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New Language Requirement for Canadian Citizenship Takes Effect - US Migration Expert

New Language Requirement for Canadian Citizenship Takes Effect - US Migration Expert | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
New Language Requirement for Canadian Citizenship Takes EffectUS Migration ExpertCanadian Citizenship applicants are now required to submit tangible evidence of their language ability along with their application after changes in language...
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Radical matric reform on the cards - Times LIVE

Radical matric reform on the cards - Times LIVE | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it

The ministerial matric exam task team said the standard of the African languages home language papers had repeatedly given rise to questions over the past five years. The issue had been controversial, not only in public, but also in interactions between examination authorities and the Department of Basic Education.

"One key issue that has arisen as a criticism of the NSC is that the mean scores are very high in the African languages compared with Afrikaans and English and all other subjects in the matric exam.

...


"For instance, in Afrikaans, of the learners that achieved less than 39% for Afrikaans home language, 80% failed the total exam. Of those who achieved 60%-69% only 1.3% failed; at 70%-79% only 0.3% failed and 80%-100%, only 0.1% failed the total exam.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

The ministerial matric exam task team said the standard of the African languages home language papers had repeatedly given rise to questions over the past five years. The issue had been controversial, not only in public, but also in interactions between examination authorities and the Department of Basic Education.

"One key issue that has arisen as a criticism of the NSC is that the mean scores are very high in the African languages compared with Afrikaans and English and all other subjects in the matric exam.

...


"For instance, in Afrikaans, of the learners that achieved less than 39% for Afrikaans home language, 80% failed the total exam. Of those who achieved 60%-69% only 1.3% failed; at 70%-79% only 0.3% failed and 80%-100%, only 0.1% failed the total exam.

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LA GRANDE AVENTURE DU FRANÇAIS:Comment le dialecte des rois est devenu le français

LA GRANDE AVENTURE DU FRANÇAIS:Comment le dialecte des rois est devenu le français | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
L'ancien dialecte des rois de France aurait pu devenir notre langue commune. Il a été imposé comme langue unique. Au nom de valeurs "universelles" parfois contestables...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le Français le plus célèbre du monde n'est pas connu sous son vrai nom. Napoléon est en effet né Napoleone di Buonaparte. Mais voilà : en France, on "parisianise" les noms de famille. C'est ainsi : dans notre beau pays, les rapports entre la langue et l'Etat sont particuliers.Il est vrai que, dans la lente apparition de notre Etat-nation, la langue a toujours constitué un enjeu majeur. Pour une raison simple à comprendre : chez nous, l'unité politique a précédé l'unité linguistique, ce qui n'est pas le cas de l'Allemagne ou de l'Italie.  

Pour ne rien arranger, l'idéologie s'en est mêlée. Les révolutionnaires se sont persuadés que la pensée nouvelle ne pouvait s'exprimer qu'en français. Dans le même mouvement, ils ont associé l'Ancien Régime aux langues régionales, "des idiomes grossiers qui ne peuvent servir que le fanatisme et les contre-révolutionnaires", selon l'expression du conventionnel Bertrand Barère. Ils ne se sont pas contentés, comme la monarchie, d'instaurer le français comme langue de l'administration. Ils ont considéré qu'il fallait l'imposer au peuple. 

L'abbé Grégoire publie ainsi, le 16 prairial an II, son célèbre rapport sur "la nécessité et les moyens d'anéantir les patois" - "anéantir"! -, où il note avec effarement que le français n'est parlé que dans une quinzaine de départements (sur 83). Le terme "patois" est conforme aux préjugés des élites de l'époque, fussent-elles les plus éclairées.  


L'école telle qu'instituée par Jules Ferry, en 1881.

© Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/Corbis


Dans son Encyclopédie, d'Alembert choisit ainsi cette définition : "Patois : langage corrompu tel qu'il se parle dans presque toutes les provinces. On ne parle la langue que dans la capitale." Des a priori qui perdurent aujourd'hui. Qui étudie Frédéric Mistral, prix Nobel de littérature en 1904 pour une oeuvre écrite en provençal ? Qui connaît le poète languedocien Pierre Goudelin (Pèire Godolin, de son vrai nom), considéré au XVIIe siècle comme l'égal d'Homère et de Ronsard? 

"La Révolution a donné la parole à la bourgeoisie"

Ceci excuse-t-il cela ? La Révolution mène cette politique culturellement criminelle au nom de sentiments nobles. On prétend "élever" le peuple en lui donnant accès à la "meilleure" langue. On entend réduire la fracture entre les masses et la classe supérieure, qui accède aux places et au savoir grâce à sa maîtrise du français. 

Quelques esprits marginaux proposent pourtant d'atteindre l'égalité par une autre voie : le français comme langue commune, et non comme langue unique. Ce plurilinguisme sera rejeté au nom de l'unité, confondue avec l'uniformisation. D'où ce paradoxe, souligné par le lexicographe Alain Rey : "La Révolution prétendait donner la parole au peuple. Linguistiquement, elle l'a donnée à la bourgeoisie." 

La Révolution sera cependant trop brève pour permettre de traduire les idées de l'abbé Grégoire dans la réalité. Qu'à cela ne tienne : les régimes suivants s'en chargeront. L'Empire d'abord (dans les lycées, créés par Napoléon, le français est seule langue d'éducation). La Restauration, ensuite ("il faut absolument détruire le langage breton", écrit en 1831 le ministre de l'Instruction publique à ses préfets). La République, enfin. 

Le spectre de la Belgique, minée par sa querelle entre Flamands et Wallons

C'est la IIIe du nom qui, dans ce domaine, se révélera la plus efficace. Là encore, Jules Ferry et ses contemporains agissent avec des sentiments élevés. Tout comme la colonisation prétend "civiliser les races inférieures", l'école publique est censée élever tous les Français au rang de citoyens. Et, en bonne logique républicaine, cet objectif ne saurait être atteint que par le français, seul porteur de valeurs universelles, tandis que les parlers régionaux sont supposés enfermer leurs locuteurs dans un dangereux communautarisme.  

Un raisonnement spécieux, relevé notamment par l'historienne Mona Ozouf (Composition française, Gallimard). "L'école, au nom de l'universel, humiliait la particularité. Mais l'école ne professait-elle pas en réalité sans le dire une particularité aussi, la française, qu'elle dissimulait sous le manteau de l'universel?" 

Il n'empêche : cette interprétation domine toujours aujourd'hui. Ainsi, en 1992, seul le français entre dans la Constitution. Ce nouvel alinéa de l'article 2, introduit notamment pour protéger notre langue contre l'anglais au moment de la mise en place du grand marché européen, va se retourner contre... les langues régionales. En 1999, le Conseil constitutionnel l'invoque en effet pour interdire la ratification de la charte européenne les concernant. Celles-ci finiront bien par faire leur apparition dans la loi fondamentale, en 2008, mais simplement au titre de "patrimoine de la France". Un article qui ne leur apportera rien de concret. 

