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RadiantInsights.com has announced the addition of "Global Machine Translation Market Trends, Growth And Forecast Report Up To 2022 : Radiant Insights, Inc" Market Research Report to their Database.


San Francisco, United States - August 18, 2015 /MarketersMedia/ --

The global Machine Translation Market is expected to reach USD 983.3 million by 2022. Technological advancements have led to the development of sophisticated translation technology with minimal errors and grammatical coherence, which has considerably widened the scope for machine translation. The ability to rapidly, seamlessly and cost-effectively translate documents and content in regional languages has spurred the machine translation market over the past few years.

The provision of machine translation Software-as-a-Service (MTSaaS) over secure cloud offerings hosted in data centers is expected to offer substantial growth opportunity for the market. Increasing prominence of cloud computing has resulted in growing demand for cloud-based translation tools, which is further expected to boost the machine translation market. Constant R&D and technological advancements have enabled the technology to seamlessly integrate into a range of products from enterprise-level systems to consumer devices. Upgrading of communication networks and the rising proliferation of smartphones has led to the introduction of machine translation apps that provide instant translation of multilingual text.

Further key findings from the study suggest:

o Electronics and automotive industries are expected to gain significant market share by 2022. Application of machine translation in healthcare is expected to gain market share over the next six years. The need for accurate and timely translation of a large amount of content is expected to drive demand in various application industries.
o Training of SMT-based translation engines consists of feeding in millions of segments of glossaries, bilingual texts, etc. for the engine to learn by examples. The demand for SMT has significantly increased over the past few years, due to its effectiveness over RBMT in terms of time and cost. It is also expected to remain the largest technology market through 2022.
o Government initiatives and the presence of a large number of service providers has helped boost market growth in the U.S. Microsoft and Google, two of the largest technology providers based in the U.S., have made statistical machine translation technology popular with their free online engines.
o Machine translation providers often sell products through their own websites or indirectly through a network of specialist sales agents. Most providers prefer having a direct sales force to market and sell their offerings. MT solutions are available as commercial software solutions (e.g., SYSTRAN Enterprise Server and SDL BeGlobal) or as free, web-based applications (e.g., Microsoft Bing Translator and Google Translate).

Browse full research report with TOC on "Machine Translation (MT) Market Analysis By Application (Automotive, Military & Defense, Electronics, IT, Healthcare), By Technology (Rule-Based Machine Translation (RBMT), Statistical Machine Translation (SMT)) And Segment Forecasts To 2022" at: http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/machine-translation-mt-market-analysis-by-application-automotive-military-amp-defense-electronics-it-healthcare-by-technology-rule-based-machine-translation-rbmt-statistical-machine-translation-smt-and-segment-forecasts-to-2022

For the purpose of this study, Grand View Research has segmented the global machine translation market on the basis of application, technology, and region:

Machine Translation Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2012 - 2022)

o Automotive
o Military & Defense
o Electronics
o IT
o Healthcare
o Others

Machine Translation Technology Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2012 - 2022)

o RBMT
o SMT
o Others

Machine Translation Regional Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2012 - 2022)

o North America
o Europe
o Asia Pacific
o Latin America
o MEA

About Radiant Insights
Radiant Insights is a platform for companies looking to meet their market research and business intelligence requirements. We assist and facilitate organizations and individuals procure market research reports, helping them in the decision making process. We have a comprehensive collection of reports, covering over 40 key industries and a host of micro markets. In addition to over extensive database of reports, our experienced research coordinators also offer a host of ancillary services such as, research partnerships/ tie-ups and customized research solutions.

Source: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/

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For more information about us, please visit http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/machine-translation-mt-market-analysis-by-application-automotive-military-amp-defense-electronics-it-healthcare-by-technology-rule-based-machine-translation-rbmt-statistical-machine-translation-smt-and-segment-forecasts-to-2022

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Source: http://marketersmedia.com/global-machine-translation-market-is-expected-to-reach-usd-983-3-million-by-2022-radiant-insights-inc/89324

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The translation of documents in family cases must be paid for by the party who requires it, but only if they have legal aid, a court has ruled.
In a family court hearing at Chelmsford, Her Honour Judge Lynn Roberts considered the case of a legally aided Polish couple whose child had been made the subject of an emergency protection order earlier this year. Issued under Section 44 of the Children Act 1989, these allow local authorities to remove children who are thought to be at immediate risk of significant harm. Suffolk County Council began care proceedings in May.
However, the parents’ command of English was poor and they were therefore at a major disadvantage in the courtroom. Judge Roberts explained:
“They are … entitled to non means, non merits tested legal representation. Their English is such that they are unable to read the documentation unless it is translated into their own language, in this case Polish.”
Suffolk County Council paid for the translation of the documents produced during the initial proceeding but Judge Roberts was asked to consider the question of responsibility for funding the subsequent required translations.
The Legal Aid Agency (LAA) is responsible for the distribution of the limited amount of legal aid still available. It was invited to intervene in the case and submit its views in order to help the court reach a decision on the issue which could be “relied on in this case and in others”. However, despite a formal invitation from the court, the LAA declined to take part.
This was, said Judge Roberts, “a surprise to me”. She suggested the Agency may have misunderstood the invitation.
Suffolk County Council asked the court to consider four options for the funding of court translations:
“- 1. that the party requiring the translation funds this on their certificate;
– 2. that the Local Authority pays all the translation costs;
– 3. that the translation costs are shared between the parties in equal shares;
– 4. that each party translates all of their own documents.”
Their favoured option, however, was one, and Judge Roberts favoured this position as well. She declared:
“In my judgment it is not right for the costs of the translation of documents produced in the proceedings to be shared equally…I consider that the party who needs the documents translated should bear the costs and in this case that means that the LAA must bear the costs incurred on that party’s public funding certificate.”
Translations should be undertaken only of those documents “necessary … in order to understand the case”, she explained, with the person’s solicitor expected to provide them with a summary of the other parts.
The judgement can be read here.
Image by Tracy via Flickr
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By Kole Omotoso
UP to now, it has been assumed that the number of people who speak a language guarantees its survival. This means that the more people speak a language, the greater its chance of surviving into the future.

This might be so, from the record of our history until now. In fact, what keeps a language alive is the amount of new knowledge it is able to generate, domesticate and masticate.

Classical Latin is not in use today because the work of knowledge is being done in other languages. Classical Arabic continues to be used today because, first it made itself the medium of European Renaissance in the 16th century.

Second, it is the language of Islam and if the Prophet and his companions were to come back today, the Quran would speak to them in the language in which it was revealed so many centuries ago.

And third, Classical Arabic is the language of Education in the Arab world from kindergarten to university. In the last 50 years, areas of human knowledge have advanced so fast and so furious that these have left some languages behind. Japanese and Chinese refused to be left behind.

Wherever their students went to study in the western world /Eastern Europe, they translated something of their new knowledge into Japanese and Chinese.


In the last 50 years, areas of human knowledge have advanced so fast and so furious that these have left some languages behind. Japanese and Chinese refused to be left behind. Wherever their students went to study in the western world /Eastern Europe, they translated something of their new knowledge into Japanese and Chinese. Under the philosophical guidance of using foreign knowledge to their native savvy, they have been able to keep up their side of adding to the new knowledge.

Under the philosophical guidance of using foreign knowledge to their native savvy, they have been able to keep up their side of adding to the new knowledge. But if you do not join in these knowledges you cannot contribute to it.

Nuclear Physics, ICT, Robotics, Genetics, DNA, Space Technology and Space Exploration and Nanotechnology, which of these can we seriously speak about and pontificate upon in our African Languages? Even the multiple media of everyday are not only absorbed into our systems, they are absorbed in the gibberish of illiterate users of English.

Years ago, when the internet began, it was almost hundred per cent in the English language. Today, this is no longer so. This means that African Languages that mean knowledge business can catch up in the knowledge industry.



The recent excitements in space explorations as well as the ones in nanotechnology escapes us because we cannot enjoy them in our own languages.

One particular experience was described as similar to landing a fly on a bullet in motion. In the more recent pictures from Jupiter, the space craft got to its destination after nine years of flying in space, covering billions of kilometres from earth.

For how long will it continue to send back pictures, pictures which show that possibilities of life supporting materials exist in this incredible universe. With journeys taking years and years, how would humans make these trips? Like the case of the monarch butterflies that fly south to Mexico for the summer and back to the north for the winter, it is not the generation that set out that goes back! As if that was not exciting enough, look at the work being done in nanotechnology.

The following extract on Nanofibres is from the Mail & Guardian of South Africa: "A strand (of nanofibre) is nearly 10,000 times thinner than your hair, conducts electricity better than copper and is 1000 times stronger than steel, but lighter than a single strand of a spider's web. This is why researchers all over the world are looking for new applications for carbon nanofibres.



On a microscopic scale, a carbon nanofibre is like a tube made up of a rolled honeycomb: carbon atoms organised as a network of hexagonal rings.

At the University of Witwatersrand (in Johannesburg) we are making these nanotubes out of fly ash, a toxic by-product of coaf-fired power stations, and using them to generate electricity." In trying to translate this passage into Yoruba, there would be need to know what these nanofibres look like.

From their sizes it is obvious that naked eyes cannot see them. And even if the eyes aided with micrsocopes can see them with what does the hand hold them? A few years ago, there was talk in Nigeria that secondary students doing science had no laboratories and so could not do any experiments.

