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Humans can distinguish 1 trillion smells

A new study has revealed that the human nose is capable of distinguishing at least one trillion different smells, millions beyond the previous estimates.
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Limitless learning Universe
Nature and the universe are a wonder. Insufficiently explored...
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Blue Brain team discovers a multi-dimensional #universe in #brain networks #neurology #biology #science

Blue Brain team discovers a multi-dimensional #universe in #brain networks #neurology #biology #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Using a sophisticated type of mathematics in a way that it has never been used before in neuroscience, a team from the Blue Brain Project has uncovered a universe of multi-dimensional geometrical structures and spaces within the networks of the brain. This research, published in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, has significant implications for our understanding of the brain.

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Don’t give your money to #psychopaths, says #science

Don’t give your money to #psychopaths, says #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A new study shows how to actually detect psychopathy in the C-suite, Dealbreaker reports.
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#FF A 100-year-old #physics problem has been solved #science #education #tech

#FF A 100-year-old #physics problem has been solved #science #education #tech | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. The discovery has implications in telecommunications. Working aroun
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Scientists identify single-gene mutations #CARD11 that lead to atopic #dermatitis #eczema #education #doctor

Scientists identify single-gene mutations #CARD11 that lead to atopic #dermatitis #eczema #education #doctor | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

Researchers have identified mutations in a gene called CARD11 that lead toatopic dermatitis, or eczema, an allergic skin disease. Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and other institutions discovered the mutations in four unrelated families with severe atopic dermatitis and studied the resulting cell-signaling defects that contribute to allergic disease. Their findings, reported in Nature Genetics, also suggest that some of these defects potentially could be corrected by supplementation with the amino acid glutamine.

 

The scientists analyzed the genetic sequences of patients with severe atopic dermatitis and identified eight individuals from four families with mutations in the CARD11 gene, which provides instructions for production of a cell-signaling protein of the same name. While some people with these mutations had other health issues, such as infections, others did not, implying that mutations in CARD11 could cause atopic dermatitis without leading to other medical issues often found in severe immune system syndromes.

The scientists next set out to understand how the newly discovered CARD11 mutations contribute to atopic dermatitis.

 

Each of the four families had a distinct mutation that affected a different region of the CARD11 protein, but all the mutations had similar effects on T-cell signaling. With cell culture and other laboratory experiments, the researchers determined that the mutations led to defective activation of two cell-signaling pathways, one of which typically is activated in part by glutamine.  

 

Growing cultured T cells from patients with CARD11 mutations with excess glutamine boosted mTORC1 activation, a key part of one of the affected pathways, suggesting the potential to partially correct the cell-signaling defects that may contribute to atopic dermatitis. The scientists now are planning a study to assess the effect of supplemental glutamine and leucine, another amino acid that activates mTORC1, in people with atopic dermatitis with and without CARD11 mutations.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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#Universe recreated in massive computer simulation #supercomputer #physics #math

#Universe recreated in massive computer simulation #supercomputer #physics #math | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Model re-enacts the history of the universe from 12m years after the big bang until today, 14bn years later
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Leonardo Da #Vinci 'Doodles' Previously Dismissed By #Scientists Actually Contain A Huge #Discovery #education

Leonardo Da #Vinci 'Doodles' Previously Dismissed By #Scientists Actually Contain A Huge #Discovery #education | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
What was hiding inside of these notebooks that belonged to Leonardo da Vinci proved that he was a scientific genius—and hundreds of years ahead of his time!
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#Astronauts extremely likely to die from #cancer if they travel to #Mars, warns new #science study

#Astronauts extremely likely to die from #cancer if they travel to #Mars, warns new #science study | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
The idea of heading out to space and traveling to the red planet is thrilling but consider this for a moment: Going to Mars significantly increases your chances of acquiring cancer. That's what the latest study published in Scientific Reports concluded. Cancer risk for humans who go on a missio
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#physics #sciece #education Scientists Discover That Light Can Behave Like a Liquid

#physics #sciece #education Scientists Discover That Light Can Behave Like a Liquid | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
t's no secret that light is made up of waves, specifically electromagnetic waves. It has also been known for some time now that visible light is carried by photons (as are all types of electromagnetic radiation). Because of its unique properties, many scientists have found that light acts as both a wave and a particle, but more recent developments show that light is much stranger and more complex than scientists had previously given it credit for. According to recent findings, light can also behave like a liquid.

