for Spinal Cord Injury Treatment Trial | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
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http://www.stemcellsinc.com/Science/Overview.htm


Earlier this year, StemCells reported that two of three patients with the worse kind of spinal cord injuries showed "considerable gains" in feeling sensations a year after receiving treatment.


StemCells is conducting a Phase I/II clinical trial of HuCNS-SC cells in Switzerland at the Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, one of the leading medical centers in the world for spinal cord injury and rehabilitation.   The principal investigator is Armin Curt, MD, Professor and Chairman, Spinal Cord Injury Center at the University of Zurich, and Medical Director of the Paraplegic Center at the Balgrist University Hospital.   Dr. Curt is an internationally renowned medical expert in spinal cord injury.  The trial was initiated in March 2011, and is currently open for enrollment.

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Characterization of a biodegradable coralline hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate composite and its clinical implementation - IOPscience

Characterization of a biodegradable coralline hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate composite and its clinical implementation - IOPscience | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
A partially converted, biodegradable coralline hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate (CHACC) composite comprising a coral calcium carbonate scaffold enveloped by a thin layer of hydroxyapatite was used in the present study.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

In conclusion, CHACC appears to be an excellent biodegradable bone graft material. It biointegrates with the host, is osteoconductive, biodegradable and can be an attractive alternative to autogenous grafts

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Bioengineer: the heart is one of the easiest organs to bioprint, we'll do it in a decade

Bioengineer: the heart is one of the easiest organs to bioprint, we'll do it in a decade | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
A team of cardiovascular scientists has announced it will be able to 3D print a whole heart from the recipients' own cells within a decade
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The Cardiovascular Innovation Institute is now developing bespoke 3D printers for the job with a team of engineers and vascular biologists -- "if you do not understand the biology, you solve only half the problem" explains Williams. Though for now those printers are focusing on replicating the parts, the plan is to print the whole in one go in just three hours, with a further week needed for it to mature outside of the body. Certain parts will need to be printed and assembled beforehand, including the valves and the biggest blood vessels. "Final construction will then be achieved by bioprinting and strategic placement of the valves and big vessels," says Williams

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First Living 3D Model of Arrhythmic Heart Made From Stem Cells

First Living 3D Model of Arrhythmic Heart Made From Stem Cells | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of Toronto’s Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine have developed the first-ever method for creating living, three-dimensional human heart tissue that behaves like mature heart tissue. 

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Directed differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud kidney progenitor-like cells

Directed differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud kidney progenitor-like cells | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

A team of researchers from the Center of Regenerative Medicine in Barcelona (CMRB), the Salk Institute in California and the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona creates three-dimensional kidney structures in culture using human stem cells.


Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Great news again. 

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Ella Buzhor's curator insight, November 18, 2013 7:06 AM

Human pluripotent cells differentiated into ureteric-bud-committed renal progenitor-like cells. These cells demonstrated specific expression of renal progenitor markers. Further maturation into ureteric bud structures was accomplished by establishment of 3-D cultures.

http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/ncb2872.pdf

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Organovo Achieves One Month Performance, Drug Responsiveness for 3D Bioprinted Liver Tissues

Organovo Achieves One Month Performance, Drug Responsiveness for 3D Bioprinted Liver Tissues | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The demonstration of extended function in Organovo's 3D liver tissues was achieved faster than Organovo's projected timeline of achieving these results by the end of 2013 and highlights progress in the development of a 3D Human Liver product, which is on track for launch in 2014. The company believes that a multi-cellular bioprinted 3D Liver system with extended life span in culture can provide superior results to current human cellular models and offer significant value to pharmaceutical researchers by enabling assessment of both biochemical and tissue responses.

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Cell & Tissue Models in Drug Discovery & Development - Case Presentation

Cell & Tissue Models in Drug Discovery & Development - Case Presentation | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, October 30, 2013 11:17 AM

Alexey Bersenev, who writes the blog "Stem Cell Assays" (http://stemcellassays.com/) shares this interesting video recorded 2 weeks ago at Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa.

I highly recommends his blog!

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Stem-Cell Treatment for Blindness Moving Through Patient Testin

Stem-Cell Treatment for Blindness Moving Through Patient Testin | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
Advanced Cell Technology is testing a stem-cell treatment for blindness that could preserve vision and potentially reverse vision loss.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The treatment is based on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells that have been grown from embryonic stem cells. A surgeon injects 150 microliters of RPE cells  under a patient’s retina, which is temporarily detached for the procedure.

The treatment will be tested both on patients with Stargardt’s disease (an inherited form of progressive vision loss that can affect children) and on those with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss among people 65 and older.