Depuis une cinquantaine d'années, pourtant, les gouvernements ont changé de discours et même de pratique à leur égard. Ici ou là, on peut les apprendre à l'école. Très symboliquement, la délégation générale à la langue française s'occupe aussi "des langues de France". Mais aucun ministre n'a osé prendre les seules mesures qui modifieraient radicalement leur situation : leur utilisation massive dans l'enseignement, les entreprises et les administrations. Pendant des siècles, l'Etat français a planifié leur disparition. Aujourd'hui, il les laisse simplement mourir... 

Pour se justifier, les tenants du jacobinisme culturel évoquent le spectre de la Belgique, "minée" par sa querelle entre Flamands et Wallons, et de l'Espagne, "menacée" par les identités basque et catalane. L'argument est sérieux. Mais, curieusement, les mêmes oublient volontiers la Suisse qui, comme des dizaines de pays, vit paisiblement avec plusieurs langues officielles. Quand ils ne se contredisent pas en exigeant, pour les francophones du Québec, des mesures que Paris refuse sur son sol pour ses propres langues minoritaires. 

Oui, décidément, dans notre beau pays, les rapports entre la langue et l'Etat sont particuliers... 

À principes nouveaux, vocabulaire nouveau


La place de la Concorde, ex-place de la Révolution.

AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET


En politique, les mots sont des armes. Les révolutionnaires de 1789 l'ont bien compris. Malgré les guerres extérieures, malgré les révoltes sociales, malgré les soubresauts incessants, la maîtrise de la langue reste à leurs yeux une priorité. Et tous les domaines sont concernés : les noms des villes (Fontenay-le-Comte devient Fontenay-le-Peuple) ; ceux des espaces publics (la place Louis-XV, future place de la Concorde, devient place de la Révolution) ; le calendrier (vendémiaire, pluviôse,floréal, fructidor...) ; "citoyen" et "citoyenne" remplacent "monsieur" et "madame". Le tutoiement est institué. Les poids et mesures sont unifiés, avec l'adoption du système métrique. Tout cela est pensé : en se rendant maître du vocabulaire, il s'agit de rompre avec les valeurs de l'Ancien Régime et de conquérir les esprits. De la "race des seigneurs" exaltée par Hitler aux "ennemis du peuple" dénoncés par Lénine, bien des régimes reprendront ce procédé d


En savoir plus sur http://www.lexpress.fr/culture/comment-le-dialecte-des-rois-est-devenu-le-francais_1562979.html#XpTUOlCKt3wzcG7f.99

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Should more Aussies be bilingual?

Should more Aussies be bilingual? | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
(Transcript from World News Radio) According to figures from the 2011 Census, the number of Australians who speak only English is gradually falling. At the same time, those who say they speak two languages 'very well' is gradually on the rise. But proponents of bilingualism argue that too much emphasis is still being placed on English proficiency in multicultural Australia. They say while some competence in English is important, it shouldn't be at the expense of other languages. Van Nguyen has the details.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

(Transcript from World News Radio)

According to figures from the 2011 Census, the number of Australians who speak only English is gradually falling.

At the same time, those who say they speak two languages 'very well' is gradually on the rise.

But proponents of bilingualism argue that too much emphasis is still being placed on English proficiency in multicultural Australia.

They say while some competence in English is important, it shouldn't be at the expense of other languages.

Van Nguyen has the details.

(Click on audio tab to listen to this item)

"(Dinka) Speaking in different languages is very important, because it allows us to understand the dynamics of things and the different information. (Polish) In Australia, it's very necessary to speak English but it you can't speak English, there are a lot of services can help you to survive. (Cantonese) Bilingualism in Australia is very important. Being able to speak another language is helpful in preserving one's culture, enhancing communication and when doing business."

Deputy chair of the Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Marion Lau, is among those pointing to the advantages of having at least a second language when wanting to do business with the rest of the world.

She believes Australia is characterised by monolingual thinking, from the government level, down.

"Most of the decision-makers and policy-makers are people who are from a monolingual background."

"Most of the decision-makers and policy-makers are people who are from a monolingual background. I think given that the world is becoming so globalised, we need to take advantage of all opportunities to be communicating with people from different parts of the world."

Victoria-Gras is a researcher at the Department of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics at Monash University in Melbourne.

She agrees that despite the country becoming increasingly multi-cultural, Australia isn't supportive enough of languages other than English.

"We hear it a lot - that we're multicultural and multilingual but I think that there is still a widely-spread monolingual mindset in that, languages that are different to English are seen as transitional in a way. That it is something that the others speak, that ethnic groups speak or maybe that newcomers speak, that they become more Australian in a way. They'll just forget about in a way and that's a bit of a problem for both sides. It's a problem for the actual immigrants who come here, which is what the country has been built with, because they have that, they sense this message that they actually have to forget about their language. But it's also a problem for the monolingual Australian who wants to learn a language because it's seen as something that it's very difficult to achieve."

Professor of Language and Literacy Education at the University of Melbourne, Joe Lo Bianco, also believes Australian society puts too much importance on proficiency in English.

He says English-language speakers are seen as dominant and successful, making maintenance of other languages less of a priority.

"The problem is that knowledge of English is ranked higher than knowledge of any other languages and that immigrant children and new arrivals in general make a big effort to learn English and in the process of that, sometimes, neglect the maintenance of their other language. And because English is a very important world language, many Australians don't quite make enough effort to learn other languages so the overall effect of these tendencies is to rank English much higher than other languages in social power and that tends to make language maintenance weaker."

Victoria-Gras says with many migrants and refugees arriving from non-English speaking countries, Australia has good opportunities to develop bilingualism.

"There is a huge potential for Australia to have lots and lots of bilinguals, if you think of all the people who come to this country speaking another language to start with."

"There is a huge potential for Australia to have lots and lots of bilinguals, if you think of all the people who come to this country speaking another language to start with. So if we supported those families to maintain their language at home, we would have a vast potential of Australians who would be bilingual to start with. And then of course, there's the other side, which is Australians who are monolingual at home who could have more opportunities to learn the language if we actually took advantage of all that potential force of bilinguals."

Marion Lau says it's quite understandable that new settlers in Australia have a strong urge to learn English.

She says despite an increase in the amount of material available in languages other than English, it's still not easy to find out about the full range of government services and programs available.

And she says a lack of English skills can have repercussions when seeking medical treatment, or when trying to find a job.

"They have great difficulty because they do not have the opportunity or ability to understand what's happening, leading to maybe, getting themselves into a lot of problems and troubles either with the law or if it's a health issue, leading to a misdiagnosis because of the lack of communication, lack of language skills. And the opportunity to find a job or find employment also would be reduced dramatically because they don't understand what's going on. They cannot communicate and convey to their potential employer what their capacity and capability are at doing a job of work. Or even if they are qualified from overseas and they come here, but do not speak the language, employers are not prepared to take them on."

Professor Lo Bianco says learning English shouldn't be compulsory for new migrants.

But he says those with no English can become dependent on others.

"A person like that can live a full life. There's no moral problem with not knowing English and no one should ever argue that. But there is a lot of information in our society that's only available in English and there are many social networks and opportunities that are closed off to you, if you don't know English. You are completely dependent on other people for access to information and networks that are only in English. So if it's fine for you to be dependent, then that's ok, I'm not saying there's anything wrong with it. But it does limit people to relying on other people to do things for them."

