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Language barriers can cause work hazards -

Language barriers can cause work hazards - | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Language barriers can cause work hazardsUPI.com7 (UPI) -- U.S. health officials advise managers, who must communicate job hazards, to consider the literacy, education level and native language of employees.
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English Spanish glossary and definitions of translation industry terms

The translation industry (translators, customers, researchers, translation companies, translation agencies, software and hardware developers, business and professional associations, transcribers, subtitlers, etc.) use a specific jargon which is not easily understood by customers. Furthermore, some players in the industry have a different understanding or don’t agree on the meaning or what should be included in many terms. At the end of this glossary I list the main references used, together with my own experience, for defining each term.

Author: Richard Pérez-Mongard
Creation Date: 12/Aug/2013


A language
Classification of working languages of translators and interpreters where A represents the strongest, dominant or primary language of a translator and which he masters with competence, proficiency or perfect command. Usually, this refers to the person’s native language or an equivalent. A complete bilingual can have a double A.
Spanish: idioma A

Etymologically “accreditation” means to “grant recognition of compliance with official requirements or a standard (an accrediting body) or grant official credentials that should be recognized by other parties. In general it is the process for evaluating this compliance. Once the person or organization’s compliance has been accredited a certificate is issued. This certificate is proof of accreditation; it validates the authenticity of the facts which have been accredited. In the case of translation organisations (Agencies and companies) these standards cover management, quality assurance and translating procedures evaluated by the institutions that manage those standards. In the case of individual translators this accreditation covers language competence and translation competence and it is evaluated by a variety of organisations and with a variety of methods, including tests, background checks, proof of translating work, etc. The process of accreditation, its requirements, procedures, seriousness, transparency and presence or absence of corporate, political and commercial interests, defines its reputation and value. In translation, both terms, “Accreditation” and “Certification”, are used as if they meant the same. In some countries there is the preference to speak of “Accredited Translators”, in others the preference is “Certified Translators”, and in others both terms are used to convey the same meaning. Translation or language programs are equivalent to an accreditation process (which includes teaching) and the degree is equivalent to the “Certificate” (although with many translators’ programs one might prefer to replace “are” and “is” with “should be”). Other similar terms are “License” and “Authorisation”. Synonym: Certification.
Spanish: acreditación, certificación

Accredited translator
A translator who has received accreditation from an accrediting body. Accrediting bodies can be Universities, translators’ associations, Government entities, and private businesses. The institution that performs the accreditation, its reputation, is paramount for the value of its accreditation. “Licensed” and “Authorised” translators are those allowed to work in a location although they may not be “accredited” or “certified”. Synonym: Certified Translator
Spanish: traductor acreditado, traductor certificado

Active language
The target language or languages into which a translator or interpreter is capable of providing professional translation or interpretation, with the condition of proficiency or perfect command of the language. Active languages are divided into two categories: A language (main or dominant language) and B language (the second language of a translator). See Native Language, Near-native Proficiency.
Spanish: idioma activo

Recasting a text in a new form or modifying it to make it suitable for a different purpose, readership, culture, country or region. Etymologically the word adaptation is a two way route in translation (adaptation to the global or to the local), however it usually is considered a synonym of localisation (a one way route). Many marketing texts and advertisements should be adapted or transcreated when translating to other languages or variants, or they may be rendered useless or damaging. Preferably, advertisements should be translated in the target country with advice from a local advertising agency. Texts with extensive regional or culture-specific jargon must also undergo adaptation or transcreation to avoid misunderstandings. Synonym: localisation, transcreation. Although some consider these three terms as synonymous, others state that adaptation and localisation imply formal changes while the message and context are retained unchanged, but on the other hand transcreation can imply a change in the context and only retains its essence. The case of Marvel Comics “Spiderman” for the Indian market that featured an Indian born spiderman fighting Rahshasa in the Taj Mahal is a clear case of transcreation.
Spanish: adaptación, localización, transcreación

Aligned segments
Segments of text in one language are aligned with corresponding segments in another language. Synonyms: aligned texts, aligned segments, source and target text in two columns, parallel corpora.
Spanish: segmentos alineados

Aligned texts
Segments of text in one language are aligned with corresponding segments in another language. Synonyms: aligned texts, aligned segments, source and target text in two columns, parallel corpora.
Spanish: textos alineados

Aligning the segments (paragraphs, sentences) of source and target text of a translation in two columns so that equivalent segments are side by side.
Spanish: alineación, alineamiento

When a word or sentence can have two or more meanings. Usually ambiguity can be resolved by correctly understanding the context, or it can be resolved further down the text. In some cases it cannot be resolved without asking the author, and sometimes ambiguity is set in place on purpose.
Spanish: ambigüedad

A document that certifies public documents for international recognition just like notarisation is in domestic law. To be eligible for an apostille, a document must first be issued or certified by an officer recognised by the authority that will issue the apostille.
Spanish: apostilla

Automatic translation
Another term for machine translation.
Spanish: traducción automática

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terminology - What is the difference between yuri and shoujo-ai, yaoi and shounen-ai and ecchi and hentai anime genre? - Anime & Manga Stack Exchange

terminology - What is the difference between yuri and shoujo-ai, yaoi and shounen-ai and ecchi and hentai anime genre? - Anime & Manga Stack Exchange | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Yuri and Shoujo-ai are anime themes which are related to girl-to-girl relationship, while yaoi and shounen-ai are related to boy-to-boy relationships. But what are their distinct difference? When can you call a specific girl-to-girl anime a yuri or shoujo-ai? When can you call a specific boy-to-boy anime a yaoi or shounen-ai?

Plus, what is the distinct difference of ecchi and hentai anime? I just know that they are both for adults only-theme anime. When can you call a specific anime an ecchi or hentai?
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How the language betrays your real intention - TermCoord Terminology Coordination Unit

How the language betrays your real intention - TermCoord Terminology Coordination Unit | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Nobody is perfect, so everybody can make a serious mistake, which finally hurts another person, even unintentionally. In that case, you have to correct a mistake and say that you are really sorry for having done something. Unfortunately, express a real regret to somebody is another matter than only articulating “sorry”.  In that case, you have to be aware of the vocabulary, which you use, in order not to make excuses or fake apologies, which even could worsen the whole relationship between you and somebody who felt offended. One of the well-known relationship counselors – Gare Chapman wrote a book “The Five Languages of Apology”, which is dedicated to this common problem of inability to make a true apology.

 The language of the phony apologies

Do you know how many English expressions exist to describe or to make a “fake apology”? You can speak about: false apologies, making excuses, insincere apologies, non-apologies or phony apologies. No matter which expression you chose, the meaning is always the same: invalidation of your feelings and avoidance of admitting one’s guilt. So, what should you say to make a true apology? First, never say “I’m sorry, but…” as it will be treated directly as making excuses for your behavior without felt guilty of doing it, or it even can be regarded as an attempt of self-justification. What is more, it could be also regarded as a way of saving face and put the partial blame on the listener. Sometimes also happens to say something like “I’m sorry you feel that way”, which literally means that the reaction of the upset person to one’s behavior was inappropriate and it is only his or her fault why they felt offended.  If you really would like to say sorry, just focus on word order, like “I’m sorry you got upset” or “I’m sorry I made you feel that way”. Frankly speaking, saying “I’m sorry you don’t like it…” stands for an insincere apology, too. This sentence includes kind information of your future action, which could be understood as offensive to someone. The other example of phony apology is “I’m sorry, but if you hadn’t…” which is based on a blame-shift.

How to make an appropriate apology?

If you are responsible for the official correspondence, it’s better to write “Please accept our (sincerest) apologies”, as it sounds formal enough. Otherwise, you can just say “Please do not be mad at me”, which is mostly used during the informal conversations. The other way to become reconciled is taking the whole responsibility on yourself or criticize yourself by saying “Sorry, it was all my fault” or “How stupid/careless/ thoughtless of me”. You can also say “Please excuse my carelessness/forgetfulness/ignorance”, which is related to your inabilities.  Keep in mind that you can also use some special grammar constructions after just saying “I’m sorry”. For example, you can put the phrase “should have or should not have” to make an emphasis on the reason of having done something bad. Next, you can also make your sincere apology more strong by adding “really” or “so”. The other popular phrases are: “I owe you an apology” or “I have a confession to make”, but they are reserved only for a trivial negligence.

Gary Chapman described the five languages of apology, which you can read below.

Do you forgive me?

To make the apologizing person feel less upset, it is recommendable to say something, like; “Oh, it does not matter”, “That’s OK”, No worries” or “Don’t worry”. Offering some solution to this situation or follow-up is also desired. Otherwise, the person who made this apology should have asked you “Will you accept my apology?” Lastly, bear in mind that “Apology does not always mean that you are wrong and the other person is right. It just means that you value your relationship more than your ego” (unknown author).