 

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Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency - Nature


Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, January 30, 1:14 AM

Researchers from Harvard medical school, report on a new method for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This method is termed stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency or STAP. The researchers suggest that a strong external stimuli such as a transient low-pH stressor can induce reprogramming of mammalian somatic cells, into  pluripotent cells. This could be a very big breakthrough in generation of iPSCS, that until now required nuclear transfer or introduction of transcription factors.

Reference: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7485/full/nature12968.html

 

Leran more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

 

Join my Facebook group for more stem cell scoops:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/STEMCELLSNET/

 

Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, January 31, 3:18 PM

This is fascinating and also just bizarre. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by defintition iare getting more complex, more random. That does not mean the biology is not there, the approach does not work, but I am most happy when stem cell approaches are well studied, well defined, and rigorous. I do not think much of ESCs or IPSCs (or MSCs) for many reasons both obvious and subtle, but the stem cell biology is amazing. I remember when the first nature article was reported where skin cells were injected with OCT4, NANOG, STAT3, KLM5, and CMyc? That event led to the hypothesis that ESC biology was held in the master transcriptional regulators, especially NOS and NOS genes.  Then other approaches accomplished the same, such as simple epigenetic engineering. Small molecuale induction, culture conditions with modificatoins, etc. But this is just wild.I have not seen the article, and I am sure they do a good job explaining their results, but off the cuff I cannot imagine how this works. Acidic pH is not a strong stressor in my opinion, and I cannot extropolate biology from in vivo modeling to help me think about this (except intradiscal), but it is quite striking if true. Indeed, it is almost as if all those times while culturing cells and forgetting to change the media (with a drop in pH), I was making IPSCs. (bad humor) My only comment is to not get to excited just yet because they do not do much other than some basic assays to show ESC biology occuring.  A good start though. But still an unexpected and exciting response. I wish I had thought of that!

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Standartization issues to be taken care for the development of cell therapy products

Standartization issues to be taken care for the development of cell therapy products | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
To manufacture stem cells for cell therapy, standards for other materials critical for the cells' growth and survival must also be considered. (Do you know what ancillary materials are needed in order to manufacture a cell therapy?

Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Wherever Standartization appears it means there is going to be a widespread industrialization process, and that there are already strong stake holders wanting to have an advantaged position to start the race.

 

But this is good for the industry in general.

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Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, January 25, 10:24 AM

As a real world example, without naming the companies, at this time, there are two adult stem cell biotechnology companies that are very similar and of interest, pursuing the treatment of the same disease process and tissue anatomy. Company A is US based, and has the benefit of 8+ years of research, volumes of R&D and results / data, and all its data, IP, and outcomes, are documented, patented, and published. Company A has a more relevant / appropriate stem cell therapeutic, approach, and dose. Company A doses the tissue and disease process with 5 - 10*4 stem cells, and reports efficacy that ranges from 95% - 100%, and averages around 97% in all studies, and safety profiles that collectively considered to be near 100%. Conversely, company B is based in a very different geographic locale, and has fast tracked its R&D from literally announcing its intent, to entering clinical studies in less than 2 years. Company B has very little data to support its stem cell therapeutic, dosing, and approach. Company B doses the tissue and disease process with 5 x 10*7 cells (roughly 1000X higher than company A), and reports efficacy in some studies that is ~1-5%, and without detail admits in other studies no efficacy at all, and finally, reports a safety profile that is roughly 80 -90%. Company B is regulated in a very different area in the world and in a manner that is not rigorous, efficient, or consistent. Despite the dramatic differences between the two, company B continues to release financial reports, and press, that are positive and suggest present growth and real potential for growth going forward. Even more confusing, their valuation within the stock market they are publicly traded in, and public opinion of the company in general, by the public, current investors, and market analysts, remains stable, and at times even positive, and give the company a high valuation. These groups seem to be easily manipulated by efforts by the company to downplay negatives, explain away these results, and maintain a strong marketing front. I make the comparison here, to point out the relevance of my comments above for Pluristem Tx which similar in many respects to Company B, and to compare both to company A, US Biotec

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Pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine: challenges and recent progress : Nature Reviews Genetics

Pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine: challenges and recent progress : Nature Reviews Genetics | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, January 18, 10:56 AM

A new review by Viviane Tabar & Lorenz Studer discuss recent achievements  in directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells,  new technologies that have facilitated the success of pluripotent stem cells therapies and the remaining obstacles on the road towards developing pluripotent stem cell-based  therapies.

http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v15/n2/abs/nrg3563.html?lang=en?WT.ec_id=NRG-201402

 