The federal government provides 510 hours of free English language classes to newly-arrived migrants and refugees through Adult Multicultural Educational Services.

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L'essentiel Online - On parle trois langues et «il n y a pas de souci» - Luxembourg

L'essentiel Online - On parle trois langues et «il n y a pas de souci» - Luxembourg | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
LUXEMBOURG - La résurgence d une certaine xénophobie et d un racisme antifrançais sur les réseaux sociaux inquiètent le musée de la Résistance qui prône la tolérance, via un autocollant.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le musée national de la Résistance «ne s'implique pas seulement pour la mémoire des résistants mais de manière générale pour les valeurs pour lesquelles ils se sont battus», peut-on lire dans un communiqué publié ce mardi. Alors pour preuve de son engagement, le musée a créé un autocollant (voir ci-dessus) que vous avez certainement vu passer sur Facebook, ces derniers jours.

Cet autocollant est disponible gratuitement au musée national de la Résistance. Il est aussi possible d'en commander en téléphonant au 54 84 72 ou en laissant un message sur la page Facebook du musée.

Cet autocollant se veut comme un pied de nez à une certaine résurgence de la xénophobie sur les réseaux sociaux. Le musée évoque ainsi le groupe «Fir all dei et satt hun gesot ze kreien "scheiss letzeboier"» et s'inquiète de la montée d'«un racisme antifrancophone». Selon le musée, le multiculturalisme et le multilinguisme du Luxembourg «sont une chance» et le pays «a besoin des étrangers». Le musée va même plus loin. Pour lui, «c'est un fait qu'il n'y a jamais eu autant de gens qui ont appris notre langue».

Le message du musée se veut clair. Peu importe le pays d'origine ou la langue parlée: «Il n'y a pas de souci» (ou comme écrit sur l'autocollant «alles kee problem»).

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ComputEL: The use of computational methods in the study of endangered languages

ComputEL: The use of computational methods in the study of endangered languages | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it

ComputEL 
The use of computational methods in the study of endangered languages 
52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics 
26 June 2014 

<p "="">Workshop description

Contemporary efforts to document the world’s endangered languages—often going under the rubric of documentary linguistics—are dependent on the widespread availability of modern recording technologies, in particular digital audio and video recording devices and software to annotate the recordings that such devices produce. However, despite well over a decade of dedicated funding efforts aimed at the documentation of endangered languages, the technological landscape that supports the work of those involved in this work remains fragmented, and the promises of new technology remain largely unfulfilled. Moreover, the efforts of computer scientists, on the whole, are mostly disconnected from the day-to-day work of documentary linguists, making it difficult for the knowledge of each group to inform the other. On the one hand, this deprives documentary linguists of tools making use of the latest research results to speed up the time-consuming task of describing an underdocumented language. On the other hand, it severely limits the ability of computational linguists to test their methods on the full range of world’s linguistic diversity.

This workshop seeks to address this state of affairs by bringing together papers exploring the use of computational methods to facilitate the documentation and study of endangered languages. Possible topics may include, but are not limited to: (i) examining the use of specific computational methods in the analysis of data from low-resource languages, with a focus on endangered languages, (ii) proposing new models for the collection and management of data in endangered language settings, and (iii) considering what concrete steps are required to allow for a more fruitful interaction between computer scientists and documentary linguists. The workshop’s intention is not merely to allow for the presentation of research on these topics but also to help build a community of computational and documentary linguists who are able to effectively pair together to serve their common interests.


<p "="">Submission information

Both long and short papers following ACL guidelines are eligible for submission. Long paper submissions should follow the two-column format of ACL 2014 proceedings without exceeding eight (8) pages of content plus two extra pages for references. Short paper submissions should also follow the two-column format of ACL 2014 proceedings, and should not exceed four (4) pages plus at most 2 pages for references. We strongly recommend the use of ACL LaTeX style files or Microsoft Word style files tailored for this year’s conference. Submissions must conform to the official style guidelines, which are contained in the style files, and they must be in PDF. Submission should be done via the START Conference Manager at https://www.softconf.com/acl2014/ComputEL.


<p "="">Funding possibilites

This workshop is being supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award no. 1404352. Through this award, and related sources, funding may be available for those with accepted papers to attend the workshop, especially students. Please contact Jeff Good (jcgood@buffalo.edu) for further information.


<p "="">Important Dates

18 November 2013: First Call for Workshop Papers

9 February 2014: Second Call for Workshop Papers

14 March 2014: Workshop Paper Due Date 

11 April 2014: Notification of Acceptance

28 April 2014: Camera-ready papers due

26 or 27 June 2014: Workshop Dates


<p "="">Organizing committee

Jeff Good, University at Buffalo (jcgood@buffalo.edu)

Julia Hirschberg, Columbia University

Owen Rambow, Columbia University


<p "="">Program Committee

Steven Abney, University of Michigan

Helen Aristar-Dry, LINGUIST List

Alexandre Arkhipov, Moscow State University

Tim Baldwin, University of Melbourne

Dorothee Beermann, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Emily M. Bender, University of Washington

Andrea Berez, University of Hawaii

Steven Bird, University of Melbourne

Damir Cavar, Eastern Michigan University

Guy De Pauw, University of Antwerp

Sebastian Drude, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Harald Hammarström, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Judith Klavans, University of Maryland

Terry Langendoen, University of Arizona

Lori Levin, Carnegie Mellon University

Will Lewis, Microsoft

Mark Liberman, University of Pennsylvania

Worthy Martin, University of Virginia

Mike Maxwell, Center for the Advanced Study of Language

Steven Moran, University of Zurich

Alexander Nakhimovsky, Colgate University

Sebastian Nordhoff, Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Alexis Palmer, Saarland University

Kevin Scannell, Saint Louis University

Gary Simons, SIL International

Nick Thieberger, University of Melbourne

Paul Trilsbeek, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Doug Whalen, CUNY Graduate Center

Menzo Windhouwer, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Fei Xia, University of Washington

Charles Tiayon's insight:

ComputEL 
The use of computational methods in the study of endangered languages 
52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics 
26 June 2014 

<p "="">Workshop description

Contemporary efforts to document the world’s endangered languages—often going under the rubric of documentary linguistics—are dependent on the widespread availability of modern recording technologies, in particular digital audio and video recording devices and software to annotate the recordings that such devices produce. However, despite well over a decade of dedicated funding efforts aimed at the documentation of endangered languages, the technological landscape that supports the work of those involved in this work remains fragmented, and the promises of new technology remain largely unfulfilled. Moreover, the efforts of computer scientists, on the whole, are mostly disconnected from the day-to-day work of documentary linguists, making it difficult for the knowledge of each group to inform the other. On the one hand, this deprives documentary linguists of tools making use of the latest research results to speed up the time-consuming task of describing an underdocumented language. On the other hand, it severely limits the ability of computational linguists to test their methods on the full range of world’s linguistic diversity.

This workshop seeks to address this state of affairs by bringing together papers exploring the use of computational methods to facilitate the documentation and study of endangered languages. Possible topics may include, but are not limited to: (i) examining the use of specific computational methods in the analysis of data from low-resource languages, with a focus on endangered languages, (ii) proposing new models for the collection and management of data in endangered language settings, and (iii) considering what concrete steps are required to allow for a more fruitful interaction between computer scientists and documentary linguists. The workshop’s intention is not merely to allow for the presentation of research on these topics but also to help build a community of computational and documentary linguists who are able to effectively pair together to serve their common interests.


