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How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data 150.000 stars examined 22.500 possible Earths

How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data 150.000 stars examined 22.500 possible Earths | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

This interactive graphic is based on the data for candidate planets identified by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. Kepler found these planets by recording the slight dimming of the light from a star caused by a planet passing in front of it.

 

About 10 per cent of the candidate planets will probably turn out to be no such thing – it's possible to mistake the second star in a binary star system for a giant planet, for example. On the other hand, Kepler probably missed around 10 per cent of the planets that passed in front of target stars because the dimming of the star's light was too slight to detect against the natural variability in the stars' light output. These two numbers roughly cancel each another out, so they are not included in our calculations.

 

The first step in answering "How many Earths?" was to ignore planets twice the Earth's diameter or larger: these are likely to be gas giants like Jupiter, not rocky worlds like ours. However, such planets may possess rocky moons, which could well host life.

 

Not all of the remaining planets will be hospitable to life. For example, carbon-rich planets could have a graphite crust with layers of diamond below and rivers of oil and tar.

 

Kepler could not determine a planet's composition, but to calculate how many planets might be friendly to life, we estimated the number in stars' habitable zones – orbits where a planet will be neither too hot nor too cold for water to exist in liquid form.

 

Defining a star's habitable zone is a complex process, but as a reasonable proxy we used Kepler's estimates of planets' equilibrium temperature. This is the temperature that would be measured at a planet's surface if it were a black body heated by its parent star without any atmospheric greenhouse effect.

 

The next step – the most uncertain part of our quest – was extrapolating to the total number of roughly Earth-sized planets likely to be orbiting Kepler's 150,000 target stars. Simple geometry tells us that Kepler will have missed most of these planets: the tilts of their orbits mean they never passed between their parent stars and the telescope. And the farther out a planet orbits, the harder it was for Kepler to detect.

 

Taking everything into account, the best estimate for the average number of roughly Earth-sized planets in each star's habitable zone is 0.15, according to simulations based on Kepler data thatCourtney Dressing and David Charbonneau of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, performed. Applying this average to Kepler's 150,000 target stars gave our estimate of 22,500 potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.

 

There is an important caveat, though. Dressing and Charbonneau's calculations are for class M stars, which have a reddish hue and account for about three-quarters of the stars in our galaxy. But about 80 per cent of Kepler's target stars are class G stars, like our sun, which are yellowish. Nobody knows for sure whether these different classes of stars have similar populations of planets.

 

The final step in our quest was to extrapolate to the entire galaxy. Estimates of the number of stars in the Milky Way vary from 100 billion to 200 billion. Applying the same estimate of 0.15 potentially Earth-like planets per star gave our figure of between 15 and 30 billion.

 

If we had displayed all these potential planets in the final view, the sky would have become a mass of green. To give a meaningful view for someone here on Earth, we selected stars from the European Space Agency's Tycho-2 catalogue with an apparent magnitude of 10.5 or brighter – these stars would be visible on a dark night with a good pair of binoculars. We have displayed a random sample of 15 per cent of these stars, corresponding to Dressing and Charbonneau's estimate of stars with potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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ThePlanetaryArchives/San Francisco CA's curator insight, September 30, 2013 3:56 PM

2500 years ago, the Buddha is said to have remarked that there are "many, many" planets with beings just like us..... 

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Blue Brain team discovers a multi-dimensional #universe in #brain networks #neurology #biology #science

Blue Brain team discovers a multi-dimensional #universe in #brain networks #neurology #biology #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Using a sophisticated type of mathematics in a way that it has never been used before in neuroscience, a team from the Blue Brain Project has uncovered a universe of multi-dimensional geometrical structures and spaces within the networks of the brain. This research, published in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, has significant implications for our understanding of the brain.

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Yet Another #Android #Malware Infects Over 4.2 Million #Google Play Store Users #tech #app

Yet Another #Android #Malware Infects Over 4.2 Million #Google Play Store Users #tech #app | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
ExpensiveWall, A Premium SMS Android Malware Infects Over 4.2 Million Google Play Store Users
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Light to break bandwidth ceiling #quantum computing #tech #science #physics

Light to break bandwidth ceiling #quantum computing #tech #science #physics | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand.
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#science #physics #caltech Sorting Molecules with #DNA Robots #transhumanism

#science #physics #caltech Sorting Molecules with #DNA Robots #transhumanism | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it

Scientists at Caltech have programmed a "robot" made of DNA to pick up and sort molecules into predetermined locations.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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#Cassini completes death plunge into #Saturn, #Nasa says ‘thanks for the #science’ #astronomy