The language of apologizing


The Fake Apology

Written by Aleksandra Święcicka. Journalist, web editor and social media expert. Communication Trainee at TermCoord
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La esquina del idioma

La esquina del idioma | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Piedad Villavicencio Bellolio
¿Cuál es la grafía correcta?, ¿Amazonia o Amazonía?
Las dos formas se usan para referirse a las regiones de América del Sur que están circundadas por la cuenca del río Amazonas. Se escriben con mayúscula inicial.

Según el Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, la forma con diptongo (Amazonia) es la más común en España y en América; pero la grafía con hiato (Amazonía) también se usa en Perú, Ecuador y Venezuela.

¿Las expresiones numéricas se pueden escribir con letras?
La elección de escribir con letras o con números está supeditada a diferentes factores, como el contexto y la complejidad de la expresión. En textos científicos o técnicos, que exigen precisión, se recomienda el uso de cifras. Por esta misma razón, se emplean números en avisos publicitarios, en los titulares de textos periodísticos y en otras expresiones que requieran concisión y claridad.

La escritura con letras se sugiere en textos de índole literaria y, en general, en artículos no técnicos.

Con el sustento de la Ortografía de la lengua española, se recomienda lo siguiente:

Cuando las cifras se pueden expresar con una sola palabra, se prefiere el uso de letras (quince, veintinueve, sesenta, novecientos). Asimismo se recomiendan letras para los números que pueden presentarse en dos palabras (dos mil, quinientos mil); para las fracciones que no se refieren a ideas matemáticas (caminó treinta kilómetros); también cuando se escriben cifras aproximadas (llegaron unas doscientas cincuenta mil personas).

Se recomiendan para los siguientes casos:

En cantidades grandes que necesiten de cuatro o más palabras (24.389); en documentos bancarios, códigos postales, números de teléfono, documentos de identidad, numeración de calles y carreteras. (F)


Diccionario de la lengua española (2001), Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (2005) y Ortografía de la lengua española (2010), de la Real Academia Española y la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española.
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The Personal Touch: Using Anecdotes to Hook a Reader

The Personal Touch: Using Anecdotes to Hook a Reader | The World of Indigenous Languages |
It isn’t as easy to pull off as it might seem.

Back when I was getting a degree in journalism, we spent so much class time talking about how to write a good “lede” that the subject should have been its own minor. We scribbled and rewrote our introductory paragraphs. We studied the openings of Pulitzer-Prize-winning stories, looking at the writer’s mechanics. The purpose: to drill into our neophyte heads that the lede is the single most important part of any story. Period. It’s where you grab your readers and it’s how you keep them.

Ultimately, there is only one basic rule to writing a great opening paragraph: “Don’t be snoozy.” (I stole this phrase from a former journalist, Will Harper, who once gave a lecture with this gem at its center.)

If you’re reading this, my guess is that you’re at least interested in writing op-eds or short essays for places like Slate, the Huffington Post, or The Wall Street Journal. You may already have a terrific idea and a topical subject. Because of your credentials and research, you’re probably the perfect person to write it. The only trouble: Op-eds and short essays are likely to get turned down in today’s saturated market. Competition is fierce and a lot of professional writers are your direct rivals for space.

One of the biggest reasons that an editor will pass on a scholar’s submission is – and prepare yourself for some tough love here – it’s more than a little boring. The writing is too dull, too dry, too navel-gazing, too “academic,” or it’s all four of those things put together. In other words, it’s not for a general audience. Editors can usually tell if they’ll accept your piece after reading your lede alone. It’s that important.

So if you have a timely topic for an 800-to-1,200 word nonacademic piece, and you want to grab an editor’s attention, the first thing you should be thinking about is the “hook” for your lede. Typically, it is a personal anecdote or something specific and compelling from your research. It should interest readers from the get-go and make them feel a connection to you or the topic.

Caution: Using short anecdotes, stories, or vignettes isn’t as easy to pull off as it might seem. The technique can backfire. If it isn’t done well, it can come off as rambling, self-absorbed, or even egomaniacal. What follows are some general tips for using the personal touch in the opening section of your essay.

Even if it’s about you, don’t make it all about you.

Using your own recollections, fieldwork, or research stories is a great way to introduce your topic and argument to a general audience. However, the story you’re telling – even if it’s your own personal experience – should not be only about you.

The trick is to make the “I” universal enough that readers can invoke themselves in the narrative. As critic Mark Athitakis warned in a recent essay in The Washington Post on memoirs, if you’re going to use yourself to tell us something, “just recognize that ‘I’ is the least important word in it.” Instead, try focusing on the importance of the moment or the event. What about this personal story is compelling for readers? The answer to that question will lead you directly to the next step.

Create a three-dimensional scene.

The trick is to universalize your personal anecdote through specifics. Think about why you want to use this moment in the first place. What details lend themselves to the argument you’re making in the rest of the piece? Your anecdote should set the stage for what’s to come.

List out all the sensations, thoughts, and actions that best capture the importance of the event to the larger theme of the piece. Then use those specifics to craft a full experience for readers. Take them with you into the scene. Were you cold? Great. Mention your thin sweater. Were you scared? Tell them why.

In a piece I recently wrote for Slate, I used small details to set the scene: “While I waited in my thin, blue paper gown, I started searching on my smartphone for any relevant medical information. I was busy feverishly bookmarking pages explaining the different types of breast masses when the radiologist finally called me into her office.”

Many of us have vivid memories of having worn those paper gowns, so that tiny description does a lot of work for me. It evokes the memories of my readers and puts them in the room with me. They may think about whether or not they would also be looking up information on their smartphones. It creates a shared experience that I can then use in my next paragraph to make my larger point about medical information.

Tack back and forth from your experience to your argument and evidence.

An anecdote works best when it is threaded throughout the entire piece. The tone of an essay is set by the anecdote – so your writing should remain somewhat “conversational” throughout. Even when you’re making important points or highlighting the latest research, be clear and concise.

Don’t dumb anything down, but be more cogent and transparent than you might otherwise be in a scholarly article. You won’t have much space for “nuance,” counterpoints, or caveats. Those types of arguments are what you give up when you’re trying to reach a broad audience. To keep to 1,200 words, you only get to make one main argument using one main anecdote to highlight it.

End with a “callback.”

An effective way to end is with a reflection on where you began. In comedy terms, gesturing back to the beginning is known as a callback and it works. In writing for a nonacademic audience, the mirror effect works to show readers that you weren’t just navel-gazing in sharing your personal story. The callback should highlight what you learned from the experience and how that ties back into your overall argument.

A final note for those academics and graduate students new to op-ed and short-form writing: Learning to write for general audiences is difficult. In a long process peppered with rejections, it helps if you start to read a lot of op-eds and short essays with a writer’s critical eye. Start spotting the techniques that work for other authors and then mimic them in your own work.

Announcing Vitae's New Discussion Groups!

Want to swap strategies and share insights with other academics?

Sign up for Vitae and join the conversation in one of our new discussion groups: Adjunct LifeFlexible AcademicsOn Scholarly Writing, or Advising in Academia.

Join VitaeSigning up is fast, easy, and FREE.

Theresa MacPhail is an assistant professor in the Science, Technology & Society Program at Stevens Institute of Technology.

 Read More from Theresa

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Perles du bac : faut-il rire ou pleurer ? | Site mobile Le Point

Perles du bac : faut-il rire ou pleurer ? | Site mobile Le Point | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Lisez l'article : Perles du bac : faut-il rire ou pleurer ? sur votre mobile.
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Klallam language gets boost in writing with grammar book

Klallam language gets boost in writing with grammar book | The World of Indigenous Languages |
PORT ANGELES — The language of the Klallam people took another deep breath last week.

A 392-page hardcover tome, humbly titled Klallam Grammar, was cause for celebration at the Elwha Klallam Heritage Center as tribal elder — and Port Angeles High School language teacher — Jamie Valadez was recognized alongside Timothy Montler, the nationally known linguist who wrote the book.

“It's fun,” Montler said when asked what motivated him to devote decades to both Klallam Grammar and its predecessor, the Klallam Dictionary.

Montler estimated that book, published in late 2012, contains 12,000 Klallam words.

Klallam collaborators

Over the years, Montler collaborated with the late Ed Sampson, Tom Charles, Adeline Smith and other Lower Elwha Klallam tribal members on the dictionary and the grammar text.

“The elders I work with are really cool people,” said the linguist, a professor at the University of North Texas.

Valadez, for her part, has been using the dictionary and drafts of the grammar book for years in her Klallam language and culture courses at Port Angeles High.

Since 1999, she said, some 500 students have learned to speak Klallam.