<p "="">Submission information

Both long and short papers following ACL guidelines are eligible for submission. Long paper submissions should follow the two-column format of ACL 2014 proceedings without exceeding eight (8) pages of content plus two extra pages for references. Short paper submissions should also follow the two-column format of ACL 2014 proceedings, and should not exceed four (4) pages plus at most 2 pages for references. We strongly recommend the use of ACL LaTeX style files or Microsoft Word style files tailored for this year’s conference. Submissions must conform to the official style guidelines, which are contained in the style files, and they must be in PDF. Submission should be done via the START Conference Manager at https://www.softconf.com/acl2014/ComputEL.


<p "="">Funding possibilites

This workshop is being supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award no. 1404352. Through this award, and related sources, funding may be available for those with accepted papers to attend the workshop, especially students. Please contact Jeff Good (jcgood@buffalo.edu) for further information.


<p "="">Important Dates

18 November 2013: First Call for Workshop Papers

9 February 2014: Second Call for Workshop Papers

14 March 2014: Workshop Paper Due Date 

11 April 2014: Notification of Acceptance

28 April 2014: Camera-ready papers due

26 or 27 June 2014: Workshop Dates


<p "="">Organizing committee

Jeff Good, University at Buffalo (jcgood@buffalo.edu)

Julia Hirschberg, Columbia University

Owen Rambow, Columbia University


<p "="">Program Committee

Steven Abney, University of Michigan

Helen Aristar-Dry, LINGUIST List

Alexandre Arkhipov, Moscow State University

Tim Baldwin, University of Melbourne

Dorothee Beermann, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Emily M. Bender, University of Washington

Andrea Berez, University of Hawaii

Steven Bird, University of Melbourne

Damir Cavar, Eastern Michigan University

Guy De Pauw, University of Antwerp

Sebastian Drude, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Harald Hammarström, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Judith Klavans, University of Maryland

Terry Langendoen, University of Arizona

Lori Levin, Carnegie Mellon University

Will Lewis, Microsoft

Mark Liberman, University of Pennsylvania

Worthy Martin, University of Virginia

Mike Maxwell, Center for the Advanced Study of Language

Steven Moran, University of Zurich

Alexander Nakhimovsky, Colgate University

Sebastian Nordhoff, Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Alexis Palmer, Saarland University

Kevin Scannell, Saint Louis University

Gary Simons, SIL International

Nick Thieberger, University of Melbourne

Paul Trilsbeek, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Doug Whalen, CUNY Graduate Center

Menzo Windhouwer, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Fei Xia, University of Washington

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Les langues étrangères, une invitation au voyage… - Planète Monde

Les langues étrangères, une invitation au voyage… - Planète Monde | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Parler une autre langue que celle qui a bercée notre enfance c’est comme ajouter à son trousseau de nouvelles clés.Ces clés qui ouvrent des portes vers de nouveaux chemins, de nouvelles destinations – même les plus exotiques et à l’arrivée desquelles, des âmes inconnues ! Une langue est un formidable moyen de partager avec des personnes avec lesquelles nous n’aurions peut être jamais pu communiquer.Nul besoin pour autant d’avoir à son trousseau toutes les clés ! Une, deux ou trois d’entre elles permettent déjà de partir à la découverte de millions de personnes.
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The Endangered Art of Handwriting

The Endangered Art of Handwriting | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
When President Obama composed his thoughts about the Gettysburg address, he wrote much as Abraham Lincoln did 150 years ago. He used pen and paper.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

INDEED, THERE IS REASON TO ARGUE, AS WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE, THAT WRITING/READING IS TRANSLATION. THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT ABOUT THE ENDANGERED ART OF HANDWRITING PRECISELY ALLUDES TO TRANSLATION THUS:

"Schools long ago let penmanship slip. Cursive writing is so foreign that some children can’t read the handwritten letters their grandparents send. Parents have to translate.

The Common Core educational standards for grades K-12 dropped penmanship in favor of keyboarding as an important skill. Everyone needs to use a computer keyboard, of course. Word processing is the inelegant term for what we do at the keyboard. We produce a commodity called content.

We moderns talk and type constantly, but our tweets and status updates are often out of our hands before our brain has registered the meaning of our words.

Must our choice be keyboard or pen? Why not both? Among the 45 states that have adopted Common Core standards, seven want to reinstate cursive writing instruction, The Associated Press reports. They are California, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, North Carolina and Utah."

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L'ONU lance un concours pour célébrer le multilinguisme

L'ONU lance un concours pour célébrer le multilinguisme | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Les Nations Unies ont lancé un concours lundi invitant les étudiants du monde entier à écrire, dans une de ses six langues officielles, un essai sur le rôle du...
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Gloria Wang ESTUDIANTE DE TRADUCCION E INTERPRETACION : 'Para mí es un reto estudiar en la Universidad de Córdoba'

Gloria Wang  ESTUDIANTE DE TRADUCCION E INTERPRETACION : 'Para mí es un reto estudiar en la Universidad de Córdoba' | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
LUGAR Y FECHA DE NACIMIENTO CHONGQING (CHINA), 1991.TRAYECTORIA ESTUDIA EL TERCER CURSO DE TRADUCCION E INTERPRETACION ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Gloria Wang, natural de Chongqing (China), está cursando actualmente el tercer curso de Traducción e Interpretación en la Universidad de Córdoba. Forma parte de un programa de movilidad por el que los estudiantes procedentes de China cursan un primer año en UCOidiomas y luego la carrera completa aquí.

--¿Por qué te decidiste a estudiar en una Universidad de España?

--Llevo tres años en España. Me decidí a estudiar aquí porque me interesa estudiar español y conocer su cultura, que no es la misma que la China. También, en mi ciudad no hay mucha gente que sepa español, por lo tanto, para mi futuro profesional será una buena oportunidad.

--¿Cómo han sido estos tres años en Córdoba?

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Translation services for ObamaCare signup a costly venture

Translation services for ObamaCare signup a costly venture | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
An English language advocacy organization is blasting the decision by the Obama administration to offer translators for anyone who has trouble signing up for ObamaCare.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

An English language advocacy organization is blasting the decision by the Obama administration to offer translators for anyone who has trouble signing up for ObamaCare.

The Department of Health and Human Services recently announced that the ObamaCare insurance marketplace website has translators available in about 180 languages to answer questions about the new healthcare law. The translation services are available on a 24/7 basis.

Bob Vandervoort, executive director of ProEnglish, says providing expensive language translators wastes taxpayer money.

"First of all, you have to find all these people who speak these languages – and then you're going to have to pay them to be basically full-time translators,” he explains to OneNewsNow. “And these are people who should be speaking English in the first place. In order to become a naturalized citizen, you have to demonstrate a certain level of English language ability."