Their study of science was being aided by oral descriptions of experiments. Right now medical surgeons using nanotechnology are performing non-invasive operations nside the human body. At what point are we going to re-constitute our education programme to bring it into the 21st century and make being one of the twenty most developed countries of the world possible for us by 2020?
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Should William Shakespeare be taught in Africa’s schools and universities? It’s a question that emerges, sometimes flippantly and sometimes in earnest, when conversations about post-coloniality and decolonisation turn to literature and culture.

CAPTION: King Duncan is a fictional character in Shakespeare's Macbeth.
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It’s a useful and necessary question that I - as a scholar who teaches and writes about Shakespeare in a South African context - am often asked. Indeed, it’s one that I ask myself frequently.

But it is also a clumsy question and it needs rephrasing – or, at least, the terms in which it is couched need further investigation if we are to attempt a nuanced, coherent answer.

Africa is not a country
The first problem is in generalising about the African continent. Education systems and their infrastructural or economic contexts are vastly different. This is not only true from country to country and region to region, but also within each country and region.

It’s impossible to speak accurately about “Shakespeare in Asia” without accommodating the fact that his place in India - with its colonial history and linguistic environment - is a phenomenon that’s almost incomparable to Shakespeare in China or in Japan.

In Europe, national distinctions are equally severe. The history of Shakespeare’s reception in France is completely unlike that in Germany.

Likewise, there’s no singular “Shakespeare in Africa”.

An obvious division could be made between Francophone and Anglophone countries, but even these categories falter. The engagement of writers such as Frantz Fanon and Aimé Césaire with Shakespeare’s “colonial” play The Tempest influenced the Negritude movement associated with Léopold Senghor and, through him, with Senegal. Césaire’s Une Tempête was first performed in Tunisia. But this has no purchase in other Francophone African countries like Gabon or Niger.

In Zimbabwe, despite occasional posturing, Shakespeare is a common and largely unproblematic reference point in political speeches, newspaper articles and daily conversation.

This is not the case in neighbouring South Africa, where there are again many different Shakespeares. He was one of Nelson Mandela’s favourites and a copy of the Collected Works was circulated among prisoners on Robben Island. Author, journalist and political icon Sol Plaatje translated several of Shakespeare’s works into Setswana.

But there is also the Shakespeare of “white English liberals”, and the Shakespeare invoked by the apartheid state as an example of exclusively European “high culture”. Then there is the Shakespeare associated with former president Thabo Mbeki, who was seen as something of an intellectual elitist and was ultimately recalled by the governing African National Congress.

These examples make it clear that Shakespeare can’t be viewed or read – and therefore can’t be taught – in an ahistorical or apolitical vacuum. If we are to teach Shakespeare in Africa, we cannot teach the text alone.

We owe it to students to acknowledge, indeed to emphasise, and then to analyse the baggage that Shakespeare brings with him.

Where does Shakespeare “fit”?
Shakespeare traditionally goes hand in hand with “English”. In secondary schools, this implies that his work will be studied as a literary text. “English” at high school is also about the acquisition of the English language, particularly for learners who have English as a second or additional language.

Is the difficulty – sometimes the downright opacity – of Shakespeare’s Early Modern English helpful to these learners? Probably not. Arguably, without a very skillful and enthusiastic teacher, Shakespeare’s language remains obscure even to teenagers with “mother tongue” or “first language” English competence (this includes many bilingual learners).

Here a case may be made for translation as a vital aspect of teaching and learning Shakespeare. Why can’t extracts from Shakespeare, or even entire plays, be studied in translation into Gikuyu or isiZulu? From these languages the work could be translated once again, into contemporary English - a much more interesting process of “modernising” Shakespeare.

Teachers could then draw on the resource of a polyglot classroom, affirming rather their undermining their learners’ multilingual confidence. At the same time, Shakespeare could be placed in dialogue with African writers like Ngugi wa Thiong’o or Mazisi Kunene.

All of this hinges, however, on the awkwardness of “should”. Making something compulsory usually has the effect of making it resented - and that’s anecdotally the case for most learners who’ve sweated over Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets.

In the final school year, or the senior years, continuity and consistency across a provincial or state schooling system requires a syllabus that offers individual schools and teachers limited choice. But where possible, it is preferable for curriculum guidelines to present Shakespeare simply as an option: a writer among many other writers.

Learners could encounter Shakespeare productively outside of the classroom environment: on stage, on screen, modernised, translated, without the stigma of being a canonical author. Some might arrive at university without having studied him at all. Would this be a bad thing? Imagine discovering Shakespeare in a political science class, or a philosophy course – or through art history, economics or media studies.

Ultimately, the discipline in which Shakespeare really “belongs” is drama. Sometimes that’s in the context of theatre and performance; it may also be in a field like film study.

Perhaps, then, to return to the clumsy question that got us started, there’s only one “should” when it comes to teaching Shakespeare. Whether it’s at secondary or tertiary level, as part of a formal curriculum or extra-curricular activity, in Africa or elsewhere in the world, the magic of performance should remain at the core of any assignation with Shakespeare.


Chris Thurman is Associate professor at University of the Witwatersrand.

This article was originally published on The Conversation.
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The Army is testing a handheld language translator device to help soldiers better communicate with their African counterparts, particularly those who speak French dialects.

In an Aug. 5 press release, the branch said helping U.S. soldiers communicate in foreign languages is becoming critical.

"We believe Africa is a future frontier for technology in the next 10 to 15 years," Maj. Eddie Strimel, the field Assistance in Science and Technology adviser assigned to U.S. Army Africa, said in the release. "French is a priority for us. If we can get these dialects developed with this type of system, it will benefit the Army, Air Force and Marines down the road."

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The handheld, two-way system called the SQ.410 Translation System, which was developed by commercial vendor VoxTec, is programmed with nine languages and doesn't require Internet service or a cell network to work, the release said.

A soldier speaks in English into the device, which displays what it recognizes on a screen. It then provides written and spoken translations in the other language and can also record conversations, the release added.

The system was recently tested at U.S. Army Garrison Vincenza in Italy and received "primarily positive" feedback, the release said. Further field testing is being conducted in Africa to determine needed software improvements. The Army is planning to buy five translators for additional testing and data collection during meetings with African soldiers.

Dr. Stephen LaRocca, an Army Research Laboratory computer scientist who is providing technical expertise during testing, said data on the many French accents and dialects in Africa are needed to improve the system.

"While commercial speech translation software is available for French, we know that it was trained for general purpose use by European speakers," he said. "How well it works for communication tasks specific to U.S. teams working with African partners is just now being examined." 

"From a scientific perspective, we need to know how sensitive the technology is to the different accents of the many diverse French-speaking African language communities," he added.

The Army said that Africa is just the beginning with U.S. military commanders around the world showing greater interest in language translation.

