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Overcoming light scattering: Single-pixel optical system uses compressive sensing to see deeper inside tissue

Overcoming light scattering: Single-pixel optical system uses compressive sensing to see deeper inside tissue | Through the Lens | Scoop.it

Optical imaging methods are rapidly becoming essential tools in biomedical science because they're noninvasive, fast, cost-efficient and pose no health risks since they don't use ionizing radiation. These methods could become even more valuable if researchers could find a way for optical light to penetrate all the way through the body's tissues. With today's technology, even passing through a fraction of an inch of skin is enough to scatter the light and scramble the image.

Now a team of researchers from Spain's Jaume I University (UJI) and the University of València has developed a single-pixel optical system based on compressive sensing that can overcome the fundamental limitations imposed by this scattering. The work was published today in The Optical Society's (OSA) open-access journal Optics Express.

 

"In the diagnostic realm within the past few years, we've witnessed the way optical imaging has helped clinicians detect and evaluate suspicious lesions," said Jesús Lancis, the paper's co-author and a researcher in the Photonics Research Group at UJI. "The elephant in the room, however, is the question of the short penetration depth of light within tissue compared to ultrasound or x-ray technologies. Current knowledge is insufficient for early detection of small lesions located deeper than a millimeter beneath the surface of the mucosa." "Our goal is to see deeper inside tissue," he added.


To achieve this, the team used an off-the-shelf digital micromirror array from a commercial video projector to create a set of microstructured light patterns that are sequentially superimposed onto a sample. They then measure the transmitted energy with a photodetector that can sense the presence or absence of light, but has no spatial resolution. Then they apply a signal processing technique called compressive sensing, which is used to compress large data files as they are measured. This allows them to reconstruct the image.

 

One of the most surprising aspects of the team's work is that they use essentially a single-pixel sensor to capture the images. While most people think that more pixels result in better image quality, there are some cases where this isn't true, Lancis said. In low-light imaging, for instance, it's better to integrate all available light into a single sensor. If the light is split into millions of pixels, each sensor receives a tiny fraction of light, creating noise and destroying the image.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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At least a step in the other direction.

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12 Colors and Their Meanings

12 Colors and Their Meanings | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
All colors mean something on an emotional level and they can help add new visual layers to your film. For example: warm colors (such as red, yellow, or orange) wake us up and get us moving while cool colours (such
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Here's the CliffNotes for the color thing. Not to be used without a color wheel.

 

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Color Symbolism

Color Symbolism | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
There are many aspects that go into making a film. Aside from the story alone, various  details need to be considered in order to enhance cinematic elements and transport the viewer into a new world. Color is one of those aspects that can make a huge difference in a film. The best way to learn about color symbolism…
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Can U say art director? Ah, what a thought to have sufficient budget.

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What is: Film | How Film Works and It's Place In Modern Filmmaking

A overview of how film works, the different types of film, and its place in the world of modern digital filmmaking.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Don't give up on film just yet, it still has its place. 

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D810 TIPS | Technical Solutions | Nikon Professional Services

D810 TIPS | Technical Solutions | Nikon Professional Services | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
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Someday I must get around and try this. Have any of you given it a go?

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Inverse Square Law Made Easy

Inverse Square Law Made Easy | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Donald Schwartz's insight:

For me it has never been easy--I learn through repition.

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THE *OFFICIAL ANDREASCY*'s curator insight, April 2, 8:55 PM

For me it has never been easy--I learn through repition.

Russell R. Roberts, Jr.'s curator insight, April 3, 7:17 AM

For me it has never been easy--I learn through repition.