“Jamie has been really determined” to ensure that this is a living language, Montler said.

“She's been able to get along with changing school boards. She does it gently but determinedly.”

Copies distributed

The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribal Council purchased 300 copies of Klallam Grammar and provided them to tribal members and their households, noted Wendy Sampson, a grant manager and teacher in the tribe's Klallam Language Program.

Meanwhile, Klallam tongue twisters, videos, sound files, games and a downloadable keyboard with the Klallam alphabet are among the materials available on Montler's website,

He and the Klallam people embarked on the dictionary project in 1978.

Back then, he was a graduate student, and there were about 100 native Klallam speakers — but children were learning the language, he said.

On Thursday night at the Elwha center, Montler signed copies of Klallam Grammar, the Klallam drum and dance group performed its Welcome Song and Whale Song, and tribal leaders admired the book.

The volume is available for $60 at the Elwha Klallam Heritage Center, 401 E. First St., and via the University of Washington Press website,

Annual visitor

Montler comes to Port Angeles about once a year, said Wendy Sampson, for an intense week of work with tribal staffers, transcribing elder stories from Klallam to English and helping with various projects.

“This week, we worked on stories and recorded models that align with the grammar book, which are available to download online,” she said.

“We will also be gathering our Klallam Language Teacher Certification Board — Tim, Jamie Valadez and I — to certify new language teachers and recertify teachers. They all go through the process every three years.”

With its translations and exercises, Klallam Grammar works for both linguists and lay people, Marianne Mithun, author of The Languages of Native North America, writes on the UW website.

The book, she noted, is “an absolutely extraordinary work in every way.”


Features Editor Diane Urbani de la Paz can be reached at 360-452-2345, ext. 5062, or at

Last modified: May 31. 2015 12:44AM
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Enfin un dictionnaire pour comprendre les clowns!

Enfin un dictionnaire pour comprendre les clowns! | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Quel plaisir, quelle joie incommensurable de tenir en mes mains cette œuvre dont tout le milieu clownesque a entendu parler de sa préparation depuis des lustres! C'est un véritable travail de moine qu'a effectué Yves Dagenais (maître ès clown) pour crée Le petit auguste alphabétique, le tout premier dictionnaire universel des clowns, augustes, excentriques et autres comiques. Près de 20 années auront été nécessaires afin de publier ce qui deviendra, sans l'ombre d'un doute, un ouvrage de référence et qui sera assurément bonifié dans de prochaines éditions. On y retrouve pas moins de 3 000 noms de clowns de partout dans le monde. On parle autant des Charlie Chaplin, Louis de Funès, Pierre Richard, Pipo et Rhum, Chocolat et Nicolette, que des Sol et Gobelet, Adrénaline et Alfredo di Carbonara, Fredolini, Jamie Adkins, Patrick Léonard et plusieurs autres.

Comédien, clown, auteur et metteur en scène, Yves Dagenais est directeur du Centre de recherche en art clownesque et de la revue Clownpedia,en plus d'être collaborateur au magazine spécialisé Culture-clown. Plus encore, il enseigne l'art clownesque dans plusieurs institutions d'enseignement supérieur tant au Québec qu'en France. « Avec ce livre, j'ai voulu regrouper dans un seul ouvrage les artistes qui ont fait rire et tant fait pour l'humanité, autant sur scène que dans la "vraie" vie », mentionne-t-il. D'entrée de jeu, Yves Dagenais « s'adresse d'abord aux étudiants en art clownesque, puis aux artistes clowns, et enfin à tous ceux qui sont fascinés par cet art ». Chacune des pages feuilletées m'apprit de nombreuses et nouvelles informations. À titre d'exemple, c'est avec un grand étonnement et un certain malaise que j'ai appris que plusieurs clowns n'avaient qu'une éducation sommaire et, trop souvent, que l'analphabétisme ne leur permettait guère de retourner des documents écrits, des notes et des dates précises.

C'est tout simplement passionnant pour moi de découvrir et de constater plus encore l'étendue et la portée de cet art, parfois honni, parfois malmené, souvent incompris. « Il y a depuis toujours une troublante synthèse d'expressions et de sentiments mêlés qui font du clown une créature imprévisible », écrit l'historien, auteur et grand collectionneur Pascal Jacob, dans sa préface du livre.

Carolyne ''Tiroline'' Aubert et Yves Dagenais

Lors du lancement officiel à la Tohu, c'était très drôle de voir plusieurs collègues tenir fièrement leur copie du précieux grimoire et se précipiter afin de savoir si leur nom y apparaissait! Bien entendu, nous avons tous vérifié et les blagues sont venues rapidement... Humour clownesque oblige! Chacun se vante d'être « passé à l'histoire », avec raison, mais sans se prendre trop au sérieux De demander à son ami d'autographier sa copie, à la page où son nom figure. Un collègue a même prit une gageure avec moi, affirmant que son nom ne figurerait sûrement pas dans le répertoire. C'est avec grand plaisir que le lui répondis, photo à l'appui, qu'il se gourait, et que je lui ai demandé de me verser ledit montant par PayPal illico! Ce qu'il s'empressa de faire!

Ce que je retiens ? Non seulement le document s'avère juste, factuel et sans jugement aucun sur les types de clowns et leurs façons d'aborder la chose clownesque, mais il se fait un devoir d'être inclusif et représentatif des diverses facettes du métier.

En fait, le Petit auguste alphabétique, c'est bien plus que cela! Avec ce précieux dictionnaire, on découvre toute la mesure de l'art clownesque et plusieurs personnages passent ainsi à l'Histoire avec un grand H. Il s'agit là d'un document qui fait office de mémoire collective. C'est très simple et d'une évidence sans équivoque : tout clown qui se respecte devrait avoir son exemplaire personnel du Petit auguste alphabétique; tout comme le Larousse et le Bescherelle se retrouvent couramment sur nos tablettes. À l'instar de Calixte de Nigremont, qu'on a pu voir lors des spectacles du Festival mondial du cirque de demain à La Tohu, qui en a fait sa lecture de chevet, je l'emporte avec moi, afin de le consulter ad nauseam.

Mes hommages et mes respects à Monsieur Yves Dagenais pour la réalisation de ce magnifique bouquin. Je tiens également à souligner l'apport et le soutien de plusieurs acteurs de la communauté circassienne québécoise, qui ont permis à ce projet de voir jour.
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Collège : l'avenir des langues régionales inquiète des universitaires

Collège : l'avenir des langues régionales inquiète des universitaires | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Des membres du Conseil national des universités expriment leur inquiétude face à la réforme du collège. Ils craignent qu'elle ne limite la place réservée aux langues régionales.

sprechblasen2801a © Fiedels

Des universitaires membres du Conseil national des universités (CNU) ont obtenu le vote d’une motion défendant les langues régionales. Dans le texte, remis à l’AFP, les signataires « tiennent à manifester leur inquiétude » vis-à-vis de la réforme du collège, qui menacerait pour eux « la place concédée jusqu’ici » à ces idiomes.

Membres de la 73e section du CNU, baptisée « Cultures et langues régionales », ils défendent, en vrac, l’alsacien, le basque, le breton, le catalan, le corse, l’occitan et le créole.

Langues régionales et interdisciplinarité

« Supprimer toute possibilité d’étudier une langue régionale en 6e revient à rendre impossible la continuité de cet enseignement de la maternelle à l’université, continuité pourtant réaffirmée dans la récente loi de refondation de l’école. Persuadés des vertus d’une interdisciplinarité que nous pratiquons nous-mêmes, nous rappelons qu’il ne peut y avoir d’interdisciplinarité fructueuse qui ne s’appuie sur des savoirs disciplinaires préalables », écrivent les universitaires.

Dans leur motion, relayée par l’AFP, ils craignent, si la réforme est adoptée en l’état, « de se trouver face à un simple saupoudrage sur quelques mois interdisant toute continuité d’une année sur l’autre ». Les universitaires, qui demandent à Najat Vallaud-Belkacem de modifier son projet de réforme en conséquence, ajoutent « avoir du mal à concevoir qu’on puisse considérer les langues régionales existant actuellement comme des filières élitistes et de prestige, en regard de la façon dont l’institution scolaire a longtemps traité ces langues au fil des deux derniers siècles ».

Pour un « statut » d’enseignant de langues régionales

Le 22 avril, dans un communiqué, le Partit Occitan (autonomiste et écologiste de gauche) avait reproché à la réforme des collèges d’avoir « complètement oublié » l’enseignement des langues régionales, et de l’occitan en particulier. « Que vont devenir les heures d’enseignements optionnels ? Les décisions prises à Paris ignorent cette réalité qui concerne des dizaines de milliers d’élèves et des centaines de professeurs. A travers eux c’est notre patrimoine linguistique et culturel qui est menacé de disparition », écrit le parti.