For more:
- read the Army press release about the language translator

Related Articles:
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Army Research Laboratory releases new comprehensive science and technology plan  
Army banking on multiple, varied sensors to provide soldiers with greater situational awareness
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Indigenous Language Dev And The African Child
Posted by admin on Aug 12th, 2015 and filed under Opinion. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed.
According to Ngugi Wa Thiong’o, a Professor of Com
parative Literature and English: “If you know all the languages of the world, and you don’t know your language, that is enslavement.
This remark by the Kenyan-born prolific writer remains instructive in teaching and learning particularly as it affects the African Child.
In this regard, the 1976 Soweto uprising in South Africa, indeed, has left indelible mark on the sand of time in relation to developing indigenous languages in the continent of Africa.
It is common knowledge that on June 16, 1976 about ten thousand black school children marched protesting poor quality of their education.
Of paramount significance to the development of indigenous languages, the black school children also demanded to be taught in their own language.
Evidence shows that so many of them were shot dead in the protest while several others received severe degrees of injuries.
It is no surprise, therefore, that June 16 every year has been set aside as the day of the African Child.
Better still, both the African Union (AU) and UNESCO have acknowledged June 16 as Day of the African Child to honour those black school children who were killed for protesting poor quality and most importantly demanded to be taught in their own language.
From the echoes and rhythms of the celebration of Day of African Child over the years, it does appear that much has been said about the killing and the physical pains the black school children suffered while little has been done about the systematic wearing away of African Languages and death otherwise called attrition and linguicide.
It would be recalled that one of the things that brought English Language itself to limelight even in the United Kingdom was that the owners of the language demanded the use of the language particularly in the church against the use of Latin.
This is where the famous Cramer’s Book of Common Prayers published In 1549 comes to mind.
The Book of Common Prayers came to limelight after the parliament passed an Act called the Act of Uniformity which requested among other’s that the prayers should be written and spoken in English Language instead of Latin following the plan to move the Church of England away from the Catholic Church.
The introduction of the Book of Common Prayers emanating from the Act of Uniformity further led to the Famous Prayer Book Rebellion of the same year particularly by the people of Devon and Cornwall where Catholicism not only had stronghold but the fact the people of Cornwall who did not speak or understand English as much called for translation of the New Prayer Book into Cornish, the language of Cornwall.
This call was, however, rejected but it goes to show the zeal of a people to develop a language.
The lesson from this analogy, therefore, is that owners of a language must stand up to ensure that their language do not wear away and die in embracing foreign cultures and the perceived modernity.
In fact, Bamgbose in 1993 posits thus: “When all is said and done, the fate of the endangered language may well lie in the hands of the owners of the language themselves and in their will to make it survive.
Similarly, a linguist Prof Emenannjo in 1990 echoed” thus: “Language engineering requires cooperation between the speakers of the language on one hand, and linguists, and educationists on the other hand.”
The need to develop indigenous languages, therefore, should not be trivialised and banalised.
It is pertinent to observe that at the 7th Forum on Indigenous Issues held between April 21 to May 2, 2008, UNESCO disclosed that approximately six hundred languages have disappeared in the last century and they continue to disappear at the rate of one language every two weeks.
It goes further to express the fear that up to 90 per cent of the world’s languages are likely to disappear before the end of the century if current trends are allowed to continue.
Interestingly, the National Policy on Education adopted in 2004 provides that government shall ensure that the medium of instruction in pre-primary and primary will be principally the mother tongue.
The policy further states that for primary education, the medium of instruction shall be the language of the environment and same for junior secondary where it has orthography and literature.
However, where there is no orthography, the methodology of oracy shall be explored in teaching and learning.
This is why the Federal Government itself must implement key components in the said National Policy of Education 2004 which involve the development of orthography for many more Nigerian languages as well as produce textbooks in Nigerian languages.
This policy should not be the responsibility of the federal government alone to enforce but for all the states and Local Government Areas of the federation.
To this end, the various states of the country must mobilise indigenous people and ethnic groups to exhibit interest in developing and reviving their languages gradually facing extinction.
At this juncture, it is necessary to commend Rivers State for its effort at developing indigenous languages.
For instance, Rivers State which has over 20 different ethnic groups has  seventeen orthographies of 17 languages approved as Nigerian languages spoken in the state.
They include Abuan, Degema, Egbema, Engene, Eleme and Gokana. Others are Khana, Etche, Ikwerre, Ibani, Kalabari, Ndoni, Odual, Ogba, Obolo, Ekpeye and Okrika.
Worthy of note too, is the fact that Rivers State has passed into law the Rivers State Education Teaching of Indigenous Languages Law of 2003.
The law provides that the teaching of indigenous languages is made compulsory in all pre-primary, primary and junior secondary schools while the state Ministry of Education shall cause the local languages to be one of the subjects examined at the end of each term or year in the first school leaving certificate and Junior Secondary School Certificate Examinations.  What remains is for the state governemnt to implement the policy in the state.
Experts, however, agree that funding by government at all levels have been a major challenge to indigenous language development.
Gross disinterestedness on part of owners of indigenous languages and the fact that people first study what will put food on the table above other considerations.
It has also been observed that cross-cultural marriages do not help matters as even some parents themselves come from families whose parents had cross cultural marriage.
There are also cases of power play, egocentricism and personality clash during the process of testing and ratifying orthographies in local communities.
This ought not to be considering the fact that learning in native tongue can boost independent thought.
This fact was attested to by the Project Director Indian (space) Moon Mission Myiswamy Annadurai when he said “Learning in one’s native tongue should not be seen as a weakness but can lead to higher independent thought.”
He concluded thus: “Many of the team behind India’s first and successful moon mission had done a large part of their academic learning in their native tongues” To this end, one cannot but salute the ingenuity, courage and request of the black school children of Soweto in June 1976 when they demanded to be taught in their indigenous languages.
Government, communities, civil society and advocacy groups as well as parents must promote the use of indigenous languages for the sake of cultural identity.
Religious bodies and sects should attach premium to translating their sacred books such as the Holy Bible and Quran into indigenous languages as part of evangelism.
In as much as funding is necessary by government, owners of indigenous languages must be alive to their responsibility of sustaining their languages. The time to act is now!
Sika is a staff of Radio Rivers.
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When the team behind the Dubai-based personal finance app Wally realised that the majority of their users lived in non-English-speaking countries, they knew they had to do something to reach them.

But there was a problem. Professional translation services were out of the start-up’s price range.

“We were getting quotes from professional translation agencies and they were giving us quotes of a few thousand dollars per language and some of the languages like Mandarin were more because it is more difficult to find somebody,” says Nicole Abi-Esber, a Lebanese-American who was in charge of user experience at Wally.

Having previously used Upwork, a freelancing website, Ms Abi-Esber set about putting together a virtual team of translators in 18 countries.

“I ended up paying the least amount for Mandarin. It was about US$4 an hour,” says Ms Abi-Esber, who is now working as entrepreneur in residence at Middle East Internet Group, a joint venture of South Africa’s MTN and Germany’s Rocket Internet (Rocket is known for replicating popular websites, such as Airbnb, and bringing them to emerging markets).

“It was really cool because we got access to all these people all over the world and it was much cheaper. They were also comfortable because they were in their own homes instead of being on salaries with a translation agency. They were all students. There was one in Russia, one in Spain, one in Brazil. It was super cool. I think we saved $10,000 to $15,000.”

And importantly, the quality of work was also good.

“Because we had assembled a ‘team’ of sorts dedicated to our product, it guaranteed continuity between translators, whereas oftentimes agencies assign translations to multiple translators,” says Ms Abi-Esber. “Also we were able to hire people who had Android phones, and had the technical knowledge to download the test versions of the app and check the translations actually in the app, in context.”

UAE companies such as Wally have a strong demand for freelance websites. Businesses in the Emirates are California-based Upwork’s fifth largest market, and have spent more than Dh390 million to date on the service, which launched in the UAE as Elance o-Desk last June.

Kunal Kapoor turned to the service when he was setting up an online marketplace and it became apparent that not all of the expertise he needed was available in the UAE.

Nor did he necessarily want all of his staff to work for the company full-time, for both financial and workload reasons.

So he chose the only option open to him: to consult freelancing websites like Upwork, which had a bank of people with the right kind of skills at the right price. And he hasn’t looked back since.

Today eight of his full-time employees, out of 33 staff in total of The Luxury Closet, an online marketplace for luxury items, live abroad across the Middle East and South East Asia.

“Everything is online so you can do a lot of this stuff remotely. You just need to be connected,” says Mr Kapoor, who is chief executive of the Dubai-based company.

“The reason we started doing all of this was because we started saying we should build a work culture and policies that make sense,” says Mr Kapoor.

Working more online is not the only way the workplace is expected to change. A study in late 2014 for the commercial real estate services firm CBRE and Genesis, a Chinese developer and operator, found that young people expect the office to be very different in 2030. Workplaces will offer a “wide variety of quiet retreat and collaborative settings”, each of which will suit a specific job or task.

Respondents also said they would move from thinking about workplaces towards places of work, including outside the office.

So how will increased home working affect the quality of our work? Will we become more creative, working in a space we feel more comfortable in?

“The answer is not as simple as a clear yes or no,” says Alan Iny, senior specialist for creativity and scenario planning at Boston Consulting Group.

“From my perspective I have seen places like BCG, where there are sometimes people who work from home, and sometimes not, be very empowering and be very creative and innovative places. And I have seen it fail in other places as well because people are very hierarchical and domineering and it just doesn’t work out,” he adds.

It has certainly worked out for companies like Wally and The Luxury Closet. Mr Kapoor thinks it could work for others.

“I think that having the flexibility makes you deliver better,” he says. “You can choose your timing and deliver more.”

business@thenational.ae

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En Coahuila, no se ha traducido información de oficio a la lengua kikapú
La dependencia aún no tiene contemplado para cuándo estará listo, pues el consejero presidente señaló que “están trabajando en eso”

POR:   ROXANA ROMERO martes, 18 de agosto del 2015
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La traducción de la Información Pública de Oficio a las lenguas indígenas con las que cuenta Coahuila, es decir, el kikapú, sigue sin realizarse y el Instituto Coahuilense de Acceso a la Información (ICAI) aún no tiene contemplado para cuándo estará listo, pues el consejero presidente señaló que “están trabajando en eso”.

Cabe destacar que la Ley de Transparencia marca que la información debió haberse publicado traducida 180 días después de que entró en vigor, es decir, a finales del mes de febrero, sin embargo el ICAI no ha dado mayor importancia al tema.

Aunque desde mayo el presidente del ICAI, Jesús Homero Flores Mier, señaló que se reuniría con el presidente del Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas, para firmar un convenio y comenzar a trabajar en el tema, hasta el momento éste no se ha concretado.

“Ahí vamos, todavía no hemos firmado el convenio con el Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas, pero le estamos dando seguimiento puntual”, señaló Flores Mier.
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CHICAGO, Aug 18 — An increasingly popular device that’s thought to improve cognition by delivering low-intensity electrical current to the front of the brain via electrodes could actually do more harm than good, according to a small, preliminary new study.

It’s a new technology called trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and it’s advertised in the media and available online, and even John’s Hopkins Medical School in the US praises the technology online.

They describe it as “a non-invasive, painless brain stimulation treatment that uses direct electrical currents to stimulate specific parts of the brain,” citing studies that concluded in the technology’s favour, suggesting it could treat depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease and chronic pain.

In the current study, psychologists from the Netherlands worked with 24 healthy participants, attaching tDCS electrodes to their foreheads as recommended for stimulating the cortex.

They used a commercial tDCS headset called “foc. us” that offers gamified and non-gamified stimulation and claims it can increase athletic endurance in addition to cognition. 

Participants visited the laboratory two times and were each given — unbeknownst to them — both a real stimulation session and a placebo-like service.

During and after all stimulation sessions, the researchers asked their subjects to complete a working memory task.

Upon receiving active stimulation, participants demonstrated impaired memory performance, according to the study, which was published in the journal Experimental Brain Research.

“Even if preliminary, these results show the fundamental critical and active role of the scientific community in evaluating the sometimes far-reaching, sweeping claims from the brain training industry with regard to the impact of their products on cognitive performance,” says study co-author Lorenza Colzato.