- See more at: http://www.onenewsnow.com/politics-govt/2013/10/08/translation-services-for-obamacare-signup-a-costly-venture#.UlRqgFBQGuI

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Translation services for ObamaCare signup a costly venture

Translation services for ObamaCare signup a costly venture | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
An English language advocacy organization is blasting the decision by the Obama administration to offer translators for anyone who has trouble signing up for ObamaCare.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

An English language advocacy organization is blasting the decision by the Obama administration to offer translators for anyone who has trouble signing up for ObamaCare.

The Department of Health and Human Services recently announced that the ObamaCare insurance marketplace website has translators available in about 180 languages to answer questions about the new healthcare law. The translation services are available on a 24/7 basis.

Bob Vandervoort, executive director of ProEnglish, says providing expensive language translators wastes taxpayer money.

"First of all, you have to find all these people who speak these languages – and then you're going to have to pay them to be basically full-time translators,” he explains to OneNewsNow. “And these are people who should be speaking English in the first place. In order to become a naturalized citizen, you have to demonstrate a certain level of English language ability."

Among the more obscure language translators reportedly sought by HHS in August were Hakka (spoken by less than 0.5% of the world’s population), Amharic (0.37%), Oromo (0.36%), and Sinhalese (0.25%).

Vandervoort says the idea that America is a melting pot is becoming a thing of the past.

 

- See more at: http://www.onenewsnow.com/politics-govt/2013/10/08/translation-services-for-obamacare-signup-a-costly-venture#.UlRpPlBQGuI

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How To Become A Better Reader

How To Become A Better Reader | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
It's easy to fill your time with Twitter, Tumblr and Facebook, checking email and glancing at news headlines. But sooner or later you yearn for the pleasure of a good book.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

It's easy to fill your time with Twitter, Tumblr and Facebook, checking email and glancing at news headlines. But sooner or later you yearn for the pleasure of a good book. The Internet wants us to click every other minute from site to site. This habit can stand in the way of an older kind of reading, one that offers real pleasure and understanding: settling down with a book and getting to know it as well as you can.

Anyone can be a good reader, even in the Internet Age. Reading better means reading more slowly. The Net tells us to consume words in small, easy bites, as we dart from one webpage to another. But slow reading demands time and practice.

When you read, keep your sense of fun, but combine it with the ambition to experience books as deeply as you can. Make yourself ready for the serious delights that reading can offer: the unforgettable people and worlds that you can encounter nowhere else.

Here are some rules that will help you with slow reading. If you enjoy books but feel that there must be more to see, and say, about what you've read, these rules are for you. They will enable you to become a more able and careful reader, to know what to do better when you open a book.

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What Will the TAUS User Conference 2013 Be Like?

This year, Portland will be the city hosting the TAUS User Conference, which will take place on October 14 and 15. The conference will be focused, as we know,
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LA GRANDE AVENTURE DU FRANÇAIS:Comment le dialecte des rois est devenu le français

LA GRANDE AVENTURE DU FRANÇAIS:Comment le dialecte des rois est devenu le français | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
L'ancien dialecte des rois de France aurait pu devenir notre langue commune. Il a été imposé comme langue unique. Au nom de valeurs "universelles" parfois contestables...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le Français le plus célèbre du monde n'est pas connu sous son vrai nom. Napoléon est en effet né Napoleone di Buonaparte. Mais voilà : en France, on "parisianise" les noms de famille. C'est ainsi : dans notre beau pays, les rapports entre la langue et l'Etat sont particuliers.Il est vrai que, dans la lente apparition de notre Etat-nation, la langue a toujours constitué un enjeu majeur. Pour une raison simple à comprendre : chez nous, l'unité politique a précédé l'unité linguistique, ce qui n'est pas le cas de l'Allemagne ou de l'Italie.  

Pour ne rien arranger, l'idéologie s'en est mêlée. Les révolutionnaires se sont persuadés que la pensée nouvelle ne pouvait s'exprimer qu'en français. Dans le même mouvement, ils ont associé l'Ancien Régime aux langues régionales, "des idiomes grossiers qui ne peuvent servir que le fanatisme et les contre-révolutionnaires", selon l'expression du conventionnel Bertrand Barère. Ils ne se sont pas contentés, comme la monarchie, d'instaurer le français comme langue de l'administration. Ils ont considéré qu'il fallait l'imposer au peuple. 

L'abbé Grégoire publie ainsi, le 16 prairial an II, son célèbre rapport sur "la nécessité et les moyens d'anéantir les patois" - "anéantir"! -, où il note avec effarement que le français n'est parlé que dans une quinzaine de départements (sur 83). Le terme "patois" est conforme aux préjugés des élites de l'époque, fussent-elles les plus éclairées.  


L'école telle qu'instituée par Jules Ferry, en 1881.

© Jacques Pavlovsky/Sygma/Corbis


Dans son Encyclopédie, d'Alembert choisit ainsi cette définition : "Patois : langage corrompu tel qu'il se parle dans presque toutes les provinces. On ne parle la langue que dans la capitale." Des a priori qui perdurent aujourd'hui. Qui étudie Frédéric Mistral, prix Nobel de littérature en 1904 pour une oeuvre écrite en provençal ? Qui connaît le poète languedocien Pierre Goudelin (Pèire Godolin, de son vrai nom), considéré au XVIIe siècle comme l'égal d'Homère et de Ronsard? 

"La Révolution a donné la parole à la bourgeoisie"

Ceci excuse-t-il cela ? La Révolution mène cette politique culturellement criminelle au nom de sentiments nobles. On prétend "élever" le peuple en lui donnant accès à la "meilleure" langue. On entend réduire la fracture entre les masses et la classe supérieure, qui accède aux places et au savoir grâce à sa maîtrise du français. 

Quelques esprits marginaux proposent pourtant d'atteindre l'égalité par une autre voie : le français comme langue commune, et non comme langue unique. Ce plurilinguisme sera rejeté au nom de l'unité, confondue avec l'uniformisation. D'où ce paradoxe, souligné par le lexicographe Alain Rey : "La Révolution prétendait donner la parole au peuple. Linguistiquement, elle l'a donnée à la bourgeoisie." 

La Révolution sera cependant trop brève pour permettre de traduire les idées de l'abbé Grégoire dans la réalité. Qu'à cela ne tienne : les régimes suivants s'en chargeront. L'Empire d'abord (dans les lycées, créés par Napoléon, le français est seule langue d'éducation). La Restauration, ensuite ("il faut absolument détruire le langage breton", écrit en 1831 le ministre de l'Instruction publique à ses préfets). La République, enfin. 

Le spectre de la Belgique, minée par sa querelle entre Flamands et Wallons

C'est la IIIe du nom qui, dans ce domaine, se révélera la plus efficace. Là encore, Jules Ferry et ses contemporains agissent avec des sentiments élevés. Tout comme la colonisation prétend "civiliser les races inférieures", l'école publique est censée élever tous les Français au rang de citoyens. Et, en bonne logique républicaine, cet objectif ne saurait être atteint que par le français, seul porteur de valeurs universelles, tandis que les parlers régionaux sont supposés enfermer leurs locuteurs dans un dangereux communautarisme.  

Un raisonnement spécieux, relevé notamment par l'historienne Mona Ozouf (Composition française, Gallimard). "L'école, au nom de l'universel, humiliait la particularité. Mais l'école ne professait-elle pas en réalité sans le dire une particularité aussi, la française, qu'elle dissimulait sous le manteau de l'universel?" 