Le Partit Occitan demande la création d’un « véritable statut à l’enseignement des langues régionales ». Et de conclure, dans son communiqué : « la diversité linguistique est un atout qu’il faut préserver activement ».
Fabien Soyez
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Éditions Marchialy : le pari de la non-fiction

Éditions Marchialy : le pari de la non-fiction | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Quatre jeunes gens dynamiques, par ailleurs salariés dans les médias et l’édition, ont décidé de consacrer leur temps libre à un projet ambitieux : monter leur maison d’édition.

28/5/15 - 16 H 12

Editions Marchialy
Christophe Payet et Cyril Gay de Marchialy, lisant la version originale de leur futur livre
Peu de livres, mais une attention aiguë aux choix et à la forme. Ils se lanceront fin 2015 avec un premier titre de l’Américain Jake Adelstein.

Entretien avec l’un des fondateurs, Christophe Payet.

La Croix : Le secteur éditorial n’est pas le plus florissant actuellement, pourquoi vous lancer dans cette aventure ?

Christophe Payet : L’envie remonte à loin. Lorsque nous étions étudiants à Bordeaux nous avions ébauché un projet de revue sur la même ligne éditoriale. Il nous est apparu intéressant de réunir nos compétences aujourd’hui (1), à la fois éditoriales et graphiques, pour créer Marchialy. Pour porter des projets aux frontières de la littérature et du journalisme, ce que les Anglo-saxons appellent la « creative non-fiction ».

Le paysage éditorial est peut-être saturé de romans et de fictions, mais pas de ce type de livres, qui existent au contraire fortement à l’étranger.

Pourquoi cette ligne de la non-fiction ?

Christophe Payet : Nous sommes tous les quatre d’une génération qui a commencé sa vie professionnelle avec l’explosion des Mooks, ces périodiques offrant la possibilité d’articles longs formats, qui ont renouvelé le genre journalistique et créé une demande du lectorat. Or dans l’édition il y a très peu de projets de ce type, tandis que nombre d’histoires méritent un développement plus long qu’un grand article.

Nous aimerions aller chercher ces projets où ils existent, bien sûr outre-Atlantique où s’inscrit de longue date une tradition de la non-fiction littéraire, du « gonzo-journalisme », mais aussi faire émerger des auteurs français et francophones, aller chercher des plumes qui se dévoileront sur ce terrain-là.

Quel sera votre premier titre ?

Christophe Payet : La maison s’est lancée du jour au lendemain autour de la traduction du livre de l’Américain Jake Adelstein, Tokyo Vice, paru en 2009 chez Pantheon Books, la maison du franco-américain André Schiffrin.

C’est l’opportunité d’acheter les droits de ce texte qui a déclenché la naissance des éditions Marchialy, qui couvait depuis quelques années. Le livre est en cours de traduction et sortira en janvier 2016 en même temps que nous lancerons la maison, en présence de l’auteur qui a tenu à venir pour l’occasion.

Vous vous appuyez sur un financement participatif, faisant appel aux bonnes volontés, même modestes…

Christophe Payet : Oui nous sommes une génération qui est habituée à faire des choses en étant fauchée ! Nous avons créé une SARL au capital de 1 000 €, symboliquement pour acheter les droits de Tokyo Vice, mais cela ne couvre pas les frais important de sa traduction et de sa fabrication. Le crowdfunding, via la plate-forme KissKissBankBank, nous donne la possibilité de mobiliser les gens autour de notre projet avant même sa réalisation. Cela n’a pas que des vertus financières, c’est très enthousiasmant et motivant. Les retours des internautes, des proches mais désormais aussi des inconnus, venus nous encourager, sont très stimulants. Nous avons jusqu’à la fin du mois de juin pour collecter les fonds dont nous avons besoin pour créer la maison.
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Researchers to address lingering myths about impact of bilingualism

Researchers to address lingering myths about impact of bilingualism | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Even in Quebec, where bilingual and immersion programs abound, doubts persist about potential disadvantages of bilingualism, and parents and educators still grapple with the best way to produce bilingual citizens.
A public lecture at McGill University on Friday night — Perspectives on Bilingualism: From Birth to Aging — hopes to debunk some of the most persistent myths about bilingualism.

Denise Klein, a researcher at the Montreal Neurological Institute focused on language and the brain, has organized a public lecture as part of a two-day international symposium on bilingualism and the brain that started on Thursday at the MNI.

“People still always want to know which language to focus on, which language to read to their children, which kindergarten they should choose,” Klein said. “Bilingualism is complex. Quebec is a particularly interesting place because both languages have high value and are used in everyday life.”

In addition to Klein, the panel will include Fred Genesee, from McGill’s department of psychology, and Howard Chertkow, director of the Bloomfield Centre for Research in Aging.

Genesee spoke to the Montreal Gazette about early bilingualism. Some of his answers have been shortened for space restrictions.

Q: What will be the focus of your message on Friday?

A: Addressing the kinds of concerns parents and educators often have, either about raising children bilingually in the home or educating them. Even in Montreal, where many, many children grow up learning two languages, people have lots of concerns about this, especially during the preschool years. They’re worried that if the parents use two different languages as soon as the child is born, the child might get confused or it may delay their language development and they might not acquire full competence in the language. And when you talk to parents who are thinking about sending their children to immersion or bilingual programs, they’re concerned about what will happen to their native language. So I want to identify myths that persist about early dual language learning. Like the idea that the brain is monolingual so learning two languages adds extra demands to the system. Children are far more capable than we generally give them credit for.

Q: Doesn’t research show quite conclusively that bilingualism is a benefit?

A: Parents and educators call and email and still have these doubts in the backs of their heads that this is more than some children can handle. There’s often the belief that there are trade-offs, that because they’re doing twice as much as a monolingual child that there has to be some cost somewhere, that they’ll be less proficient or slower. All this research coming out shows the cognitive benefits and makes the prospect of being bilingual very appealing to parents, but it doesn’t necessarily address these other concerns.

Q: So you are trying to put parents’ concerns to rest? It seems surprising there are still so many concerns in Quebec, where bilingual programs are ubiquitous.

A: That’s true, but it doesn’t mean parents aren’t worried, especially for children with developmental problems. Parents are often advised to take them out of bilingual programs or not to raise them bilingually. For the most part that’s not necessary because they can be bilingual. Certainly for the French-speaking community there is still great concern over raising children bilingually. It’s true the English community has adapted to a bilingual reality, but that’s not true in the francophone population. They’ve been told it’s not a good thing, that it could affect their French proficiency.

Q: Is there evidence that learning a second language affects the first language skills?

A: We find there are factors that affect language development, but it doesn’t put children at risk. And there aren’t necessarily trade-offs and time isn’t necessarily the most important thing to consider, and younger is not necessarily better. Children who begin to learn a second language later do just as well as those who learn earlier.

Q: Can a bilingual or immersion program be as effective for learning a second language as going to an actual French (or English) school?

A: That’s a good question. In terms of learning French as a second language, being in a French school would probably boost their French, but if the English instruction is weak they might actually have some setbacks in terms of reading and writing abilities. If your primary concern is French, then being in a French school is the route to go. But you don’t necessarily know what’s going to happen to their English.

* The public lecture is on Friday at 7 p.m., Jeanne Timmins Amphitheatre of the MNI, 3801 University St.
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La langue universelle

La langue universelle | The World of Indigenous Languages |
L’apprentissage d’une langue est un mystère, quoiqu’en disent les spécialistes de cette science des pédagogues qu’est la pédagogie selon lesquels tout peut s’expliquer aisément et, bien entendu, scientifiquement.

Ils sont toujours nombreux et prompts à donner des recettes, à proposer des formules et au final à participer à des réformes, avant de tout revoir lorsqu’ils constatent que leurs conseils n’ont pas donné les résultats escomptés. Mais qui a un jour pensé à la première personne qui a inventé la pédagogie ? Après tout, chaque science, dure ou molle, a eu un inventeur ou des précurseurs. Non, là il faut croire que la pédagogie n’a pas de père. Par contre, elle a des enfants qui ont appris des choses sur la nature et les hommes. Histoire, géographie, mais d’abord lecture et écriture. Et puis il y a la langue de l’apprentissage. Partout ailleurs, depuis que la pédagogie existe, sauf à quelques exceptions, ce problème ne se pose pas. C’est en effet dans la langue maternelle que l’on commence à apprendre aux enfants à bien lire et comprendre les choses de la nature et des gens. Même dans les pays où, pour des raisons historiques et culturelles, il existe un bilinguisme, voire un trilinguisme, on a décidé et l’on a tranché. C’est le cas, par exemple du Canada, de la Belgique ou dans une moindre mesure de la Suisse. Il ne reste alors à régler que la question du début, à savoir la pédagogie. Le comment faire et le savoir-faire qui va avec afin que l’apprenant devienne capable de se débrouiller avec la quantité de savoirs et de connaissances qui lui restent à compléter jusqu’à un niveau ou un autre.