Colzato’s co-author, Laura Steenbergen, says they spotted potential risks and misuses of the technology and conducted the study to learn more about it, for little research exists.

In January, neuroscientist Jared Horvath of the University of Melbourne in Australia conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining tDCS and working memory and concluded that findings were too diverse and therefore inconclusive. — AFP/Relaxnews
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The All India Radio has invited applications for the posts of Translator-cum- Announcers . The details of the vacancies are as follows:

No. of vacancies: not specified

Essential Qualifications:  Candidates must possess a bachelor's degree or equivalent preferably with Nepali as one of the subjects from a recognized university.

Age limit: Candidates should be between 20 to 35 years of age as on 01.07.2015

Remuneration: Rs. 23,000/- for fresh candidates and Rs. 25,000/- for candidates with at least one year of experience in broadcasting

How to apply:

Interested candidates can send their applications on a plain paper with the prescribed details along with relevant documents in an envelope superscribed "Application for engagement on contract as Translator-cum-Announcer in Nepali language" to the following address:

Additional Director General,

External Services Division,

All India Radio,

Room No. 404, New Broadcasting House,

Mahadev Road, New Delhi - 110001

Last date for receipt of application: 31.08.2015


For additional details, refer to the official notification at this link.
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Welcome to the Routledge Translation Studies Portal.

This portal offers a wide range of online resources and teaching materials, links to key organisations and samples from our ground-breaking titles in translation and interpreting studies.

New updates include:

Samples from more of our key titles including Translation and Language Education by Sara Laviosa.
a fresh selection of journal articles
a full list of the St Jerome titles acquired by Routledge in 2014. Don’t forget to sign up for our newsletter to hear about our latest updates and new publications!
a range of complementary Exercises which accompany Luis Pérez-González'  textbook: Audiovisual Translation (Routledge, 2014).
the Featured Authors section now includes two new interviews with Lawrence Venuti (from PEN America and Circumference) and in the Video section you will find a talk on court interpreting from Holly Mikkelson (author of Introduction to Court Interpreting, Routledge, 2000).
The Resources section offers students a wide range of materials from multiple choice revision exercises to a glossary and self-test online flashcards. There is also a wide range of video interviews and lectures by our leading authors, including Lawrence Venuti, Mona Baker, Susan Bassnett, Sherry Simon, Michael Cronin and Douglas Robinson. Additionally, we have specially recorded videos which introduce and summarise aspects of translation studies as a discipline, featuring Lawrence Venuti, Jeremy Munday, Alina Secara and Gracie Peng.

For researchers, we recommend browsing a virtual collection of the most popular online research published in Routledge journals.

The Instructors section provides powerpoint slides linked to two of our bestselling textbooks, In Other Words and Introducing Translation Studies.

We will be building up the content offered here over time and we welcome your input. Please do get in touch via Feedback.

Best wishes,

Louisa Semlyen (Senior Publisher)
Laura Sandford (Editorial Assistant)
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Online marketing is all about better visibility and featuring on top in the search results. In what is termed as blended results, Google now weighs pages with video contents higher. Sites without a video have a tough time contesting with others for the first position. This is why businesses are increasingly publishing video presentations, podcasts, webinars, etc. However, most of them are still not aware of the huge benefits they can reap, by getting files transcribed and publishing them along with their audio/video presentations.

Media promotion video transcripts help in promoting your business in a better manner. Read on to know the benefits…



Helps Reach Out To A Wider Audience:
Often a speaker in a video or an audio presentation speaks with an accent, which not everyone can understand. This also applies to speakers using native language to communicate. In such cases captioning or posting a detailed transcript helps reach out to a wider audience. Besides, captioning, webinar transcripts, business transcripts, transcribing product review, etc are very helpful for people with impaired hearing.
Improves User Engagement:
After watching a video or listening to an audio file, the user might feel interested in a particular section. Replaying the video is tedious, and it also takes time to buffer. A user might feel impatient and leave your page. However, a written transcript allows the user to quickly look up a particular section, thus it improves user engagement.

Improves Off-Page SEO:
By posting a transcript along with your audio/video material, it becomes possible to target additional keywords. Planning a separate keyword strategy for written text helps improves off-page optimization. This means you will rank better and be visible for a wide range of keywords and related searches.

Supports your Keyword Strategy:
A transcribed video is beneficial for your SEO team. It helps them build a formidable keyword strategy. If they are targeting a particular keyword, they can easily scan through and catch relevant phrases and words spoken repeatedly in the video, from the transcript copy.

Getting your promotional videos transcribed from a good transcription service provider, can help you build strong marketing strategies. You can reach out to a wider audience and engage your targeted clients in a better manner. Additionally, posting a written transcript also conveys to your client, that you are professionals. Hence, it is a good way to promote or market your business and earn a good online reputation.
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Charte du traducteur

La Charte du traducteur (texte adopté par le Congrès à Dubrovnik en 1963 et modifié à Oslo le 9 juillet 1994)

La Fédération internationale des traducteurs,

constatant

que la traduction s'affirme dans le monde contemporain comme une activité permanente, universelle et nécessaire;

qu'en rendant possibles les échanges spirituels et matériels entre les peuples elle enrichit la vie des nations et contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les hommes;

qu'en dépit des conditions variées dans lesquelles elle est exercée, la traduction doit être reconnue de nos jours comme une profession spécifique et autonome;

désireuse

d'établir, sous la forme d'un acte solennel, les principes généraux inhérents à la profession du traducteur, en vue notamment,

de faire ressortir la fonction sociale de la traduction,

de préciser les droits et devoirs du traducteur,

de poser les bases d'un Code moral du traducteur,

d'améliorer les conditions économiques et le climat social dans lesquels le traducteur exerce son activité,

de recommander certaines lignes de conduite pour les traducteurs et pour leurs organisations professionnelles, et

de contribuer de cette façon à l'affirmation de la traduction en tant que profession spécifique et autonome,


présente le texte d'une charte destinée à guider le traducteur dans l'exercice de sa profession.


CHAPITRE I DEVOIRS GÉNÉRAUX DU TRADUCTEUR


1. La traduction, étant une activité intellectuelle dont l'objet est la transposition de textes littéraires, scientifiques et techniques d'une langue dans une autre, impose à celui qui l'exerce des devoirs spécifiques tenant à sa nature même.


2. Une traduction doit toujours être établie sous la seule responsabilité du traducteur, quelle que soit la nature du rapport ou du contrat le liant à l'utilisateur.


3. Le traducteur se refusera à donner au texte une interprétation qu'il n'approuve pas, ou qui le ferait déroger aux devoirs de sa profession.


4. Toute traduction doit être fidèle et rendre exactement l'idée et la forme de l'oeuvre originale – la fidélité constituant pour le traducteur à la fois un devoir moral et une obligation de nature juridique.


5. Il ne faut pas confondre cependant traduction fidèle et traduction littérale – la fidélité de la traduction n'excluant pas une adaptation nécessaire pour rendre la forme, l'atmosphère, la signification profonde de l'oeuvre, sensibles dans une autre langue et un autre pays.


6. Le traducteur doit posséder une bonne connaissance de la langue à partir de laquelle il traduit, mais surtout la maîtrise de celle dans laquelle il traduit.


7. Il doit posséder également une culture générale et connaître suffisamment la matière qui fait l'objet de la traduction et s'abstenir d'entreprendre une traduction dans un domaine qui sort de sa compétence.


8. Le traducteur doit s'abstenir de toute concurrence déloyale dans l'exercice de sa profession; en particulier, il s'efforcera d'obtenir une juste rémunération et n'acceptera pas de tarif inférieur à ceux qui seraient éventuellement fixés par les lois ou règlements.

9. D'une manière générale, il ne doit demander ni accepter de travail à des conditions humiliantes pour lui et pour la profession qu'il exerce.

10.Le traducteur est tenu de respecter les intérêts légitimes de l'utilisateur, en considérant comme secret professionnel toutes les données dont il a pu prendre connaissance grâce à la traduction qui lui a été confiée.

11.Étant un auteur "dérivé" le traducteur est assujetti à des obligations spéciales vis-à-vis de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale. Charte du traducteur


12.Il est tenu d'obtenir de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale ou de l'utilisateur l'autorisation de traduire cette oeuvre ainsi que de respecter tous les autres droits dont l'auteur est investi.


CHAPITRE II DROITS DU TRADUCTEUR


13.Tout traducteur jouit, relativement à la traduction qu'il a faite, de la plénitude des droits que le pays dans lequel il exerce son activité reconnaît aux autres travailleurs intellectuels.


14.La traduction, étant une création intellectuelle, jouit de la protection juridique reconnue aux oeuvres de l'esprit.


15.Le traducteur est donc titulaire d'un droit d'auteur sur sa traduction, et investi, par suite, des mêmes prérogatives que l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale.


16.Le traducteur jouit en conséquence de tous les droits moraux et patrimoniaux inhérents à la qualité d'auteur.


17. Ainsi, le traducteur conserve pendant toute sa vie le droit de revendiquer la paternité de son oeuvre, dont il s'ensuit notamment a) que le nom du traducteur doit être cité d'une façon manifeste et non équivoque lors de toute utilisation publique de sa traduction; b) que le traducteur est autorisé à s'opposer à toute déformation, mutilation ou autre modification de sa traduction; c) que les éditeurs et autres bénéficiaires de la traduction n'ont le droit d'y apporter aucun changement sans le consentement préalable du traducteur; d) que le traducteur est autorisé à interdire toute utilisation abusive de sa traduction et à s'opposer en général à toute atteinte préjudiciable à son honneur ou à sa réputation.