#Cassini completes death plunge into #Saturn, #Nasa says ‘thanks for the #science’ #astronomy | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Cassini was put on a course to plunge through Saturn’s atmosphere and vaporise like a meteor at the end of its 20-year journey exploring the planet.
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'Our Saturn years' #Cassini #Huygens #astronomy #research #NASA says farewell to #science

'Our Saturn years' #Cassini #Huygens #astronomy #research #NASA says farewell to #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
The space probe Cassini-Huygens' epic journey to the ringed planet, told by the people who made it happen
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The carbon #nanotube integrated circuit goes three-dimensional #tech #computing #science

The carbon #nanotube integrated circuit goes three-dimensional #tech #computing #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A three-dimensional integrated circuit, made possible with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The circuit senses and classifies ambient gases using a multilayered stack of devices that are connected by platinum wires known as interlayer vias. In the top layer, roughly 1 million CNT field-effect transistors (FETs) register a change in electrical resistance when the gas molecules adsorb on a CNT. The second layer hosts memory cells that read and store the signals created by the FETs just above them. The third layer contains another million FETs that process the sensor data and implement a machine-learning algorithm to identify the type of gas picked up. Conventional silicon CMOS circuitry on the bottom acts as an interface to external devices.

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#THC from #cannabis found to dramatically slow memory loss by protecting #brain cells #health

#THC from #cannabis found to dramatically slow memory loss by protecting #brain cells #health | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Despite the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) still classifying marijuana as a schedule 1 drug (similar to heroin, ecstasy, LSD, and peyote), a new study confirms that the active compound in cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can benefit the elderly -- particularly in preventing memory loss.
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#foodforthought Study Reveals Substantial Evidence That We Live In a Holographic Universe

#foodforthought Study Reveals Substantial Evidence That We Live In a Holographic Universe | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast hologram.
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The doubly #magic nucleus of lead-208—it spins, though it shouldn't #physics #mystery #science #LOL

The doubly #magic nucleus of lead-208—it spins, though it shouldn't #physics #mystery #science #LOL | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Scientists generally imagine atomic nuclei to be more or less spherical clusters of protons and neutrons, but always relatively chaotic. Experiments at the Argonne National Laboratory, inspired by physicists from the Institut
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Deadly #earthquake 8.1 hits off the coast of southern #Mexico #FF

Deadly #earthquake 8.1 hits off the coast of southern #Mexico #FF | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A strong earthquake hit off the coast of southern Mexico, near the border with Guatemala, the USGS Geological Survey (USGS) reported Friday. A tsunami threat is being evaluated by the Tsunami Warning System, in the wake of the temblor
Via Monica S Mcfeeters
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Storms on #Jupiter captured in glorious detail by #Juno flyby (PHOTOS) #astronomy #science

Storms on #Jupiter captured in glorious detail by #Juno flyby (PHOTOS) #astronomy #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
NASA’s Juno spacecraft is gifting us its latest batch of images taken during its seventh flyby of Jupiter. The latest snaps reveal the beauty of the planet's swirling clouds with the public invited to add color to the raw images.

Via ThePlanetaryArchives/San Francisco CA
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Realistic Simulations Reveal Something New Under the Sun #science #astronomy #education

Realistic Simulations Reveal Something New Under the Sun #science #astronomy #education | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Earth scientists are using a new visualization toolbox on the NAS facility's hyperwall to discover new features in a global ocean simulation
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Ancestor of sea reptile super-predators found in #Germany #archeology #nistory

Ancestor of sea reptile super-predators found in #Germany #archeology #nistory | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
A new species of extinct sea monster from the Early Jurassic has been identified by a team of German and Swedish researchers. The fossilized bones were found in a clay pit near the city of Bielefeld in Germany. The finding

Via Catherine Russell
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Meteorite impact caused the highest temperature ever recorded on #Earth's surface #history

Meteorite impact caused the highest temperature ever recorded on #Earth's surface #history | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
An international team of researchers has found evidence of an ancient meteorite colliding with ground rock on Earth, producing the highest temperature ever recorded on the planet's surface. In their paper published in th
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Intersting facts of #Antarctica emerge from the #science labs

Intersting facts of #Antarctica emerge from the #science labs | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Six months after the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition ended, the teams that ran the 22 scientific projects are hard at work sorting through the many samples they collected. Some preliminary findings were announced durin
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#FF #educaton #health #Cannabis Reduces Prescription Drug Use

#FF #educaton #health #Cannabis Reduces Prescription Drug Use | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Only together we can make a difference! The truth awaits to be known.