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The Secret Art of White Balancing by Art Adams - ProVideo Coalition

The Secret Art of White Balancing by Art Adams - ProVideo Coalition | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
In days of old, white balancing was easy. Now, like everything else, it’s gotten a lot more complex. Here’s why, with instructions to make it simple again. White or gray… what’s the proper tone for white balancing? As cameras get better, reference white becomes darker. Here’s why… DSC Labs president David Corley recently asked me
Donald Schwartz's insight:

And the answer is:

"The trick is determining what tone the camera wants to see. Does it want to see white, or gray, or light gray…? Based on my research and a couple of quick field tests I’ve determined that most modern cameras with a dynamic range of 12-14 stops want to see a white or neutral gray reference in the 50-60 IRE range as viewed on a waveform. This is roughly a half stop to a stop above middle (18%) gray."

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How to Make a Cinemagraph

How to Make a Cinemagraph | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Searching your favorite online or paperback dictionary, you might discover that the word isn’t listed, or the closest word is you can find is: Cinematograph. Which is defined by the Merriam-Webster online dictionary as: a motion-picture camera, projector, theater or show.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

If you have the spare time after learning everything else you're trying to learn--try this.

 

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An Ancient and Proven Way to Improve Memorization; Go Ahead and Try It

An Ancient and Proven Way to Improve Memorization; Go Ahead and Try It | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Showing the power of using colorful images and well-known locations.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

A means to make memorable pictures???

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How Many Megapixels Is That?

How Many Megapixels Is That? | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
The bonus with film is that, even for the casual user, it retains fidelity of color and contrast that is almost indefinable, yet somehow perceptible. It is the direct counterpart of the vinyl versus MP3 debate in music.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

"The bonus with film is that, even for the casual user, it retains fidelity of color and contrast that is almost indefinable, yet somehow perceptible. It is the direct counterpart of the vinyl versus MP3 debate in music."

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Color Theory For Video

Color Theory For Video | Through the Lens | Scoop.it

AtBy learning about color theory, you can increase your creative tool set. From shooting a commercial to a wedding to a feature film, you can use color theory to set the tone and mood for the viewer using color manipulation in pre-production, shooting and post.

Donald Schwartz's insight:

At least learn the basic color palettes: Traditional (Munsell) Color System, RGB and CYMK (Print Color Space).

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How to Use Wireless Mics

How to Use Wireless Mics | Through the Lens | Scoop.it

UHFTwo cups and a string. That’s it. That’s what I learned to communicate with as a kid. Today, my kids know how to use cell phones, and I don’t even think I’ve shown them the string and cup method yet. They’re not constrained to a wire and neither should you be. Let’s use some big kid toys. Break out the wireless mics.

Donald Schwartz's insight:

UHF, VHF, get it straight and then there will be more.

 

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18 Composition Rules For Photos That Shine :: Digital Photo Secrets

BacRules. When you were a kid, you hated them. You probably still hate at least some of them. For all the good that rules do in our world, they have the ugly side-effect of stifling freedom and individual creativity.

Donald Schwartz's insight:

Rules. Rules. Rules.

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MIT researchers have developed a camera that will never overexpose an image

MIT researchers have developed a camera that will never overexpose an image | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
MIT researchers have developed a camera that will never overexpose an
image
Posted on: 08-19-2015 Posted in: Photography
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The folks at MIT have designed a new camera that will never overexpose a photograph, no matter what the lighting situation is. Called a “modulo camera,” it captures a high dynamic range photo with every exposure.

Trying to take pictures in the dark or through a window is difficult for professional photographers and everyday people alike. A group of researchers at MIT have proposed a camera that can take a perfect picture, no matter what the lighting contrast is. Called a “modulo camera,” this camera is designed to never overexpose an image, enabling high dynamic range photography. This achievement was awarded the best paper runner-up at the 2015 International Conference on Computational Photography.

mit-comparison

High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is a method that allows both very bright and very dim light sources to be pictured in a single image with no loss in quality. HDR cameras have been created before, but conventional HDR cameras use multiple normal images to create one final HDR image. This means that if the camera is shaking, or if the image is of a moving target, the HDR technique does not work. However, the modulo camera, created in a collaboration between the Media Lab’s Camera Culture group, MIT Lincoln Lab, and Singapore University of Technology and Design, only requires one shot to create an HDR image. This not only allows HDR photos to be taken free of blur, but also allows for the possibility of HDR video.