18. De même, le traducteur est investi du droit exclusif d'autoriser la publication, la présentation, la transmission, la retraduction, l'adaptation, la modification et autres transformations de sa traduction, et, d'une manière générale, l'utilisation de sa traduction sous quelque forme que ce soit.


19.Il appartient au traducteur, pour toute utilisation publique de sa traduction, un droit à la rémunération pécuniaire dont le montant est fixé par le contrat ou par la loi.


CHAPITRE III SITUATION ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE DU TRADUCTEUR


20.Le traducteur doit être assuré de conditions d'existence lui permettant d'accomplir avec efficacité et dignité la tâche sociale qui lui est confiée.


21.Le traducteur doit être associé à la fortune de son oeuvre, avoir droit notamment à une rémunération proportionnelle au produit commercial de l'oeuvre traduite.


22.Il doit être reconnu que la traduction peut se présenter aussi sous l'aspect d'un travail sur commande et ouvrir, à ce titre, un droit à une rémunération indépendante des profits commerciaux de l'oeuvre traduite.


23.La profession de traducteur, au même titre que les autres professions, doit recevoir dans chaque pays une protection équivalente à celle que ce pays accorde à d'autres professions, par des conventions collectives, des contrats-types, etc.


24.Les traducteurs doivent bénéficier dans chaque pays de tous les avantages garantis aux travailleurs intellectuels, et notamment de tous systèmes d'assurances sociales, en matière de retraite de vieillesse, de maladie, de chômage et de prestations familiales.


CHAPITRE IV ASSOCIATIONS ET SYNDICATS DE TRADUCTEURS


25.Les traducteurs, comme les représentants d'autres professions, jouissent du droit de constituer des associations ou syndicats professionnels.


26.En dehors de la défense des intérêts moraux et matériels des traducteurs, ces organisations ont pour rôle de veiller au relèvement de la qualité des traductions et de traiter toutes les autres questions relatives à la traduction.


27.Elles interviennent auprès des pouvoirs publics dans la préparation et l'établissement des mesures législatives et réglementaires concernant la profession. Charte du traducteur


28.Elles s'efforcent de maintenir des contacts permanents avec les organisations ayant recours à la traduction (syndicats d'éditeurs, entreprises industrielles et commerciales, administrations publiques ou privées, organes de presse, etc.) en vue d'une étude et d'une solution de leurs problèmes communs.


29.En veillant à la qualité des oeuvres traduites dans leur pays, elles se tiennent en liaison avec les organismes culturels, les sociétés d'auteurs, les sections nationales du Pen Club, les représentants de la critique littéraire, les sociétés savantes, les universités et les instituts de recherche technique et scientifique.


30.Elles sont appelées à exercer une action d'arbitrage et d'expertise dans tous les différends opposant traducteurs et utilisateurs de traduction.


31.Il leur appartient de donner leur avis sur la formation et le recrutement des traducteurs, de même que de participer avec les instituts spécialisés et les universités à la réalisation de ces buts.


32.Elles s'efforcent de réunir les informations de toutes provenances intéressant la profession pour les mettre à la disposition des traducteurs sous forme de bibliothèques, dossiers, revues, bulletins, et créent, à cette fin, des services de renseignement théoriques et pratiques, organisent des colloques et des réunions.


CHAPITRE V ORGANISATIONS NATIONALES ET FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DES TRADUCTEURS


33. S'il existe dans un pays plusieurs groupements de traducteurs constitués soit sur une base régionale, soit par catégories de traducteurs, il est souhaitable que ces groupements coordonnent leurs efforts, tout en gardant leur individualité, dans une organisation nationale centrale.


34. Dans les pays où il n'existe pas encore d'association ou de syndicat de traducteurs, il est suggéré à ces derniers d'unir leurs efforts en vue d'aboutir à la création indispensable d'un tel organisme, aux conditions requises par les législations de ces pays.


35. Afin d'assurer par des efforts communs la réalisation de leurs buts sur le plan mondial, les organisations nationales représentatives des traducteurs sont appelées à s'unir dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs (FIT).


36.L'association des traducteurs en groupements nationaux, de même que celle de ces derniers dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs doit s'accomplir en toute liberté.


37.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs défend les droits matériels et moraux des traducteurs sur le plan international, suit l'évolution des questions théoriques et pratiques relatives à la traduction et s'efforce de contribuer à la diffusion de la culture dans le monde. 38.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs réalise ces objectifs en représentant les traducteurs sur le plan international, notam-ment dans les rapports avec les organisations gouvernementales, non gouvernementales et supranationales, en participant à des réunions pouvant intéresser les traducteurs et la traduction à l'échelle internationale, en éditant des publications et en organisant ou en faisant organiser des congrès permettant l'étude de questions intéressant la traduction et les traducteurs. 39. D'une manière générale, la Fédération internationale des traducteurs prolonge l'action des sociétés de chaque pays sur le plan international, coordonne leurs efforts et définit sa ligne de conduite commune. 40.Les associations nationales et la Fédération internationale des traducteurs, leur organisme central, puisent l'énergie nécessaire à la poursuite de leurs buts professionnels dans le sentiment de solidarité existant entre les traducteurs et dans la dignité de la traduction qui contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les peuples et à l'épanouissement de la culture dans le monde.


The Translator's Charter (approved by the Congress at Dubrovnik in 1963 and amended in Oslo on July 9, 1994)


The International Federation of Translators


noting


that translation has established itself as a permanent, universal and necessary activity in the world of today;


that by making intellectual and material exchanges possible among nations it enriches their life and contributes to a better understanding amongst men;

that in spite of the various circumstances under which it is practised translation must now be recognised as a distinct and autonomous profession; and


desiring


to lay down, as a formal document, certain general principles inseparably connected with the profession of translating, particularly for the purpose of


stressing the social function of translation, laying down the rights and duties of translators,


laying the basis of a translator's code of ethics, improving the economic conditions and social climate in which the translator carries out his activity, and


recommending certain lines of conduct for translators and their professional organisations, and to contribute in this way to the recognition of translation as a distinct and autonomous profession,


announces the text of a charter proposed to serve as guiding principles for the exercise of the profession of translator.


SECTION I GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TRANSLATOR


1. Translation, being an intellectual activity, the object of which is the transfer of literary, scientific and technical texts from one language into another, imposes on those who practice it specific obligations inherent in its very nature.


2. A translation shall always be made on the sole responsibility of the translator, whatever the character of the relationship of contract which binds him/her to the user.


3. The translator shall refuse to give to a text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve, or which would be contrary to the obligations of his/her profession.


4. Every translation shall be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original – this fidelity constituting both a moral and legal obligation for the translator.


5. A faithful translation, however, should not be confused with a literal translation, the fidelity of a translation not excluding an adaptation to make the form, the atmosphere and deeper meaning of the work felt in another language and country.


6. The translator shall possess a sound knowledge of the language from which he/she translates and should, in particular, be a master of that into which he/she translates.


7. He/she must likewise have a broad general knowledge and know sufficiently well the subject matter of the translation and refrain from undertaking a translation in a field beyond his competence.


8. The translator shall refrain from any unfair competition in carrying out his profession; in particular, he/she shall strive for equitable remuneration and not accept any fee below that which may be fixed by law and regulations.


9. In general, he/she shall neither seek nor accept work under conditions humiliating to himself/herself or his/her profession.


10.The translator shall respect the legitimate interests of the user by treating as a professional secret any information which may come into his/her possession as a result of the translation entrusted to him/her.


11.Being a "secondary" author, the translator is required to accept special obligations with respect to the author of the original work.


12. He/she must obtain from the author of the original work or from the user authorisation to translate a work, and must furthermore respect all other rights vested in the author.


SECTION II RIGHTS OF THE TRANSLATOR


13.Every translator shall enjoy all the rights with respect to the translation he/she has made, which the country where he/she exercises his/her activities grants to other intellectual workers.


14. A translation, being a creation of the intellect, shall enjoy the legal protection accorded to such works.


15.The translator is therefore the holder of copyright in his/her translation and consequently has the same privileges as the author of the original work.


16.The translator shall thus enjoy, with respect to his/her translation, all the moral rights of succession conferred by his/her authorship.


17. He/she shall consequently enjoy during his/her lifetime the right to recognition of his/her authorship of the translation, from which it follows, inter alia, that a) his/her name shall be mentioned clearly and unambiguously whenever his/her translation is used publicly; b) he/she shall be entitled to oppose any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his/her translation; c) publishers and other users of his/her translation shall not make changes therein without the translator's prior consent; d) he/she shall be entitled to prohibit any improper use of his/her translation and, in general, to resist any attack upon it that is prejudicial to his/her honour or reputation.


18. Furthermore, the exclusive right to authorise the publication, presentation, broadcasting, re-translation, adaptation, modification or other rendering of his/her translation, and, in general, he right to use his/her translation in any form shall remain with the translator.


19. For every public use of his/her translation the translator shall be entitled to remuneration at a rate fixed by contract or law.


SECTION III ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POSITION OF THE TRANSLATOR


20.The translator must be assured of living conditions enabling him/her to carry out with efficiency and dignity the social task conferred on him/her.


21.The translator shall have a share in the success of his/her work and shall, in particular, be entitled to remuneration proportional to the commercial proceeds from the work he/she has translated.