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#FF #Magic #mushrooms are safest recreational #drug, according to new #science study

#FF #Magic #mushrooms are safest recreational #drug, according to new #science study | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Psilocybin mushrooms may be classified as a Schedule I drug alongside chemical substances such as MDMA, Heroin, LSD, and Methaqualone -- but the substance is significantly less harmful than its classification indicates. According to the Global Drug Survey 2017, psilocybin mushrooms -- known on the s
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Researchers Uncover New Instruction Manual to Repair Broken #DNA #biology #science

Researchers Uncover New Instruction Manual to Repair Broken #DNA #biology #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

Results uncover an unexpected function of the homologous recombination protein Rad52


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Oldest Fossils of Homo Sapiens Found in #Morocco, Altering #History of Our Species

Oldest Fossils of Homo Sapiens Found in #Morocco, Altering #History of Our Species | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Newly discovered fossils indicate Homo sapiens were present in Africa 300,000 years ago, scientists reported. Until now, the earliest evidence dated back just 195,000 years.
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#Vaccines of the future could be as contagious as #viruses #science #education #foodforthought #Greenpeace #CDC

#Vaccines of the future could be as contagious as #viruses #science #education #foodforthought #Greenpeace #CDC | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Vaccines of the future could be as contagious as viruses :


Nvidia wants to drive the future of AI (with ice hockey)



When processors can't ge
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#Mongolia to send its first #satellite to space on June 4 #history for the country

#Mongolia to send its first #satellite to space on June 4 #history for the country | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Named after Mongolia's gobi bear Mazaalai, Mongolia's first satellite will be sent to space on June 4. The satellite will accompany the "SpaceX Falcon 9" rocket at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida through a project supported by UNESCO and Japan.
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Older #Brain Is Willing, but Too Full for New #Memories

Older #Brain Is Willing, but Too Full for New #Memories | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Studies in modified mice suggest that it is harder to make new long-term memories as we age because the brain is full of old ones that are hard to erase.

 

The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is widely known to be the synaptic coincidence detector essential for controlling synaptic plasticity and gating memory formation . Together with the NR1 core subunit, the NR2A and NR2B subunits form the diheteromeric or triheteromeric complex of the NMDA receptor in the forebrain regions. Depending on ages or states of animals, dynamic changes in NR2A and NR2B can lead to the different mixture of NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, and NR1/NR2A/NR2B receptors in the forebrain. There is a higher amount of NR2B expression in postnatal and juvenile brains, but NR2A gradually becomes more prevalent in adulthood and advanced ages.

 

Based on distinct biophysical properties of the NR2A and NR2B (such as longer channel opening duration with the NR2B subunit than the NR2A, etc.), it has been hypothesized that an increased NR2A:NR2B ratio in the sexually matured and/or aged brains may represent a major genetic factor underlying the age-dependent, gradual constraint on memory functions in comparison to that of juvenile or younger brains. However, it is difficult to test this NR2A:NR2B ratio hypothesis by directly comparing the young animals with the aged animals because there are significant differences in expression of many other genes between those two age groups. Moreover, the levels of NR2A or NR2B expression in the cortex and hippocampus can also be dynamically modulated by individual experiences (i.e. enriched environment, or social interactions).

 

A series of genetic studies have shown that global knockout of NR2A resulted in lesser CA1 long-term potentiation, a moderate deficiency in spatial reference memory and fear memory, and/or significant spatial working memory deficit. This suggests that the presence of NR2B in NR2A−/− mice largely preserves LTP and most long-term memories. On the other hand, genetic deletion of NR2B in the forebrain- or hippocampus-specific knockout of NR2B results in more profound memory deficits and impaired LTP. These experiments, by examining the extreme ends of the NR2A:NR2B ratio spectrum (without NR2A or NR2B), have provided fundamental insights into the roles of the pure NR2A- or NR2B-containing NMDA receptor population under the given test conditions.

 

The initial evidence for the concept that an increased NR2A:NR2B ratio may reduce synaptic plasticity and memory function in adulthood came from NR2B transgenic experiments. Research has shown that genetic overexpression of NR2B in the mouse forebrain can lead to larger hippocampal long-term potentiation (10–100 Hz range, without affecting LTD) and enhanced learning and memory function as tested in seven different memory tasks. Similar memory and LTP enhancement was also observed in NR2B overexpression transgenic rats, pointing to the conserved beneficial effects of NR2B in multiple animal species. Thus, these NR2B overexpression experiments, along with other studies, have provided important evidence that the increased NR2A:NR2B ratio can be detrimental to greater synaptic plasticity and memory function in the older brains.