Il n'empêche : cette interprétation domine toujours aujourd'hui. Ainsi, en 1992, seul le français entre dans la Constitution. Ce nouvel alinéa de l'article 2, introduit notamment pour protéger notre langue contre l'anglais au moment de la mise en place du grand marché européen, va se retourner contre... les langues régionales. En 1999, le Conseil constitutionnel l'invoque en effet pour interdire la ratification de la charte européenne les concernant. Celles-ci finiront bien par faire leur apparition dans la loi fondamentale, en 2008, mais simplement au titre de "patrimoine de la France". Un article qui ne leur apportera rien de concret. 

Depuis une cinquantaine d'années, pourtant, les gouvernements ont changé de discours et même de pratique à leur égard. Ici ou là, on peut les apprendre à l'école. Très symboliquement, la délégation générale à la langue française s'occupe aussi "des langues de France". Mais aucun ministre n'a osé prendre les seules mesures qui modifieraient radicalement leur situation : leur utilisation massive dans l'enseignement, les entreprises et les administrations. Pendant des siècles, l'Etat français a planifié leur disparition. Aujourd'hui, il les laisse simplement mourir... 

Pour se justifier, les tenants du jacobinisme culturel évoquent le spectre de la Belgique, "minée" par sa querelle entre Flamands et Wallons, et de l'Espagne, "menacée" par les identités basque et catalane. L'argument est sérieux. Mais, curieusement, les mêmes oublient volontiers la Suisse qui, comme des dizaines de pays, vit paisiblement avec plusieurs langues officielles. Quand ils ne se contredisent pas en exigeant, pour les francophones du Québec, des mesures que Paris refuse sur son sol pour ses propres langues minoritaires. 

Oui, décidément, dans notre beau pays, les rapports entre la langue et l'Etat sont particuliers... 

À principes nouveaux, vocabulaire nouveau


La place de la Concorde, ex-place de la Révolution.

AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET


En politique, les mots sont des armes. Les révolutionnaires de 1789 l'ont bien compris. Malgré les guerres extérieures, malgré les révoltes sociales, malgré les soubresauts incessants, la maîtrise de la langue reste à leurs yeux une priorité. Et tous les domaines sont concernés : les noms des villes (Fontenay-le-Comte devient Fontenay-le-Peuple) ; ceux des espaces publics (la place Louis-XV, future place de la Concorde, devient place de la Révolution) ; le calendrier (vendémiaire, pluviôse,floréal, fructidor...) ; "citoyen" et "citoyenne" remplacent "monsieur" et "madame". Le tutoiement est institué. Les poids et mesures sont unifiés, avec l'adoption du système métrique. Tout cela est pensé : en se rendant maître du vocabulaire, il s'agit de rompre avec les valeurs de l'Ancien Régime et de conquérir les esprits. De la "race des seigneurs" exaltée par Hitler aux "ennemis du peuple" dénoncés par Lénine, bien des régimes reprendront ce procédé dans les décennies qui suivront. 


En savoir plus sur http://www.lexpress.fr/culture/comment-le-dialecte-des-rois-est-devenu-le-francais_1562979.html#6z5JqgOf5t35kBhC.99

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Q&A: Geneva Smitherman, Michigan State professor emerita of English, on the study of African American English

Q&A: Geneva Smitherman, Michigan State professor emerita of English, on the study of African American English | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Smitherman, a professor emerita of English at Michigan State University, has devoted her career to understanding the intersection of language, culture and race.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Q: Has this scholarly work had any broader impact?

The work of linguists has had some impact on lessening the stigmatization of African American Language. For instance, states no longer require that prospective teachers pass a speech test in pronouncing English in the Language of Wider Communication (aka Standard English) as I had to do back when I was studying to become a teacher. (As a speaker of African American Language, I failed the speech test and was assigned to take speech therapy before retaking the test.) However, demonstrating the systematic, rule-governed nature of African American Language has not eradicated the stigma, as evidenced, for example, by reaction to the Oakland, California School Board’s Resolution on Ebonics in 1996; as evidenced by teachers — and students — in the recent research of Dr. April Baker-Bell at some high schools in Detroit as she sought to teach students about the rules and history of African American Language; as evidenced in my recent experience in a workshop for teachers at a large Midwestern University where most were easily convinced of the benefits of students being able to speak a language other than English, but many were not convinced of the benefits of students being able to speak more than one variety of English, particularly if one of the varieties was African American Language (or “Spanglish”); and as evidenced by the “well-meaning” teacher we describe in the last chapter of “Articulate While Black,” who says that the African American Language-speaking kids’ parents might let them “get away” with speaking “like that,” but here it’s “unacceptable.”

Q: You seem to be describing a process of transition in terms of people’s understanding — and acceptance of – non-standard dialects.

Yes. This is not to say that there hasn’t been progress from the work of linguists on the systematic nature of African American Language (and other marginalized varieties). Particularly in the decades of the 1960s-90s, evidence-based research — for example, my 20-year writing study of African American high school seniors — indicated that the linguists’ work had had some positive impact on teachers’ language attitudes. However, today, in 2014, when it comes to language diversity, there’s been some serious back-slidin–or maybe back to where some folks ain nevah left from! The lesson that many of us linguists have had to learn is that attitudes toward language varieties are, at bottom, attitudes toward the people who speak these varieties. As we argue in “Articulate While Black: “Although little acknowledged in [these] public discussions, what usually lies behind comments like “Black Language is nothing but a lazy, ignorant way of speaking” are racist beliefs about Black people themselves as “lazy” and “ignorant.” (Hatin on a particular language is linked to hating its speakers, straight up.)” . My brilliant, young co-author, Dr. H. Samy Alim, of Stanford, coined the term “languaging race” to reference this sociolinguistic phenomenon.

Q: We now have a black president. What affect has he had on the acceptance of different dialects of English – and particularly African American English?

Folks certainly respect President Obama for his mastery of “standard English,” but he is more often admired as a linguistic role model for his ability to shift in and out of different ways of speaking. He recognizes Black ways of speaking as valued symbols of identity and solidarity for members of the Black community. From the basketball courts to the campaign trail to the pews of Trinity United Church of Christ to the barbershops of South Side Chicago to the White House, Barack regularly switches back and forth between multiple ways of speaking–without devaluing any of them. In this sense, he serves as a linguistic role model, not just for Black Americans, but for all Americans.

Nonetheless, the work of developing language scholars like Minnie Quartey Annan, a Ph.D. student in Georgetown’s Department of Linguistics who is doing research on African American English, is critical to taking up the challenge of bringing this generation of Black youth to man — and womanhood.

More on language:

Is there a D.C. dialect? It’s a topic locals are pretty ‘cised’ to discuss

Video: How do you pronounce ‘water’?

How do you speak D.C.? ‘Accent tags’ help to define the District’s dialect

Terms native to D.C.

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Rwanda: The Power of Literacy in the Transformation of a Nation (Page 1 of 2)

Rwanda: The Power of Literacy in the Transformation of a Nation (Page 1 of 2) | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it

"LITERACY IS not a luxury; it is a right and a responsibility. If our world is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century we must harness the energy and creativity of all our citizens," Bill Clinton said on the International Literacy Day, 1994.

