Science 2.0 How Exceptional Teachers Use Creativity In The Classroom Science 2.0 A recent analysis of the classroom practices of National Teacher of the Year finalists and winners showed that the best teachers are not simply teaching to the test...
Dr. Alicia Danforth explains the incredible healing benefits of combining psychedelics with traditional psychotherapy. Dr. Danforth, a transpersonal psychotherapist, is an expert researcher in this field and explains the medicinal benefits of psilocybin (the psychoactive compound in 'magic mushrooms'). Dr. Danforth was a lead researcher in the Harbor UCLA Medical Center study that found psilocybin reduced anxiety in patients diagnosed with terminal cancer. In the study, 12 subjects diagnosed with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety were given psilocybin which improved their moods and reduced anxiety for the long term. Dr. Danforth describes why she thinks MDMA has the potential to treat individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Dr. Danforth also details the psychedelic psychotherapy process and safety protocols for those conducting this type of therapy at home.
The secret of X-ray science – like so much else – is in the timing. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have created a new way of manipulating high-intensity X-rays, which will allow researchers to select extremely brief but precise X-ray bursts for their experiments.
The new technology, developed by a team of scientists from Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS), involves a small microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror only as wide as a few hairs.
MEMS are microscale devices fabricated using silicon wafers in facilities that make integrated circuits. The MEMS device acts as an ultrafast mirror reflecting X-rays at precise times and specific angles.
“Extremely compact devices such as this promise a revolution in our ability to manipulate photons coming from synchrotron light sources, not only providing an on-off switch enabling ultrahigh time-resolution studies, but ultimately promising new ways to steer, filter, and shape X-ray pulses as well,” said Stephen Streiffer, Associate Laboratory Director for Photon Sciences and Director of the Advanced Photon Source. “This is a premier example of the innovation that results from collaboration between nanoscientists and X-ray scientists.”
The device that the Argonne researchers developed essentially consists of a tiny diffracting mirror that oscillates at high speeds. As the mirror tilts rapidly back and forth, it creates an optical filter that selects only the X-ray pulses desired for the experiment. Only the light that is diffracted from the mirror goes on to hit the sample, and by adjusting the speed at which the MEMS mirror oscillates, researchers can control the timing of the X-ray pulses.
According to Argonne nanoscientist Daniel Lopez, one of the lead authors on the paper, the device works because of the relationship between the frequency of the mirror’s oscillation and the timing of the positioning of the perfect angle for the incoming X-ray. “If you sit on a Ferris wheel holding a mirror, you will see flashes of light every time the wheel is at the perfect spot for sunlight to hit it. The speed of the Ferris wheel determines the frequency of the flashes you see,” he said.
“The Argonne team’s work is incredibly exciting because it creates a new class of devices for controlling X-rays,” added Paul Evans, a professor of materials science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “They have found a way to significantly shrink the optics, which is great because smaller means faster, cheaper to make, and much more versatile.”
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