before1a before1b

Conventional camera sensors will get “full,” or saturated, after receiving an excess amount of light. This is because conventional camera sensors have a limited “well capacity,” or a limited amount of light the sensors can take in before they overflow. The modulo camera solves the saturation problem by resetting the sensor capacitors whenever the “well” gets full, and uses an inverse modulo algorithm to calculate how much light the reset sensors took in. This algorithm recovers a much larger dynamic range. For example, if a certain camera sensor can record eight bits of information, then when those eight bits are filled, the capacitor will be reset to zero. The number of resets is recovered by the algorithm, which then calculates the relative brightness of each area of the photo.

There are numerous uses for this technology. No more will photographers or even ordinary people have to fumble with aperture size and exposure length. The algorithm would enable people simply to click the camera button and let the computer deal with exposure problems. The modulo camera can potentially transform the way everyday photography works.
Here’s a short video explanation how the modulo camera
works

Furthermore, cameras serve as visual input for robots. Clarity in all lighting conditions is crucial to robotic vision. However, good lighting cannot always be guaranteed. When a driverless car drives into a tunnel, an ordinary camera goes blind: the exit ahead is bright, and the surroundings are dark, so the camera cannot see both inside the tunnel and out of it. A real-time HDR camera could guarantee safety in these conditions. The list of real-world applications goes on: laser image speckling, astronomy, and any field that deals with sources of both bright and low light could be transformed by the modulo camera technology.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

MIT to professional photographers: Your Days Are Numbered!

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How to Light a Scene Effectively Using Only Reflectors

How to Light a Scene Effectively Using Only Reflectors | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Lighting with reflectors is easy once you understand the basics. Put your subject in the frame, figure out where the light source is coming from and reflect some of that light back onto your subject. It really is that simple.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

It's there, why not use it? Besides competing with outdoor light requires some large lighting instruments.

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Practical Sources: How Do You Light A Wall?

Practical Sources: How Do You Light A Wall? | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
The most visually interesting way of lighting a wall is to use practical sources.   A practical light source is a source that is both emitting light and seen in camera.  Using interesting light fixtures is a fun way for the art department and the lighting department to collaborate. Practical sources accomplish two important goals for …
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Hey, it's in the picture, why not have the wall say something about the location?

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Remembering Vilmos Zsigmond in 9 Essential Shots

Remembering Vilmos Zsigmond in 9 Essential Shots | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
The landmark cinematographer will continue to live on in a handful of the most beautifully shot films ever made.
Donald Schwartz's insight:

If you missed any of these films and maybe it's time to catch up. Consider this, without good lighting there is no mood, no emphasis.

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Watch: 70-Minute Masterclass With Legendary Cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond

Watch: 70-Minute Masterclass With Legendary Cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
The soft-spoken and humble Oscar-winning cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond (“Close Encounters of the Third Kind,” also nominated for “The Deer Hunter,” “The River
Donald Schwartz's insight:

If your a DP watching this video is certainly time well spent. Source; Bill Holshevnikoff

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Camera Controls & Settings: Shutter Speed & Angle

Camera Controls & Settings: Shutter Speed & Angle | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Shutter speed and angle are versatile tools that are often misunderstood by shooters. Learn how they affect motion blur and exposure in your shots, and what settings to use for artistic effects. Next Lesson: Gain & ISO
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Whoa! A clear, straightforward, explanation of this often confused subject.


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In Memoriam: Remembering the Photographers We Lost in 2015

In Memoriam: Remembering the Photographers We Lost in 2015 | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
As 2015 rolls to a close, TIME LightBox pauses to remember the great photographers we lost this year
Donald Schwartz's insight:

The punctuation on many of their lives were that they were mentors.

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Photo Tip Monday - Composition - Rule of Thirds

Welcome to Ld Nature Photography, a collection of images ranging from beautiful landscapes to delicate flowers. Enjoy!
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Looking how the rules apply to the natural world increases the degree point difficulty.