22.It must be recognised that translation can also arise in the form of commissioned work and acquire as such rights to remuneration independent of commercial profits accruing from the work translated.


23.The translating profession, like other professions, shall enjoy in every country a protection equal to that afforded to other professions in that country, by collective agreements, standard contracts, etc.


24.Translators in every country shall enjoy the advantages granted to intellectual workers, and particularly of all social insurance schemes, such as old-age pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and family allowances.


SECTION IV TRANSLATORS' SOCIETIES AND UNIONS


25.In common with members of other professions, translators shall enjoy the right to form professional societies or unions.


26.In addition to defending the moral and material interests of translators, these organisations shall have the task of ensuring improvement in standards of translation and of dealing with all other matters concerning translation.


27.They shall exert their influence on public authorities in the preparation and introduction of legal measures and regulations concerning the profession.


28.They shall strive to maintain permanent relations with organisations which are users of translations (publishers' associations, industrial and commercial enterprises, public and private authorities, the Press, etc.) for the purpose of studying and finding solutions to their common problems.


29.In watching over the quality of all works translated in their countries, they shall keep in touch with cultural organisations, societies of authors, national sections of the Pen Club, literary critics, learned societies, universities, and technical and scientific research institutes.


30.They shall be competent to act as arbiters and experts in all disputes arising between translators and users of translations.


31.They shall have the right to give advice on the training and recruitment of translators, and to co-operate with specialised organisations and universities in the pursuit of these aims.


32.They shall endeavour to collect information of interest to the profession from all sources and to place it at the disposal of translators in the form of libraries, files, journals and bulletins, for which purpose they shall establish theoretical and practical information services, and organise seminars and meetings.


SECTION V NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRANSLATORS


33.Where several groups of translators exist in a country, organised either on a regional basis or into different categories, it will be desirable for these groups to co-ordinate their activities in a central national organisation, at the same time preserving their identity.


34.In countries where societies or unions of translators are not yet in existence, it is suggested that translators should join forces to bring about the necessary establishment of such an organisation, in accordance with the relevant legal requirements of their country.


35.To ensure the attainment of their aims at world level by common effort, national translators' organisations are called upon to unite in the Fédération internationale des traducteurs (International Federation of Translators [FIT]).


36.Translators shall join their national organisations of their own free will and the same must apply to the societies with respect to their association with the International Federation of Translators.


37.The International Federation of Translators shall defend the material and moral rights of translators at the international level, keep in touch with progress in theoretical and practical matters relating to translation, and endeavour to contribute to the spread of civilisation throughout the world.


38.The International Federation of Translators shall attain these objectives by representing translators at the international level, particularly through relations with governmental, non-governmental and supranational organisations, by taking part in meetings likely to be of interest to translators and translation at the international level, by publishing works, and by organising or arranging for the organisation of congresses at which questions concerning translation or translators may be examined.


39.In general the International Federation of Translators shall extend the activities of the societies of every country at the international level, co-ordinate their efforts and define its common policy.


40.The national societies and the International Federation of Translators, their central organisation, derive the strength necessary for the pursuit of their professional objectives from the feeling of solidarity existing among translators and from the dignity of translation which contributes to better understanding among nations and to the spread of culture throughout the world.


Nairobi Recommendation


 a) communicating to translators current information concerning terminology required by them in the general course of their work;


b) collaborating closely with terminology centres throughout the world with a view to standardising and developing the internationalisation of scientific and technical terminology so as to facilitate the task of translators. In association with professional organisations or associations and other interested parties, Member States should facilitate exchanges of translators between different countries, so as to allow them to improve their knowledge of the language from which they work and of the socio-cultural context in which the works to be translated by them are written.  With a view to improving the quality of translations, the following principles and practical measures should be expressly recognised in professional statutes mentioned under sub-paragraph 7 (a) and in any other written agree-ments between the translators and the users: a) translators should be given a reasonable period of time to accomplish their work; b) any documents and information necessary for the understanding of the text to be translated and the drafting of the translation should, so far as possible, be made available to translators; c) as a general rule, a translation should be made from the original work, recourse being had to retranslation only where absolutely necessary; d) a translator should, as far as possible, translate into his own mother tongue or into a language of which he or she has a mastery equal to that of his or her mother tongue.


VI. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


The principles and norms set forth in this Recommendation may be adapted by developing countries in any way deemed necessary to help them meet their requirements, and in the light of the special provisions for the benefit of developing countries introduced in the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris on 24 July 1971 and the Paris Act (1971) of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.


VII. FINAL PROVISION


Where translators and translations enjoy a level of protection which is, in certain respects, more favourable than that provided for in this Recommendation, its provisions should not be invoked to diminish the protection already acquired.


Download here: http://www.ceatl.eu/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/FIT_charter.pdf


Charles Tiayon:

Charte du traducteur

La Charte du traducteur (texte adopté par le Congrès à Dubrovnik en 1963 et modifié à Oslo le 9 juillet 1994)

La Fédération internationale des traducteurs,

constatant

que la traduction s'affirme dans le monde contemporain comme une activité permanente, universelle et nécessaire;

qu'en rendant possibles les échanges spirituels et matériels entre les peuples elle enrichit la vie des nations et contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les hommes;

qu'en dépit des conditions variées dans lesquelles elle est exercée, la traduction doit être reconnue de nos jours comme une profession spécifique et autonome;

désireuse

d'établir, sous la forme d'un acte solennel, les principes généraux inhérents à la profession du traducteur, en vue notamment,

de faire ressortir la fonction sociale de la traduction,

de préciser les droits et devoirs du traducteur,

de poser les bases d'un Code moral du traducteur,

d'améliorer les conditions économiques et le climat social dans lesquels le traducteur exerce son activité,

de recommander certaines lignes de conduite pour les traducteurs et pour leurs organisations professionnelles, et

de contribuer de cette façon à l'affirmation de la traduction en tant que profession spécifique et autonome,


présente le texte d'une charte destinée à guider le traducteur dans l'exercice de sa profession.


CHAPITRE I DEVOIRS GÉNÉRAUX DU TRADUCTEUR


1. La traduction, étant une activité intellectuelle dont l'objet est la transposition de textes littéraires, scientifiques et techniques d'une langue dans une autre, impose à celui qui l'exerce des devoirs spécifiques tenant à sa nature même.


2. Une traduction doit toujours être établie sous la seule responsabilité du traducteur, quelle que soit la nature du rapport ou du contrat le liant à l'utilisateur.


3. Le traducteur se refusera à donner au texte une interprétation qu'il n'approuve pas, ou qui le ferait déroger aux devoirs de sa profession.


4. Toute traduction doit être fidèle et rendre exactement l'idée et la forme de l'oeuvre originale – la fidélité constituant pour le traducteur à la fois un devoir moral et une obligation de nature juridique.


5. Il ne faut pas confondre cependant traduction fidèle et traduction littérale – la fidélité de la traduction n'excluant pas une adaptation nécessaire pour rendre la forme, l'atmosphère, la signification profonde de l'oeuvre, sensibles dans une autre langue et un autre pays.


6. Le traducteur doit posséder une bonne connaissance de la langue à partir de laquelle il traduit, mais surtout la maîtrise de celle dans laquelle il traduit.


7. Il doit posséder également une culture générale et connaître suffisamment la matière qui fait l'objet de la traduction et s'abstenir d'entreprendre une traduction dans un domaine qui sort de sa compétence.


8. Le traducteur doit s'abstenir de toute concurrence déloyale dans l'exercice de sa profession; en particulier, il s'efforcera d'obtenir une juste rémunération et n'acceptera pas de tarif inférieur à ceux qui seraient éventuellement fixés par les lois ou règlements.

9. D'une manière générale, il ne doit demander ni accepter de travail à des conditions humiliantes pour lui et pour la profession qu'il exerce.

10.Le traducteur est tenu de respecter les intérêts légitimes de l'utilisateur, en considérant comme secret professionnel toutes les données dont il a pu prendre connaissance grâce à la traduction qui lui a été confiée.

11.Étant un auteur "dérivé" le traducteur est assujetti à des obligations spéciales vis-à-vis de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale. Charte du traducteur


12.Il est tenu d'obtenir de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale ou de l'utilisateur l'autorisation de traduire cette oeuvre ainsi que de respecter tous les autres droits dont l'auteur est investi.


CHAPITRE II DROITS DU TRADUCTEUR


13.Tout traducteur jouit, relativement à la traduction qu'il a faite, de la plénitude des droits que le pays dans lequel il exerce son activité reconnaît aux autres travailleurs intellectuels.


14.La traduction, étant une création intellectuelle, jouit de la protection juridique reconnue aux oeuvres de l'esprit.


15.Le traducteur est donc titulaire d'un droit d'auteur sur sa traduction, et investi, par suite, des mêmes prérogatives que l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale.


16.Le traducteur jouit en conséquence de tous les droits moraux et patrimoniaux inhérents à la qualité d'auteur.


17. Ainsi, le traducteur conserve pendant toute sa vie le droit de revendiquer la paternité de son oeuvre, dont il s'ensuit notamment a) que le nom du traducteur doit être cité d'une façon manifeste et non équivoque lors de toute utilisation publique de sa traduction; b) que le traducteur est autorisé à s'opposer à toute déformation, mutilation ou autre modification de sa traduction; c) que les éditeurs et autres bénéficiaires de la traduction n'ont le droit d'y apporter aucun changement sans le consentement préalable du traducteur; d) que le traducteur est autorisé à interdire toute utilisation abusive de sa traduction et à s'opposer en général à toute atteinte préjudiciable à son honneur ou à sa réputation.