 

In a recent study, scientists have directly tested this hypothesis and investigated the effects of increased NR2A:NR2B ratio in the adult mouse forebrain on synaptic plasticity and learning behaviors by producing CaMKII promoter-driven NR2A transgenic mice. They combined hippocampal slice electrophysiology and behavioral paradigms to investigate how such overexpression may alter synaptic plasticity and cognition, and showed that the high NR2A amount in the forebrain principal excitatory neurons can selectively affect long-term memory formation. But surprisingly, instead of the predicted smaller LTP in the CA1 region of the NR2A transgenic mice, the researchers found that NR2A overexpression selectively abolished 3–5 Hz frequency-induced LTD in the CA3-CA1 synapses without affecting 100 Hz LTP or 1 Hz LTD.

 

This results suggest a novel step by which long-term memory consolidation engages LTD-like process to sculpt, crystallize, and incorporate newly acquired information into long-term knowledge in the brain.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Marc Williams DEBONO (Plasticities Sciences Arts), The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California
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#FF Snake fungal disease identified in wild British snakes for first time #fungus #climate

#FF Snake fungal disease identified in wild British snakes for first time #fungus #climate | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Europe's wild snakes could face a growing threat from a fungal skin disease that has contributed to wild snake deaths in North America, according to an international collaborative study, led by conservation charity ZSL (Zoologica
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This 75-Year #Harvard Study Found the 1 Secret to Leading a Fulfilling #Life #science

Prioritizing what's important is challenging in today's world. The split focus required to maintain a career and a home, not to mention a Facebook feed, can feel overwhelming.

Enter the science of what to prioritize, when.

For over 75 years, Harvard's Grant and Glueck study has tracked the physical and #emotional well-being of two populations: 456 poor men growing up in Boston from 1939 to 2014 (the Grant Study), and 268 male graduates from Harvard's classes of 1939-1944 (the Glueck study).

Due to the length of the research period, this has required multiple generations of researchers. Since before WWII, they've diligently analyzed blood samples, conducted brain scans (once they became available), and pored over self-reported surveys, as well as actual #interactions with these men, to compile the findings.

The conclusion? According to Robert Waldinger, director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, one thing surpasses all the rest in terms of importance:

"The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this: Good #relationships keep us #happier and healthier. Period."


Via Webmasters, talkingdrumnigeria
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Webmasters's curator insight, June 20, 4:21 PM

Good #Relationships keep us #happier and #healthier...Period! #RockSolidLove

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#Pollution is "devastating" #China's natural #ecosystem and contaminating its food supply

#Pollution is "devastating" #China's natural #ecosystem and contaminating its food supply | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Anyone who has breathed the thick air on the streets of Shanghai or has seen photos of smog obscuring the Beijing skyline can confirm that pollution is a serious problem in China. Now, researchers have uncovered the precise extent to which manmade pollution is impacting China’s natural ecosystem, an
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#Lead Detected In #Baby Food Samples. #Pediatricians Say There's No Safe Level #education #health #depopulation #Gates

#Lead Detected In #Baby Food Samples. #Pediatricians Say There's No Safe Level #education #health #depopulation #Gates | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Twenty percent of baby food samples were found to contain lead, according to a report from the Environmental Defense Fund. Pediatricians say there's no safe lead level. FDA is reviewing its policy.

Via Kenneth Weene
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Kenneth Weene's curator insight, June 17, 9:39 AM
Two things of which I am reasonably sure. One is that there will always be contaminants in the world. The second is that there will always be idealists who want to remove them. So, while the best level of lead is obviously zero, we have to find a reasonable approach to reducing what is such a common residual. Plants are watered and that often means lead pipes or just lead dissolved over the years in the water sources. Lead paints are still in some barns and storehouses. For all I know, some lead may even be in the soil where the fruits and vegetables are grown. So, let's keep trying to do better but realize that perfection is not around the corner. For my part, I think the water kids are drinking is a much bigger problem than residuals in baby food. 
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Mapping gene expression, cell by cell  #brain #biology #Dune #science #education

Mapping gene expression, cell by cell  #brain #biology #Dune #science #education | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

EMBL researchers, Hernando Martínez Vergara, Detlev Arendt and others complete a molecular atlas showing gene expression in all cells in an entire animal


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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#Graphene #transistor could mean #computers that are 1,000 times faster #tech #ICT

#Graphene #transistor could mean #computers that are 1,000 times faster #tech #ICT | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Transistors based on graphene ribbons could result in much faster, more efficient computers and other devices. Researchers use a magnetic field to control current flow.