To learn more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

 

 

 

David O'Connell's curator insight, February 8, 10:31 AM
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new review by Viviane Tabar & Lorenz Studer discuss recent achievements  in directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells,  new technologies that have facilitated the success of pluripotent stem cells therapies and the remaining obstacles on the road towards developing pluripotent stem cell-based  therapies.

http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v15/n2/abs/nrg3563.html?lang=en?WT.ec_id=NRG-201402

 

To learn more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

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State-of-the-Art Tissue Engineering and Organ Regeneration Technologies Yield Healthcare Market Disruption

State-of-the-Art Tissue Engineering and Organ Regeneration Technologies Yield Healthcare Market Disruption | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
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Scientists make lung cells from human stem cells

Scientists make lung cells from human stem cells | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, December 3, 2013 2:31 PM

Researchers from the  Columbia University Medical Center, published a new paper in Nature Bitechnology, describing a novel method for generation of functional lung cells from pluripotent stem cells. Their highly-efficient differentiation method resulted in the formation of clara, ciliated, type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells.

A link to the paper:

 http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nbt.2754.html

 

To learn about the embryonic development of the lung and realted stem cell protocols: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/lung

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CryoShot®- off-the-shelf cell therapy for osteoarthritis-clinical trial

CryoShot®-  off-the-shelf cell therapy for osteoarthritis-clinical trial | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

Regenerative medicine company Regeneus' (ASX: RGS) will use Japan’s new laws to fast-track the clinical trial and potential approval of its new human “off-the-shelf” CryoShot® cell therapy to treat osteoarthritis.


Via Ella Buzhor
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Ella Buzhor's curator insight, November 25, 2013 4:21 AM

CryoShot® is allogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions. It is on a way to accelerated cell therapy approval process in Japan.

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Student Engineers Cartilage Tissues to Combat Osteoarthritis

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

In a biomedical engineering lab at the University of Saskatchewan, a 3D printer drips a mixture of living cells and biodegradable plastic into a grid design about the size of a shirt button.


"Cartilage is very hard, so making this hard tissue takes a long time. The scaffolding provides support and gives the cells time to develop until they can support themselves," she says.

Izadifar's highly detailed scaffolds encourage cells to grow into the same complex formations found in natural tissue. Cartilage in the knee is only two to three millimetres thick, but is made of multiple layers, all with their own functions. By mimicking these layers, she is designing a fully functional engineered tissue that the body will accept as natural.

 

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What composes the human heart? IBBME researchers crunch the numbers

What composes the human heart? IBBME researchers crunch the numbers | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it

http://youtu.be/gb9BTShFuuQ

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

http://youtu.be/gb9BTShFuuQ

 

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Spanish scientists grow artificial skin from umbilical stem cells

This important scientific breakthrough, developed by the University of Granada, will aid the immediate use of artificially-grown skin for major burn patients, since the skin could be stored in tissue banks and made available when needed.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Spanish scientists, from the Tissue Engineering Research Group, from the Dept. of Histology at the University of Granada, have managed, for the first time, to grow artificial skin from stem cells of umbilical cord. Their study, published in the prestigious journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine, shows the ability of Wharton jelly mesenschymal stem cells to turn to oral-mucosa or skin-regeneration epithelia.

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Stem cells: A time to heal - Nature

Stem cells: A time to heal - Nature | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
The first stem-cell therapies for spinal cord injuries are already being tested in clinical studies, but scientific and political uncertainty remain.

Via Jacob Blumenthal
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

It's not political uncertainty, but only fear of the darkest and dirtiest side of humans: greed to make profit out of other persons lifs or bodies. In other words, they avoid the risk of facing fetuses traffic.

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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, November 13, 2013 4:01 PM

An article, published today in Nature, describes the current status of stem cell therapy clinical trials for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). 

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Stem cell scarring aids in the recovery following a spinal cord injury

Stem cell scarring aids in the recovery following a spinal cord injury | Tissue  and organ Engineering and Manufacturing | Scoop.it
A new study by researchers at the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden reveals that the scar tissue formed by stem cells after a spinal cord injury does not impair recovery as it was previously thought.
Instead, stem cell scarring confines the damage.

Via Ella Buzhor
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Great, this gives new hope to spinal cord injury patiens.

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Ella Buzhor's curator insight, November 1, 2013 6:34 AM

Scarring by neural stem cell–derived astrocytes as a result of CNS injury is required to restrict secondary enlargement of the lesion and further axonal loss after spinal cord injury. Neural stem cell progeny exerts a neurotrophic effect required for survival of neurons adjacent to the lesion.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6158/637