Il va donc sans dire que la question de la langue de l’apprentissage est primordiale. Ne pas la trancher c’est coacher un apprenti nageur dans la vastitude d’un désert. Or, c’est un peu le cas de tous ces «pédagogues» spontanés qui ont envahi la scène politique depuis quelques mois et donnent leur avis sur tout et notamment l’enseignement et l’instruction de la génération future à l’horizon 2030. A part les spécialistes et les personnes qui ont une légitimité scientifique ou intellectuelle pour émettre des avis, on ne voit pas ce que l’homme de la rue, le journaliste lambda ou l’usager du bus ont à dire de sens sur la question.

Pourtant, on lit et on entend tous les jours des choses ahurissantes sur la réforme de l’enseignement proférées par la foule comme s’il s’agissait d’un match de foot. Tout le monde a un avis sous prétexte que telle est la démocratie et aussi l’esprit de la Constitution et ses dispositions. A ce sujet, vous remarquerez que l’on ne peut plus avoir une conversation ou une altercation aussi banale soient-elles sans que tel intervenant brandisse les fameuses «mouqtadayate addoustour» (les dispositions de la Constitution). Une génération de constitutionalistes est née à l’insu des experts qui, dégoûtés, rangent leurs Dalloz et rongent leurs freins. Jusqu’à ce gardien de voitures hargneux qui négociait quelques dirhams de plus avec un automobiliste qui avait déjà alimenté l’horodateur. «Akhouya hada haq doustouri», réclamait le gardien à l’automobiliste qui contenait difficilement une réaction courroucée et peu démocratique. Or voilà le problème: dans une société moderne ou démocratique, l’horodateur fait fonction de gardien comme les feux de la circulation se substituent à l’agent du même nom. C’est-à-dire que la machine est une fiction que le citoyen se doit d’intégrer sans avoir besoin de personnaliser ce qu’elle représente. C’est cette représentation, c’est-à-dire ce passage de la réalité à la fiction qui fait sens. La loi est donc une fiction et non pas un gourdin. Or, seule l’éducation conduit à l’intégration de ce sens dans la vie en société, sans pour autant conduire (il ne faut pas rêver) à une sagesse collective qui est du domaine de l’idéal vers lequel on pourrait tendre. Certes, comme nous disons souvent, nous sommes dans l’enfance de cet apprentissage de la démocratie et de ses devoirs et privilèges.  Tout apprentissage ou enseignement public, pour revenir à notre sujet du départ, devraient relever du débat d’idées loin des pédagogues spontanés et des démagogues hallucinés qui ont envahi la scène politique, médiatique et culturelle. Tous ceux-là et ceux aussi qui tirent profit de la confusion des genres cherchent à entretenir le doute dans les esprits au nom de valeurs dont ils pensent être les seuls gardiens légitimes.     

La langue de l’apprentissage est certes un point nodal et doit être tranchée. Parfois, et pour paraphraser une formule sur les grands hommes, les peuples ne peuvent avoir de grandes réalisations que malgré eux. Si l’arabe, classique ou standard, est historiquement la plus ancienne langue d’apprentissage dans les écoles, le bilinguisme (arabe-français et arabe –espagnol) qui a été à la base de la formation de plusieurs générations au Maroc a été une réussite à tout point de vue. Il n’a engendré ni des «aliénés» ni des «mécréants». Quant au remplacement du français ou de l’espagnol par l’anglais, c’est-à-dire l’américain (et on ne parlera même pas de sa faisabilité), il ne peut sortir que des petits esprits étriqués et des calculs conjoncturels et démagogiques de ceux qui pensent que la puissance d’une langue et son universalité proviennent uniquement de son poids politique. La seule langue européenne est la traduction, disait Umberto Ecco. Or pour traduire, il faut parler et écrire au moins deux langues. Décidons vite et bien pour la première, les autres   suivront. Et comme l’écrivait le poète René Char dans un fragment des Matinaux : «Impose ta chance, serre ton bonheur et va vers ton risque. A te regarder, ils s’habitueront».

Najib Refaïf. La Vie éco
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CCN - Caraib Creole News - Guadeloupe. Conférence Internationale sur les langues de l'Inde dans ses diasporas

CCN - Caraib Creole News - Guadeloupe. Conférence Internationale sur les langues de l'Inde dans ses diasporas | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Pointe-à-Pitre. Jeudi 28 mai 2015. CCN. Conférence Internationale sur les langues de l'Inde dans ses diasporas au Mémorial ACTe du 29 au 31 Octobre 2015.

Les diasporas indiennes dont il est ici question sont issues d'anciens immigrants, pour la plupart ouvriers agricoles engagés sous contrat (indentured labourers) sous la colonisation européenne entre 1834 et 1920. Les groupes diasporiques indiens les plus importants numériquement se trouvent dans les régions et pays suivants : Malaisie, Singapour, Myanmar, Île Maurice, La Réunion, Afrique du Sud, Fiji, Guyana, Suriname, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Trinidad et Tobago. Recrutés de toute l'Inde, ils appartiennent aux deux principaux groupes linguistiques du sous-continent : le groupe indo-aryen : hindi (bhojpuri et awadhi), ourdou, marathi, gujarati, sindhi, konkani et punjabi ; et le groupe dravidien : tamoul, télougou et malayalam.

L'objectif de cette conférence est de faire un état des lieux des langues d'immigrants indiens de la période historique de l'engagisme et d'offrir un espace d'échanges entre chercheurs et pédagogues et de réflexion théorique sur des problématiques langagières spécifiques au contexte diasporique.

Compte tenu du lieu d'accueil de la conférence, une attention particulière sera accordée aux diasporas indiennes dans les départements d'outre-mer (DOM). Il est important de souligner ici que presque 80% des diasporas indiennes des DOM sont d'origine tamoule et de langue et culture tamoules. La question qui nous intéresse est double et porte en particulier sur deux aspects complémentaires des langues indiennes en situation diasporique :

1. Stratégies de maintien
2. Modes de transmission

La date limite pour la soumission de résumé est le 31 mai 2015.
Langues de la conférence : Français et anglais

Nous invitons les participants qui souhaiteraient présenter une communication à nous envoyer un résumé, en anglais ou en français, avant le 31 mai 2015

Pour plus d'information, merci de consulter le site web de la conférence :

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Quand un député du NPD utilise un traducteur automatique...

Quand un député du NPD utilise un traducteur automatique... | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Dans son bulletin parlementaire, posté en trois langues à toutes les résidences de sa circonscription de Laval, le député du NPD José Nunez-Melo a vraisemblablement utilisé un site de traduction automatique pour composer la version arabe de son message. Cela rend le texte totalement incompréhensible pour les lecteurs arabophones.
Le député s’en prend vigoureusement au projet de loi antiterroriste C-51 adopté il y a trois semaines par la Chambre des communes dans sa missive expédiée dans près de 50 000 maisons. Les versions françaises et anglaises sont plutôt correctes. Par contre, la version arabe ressemble à un véritable charabia (lire la «traduction» plus bas).
«C’est une erreur inexcusable, a admis au Journal Véronique Breton, attachée de presse du caucus du NPD. Ça ne se reproduira plus. Nous allons faire en sorte que tous les prochains envois postaux du député soient d’une traduction et d’un vocabulaire exemplaires.»
Une bonne partie de la circonscription de Laval changera bientôt de dénomination et s’appellera Vimy. Selon Statistique Canada, l’arabe dépasse l’anglais lorsqu’il s’agit de la langue maternelle des résidents de Vimy. Le français est la langue maternelle de 61 060 citoyens de la circonscription, comparativement à 8505 pour l’arabe et 5900 pour la langue anglaise.
Traduction intégrale
À l’intention des lecteurs, Le Journal a tenté de traduire en français la version arabophone du message du député. Toutes les erreurs et les tournures de style boiteuses ont évidemment été conservées:

«Les Canadiens que choisir celui qui nous tranquillise de façon efficace sans négliger nos droits et libertés, ils auront la chance de le faire au cours des prochaines élections générales. Les prochaines élections du 19 octobre 2015, seront une occasion non à la Canadienne et le Canadien pour permettre un choix sage du prochain gouvernement du Canada. Une équipe de politiciens s’est levée et elle permettra votre sécurité de façon efficace.
«Le député qui vous est propre est celui qui se lève sur toute la terre de la Chambre des communes qu’il est de notre pays. Contre tout gouvernement et le tyran extrémiste ou un qui est juste et logique Nous assurons que sans un mécanisme de surveillance approprié et la loi des pauvres, peut violer nos droits à la liberté et à l’intimité.
«Le député privé combattre ce projet dangereux, car l’opération du fantôme du terrorisme pour des raisons électorales et implanter la non-confiance envers les uns les autres. C’est en réalité de la démagogie pure.
«Il a répété continuellement et nous répétons encore plus. Nous répéterons que le retrait définitif et définitif.»
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D219 Director of Languages Receives Prestigious Award for Promoting French Language and Culture

D219 Director of Languages Receives Prestigious Award for Promoting French Language and Culture | The World of Indigenous Languages |
By Community Contributor Karmal Niles

Niles Township High School District 219 Director of Languages, Todd Bowen, was presented with the Ordre des Palmes Académiques, one of the highest honors bestowed upon educators. The insignia, which was established in 1808 by Napoleon Bonaparte, celebrates Bowen's career in the field of education and his efforts on behalf of French language and culture.