Via Evieira
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A.I. Learns Nobel Prize Experiment in Just 1 Hour! #compute #AI #tech #future

When A.I. meets science, interesting things occur. The next few years may be very interesting for the scientific community. Subscribe here
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Interesting article: #Australia #aborigines carry the #DNA of an unknown “human” species

Interesting article: #Australia #aborigines carry the #DNA of an unknown “human” species | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Only together we can make a difference! The truth awaits to be known.
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Brain Area Responsible for 'Hearing Voices' in #Schizophrenia Discovered #neurology

Brain Area Responsible for 'Hearing Voices' in #Schizophrenia Discovered #neurology | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Researchers have identified a specific area of the brain responsible for auditory verbal hallucinations in people with schizophrenia. The researchers were able to control the hallucinations with the help of transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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#Hackers Can Silently Control #Siri, #Alexa & Other Voice Assistants Using #Ultrasound #tech #privacy #security

#Hackers Can Silently Control #Siri, #Alexa & Other Voice Assistants Using #Ultrasound #tech #privacy #security | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Hackers Can Remotely Take Control Of Your Siri, Alexa & Other Voice Assistants by Whispering Ultrasonic Commands
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#Neuroscientist explores 'What It's Like to Be a Dog' #LOL #LSD I know how it feels sniffs

#Neuroscientist explores 'What It's Like to Be a Dog' #LOL #LSD I know how it feels sniffs | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
Five years ago, Emory neuroscientist Gregory Berns became the first to capture images of actual canine thought processes. To explore the minds of the oldest domesticated species, the Berns lab trained dogs to remain stil
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#FF #Chromosome motor discovery supports #DNA loop extrusion #biology #science

#FF #Chromosome motor discovery supports #DNA loop extrusion #biology #science | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
It is one of the great mysteries in biology: How does a cell neatly distribute its replicated DNA between two daughter cells? For more than a century, we have known that DNA in the cell is comparable to a plate of spaghetti—a jumble of intermingled strands. When cells divide, they have to pack two metres of DNA into tidy little packages—chromosomes. This packing is induced by proteins called condensin, but scientists are split regarding the actual mechanism. One argument holds that the protein works like a hook, randomly grasping somewhere in the jumble of DNA and tying it all together. Another holds that the ring-shaped protein pulls the DNA inward to create a loop. In a new study reported in Science, researchers from TU Delft, Heidelberg and Columbia University give the oop-extrusion argument a significant boost, demonstrating that condensin does, indeed, have the putative motor function required for this dynamic.

As early as 1882, the renowned biologist Walter Flemming recorded the process of condensation of DNA. Looking through a microscope, he saw how a cell neatly organised the bundles of DNA and subsequently divided them into two new cells. However, the exact details of this process have remained a mystery for more than 100 years.

"There are different schools on this question within the field of cell biology," explains nanobiologist and head of research Cees Dekker from TU Delft's Kavli Institute. "In recent years, the hypothesis that condensin extrudes loops has been winning ground, supported by computer simulations. The idea is that that the ring-shaped condensin grabs the DNA and pulls it through its ring in a loop-like fashion. This is only possible if the protein has motor activity. One problem with this loop extrusion model was that up until now, a motor function of this kind had not been detected. In addition, too much energy would be required to pull the loops through the ring, far more than the fuel usage that was observed for condensin."

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#Scientists hatch bold plan to save planet from #supervolcano eruption #Yellowstone

#Scientists hatch bold plan to save planet from #supervolcano eruption #Yellowstone | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
NASA researchers say siphoning heat from the Yellowstone Caldera could lower the risk of a deadly eruption while generating electricity.
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#Food crops produce more output when they have healthy soil #microbes, research confirms... yet #glyphosate kills soil life

#Food crops produce more output when they have healthy soil #microbes, research confirms... yet #glyphosate kills soil life | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
In an attempt to tease out the nature vs. nurture conundrum in the development of plants, a team of researchers from the University of Queensland analyzed scores of plant genera along the Cooloola dunes from the Great Sandy National Park on Australia’s Sunshine Coast. It was determined that the pres
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Team gathers unprecedented data on atmosphere's organic chemistry #science #education

Team gathers unprecedented data on atmosphere's organic chemistry #science #education | Limitless learning Universe | Scoop.it
For a few weeks over the summer in 2011, teams of scientists from around the world converged on a small patch of ponderosa pine forest in Colorado to carry out one of the most detailed, extended survey of atmospheric chemistr
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