18. De même, le traducteur est investi du droit exclusif d'autoriser la publication, la présentation, la transmission, la retraduction, l'adaptation, la modification et autres transformations de sa traduction, et, d'une manière générale, l'utilisation de sa traduction sous quelque forme que ce soit.


19.Il appartient au traducteur, pour toute utilisation publique de sa traduction, un droit à la rémunération pécuniaire dont le montant est fixé par le contrat ou par la loi.


CHAPITRE III SITUATION ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE DU TRADUCTEUR


20.Le traducteur doit être assuré de conditions d'existence lui permettant d'accomplir avec efficacité et dignité la tâche sociale qui lui est confiée.


21.Le traducteur doit être associé à la fortune de son oeuvre, avoir droit notamment à une rémunération proportionnelle au produit commercial de l'oeuvre traduite.


22.Il doit être reconnu que la traduction peut se présenter aussi sous l'aspect d'un travail sur commande et ouvrir, à ce titre, un droit à une rémunération indépendante des profits commerciaux de l'oeuvre traduite.


23.La profession de traducteur, au même titre que les autres professions, doit recevoir dans chaque pays une protection équivalente à celle que ce pays accorde à d'autres professions, par des conventions collectives, des contrats-types, etc.


24.Les traducteurs doivent bénéficier dans chaque pays de tous les avantages garantis aux travailleurs intellectuels, et notamment de tous systèmes d'assurances sociales, en matière de retraite de vieillesse, de maladie, de chômage et de prestations familiales.


CHAPITRE IV ASSOCIATIONS ET SYNDICATS DE TRADUCTEURS


25.Les traducteurs, comme les représentants d'autres professions, jouissent du droit de constituer des associations ou syndicats professionnels.


26.En dehors de la défense des intérêts moraux et matériels des traducteurs, ces organisations ont pour rôle de veiller au relèvement de la qualité des traductions et de traiter toutes les autres questions relatives à la traduction.


27.Elles interviennent auprès des pouvoirs publics dans la préparation et l'établissement des mesures législatives et réglementaires concernant la profession. Charte du traducteur


28.Elles s'efforcent de maintenir des contacts permanents avec les organisations ayant recours à la traduction (syndicats d'éditeurs, entreprises industrielles et commerciales, administrations publiques ou privées, organes de presse, etc.) en vue d'une étude et d'une solution de leurs problèmes communs.


29.En veillant à la qualité des oeuvres traduites dans leur pays, elles se tiennent en liaison avec les organismes culturels, les sociétés d'auteurs, les sections nationales du Pen Club, les représentants de la critique littéraire, les sociétés savantes, les universités et les instituts de recherche technique et scientifique.


30.Elles sont appelées à exercer une action d'arbitrage et d'expertise dans tous les différends opposant traducteurs et utilisateurs de traduction.


31.Il leur appartient de donner leur avis sur la formation et le recrutement des traducteurs, de même que de participer avec les instituts spécialisés et les universités à la réalisation de ces buts.


32.Elles s'efforcent de réunir les informations de toutes provenances intéressant la profession pour les mettre à la disposition des traducteurs sous forme de bibliothèques, dossiers, revues, bulletins, et créent, à cette fin, des services de renseignement théoriques et pratiques, organisent des colloques et des réunions.


CHAPITRE V ORGANISATIONS NATIONALES ET FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DES TRADUCTEURS


33. S'il existe dans un pays plusieurs groupements de traducteurs constitués soit sur une base régionale, soit par catégories de traducteurs, il est souhaitable que ces groupements coordonnent leurs efforts, tout en gardant leur individualité, dans une organisation nationale centrale.


34. Dans les pays où il n'existe pas encore d'association ou de syndicat de traducteurs, il est suggéré à ces derniers d'unir leurs efforts en vue d'aboutir à la création indispensable d'un tel organisme, aux conditions requises par les législations de ces pays.


35. Afin d'assurer par des efforts communs la réalisation de leurs buts sur le plan mondial, les organisations nationales représentatives des traducteurs sont appelées à s'unir dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs (FIT).


36.L'association des traducteurs en groupements nationaux, de même que celle de ces derniers dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs doit s'accomplir en toute liberté.


37.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs défend les droits matériels et moraux des traducteurs sur le plan international, suit l'évolution des questions théoriques et pratiques relatives à la traduction et s'efforce de contribuer à la diffusion de la culture dans le monde. 38.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs réalise ces objectifs en représentant les traducteurs sur le plan international, notam-ment dans les rapports avec les organisations gouvernementales, non gouvernementales et supranationales, en participant à des réunions pouvant intéresser les traducteurs et la traduction à l'échelle internationale, en éditant des publications et en organisant ou en faisant organiser des congrès permettant l'étude de questions intéressant la traduction et les traducteurs. 39. D'une manière générale, la Fédération internationale des traducteurs prolonge l'action des sociétés de chaque pays sur le plan international, coordonne leurs efforts et définit sa ligne de conduite commune. 40.Les associations nationales et la Fédération internationale des traducteurs, leur organisme central, puisent l'énergie nécessaire à la poursuite de leurs buts professionnels dans le sentiment de solidarité existant entre les traducteurs et dans la dignité de la traduction qui contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les peuples et à l'épanouissement de la culture dans le monde.


The Translator's Charter (approved by the Congress at Dubrovnik in 1963 and amended in Oslo on July 9, 1994)


The International Federation of Translators


noting


that translation has established itself as a permanent, universal and necessary activity in the world of today;


that by making intellectual and material exchanges possible among nations it enriches their life and contributes to a better understanding amongst men;

that in spite of the various circumstances under which it is practised translation must now be recognised as a distinct and autonomous profession; and


desiring


to lay down, as a formal document, certain general principles inseparably connected with the profession of translating, particularly for the purpose of


stressing the social function of translation, laying down the rights and duties of translators,


laying the basis of a translator's code of ethics, improving the economic conditions and social climate in which the translator carries out his activity, and


recommending certain lines of conduct for translators and their professional organisations, and to contribute in this way to the recognition of translation as a distinct and autonomous profession,


announces the text of a charter proposed to serve as guiding principles for the exercise of the profession of translator.


SECTION I GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TRANSLATOR


1. Translation, being an intellectual activity, the object of which is the transfer of literary, scientific and technical texts from one language into another, imposes on those who practice it specific obligations inherent in its very nature.


2. A translation shall always be made on the sole responsibility of the translator, whatever the character of the relationship of contract which binds him/her to the user.


3. The translator shall refuse to give to a text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve, or which would be contrary to the obligations of his/her profession.


4. Every translation shall be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original – this fidelity constituting both a moral and legal obligation for the translator.


5. A faithful translation, however, should not be confused with a literal translation, the fidelity of a translation not excluding an adaptation to make the form, the atmosphere and deeper meaning of the work felt in another language and country.


6. The translator shall possess a sound knowledge of the language from which he/she translates and should, in particular, be a master of that into which he/she translates.


7. He/she must likewise have a broad general knowledge and know sufficiently well the subject matter of the translation and refrain from undertaking a translation in a field beyond his competence.


8. The translator shall refrain from any unfair competition in carrying out his profession; in particular, he/she shall strive for equitable remuneration and not accept any fee below that which may be fixed by law and regulations.


9. In general, he/she shall neither seek nor accept work under conditions humiliating to himself/herself or his/her profession.


10.The translator shall respect the legitimate interests of the user by treating as a professional secret any information which may come into his/her possession as a result of the translation entrusted to him/her.


11.Being a "secondary" author, the translator is required to accept special obligations with respect to the author of the original work.


12. He/she must obtain from the author of the original work or from the user authorisation to translate a work, and must furthermore respect all other rights vested in the author.


SECTION II RIGHTS OF THE TRANSLATOR


13.Every translator shall enjoy all the rights with respect to the translation he/she has made, which the country where he/she exercises his/her activities grants to other intellectual workers.


14. A translation, being a creation of the intellect, shall enjoy the legal protection accorded to such works.


15.The translator is therefore the holder of copyright in his/her translation and consequently has the same privileges as the author of the original work.


16.The translator shall thus enjoy, with respect to his/her translation, all the moral rights of succession conferred by his/her authorship.


17. He/she shall consequently enjoy during his/her lifetime the right to recognition of his/her authorship of the translation, from which it follows, inter alia, that a) his/her name shall be mentioned clearly and unambiguously whenever his/her translation is used publicly; b) he/she shall be entitled to oppose any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his/her translation; c) publishers and other users of his/her translation shall not make changes therein without the translator's prior consent; d) he/she shall be entitled to prohibit any improper use of his/her translation and, in general, to resist any attack upon it that is prejudicial to his/her honour or reputation.


18. Furthermore, the exclusive right to authorise the publication, presentation, broadcasting, re-translation, adaptation, modification or other rendering of his/her translation, and, in general, he right to use his/her translation in any form shall remain with the translator.


19. For every public use of his/her translation the translator shall be entitled to remuneration at a rate fixed by contract or law.


SECTION III ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POSITION OF THE TRANSLATOR


20.The translator must be assured of living conditions enabling him/her to carry out with efficiency and dignity the social task conferred on him/her.


21.The translator shall have a share in the success of his/her work and shall, in particular, be entitled to remuneration proportional to the commercial proceeds from the work he/she has translated.