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Bowen has been an active member of many associations, both nationally and locally. He has held several positions for the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF) of Chicago, including Vice President. He is also on the Board of Directors for the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. His work and achievements have been recognized over the years, Bowen was awarded the AATF Dorothy S. Ludwig award for the Best Secondary Level Professor.

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At Fort Peck, Tester announces Native language preservation bill | Jon Tester | U.S. Senator for Montana

At Fort Peck, Tester announces Native language preservation bill | Jon Tester | U.S. Senator for Montana | The World of Indigenous Languages |
At the Fort Peck Language and Culture Program in Poplar, Senator Jon Tester announced that he has introduced a bill to help preserve endangered native languages.
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Lincoln County French students bring home first and third from World Language competition

Lincoln County French students bring home first and third from World Language competition | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Lincoln County French students bring home first and third from World Language competition
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Posted: Thursday, May 28, 2015 3:10 pm
By Abigail Whitehouse | 0 comments
STANFORD – Lincoln County High School is congratulating two French students who received top awards after competing against 200 students from across the state at the World Language Association’s State Showcase and Competition.
LCHS French teacher, Agatha Manion, said students from LCHS joined others from various high schools across Kentucky at Centre College on April 25 to present and be judged on cultural projects.
Students were required to prepare cultural projects and perform writing, reading and listening assessments in French or Spanish languages. They were also required to participate in an interview conversation with a judge, and describe details of their cultural projects – all while speaking Spanish or French.
“They created this project ahead of time for a school showcase and then we chose which ones to take to the competition,” Manion said. “Once they got there they had to write a prompt they hadn’t seen before in Spanish or French.”
Manion said she couldn’t be more proud of her students.
“They had to keep themselves calm all while speaking in a second language with an adult they had never met before,” she said. “We did give them a little bit of help in a study session earlier that week – told them what to expect and how to do their best.”
The students didn’t know the questions that were going to be asked though, she said.
Manion said when they weren’t competing or presenting, the students were participating in workshops like Chinese calligraphy, drama workshops, and Spanish storytelling workshops.
Ki Barrett – who won first place in the state for French language – performed a dramatic monologue which she wrote and performed in French. The monologue was about the worth of a life without passion.
Emily Simpson grabbed third place in the state for French after she presented a welded art piece representing various men from French culture amongst other symbols such as the national flag and flowers.
Another LCHS student – Carmen Green – placed among the top ten out of 150 Spanish students for her presentation about herself, her friends and her family.
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West Quebec bilingual newspaper tangles with language police, English is pushed to back pages

West Quebec bilingual newspaper tangles with language police, English is pushed to back pages | The World of Indigenous Languages |
A long-standing back and forth between a West Quebec newspaper and the body that enforces that province’s language laws has come to a head with an injunction that compels the newspaper separate its French and English pages, the co-publisher says.

“We’ve had to completely re-organize the paper, to considerable effort,” said Lily Ryan, co-publisher of the Pontiac Journal.

On April 16, the bilingual biweekly paper with a circulation of more than 9,000, was told it had to follow Quebec’s language law rules regarding English-only advertising, which is forbidden on French-language pages. The paper serves the bilingual Pontiac region — and the paper’s motto is “unifying all of the Pontiac.”

“We go to restaurants in both languages. We make love in both languages,” Ryan quipped.

She explained that the injunction gave the newspaper 30 days to comply with the legislation or face fines as much of to $20,000 if it didn’t.

“Part of the beauty of publishing in a bilingual community is that there’s a lovely diversity, and on the other hand because these arbitrary regulations add layers of complexity to publishing in ways that go beyond the normal, I really feel like the government is getting in the way of publishing, so it’s a freedom of the press issue for me,” Ryan said.

Ryan and the Office québecois de la langue française, the body that regulates language use, began negotiations in February 2012, Ryan said. As a bilingual paper, it’s affected in particular by a section of the Charte de la langue française — which regulates publishing and signage in the province — that pertains to advertising.

“This is my up-and-down process through these three years. I thought I was conforming, and then they changed the way that they were interpreting the law,” Ryan said of the language office.

Requests for an interview from the Office de la langue française were not answered, but a statement on its website — though it does not name the Pontiac Journal specifically — explains that the law does not apply to the language or layout of articles. It says there is no obligation to create specific sections, but it also states that all advertising must be bilingual or in French, and that English-only ads would be allowed only in English sections of the paper.

As of the newspaper’s first edition in May, it now has an English section, though further rules mean the French must be dominant in the arrangement of the paper, Ryan said, pushing the English-only section to the back of the publication. That doesn’t mean that there cannot be bilingual pages. It’s just that where there is a mix of English and French stories, advertising needs to be in both languages.

Ryan said her staff have been frustrated by the changes.

“They really see this as the government telling them how to do their job,” she said. “It’s not just journalism. It affects advertising sales more than anything else, really.”

That’s mainly because advertisers are now relegated to certain parts of the paper or it would cost more to create and place the larger bilingual ads, and the paper can’t afford to give away that extra space.

The Office de la langue française’s investigations can be spontaneous but are also done on the basis of a complaint.

“It’s absurd to me that one complaint can affect a newspaper and a whole community to such a dramatic way,” Ryan said. “Anyone who is an extremist with nothing to do can put us through hell like this. It’s really not fair.”

The paper did receive a number of letters of support from readers.

“A true, free and proud Quebec is capable of dealing with two languages,” wrote Eileen Payette from Campbell’s Bay.

Richard Tardif, executive director of the Quebec Community Newspaper Association, said conflicts with the language office are rare, in part because most of the newspapers in his association are purely anglophone.

“It’s those papers that say they’re bilingual and serve a bilingual community … that have this problem,” Tardif said. “Well, it’s the [language office’s] problem. It’s not our problem.”
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Canal del Congreso, en lenguaje de señas y con subtítulos

Canal del Congreso, en lenguaje de señas y con subtítulos | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Previamente, el senador Javier Corral presentó un dictamen para reformar el reglamento del Canal del Congreso, con el fin de que algunos de sus programas sean transmitidos con traducción al lenguaje de señas y subtítulos.
(Foto:Archivo/Cuartoscuro) Redacción ANmayo 18, 2015 10:59 am


El Congreso de la Unión dio a conocer reformas al Reglamento de su Canal de Televisión, para que la información que transmita se difunda también en lenguaje de señas y con subtítulos.

El decreto publicado este lunes en el Diario Oficial de la Federación y que entrará en vigor mañana martes, indica que se reforma el Artículo 4 del Reglamento del Canal de Televisión del Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.

Dicho artículo establece que el canal deberá informar a la sociedad mexicana bajo los principios de objetividad, veracidad, pluralidad, ética, equidad, suficiencia, oportunidad y con pleno respeto a los derechos fundamentales.

También agrega otro párrafo en el cual se señala que la información que difunda el canal, deberá traducirse simultáneamente a lengua de señas mexicanas o subtitularse con palabras en español, o ambas.