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Ultimate Cheat Sheets for Photoshop and Lightroom

Ultimate Cheat Sheets for Photoshop and Lightroom | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Want an ultimate single-page cheat sheet for looking up keyboard shortcuts in Photoshop CC and Lightroom CC? The design team over at setupablogtoday have c
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Think of this chart as your multiplication tables--not fun to learn, but probably necessary.

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Getting The Most Out Of Your Modifiers | Fstoppers

Getting The Most Out Of Your Modifiers | Fstoppers | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Artificial lighting can be overwhelming, there are thousands of options to modify one single light source and there are dozens of companies that claim they have the best product and best bang for your buck. Regardless, photography equipment is expensive and I know I'd rather not waste money on a gimmick product when the same result could be achieved with just the right strobe placement or accessory.
Donald Schwartz's insight:
Donald Schwartz's insight:

I don't care well you calibrate your monitor screen, the contrast lacks sufficient detail to tell you much: this problem persists with slide shows. Only take workshops where you can see the lights up close and personal.

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VICKY BARRANTES: Tips to take some photos - poses

VICKY BARRANTES: Tips to take some photos - poses | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Donald Schwartz's insight:

I agree with the angled posing angles, but I'm not comfortable with the body/limb separation. What do you think?

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How to Reduce Camera Shake - 6 Techniques - Digital Photography School

How to Reduce Camera Shake - 6 Techniques - Digital Photography School | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Pin It In this classic DPS post (now updated) photographer Natalie explores 6 ways you can hand hold lenses at low apertures and low shutter speeds and still avoid blurry images caused by camera shake. I’m a mover and a shaker in general, and this is particularly true when I’m on a shoot. I’m twistin’ …
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My personal favorite is number five which works for the really humongous lenses.

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Clamshell Lighting Techniques for Portrait Photography

Clamshell Lighting Techniques for Portrait Photography | Through the Lens | Scoop.it
Traditional clamshell lighting is used frequently by photographers to bring out the best in their subjects. The even light produced by placing one light angled above the subject and one reflector or light source below the subject serves to flatter most faces. Slightly modifying the setup can significantly change the look and feel of an [...]
Donald Schwartz's insight:

Hollywood's technique for lighting up the eyes of female stars creates similar. DIY hot-light with small snoot into taped mirror. 

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Curated by Donald Schwartz
Tech Writer, Photog, Tech Coord http://t.co/RRLkoggy(past), Ed vid prod, U have answer ive question, Full-attention listener Jazz/Blues. . http://t.co/dmXsdIDK

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Space Not the Final Frontier
Off World a Chance to Begin Again in a Golden Land of Opportunity - Propulsion, Navigation, Exploration
Stone Soup
"Some travelers come to a village, carrying nothing more than an empty cooking pot. Upon their arrival, the villagers are unwilling to share any of their food stores with the hungry travelers. Then the travelers go to a stream and fill the pot with water, drop a large stone in it, and place it over a fire. One of the villagers becomes curious and asks what they are doing?. The travelers answer that they are making "stone soup", which tastes wonderful, although it still needs a little bit of garnish to improve the flavor, which they are missing. The villager does not mind parting with a few carrots to help them out, so that gets added to the soup. Another villager walks by, inquiring about the pot, and the travelers again mention their stone soup which has not reached its full potential yet. The villager hands them a little bit of seasoning to help them out. More and more villagers walk by, each adding another ingredient. Finally, a delicious and nourishing pot of soup is enjoyed by all." Wikipedia

My added ingredients on a number of topics of personal interest.
Technology & Business - Acronyms, Buzz Words, Double Entendre, Euphemisms,Tired Phrases, Word Abuse
What's in and what's out what makes sense and what doesn't in the language of business and technology.
Through the Lens
Composition, Lighting, Posing, Exposure, Photography and Video Production...Let's talk