Via Mariaschnee
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#Mac users beware! #Hackers are selling 'the most sophisticated' Mac #malware ever | #MacSpy #CyberSecurity

#Mac users beware! #Hackers are selling 'the most sophisticated' Mac #malware ever | #MacSpy #CyberSecurity | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

Just because you’re using a Mac doesn’t mean you’ve escaped the malware threat.

 

Two new security threats, a malware-as-a-service (MaaS) platform and a ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) program, are designed to specifically target machines running Apple macOS.

 

Two new security threats, a malware-as-a-service (MaaS) platform and a ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) program, are designed to specifically target machines running Apple macOS.

The MaaS platform, known as "MacSpy," responds to what its authors feel is an ongoing lack of "sophisticated malware for Mac users". Of course, that perception is not entirely accurate. We've seen numerous sophisticated malware strainsdeveloped for Macs over the past year or so.

 

It's true, however, that MacSpy takes this budding proliferation to the next level by making macOS malware more accessible to users with low levels of technical expertise.

 

Learn more / En savoir plus / Mehr erfahren:

 

http://www.scoop.it/t/apple-mac-ios4-ipad-iphone-and-in-security

 

 


Via Gust MEES
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Gust MEES's curator insight, June 12, 10:47 AM

Just because you’re using a Mac doesn’t mean you’ve escaped the malware threat.

 

Two new security threats, a malware-as-a-service (MaaS) platform and a ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) program, are designed to specifically target machines running Apple macOS.

 

Two new security threats, a malware-as-a-service (MaaS) platform and a ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) program, are designed to specifically target machines running Apple macOS.

The MaaS platform, known as "MacSpy," responds to what its authors feel is an ongoing lack of "sophisticated malware for Mac users". Of course, that perception is not entirely accurate. We've seen numerous sophisticated malware strainsdeveloped for Macs over the past year or so.

 

It's true, however, that MacSpy takes this budding proliferation to the next level by making macOS malware more accessible to users with low levels of technical expertise.

 

Learn more / En savoir plus / Mehr erfahren:

 

http://www.scoop.it/t/apple-mac-ios4-ipad-iphone-and-in-security

 

 

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#FF How #chemicals in #shampoo and #booze cause #cancer #science #Aldehydes

#FF How #chemicals in #shampoo and #booze cause #cancer #science #Aldehydes | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
The chemicals, known as aldehydes, are made in our body in tiny amounts. Too much exposure to aldehydes, however, causes cancer by breaking down our ability to fix DNA, Cambridge University says.
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Brent Mann's curator insight, June 9, 1:18 PM

I always wondered why God was specific towards the things we put into our bodies and as I learned more about the human body and how it reacts to chemicals it began to make sense. And after reading this article it helped me to realize that it's not only the chemicals we put inside the body but those that we expose ourselves to externally that we need to take into consideration as well. The body is like an empty beaker and for each chemical you add to the beaker it gives an opportunity for a possible chemical reaction to take place that can have a positive or negative outcome for the body. 

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#tech #malware #Dvmap: the first #Android malware with code injection #security #privacy

#tech #malware #Dvmap: the first #Android malware with code injection #security #privacy | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
In April 2017 we started observing new rooting malware being distributed through the Google Play Store. Unlike other rooting malware, this Trojan not only
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#Cancer Risk for a Human #Mars Mission Just Got a Lot Worse #science #MSM #transhuman #cyborgs

#Cancer Risk for a Human #Mars Mission Just Got a Lot Worse #science #MSM #transhuman #cyborgs | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A new study by scientists from UNLV indicates that astronauts going to Mars will be at an increased risk of cancer caused by exposure to radiation.

Via Allen Taylor
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Allen Taylor's curator insight, June 7, 3:40 PM
It appears we may have been underestimating the risks due to galactic cosmic rays in the exploration of space beyond Earth's magnetosphere.
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Photos of #human faces reassembled from #monkeys’ #brain signals #biology #education #science

Photos of #human faces reassembled from #monkeys’ #brain signals #biology #education #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Cracking the code on how the brain is able to compute so many different kinds of faces has made it possible to recreate the faces shown to monkeys
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