Asimismo fue publicado el decreto por el que se reforma el numeral 1 del Artículo 104 de la Ley Orgánica del Congreso General, sobre la conformación de las comisiones ordinarias, con el cual los senadores, que sólo podían integrar cuatro comisiones, ahora podrán pertenecer a cinco. (Con información de Notimex)
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Presentación del CORPES XXI en el Foro Internacional del Español | Real Academia Española

Presentación del CORPES XXI en el Foro Internacional del Español | Real Academia Española | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Presentación del CORPES XXI en el Foro Internacional del Español
Hoy ha comenzado en la Feria de Madrid (IFEMA) el Foro Internacional del Español (FIE2015), un encuentro organizado por IFEMA en colaboración con la Plataforma del Español Madrid Network, que se celebrará del 23 al 26 de abril de 2015 y «cuyo objetivo prioritario es impulsar el idioma español como activo generador de negocio».
Esta iniciativa cuenta con el apoyo de la Real Academia Española (RAE) y de las principales instituciones que promueven los valores relacionados con la lengua española: el Instituto Cervantes, la Universidad de Alcalá, la Universidad de Salamanca, la Fundación General CSIC y el Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe. Todas ellas, junto con otras destacadas entidades impulsoras del español, forman parte del Comité de Honor del FIE 2.0, presidido por el rey de España, Felipe VI. 
Esta primera jornada ha contado con la participación de dos académicos de la RAE, Miguel Sáenz y Guillermo Rojo, y del secretario general de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (ASALE), Humberto López Morales.
El traductor Miguel Sáenz ha intervenido en un debate sobre «La traducción en los organismos internacionales: Naciones Unidas». Por su parte, Guillermo Rojo, tesorero de la Academia, ha presentado el Corpus del Español del Siglo XXI (CORPES XXI), proyecto que él dirige y cuya nueva versión ya está disponible en el portal de la RAE. Por último, Humberto López Morales ha participado en una mesa redonda dedicada al «Español o españoles. Reflexión sobre la normalización y la diversidad de la lengua». 

El académico y director del CORPES XXI ha subrayado en su intervención en el FIE 2015 los cambios sustanciales que las computadoras y la informática han supuesto para la actividad científica. En el caso de la lingüística han surgido dos disciplinas nuevas: la lingüística informática y la lingüística computacional. Los efectos de todos estos cambios, ha continuado Rojo, se pueden apreciar especialmente en dos grandes campos: la lexicografía, de un lado, y la lingüística computacional de corpus, de otro.
Estas mejoras tecnológicas han permitido, por ejemplo, en los corpus orales, «la posibilidad de recuperar el texto de la transcripción y el sonido, lo cual supone una notable ampliación de sus posibilidades sin que sea necesario complicar la transcripción con rasgos fónicos». De ahí, según ha explicado el profesor Rojo, que «empiece a haber proyectos de integración de transcripciones ortográficas con sonido alineado, vídeo, una capa de texto con información morfosintáctica u otra con el texto analizado sintácticamente».
Desde que en 2007 las academias de la lengua española encomendaran la construcción del CORPES XXI a la RAE, esta «ha estado trabajando para cumplir este encargo, además de con el asesoramiento de todas las academias que forman la ASALE, con el patrocinio de Banco Santander, con la colaboración de grupos editoriales y autores que nos ceden textos y con la participación de equipos de codificación pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones españolas y americanas».
Desde entonces, se han incorporado 25 millones de formas ortográficas por año, de modo que, según ha explicado Rojo, cuando termine la segunda fase, en 2018, tendrá 25 millones de palabras para cada uno de los años comprendidos entre 2001 y 2016, esto es, 400 millones de formas, distribuidas al 70 por ciento en América y, al 30, en España, con textos, asimismo, de Filipinas y Guinea Ecuatorial. «Es este, por tanto, un corpus abierto, que seguirá creciendo según pasen los años».
Guillermo Rojo, por último, ha anunciado que «desde esta mañana está disponible en la Red, en la página de la RAE, la nueva versión del CORPES XXI, la 0.8, que cuenta con más textos —unos 207 millones de formas—, algunos de ellos con sonido alineado, e importantes elementos adicionales en el sistema de consultas». Mercedes Sánchez, coordinadora de los equipos del CORPES XXI, ha sido la encargada, a continuación, de mostrar a los asistentes la aplicación que sirve a la consulta del CORPES XXI.

La ASALE ha participado en la primera de las jornadas del FIE2015 con la presencia de su secretario general, Humberto López Morales, en la mesa redonda «Español o españoles. Reflexión sobre la normalización y la diversidad de la lengua». En el coloquio —moderado por Jaime Garcimartín y en el que han participado María Azqueta, directora de Traducción y Localización de Seprotec, y Javier Bezos, redactor en Fundéu BBVA— se ha reflexionado sobre la búsqueda de un español neutro o internacional en empresas de traducción y medios de comunicación.
«No hay motivos por los que preocuparse por el futuro del español» —ha comenzado su intervención Humberto López Morales—; «la unidad en el español está muy consolidada». El secretario de la ASALE ha mostrado su despreocupación por la necesidad de una lengua neutra y ha señalado que «nadie habla igual ninguna lengua».  «Aunque existan diferencias de matices» —ha continuado López Morales—, «cuando hablamos con gente de todo el mundo, eliminamos lo que perjudica el entendimiento entre hablantes».
Al final de la conferencia, varios asistentes han preguntado al secretario de la ASALE si hay intención por parte de la Academia de elaborar un diccionario de español internacional. López Morales les ha expuesto las posibilidades que ofrece el Diccionario de americanismos, en donde «se puede encontrar marcas geográficas en cada uno de los lemas para que [el usuario] pueda encontrar y utilizar la variedad del español necesitada».

«La traducción en los organismos internacionales: Naciones Unidas» ha sido la ponencia con la que, esta mañana, el académico Miguel Sáenz ha iniciado la participación de la RAE en el FIE2015. Sáenz ha estado acompañado por Jesús Baigorri, director del grupo de investigación Alfaqueque, de la Universidad de Salamanca. Ambos han debatido en torno al uso y la importancia de la lengua española en la traducción y la revisión de los textos de la ONU, organización en la que tanto Sáenz como Baigorri han desarrollado parte de su labor profesional.
Miguel Sáenz ha destacado que, precisamente, cuando él empezó a trabajar en la ONU, que es «donde aprendí realmente a traducir», la pluralidad de nacionalidades presentes en la organización «hizo que todo el mundo aceptara que el español no era el idioma de España sino el de 22 naciones, algo que, hoy, preconiza la RAE con su política panhispánica».
Antes de pasar al turno de preguntas, Miguel Sáenz ha recordado los «tres principios de la ONU que, como guía para traductores, me siguen pareciendo magníficos: la uniformidad terminológica, la claridad sintáctica y la concisión estilística».
Mañana continúa la actividad en el FIE2015 con la participación, a las 11:30 h, del director de la RAE, Darío Villanueva, en una mesa redonda organizada por el diario El Mundo. Villanueva intervendrá, además, en la inauguración oficial del foro, a las 13:30 h.
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The West is pooing wrong - this is what we should be doing

The West is pooing wrong - this is what we should be doing | The World of Indigenous Languages |
The author of an unexpected German bestseller on how to love your gut has had her work translated into English – and is set to teach new millions in the Western world that we’re all pooing wrong.

Speaking to The Guardian, microbiologist and newfound publishing sensation Giulia Enders explained the first basic error we all make in the West is to poo while sitting down.

Squatting, it seems, is the natural way to relieve yourself because it “opens the hatch” of the bowels, whereas sitting or standing shuts off the pipe. Enders said: “1.2 billion people around the world who squat have almost no incidence of diverticulosis and fewer problems with piles. We in the west, on the other hand, squeeze our gut tissue until it comes out of our bottoms.”

Enders also explains in the book how humans in fact have two sphincters, an inner and an outer, and that listening to what they’re telling us could be one of the easiest ways to avoid constipation.

While we can control the outer sphincter, the inner one is automatic – an evolutionary development that responds to other stimuli to decide whether we are in a “safe” place to take a loo break. Ignoring your inner sphincter, say if you are worried someone might hear you poo, can cause it to stop functioning properly.

Enders’ book also includes more controversial passages on the link between psychological wellbeing and a healthy gut – she speculates, for instance, upon the fate of a man she met who had terrible breath and killed himself, wondering whether the two were linked.

But it also includes little gems on the gut in general, including that the oft-discarded appendix is in fact full of useful bacteria and that eating well increases the amount of a naturally-occurring painkiller in our spit.

Enders’ book in translation, Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body's Most Underrated Organ, with illustrations by her sister Jill, is available in the UK and online from 24 May.
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Linguistic diversity: Why all Indians need to know about Silchar's Unishey May ceremonies today

Linguistic diversity: Why all Indians need to know about Silchar's Unishey May ceremonies today | The World of Indigenous Languages |
Exactly 54 years ago today, Assam witnessed a bloody denouement to a longstanding campaign to protect the Bengali language and the identity of its speakers. As a crowd of unarmed protestors gathered outside the Silchar Railway Station to oppose the imposition of Assamese as the official language in the erstwhile Cachar district, the police opened fire, killing 11. For Bengalis, both Hindu and Muslim, who still form a majority in this region, it was the last straw.

They forced  the Assam government to amend the 1960 Official Language Act to give Bengali official status in the district. Though district has since been trifurcated to create two new ones – Hailakandi and Karimganj – Bengali continues to enjoy official status across the region. Despite this,  Barak Valley, as the region is known, is often gripped with tension over regular infractions of this law.