In relation to these words, this column examines the crucial role that a reading culture may play not only in promoting the generation of free and creative thinkers in societies, but also as an important tool in social-economic and political advancement of society.

The fact that literacy and reading facilitate effective communication and critical thinking needs not to be emphasised. When we talk of power of literacy, it's more than understanding the vocabulary and syntax of a written message. Critical reading entails the reader understanding the purpose of the message and appreciating the context that it was conceived in. Literacy without critical understanding of the message is nothing more than noise in our ears!

In this respect, homes and schools have the responsibility to help children/students understand that biases and perceptions of the world are fundamental to the messages that are expressed. Such biases need to be identified and examined for their impact on the individual, society and the world at large.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

"LITERACY IS not a luxury; it is a right and a responsibility. If our world is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century we must harness the energy and creativity of all our citizens," Bill Clinton said on the International Literacy Day, 1994.

In relation to these words, this column examines the crucial role that a reading culture may play not only in promoting the generation of free and creative thinkers in societies, but also as an important tool in social-economic and political advancement of society.

The fact that literacy and reading facilitate effective communication and critical thinking needs not to be emphasised. When we talk of power of literacy, it's more than understanding the vocabulary and syntax of a written message. Critical reading entails the reader understanding the purpose of the message and appreciating the context that it was conceived in. Literacy without critical understanding of the message is nothing more than noise in our ears!

In this respect, homes and schools have the responsibility to help children/students understand that biases and perceptions of the world are fundamental to the messages that are expressed. Such biases need to be identified and examined for their impact on the individual, society and the world at large.

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Alakhbar | L’auteur du texte blasphématoire conteste sa traduction devant la Cour criminelle

Alakhbar | L’auteur du texte blasphématoire conteste sa traduction devant la Cour criminelle | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Le mauritanien, Mohamed Cheikh Ould M'Kheitir, auteur du texte jugé blasphématoire à l’encontre du prophète Mohamed conteste le transfère de son dossier à la cour criminelle.- FR-Alakhbar.info
Charles Tiayon's insight:

ALAKHBAR (Nouakchott)- Le mauritanien, Mohamed Cheikh Ould M'Kheitir, auteur du texte jugé blasphématoire à l’encontre du prophète Mohamed conteste la décision de transférer son dossier à la cour criminelle, a appris Alakhbar de source judiciaire. 

L’affaire M'Kheitir continue de provoquer une vague de protestations et de manifestations dans plusieurs villes du pays. Des manifestants ont, à maintes reprises, réclamée la peine de mort contre l’auteur. 

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Pastor believes in volunteering

Pastor believes in volunteering | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
THOMASVILLE | There's a familiar African proverb that says "It takes a village to raise a child."
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Nice is not enough

“A tree is best measured when it’s down.”
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SDL warns on profit after delays in orders hit licence sales

SDL warns on profit after delays in orders hit licence sales | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
LONDON, Oct 15 (Reuters) - Translation software firm SDL lowered its full year profit outlook on Tuesday, citingweaker-than-expected third-quarter performance across itslanguage services and technology...
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Michel Francard (re)découvre nos langues régionales

Michel Francard (re)découvre nos langues régionales | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
BASTOGNE - Michel Francard publie un nouvel ouvrage sur les langues régionales de la Wallonie. Un livre de 200 pages, à la fois captivant et accessible.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

BASTOGNE - Michel Francard publie un nouvel ouvrage sur les langues régionales de la Wallonie. Un livre de 200 pages, à la fois captivant et accessible.

 

C’est une entreprise rare et passionnante à laquelle s’est livré Michel Francard, avecWallon, picard, gaumais, champenois – Les langues régionales de Wallonie, paru chez de Boeck. Déjà dans le «Dictionnaire des belgicismes», en 2010, il redorait le blason, savoureusement, de nos belgicismes trop souvent malmenés, dépréciés ou «regardés de travers».

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10 palavras de outros idiomas que não possuem tradução

10 palavras de outros idiomas que não possuem tradução | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Você já imaginou que existem palavras intraduzíveis para o português e outras línguas bastante faladas? Confira 10 palavras sem tradução de outras culturas
Charles Tiayon's insight:

1. Waldeinsamkeit
A palavra é de origem alemã e representa o sentimento de estar sozinho nas florestas.

 

2. Cualacino
De origem italiana, cualacino significa a marca deixada por copos gelados em mesas.

 

3. Iktsuarpok
Essa palavra, utilizada por esquimós, representa a ansiedade que faz você olhar para fora constantemente para ver se alguém está chegando.

 

4. Komorebi
Essa palavra japonesa tem como significado a luz do sol que passa entre as folhas de árvores.

 

5. Pochemuchka
Pochemuchka é uma palavra russa que representa uma pessoa que faz muitas perguntas.

 

6. Jayus
De origem indonésia, essa palavra representa piadas contadas de maneira tão fraca que fazem com que as pessoas acabem rindo por isso

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CARNET DE TRAD: Apprendre la traduction en alternance

CARNET DE TRAD: Apprendre la traduction en alternance | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
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Les hésitations du traducteur

  APPEL A CONTRIBUTION Colloque international Les hésitations du traducteur 10-12 avril 2014 / Galaţi, Roumanie   Le Centre de recherche Théorie et Pratique du Discours et le Département de langue et littérature françaises de la Faculté des [...]...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

APPEL A CONTRIBUTION

Colloque international

Les hésitations du traducteur

10-12 avril 2014 / Galaţi, Roumanie

 

Le Centre de recherche Théorie et Pratique du Discours et le Département de langue et littérature françaises de la Faculté des Lettres de l’Université « Dunărea de Jos » de Galaţi, Roumanie vous invitent à participer au colloque annuel international organisé à l’occasion de la 11e édition des Journées de la francophonie. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est la traduction comme activité professionnelle, les jeux et les enjeux qu’elle engendre.

 

La traduction, activité universelle pratiquée dans toutes les langues et toutes les cultures, jouit déjà vingt siècles de réflexions hétéroclites et de remarques disparates qui ne se recoupent jamais parfaitement, qui véhiculent des contenus théoriques et doctrinaux souvent contradictoires. Les littéraires, traducteurs à leurs heures, l’ont vu tantôt comme un portrait (Chateaubriand), un miroir, une régénération (Goethe), un écho (George Brown), une faible estampe d’un beau tableau (Voltaire), un verre parfaitement transparent (Gogol), une femme belle mais infidèle (Pierre d’Ablancourt), un duel à mort (von Schlegel), un meurtre (George Sand), un crime passionnel  (Jean Pavans). Elle est, somme toute, un art sous-tendu par une science (Georges Mounin) et une activité jubilatoire qui exige « une pesée de mots » (Valéry Larbaud).

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What Do You Look for in Modern Translation?

What Do You Look for in Modern Translation? | The World of Indigenous Languages | Scoop.it
Daniel Mendelsohn and Dana Stevens on the qualities any superior translation should contain.

Tone is everything. Translating “Agamemnon”? Clytemnestra shouldn’t sound like Joan Crawford.

Illustration by R. Kikuo Johnson

Daniel Mendelsohn

 

“He has Me beaten to my knees.” By the time Lawrence of Arabia wrote those words, in June 1928, his résumé was so dense with dashing military exploits that the casual reader would be forgiven for thinking he was referring to some cunning Ottoman general. But the “he” in question was Homer. Six months into a new prose translation of the “Odyssey,” he had produced six drafts of his rendering of only the first 441 lines (out of some 12,000). “I see now,” he wrote miserably, “why there are no adequate translations of Homer. He is baffling.”

Mais oui. Every text is, to some extent, a bafflement to its translator, because every language, like every writer, has characteristics that can’t be “carried across” — which is what “translate” means — into another tongue, another culture. (Think of words like “chutzpah” and “chic.”) Traduttore traditore, the Italians pun: “The translator is a betrayer.” Yet translations must be made.

And reviewed. What often baffles readers of book reviews are the standards applied in judging a translation. What qualities make a translation feel “right”? How important is faithfulness to the original? Do the same criteria apply equally to classic and contemporary works? Every critic has his or her own criteria. To my mind, no translation can work without the following:

Accuracy. You can argue about the fine points of certain words, but some things aren’t up for discussion. The Italian translator of one of my books thought the “20-dollar bill” one character handed to another on her deathbed referred to an invoice rather than a bank note, with results that inverted the meaning of the scene. But while insufficient accuracy is a problem, so, in a way, is too much accuracy. In the first lines of the new “Iliad” by the distinguished Homer scholar Barry Powell, we meet a character called Chryses, a priest of Apollo. Powell renders areter, a Greek word for “priest” (literally, “one who prays”), as “a praying man.” But while this is correct, strictly speaking, it betrays the original: for English readers, “a praying man” is a devout individual, not an officiant at a religious ritual, which is what Chryses is.

Sensitivity to formal considerations. While it’s often impossible to recreate elements like rhythm, rhyme and enjambment, to ignore them is another kind of betrayal. The fantastically precise meters and word positioning of the Roman poet Horace have confounded translators for centuries; but no serious translator would render his famously lapidary lyrics as (say) free verse dribbling down the page, because in Horace, the formal meticulousness is inextricable from his message, his cautious ethics (this is the poet who gave us “carpe diem”). The translator must be intimate with the author’s larger outlook, not just the “words.”

Texture. Good translators work hard to bring across the feel of the original writing: the liquid smoothness of Ovid’s slyly shape-shifting “Metamorphoses,” the suggestive meanderings of Proust’s sentences, the precocious adolescent grandiosity of “The Catcher in the Rye.” The best translations find just the right way to convey even the unappealing qualities of the original. Richard Howard’s 1999 rendering of Stendhal’s “Charterhouse of Parma” went so far as to reproduce the grammatical errors in that hasty writer’s prose: you believe the novel was written in seven weeks.

Tone. Tone is everything. A novel in which characters say “I daresay” is galaxies apart from one in which characters say “I kinda think.” Aeschylus’ “Agamemnon” is notorious for its elaborate diction and inscrutable syntax — a murky Greek that nicely suggests the moral and political murkiness that is the play’s subject. When David R. Slavitt chose to pepper his 1997 translation of this titanic masterpiece with phrases like “learning curve,” “stress-related” and “Watch what you say, mister,” he was not only cheapening the diction but hamstringing the play’s larger meanings. Clytemnestra is not Joan Crawford.

Then again, “Watch what you say, mister” is great advice for all translators. Or in the words of Rilke — to elevate the tone a bit — “What, if not this deep translation, is your ardent aim?”

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Tone is everything. Translating “Agamemnon”? Clytemnestra shouldn’t sound like Joan Crawford.

Illustration by R. Kikuo Johnson

Daniel Mendelsohn

 

“He has Me beaten to my knees.” By the time Lawrence of Arabia wrote those words, in June 1928, his résumé was so dense with dashing military exploits that the casual reader would be forgiven for thinking he was referring to some cunning Ottoman general. But the “he” in question was Homer. Six months into a new prose translation of the “Odyssey,” he had produced six drafts of his rendering of only the first 441 lines (out of some 12,000). “I see now,” he wrote miserably, “why there are no adequate translations of Homer. He is baffling.”

Mais oui. Every text is, to some extent, a bafflement to its translator, because every language, like every writer, has characteristics that can’t be “carried across” — which is what “translate” means — into another tongue, another culture. (Think of words like “chutzpah” and “chic.”) Traduttore traditore, the Italians pun: “The translator is a betrayer.” Yet translations must be made.

And reviewed. What often baffles readers of book reviews are the standards applied in judging a translation. What qualities make a translation feel “right”? How important is faithfulness to the original? Do the same criteria apply equally to classic and contemporary works? Every critic has his or her own criteria. To my mind, no translation can work without the following:

Accuracy. You can argue about the fine points of certain words, but some things aren’t up for discussion. The Italian translator of one of my books thought the “20-dollar bill” one character handed to another on her deathbed referred to an invoice rather than a bank note, with results that inverted the meaning of the scene. But while insufficient accuracy is a problem, so, in a way, is too much accuracy. In the first lines of the new “Iliad” by the distinguished Homer scholar Barry Powell, we meet a character called Chryses, a priest of Apollo. Powell renders areter, a Greek word for “priest” (literally, “one who prays”), as “a praying man.” But while this is correct, strictly speaking, it betrays the original: for English readers, “a praying man” is a devout individual, not an officiant at a religious ritual, which is what Chryses is.

Sensitivity to formal considerations. While it’s often impossible to recreate elements like rhythm, rhyme and enjambment, to ignore them is another kind of betrayal. The fantastically precise meters and word positioning of the Roman poet Horace have confounded translators for centuries; but no serious translator would render his famously lapidary lyrics as (say) free verse dribbling down the page, because in Horace, the formal meticulousness is inextricable from his message, his cautious ethics (this is the poet who gave us “carpe diem”). The translator must be intimate with the author’s larger outlook, not just the “words.”

Texture. Good translators work hard to bring across the feel of the original writing: the liquid smoothness of Ovid’s slyly shape-shifting “Metamorphoses,” the suggestive meanderings of Proust’s sentences, the precocious adolescent grandiosity of “The Catcher in the Rye.” The best translations find just the right way to convey even the unappealing qualities of the original. Richard Howard’s 1999 rendering of Stendhal’s “Charterhouse of Parma” went so far as to reproduce the grammatical errors in that hasty writer’s prose: you believe the novel was written in seven weeks.

Tone. Tone is everything. A novel in which characters say “I daresay” is galaxies apart from one in which characters say “I kinda think.” Aeschylus’ “Agamemnon” is notorious for its elaborate diction and inscrutable syntax — a murky Greek that nicely suggests the moral and political murkiness that is the play’s subject. When David R. Slavitt chose to pepper his 1997 translation of this titanic masterpiece with phrases like “learning curve,” “stress-related” and “Watch what you say, mister,” he was not only cheapening the diction but hamstringing the play’s larger meanings. Clytemnestra is not Joan Crawford.

Then again, “Watch what you say, mister” is great advice for all translators. Or in the words of Rilke — to elevate the tone a bit — “What, if not this deep translation, is your ardent aim?”

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