Besides quotidian problems arising from the lack of official documents in Bengali, a common anxiety is that the state will push Assamese as the official language. Ever so often, the majoritarian Assam-is-only-for-Assamese idea kicks in too. A longstanding demand to rename the Silchar Railway Station as Bhasha Shahid Station, for instance, continues to be stuck in a bureaucratic labyrinth between Dispur and New Delhi (even though an unofficial signboard with this name has been put up). Even the report of the Justice Gopal Mehrotra Commission, formed to ascertain the exact cause for the police firing, continues to kept under wraps.

"Our struggle is far from over," said  Taimur Raja Chowdhury, the Cachar district president of the Barak Upatakya (Valley) Bango Sahitya O Sanskritik Samiti.

Though 1961 marked a significant victory, Unishey May passes each year without most Indians getting a whiff of the annual May 19 commemorations by Bengali socio-cultural organisations in Barak Valley.

By contrast, a similar episode in Bangladesh going back to Ekushey February (February 21) in 1952 has gone on to attain hallowed status in the country. It is the day when protestors in Dhaka opposing the imposition of Urdu as the official language in what was then East Pakistan were gunned down. Bangladeshis view this as a key turning point in their independence struggle. The day is even celebrated internationally as International Mother Language Day.

Popularising Unishey May would serve as a recurring rebuttal to India's institutionalised "one state-one language" structure. It needs to remind us of the linguistic diversity that exists at the margins of this model and of the need to protect the languages and the cultures that are built around them. For instance, the 2013 People's Linguistic Survey of India showed that Assam was home to 52 languages – close to half of the 122 languages the 2001 Census recorded for the entire country.

There is, of course, the irony that Bengali speakers have not been considerate to linguistic minorities in areas where they form the majority. For example, Santhali, despite having more than three million speakers, was granted official recognition in West Bengal only in December 2012. This placatory move came nine years after the language was accorded an official status under the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. Despite that, Santhali speakers in West Bengal continue to agitate to put in place measures that are their right and have been promised to them at different stages. The Santhali-medium schools promised by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on a landmark visit to Maoist-affected Jangalmahal in July 2011 remain undelivered even now.

What good does it do to the memory of those who died fighting for our language if we continue to perpetuate the same violence against other speakers of other languages? It is a question Bengalis, indeed all Indians, need to ask themselves honestly every year on Unishey May.

An unofficial signboard comemmorates the May 19 killings at Silchar railway station.

Debarshi Dasgupta is a freelance writer from New Delhi.
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DO NOT GET MARRIED Unless You Ask Your Partner These 15 Questions. Or Else You’ll Wish You Had.

DO NOT GET MARRIED Unless You Ask Your Partner These 15 Questions. Or Else You’ll Wish You Had. | The World of Indigenous Languages |

A few key questions that couples should consider asking before marriage.We often hear friends wondering where they're making the right move in marrying their significant other. The NYTimes surveyed what critical questions partners should be asking each other before taking the final leap, and this list of 15 questions is what relationship experts came back with:

1) Have we discussed whether or not to have children, and if the answer is yes, who is going to be the primary care giver?

2) Do we have a clear idea of each other’s financial obligations and goals, and do our ideas about spending and saving mesh?

3) Have we discussed our expectations for how the household will be maintained, and are we in agreement on who will manage the chores?

4) Have we fully disclosed our health histories, both physical and mental?

5) Is my partner affectionate to the degree that I expect?

6) Can we comfortably and openly discuss our sexual needs, preferences and fears?

7) Will there be a television in the bedroom?

8) Do we truly listen to each other and fairly consider one another’s ideas and complaints?

9) Have we reached a clear understanding of each other’s spiritual beliefs and needs, and have we discussed when and how our children will be exposed to religious/moral education?

10) Do we like and respect each other’s friends?

11) Do we value and respect each other’s parents, and is either of us concerned about whether the parents will interfere with the relationship?

12) What does my family do that annoys you?

13) Are there some things that you and I are NOT prepared to give up in the marriage?

14) If one of us were to be offered a career opportunity in a location far from the other’s family, are we prepared to move?

15) Does each of us feel fully confident in the other’s commitment to the marriage and believe that the bond can survive whatever challenges we may face?

Those that fail to ask each other the above questions may one day find themselves at the center of an explosive dispute -- with much graver consequences than if had you fully shared your perspectives on these topics beforehand.

So, if you and your partner are looking to get married, make sure to ask each other this list of questions first, and hopefully you'll be able to lay all your cards on the table and clarify any uncertainties between the two of you. If you are able to negotiate and reach a compromise on the above, you'll be in a great place with your partner.If these important questions prove helpful to you, share them with your friends, too. 

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Good to know in ALL languages. So, give it a try in all your other languages.

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Metaglossia nominated for theTop 100 Language Lovers 2015 competition

Dear friend,

Metaglossia has been nominated for theTop 100 Language Lovers 2015 competition (See!

We sincerely thank you for your sustained interest in what we have been doing since 2005 to foster mutual understanding amidst humanity's infinite diversity of conceptual frames.

Owing to its one stop-shop of minute-by-minute information on the various aspects of language translation and interpretation --- some of which are hardly always perceivable at first sight ---, Metaglossia is now reachable from over 95 percent of world's countries.

We look forward to winning the competition one day, thanks to your kind support and, especially, your kind votes. Voting (May 26th – June 14th, 23:59 pm CET).
Kind regards.
Charles Tiayon
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Read Russia prize 2015 | Russia Beyond The Headlines

Read Russia prize 2015 | Russia Beyond The Headlines | The World of Indigenous Languages |
The annual Read Russia English-language Prize is awarded in New York each May for works of Russian literature in English translation. The ceremony will take place at the end of Book Expo America. 
There are 24 nominees at the moment. The short list will be announced on May 20th.
Mikhail Bulgakov Don Quixote Margarita Marinova
Zakhar Prilepin Sankya Mariya Gusev and Jeff Parker with Alina Ryabovolova
Leo Tolstoy Anna Karenina Rosamund Bartlett
Vladimir Lorchenkov The Good Life Elsewhere Ross Ufberg
Vladimir Sharov Before and During Oliver Ready
Leo Tolstoy Anna Karenina Marian Schwartz
Sergei Lukyanenko The Genome Liv Bliss
Fyodor Dostoyevsky Crime and Punishment Oliver Ready
Alexander Pushkin The Captain’s Daughter Robert and Elizabeth Chandler
Vladimir Kozlov USSR: Diary of a Perestroika Kid Andrea Gregovich
Fyodor Tyutchev Selected Poems John Dewey
Liudmila Petrushevskaya There Once Lived a Mother Who Loved Her Children Until They Moved Back In Anna Summers
Sergei Dovlatov Pushkin Hills Katherine Dovlatov
Andrei Bitov The Symmetry Teacher Polly Gannon
Anton Chekhov Collected Short Stories Various
Andrei Gelasimov Rachel Marian Schwartz
Nikolai Gogol The Night Before Christmas Anna Summers
Lilianna Lungina Word for Word Polly Gannon and Ast A. Moore
Vladislav Khodasevich Selected Poems Peter Daniels
Andrei Sen-Senkov Anatomical Theater Ainsley Morse and Peter Golub
Nikolai Gogol The Inspector Richard Nelson, Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky
Mikhail Yeryomin Selected Poems, 1959-2009 J. Kates
Anna Starobinets The Icarus Gland James Rann
Lev Rubinstein Compleat Catalogue of Comedic Novelties Philip Metres and Tatiana Tulchinsky
The 2015 ceremony will be held on Friday evening, May 29, starting at 6:00 PM, in the Exhibition Hall of the Grolier Club in New York City (47 East 60th Street, between Park and Madison Avenues, New York, NY 10022).
Professor Gary Saul Morson, author, translator, and Frances Hooper Professor of the Arts and Humanities at Northwestern University, will help present the awards to the winning translators and publishers. 
Professor Morson, whose popular classes at Northwestern on Russian literature touch hundreds of students every year and who has become something of a wonderful ambassador promoting the humanities in education, will kick off the evening's festivities with a special new lecture inspired by one of our slogans from last year’s RUSSIAN LITERATURE WEEK: "Because Everyone Needs a Little Russian Literature."   
Read Russia, founded in 2012, is a initiative based in Moscow, New York, and London that celebrates Russian literature and culture. Through innovative programs, projects, and events supporting the English-language translation and publication of Russian works, Read Russia gives international audiences fresh opportunities to engage – in person, on screen, and online – with Russia’s literary leaders and heritage.
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Senior Lecturer and Researcher in Translation Studies, Terminology and Lexicography

Council and Conference Committee member of the International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies - IATIS (