22.It must be recognised that translation can also arise in the form of commissioned work and acquire as such rights to remuneration independent of commercial profits accruing from the work translated.


23.The translating profession, like other professions, shall enjoy in every country a protection equal to that afforded to other professions in that country, by collective agreements, standard contracts, etc.


24.Translators in every country shall enjoy the advantages granted to intellectual workers, and particularly of all social insurance schemes, such as old-age pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and family allowances.


SECTION IV TRANSLATORS' SOCIETIES AND UNIONS


25.In common with members of other professions, translators shall enjoy the right to form professional societies or unions.


26.In addition to defending the moral and material interests of translators, these organisations shall have the task of ensuring improvement in standards of translation and of dealing with all other matters concerning translation.


27.They shall exert their influence on public authorities in the preparation and introduction of legal measures and regulations concerning the profession.


28.They shall strive to maintain permanent relations with organisations which are users of translations (publishers' associations, industrial and commercial enterprises, public and private authorities, the Press, etc.) for the purpose of studying and finding solutions to their common problems.


29.In watching over the quality of all works translated in their countries, they shall keep in touch with cultural organisations, societies of authors, national sections of the Pen Club, literary critics, learned societies, universities, and technical and scientific research institutes.


30.They shall be competent to act as arbiters and experts in all disputes arising between translators and users of translations.


31.They shall have the right to give advice on the training and recruitment of translators, and to co-operate with specialised organisations and universities in the pursuit of these aims.


32.They shall endeavour to collect information of interest to the profession from all sources and to place it at the disposal of translators in the form of libraries, files, journals and bulletins, for which purpose they shall establish theoretical and practical information services, and organise seminars and meetings.


SECTION V NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRANSLATORS


33.Where several groups of translators exist in a country, organised either on a regional basis or into different categories, it will be desirable for these groups to co-ordinate their activities in a central national organisation, at the same time preserving their identity.


34.In countries where societies or unions of translators are not yet in existence, it is suggested that translators should join forces to bring about the necessary establishment of such an organisation, in accordance with the relevant legal requirements of their country.


35.To ensure the attainment of their aims at world level by common effort, national translators' organisations are called upon to unite in the Fédération internationale des traducteurs (International Federation of Translators [FIT]).


36.Translators shall join their national organisations of their own free will and the same must apply to the societies with respect to their association with the International Federation of Translators.


37.The International Federation of Translators shall defend the material and moral rights of translators at the international level, keep in touch with progress in theoretical and practical matters relating to translation, and endeavour to contribute to the spread of civilisation throughout the world.


38.The International Federation of Translators shall attain these objectives by representing translators at the international level, particularly through relations with governmental, non-governmental and supranational organisations, by taking part in meetings likely to be of interest to translators and translation at the international level, by publishing works, and by organising or arranging for the organisation of congresses at which questions concerning translation or translators may be examined.


39.In general the International Federation of Translators shall extend the activities of the societies of every country at the international level, co-ordinate their efforts and define its common policy.


40.The national societies and the International Federation of Translators, their central organisation, derive the strength necessary for the pursuit of their professional objectives from the feeling of solidarity existing among translators and from the dignity of translation which contributes to better understanding among nations and to the spread of culture throughout the world.


Nairobi Recommendation


 a) communicating to translators current information concerning terminology required by them in the general course of their work;


b) collaborating closely with terminology centres throughout the world with a view to standardising and developing the internationalisation of scientific and technical terminology so as to facilitate the task of translators. In association with professional organisations or associations and other interested parties, Member States should facilitate exchanges of translators between different countries, so as to allow them to improve their knowledge of the language from which they work and of the socio-cultural context in which the works to be translated by them are written.  With a view to improving the quality of translations, the following principles and practical measures should be expressly recognised in professional statutes mentioned under sub-paragraph 7 (a) and in any other written agree-ments between the translators and the users: a) translators should be given a reasonable period of time to accomplish their work; b) any documents and information necessary for the understanding of the text to be translated and the drafting of the translation should, so far as possible, be made available to translators; c) as a general rule, a translation should be made from the original work, recourse being had to retranslation only where absolutely necessary; d) a translator should, as far as possible, translate into his own mother tongue or into a language of which he or she has a mastery equal to that of his or her mother tongue.


VI. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


The principles and norms set forth in this Recommendation may be adapted by developing countries in any way deemed necessary to help them meet their requirements, and in the light of the special provisions for the benefit of developing countries introduced in the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris on 24 July 1971 and the Paris Act (1971) of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.


VII. FINAL PROVISION


Where translators and translations enjoy a level of protection which is, in certain respects, more favourable than that provided for in this Recommendation, its provisions should not be invoked to diminish the protection already acquired.


Download here: http://www.ceatl.eu/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/FIT_charter.pdf

Scoop.it!
Charles Tiayon's curator insight, August 18, 2015 8:25 AM

Charte du traducteur

La Charte du traducteur (texte adopté par le Congrès à Dubrovnik en 1963 et modifié à Oslo le 9 juillet 1994)

La Fédération internationale des traducteurs,

constatant

que la traduction s'affirme dans le monde contemporain comme une activité permanente, universelle et nécessaire;

qu'en rendant possibles les échanges spirituels et matériels entre les peuples elle enrichit la vie des nations et contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les hommes;

qu'en dépit des conditions variées dans lesquelles elle est exercée, la traduction doit être reconnue de nos jours comme une profession spécifique et autonome;

désireuse

d'établir, sous la forme d'un acte solennel, les principes généraux inhérents à la profession du traducteur, en vue notamment,

de faire ressortir la fonction sociale de la traduction,

de préciser les droits et devoirs du traducteur,

de poser les bases d'un Code moral du traducteur,

d'améliorer les conditions économiques et le climat social dans lesquels le traducteur exerce son activité,

de recommander certaines lignes de conduite pour les traducteurs et pour leurs organisations professionnelles, et

de contribuer de cette façon à l'affirmation de la traduction en tant que profession spécifique et autonome,


présente le texte d'une charte destinée à guider le traducteur dans l'exercice de sa profession.


CHAPITRE I DEVOIRS GÉNÉRAUX DU TRADUCTEUR


1. La traduction, étant une activité intellectuelle dont l'objet est la transposition de textes littéraires, scientifiques et techniques d'une langue dans une autre, impose à celui qui l'exerce des devoirs spécifiques tenant à sa nature même.


2. Une traduction doit toujours être établie sous la seule responsabilité du traducteur, quelle que soit la nature du rapport ou du contrat le liant à l'utilisateur.


3. Le traducteur se refusera à donner au texte une interprétation qu'il n'approuve pas, ou qui le ferait déroger aux devoirs de sa profession.


4. Toute traduction doit être fidèle et rendre exactement l'idée et la forme de l'oeuvre originale – la fidélité constituant pour le traducteur à la fois un devoir moral et une obligation de nature juridique.


5. Il ne faut pas confondre cependant traduction fidèle et traduction littérale – la fidélité de la traduction n'excluant pas une adaptation nécessaire pour rendre la forme, l'atmosphère, la signification profonde de l'oeuvre, sensibles dans une autre langue et un autre pays.


6. Le traducteur doit posséder une bonne connaissance de la langue à partir de laquelle il traduit, mais surtout la maîtrise de celle dans laquelle il traduit.


7. Il doit posséder également une culture générale et connaître suffisamment la matière qui fait l'objet de la traduction et s'abstenir d'entreprendre une traduction dans un domaine qui sort de sa compétence.


8. Le traducteur doit s'abstenir de toute concurrence déloyale dans l'exercice de sa profession; en particulier, il s'efforcera d'obtenir une juste rémunération et n'acceptera pas de tarif inférieur à ceux qui seraient éventuellement fixés par les lois ou règlements.

9. D'une manière générale, il ne doit demander ni accepter de travail à des conditions humiliantes pour lui et pour la profession qu'il exerce.

10.Le traducteur est tenu de respecter les intérêts légitimes de l'utilisateur, en considérant comme secret professionnel toutes les données dont il a pu prendre connaissance grâce à la traduction qui lui a été confiée.

11.Étant un auteur "dérivé" le traducteur est assujetti à des obligations spéciales vis-à-vis de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale. Charte du traducteur


12.Il est tenu d'obtenir de l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale ou de l'utilisateur l'autorisation de traduire cette oeuvre ainsi que de respecter tous les autres droits dont l'auteur est investi.


CHAPITRE II DROITS DU TRADUCTEUR


13.Tout traducteur jouit, relativement à la traduction qu'il a faite, de la plénitude des droits que le pays dans lequel il exerce son activité reconnaît aux autres travailleurs intellectuels.


14.La traduction, étant une création intellectuelle, jouit de la protection juridique reconnue aux oeuvres de l'esprit.


15.Le traducteur est donc titulaire d'un droit d'auteur sur sa traduction, et investi, par suite, des mêmes prérogatives que l'auteur de l'oeuvre originale.


16.Le traducteur jouit en conséquence de tous les droits moraux et patrimoniaux inhérents à la qualité d'auteur.


17. Ainsi, le traducteur conserve pendant toute sa vie le droit de revendiquer la paternité de son oeuvre, dont il s'ensuit notamment a) que le nom du traducteur doit être cité d'une façon manifeste et non équivoque lors de toute utilisation publique de sa traduction; b) que le traducteur est autorisé à s'opposer à toute déformation, mutilation ou autre modification de sa traduction; c) que les éditeurs et autres bénéficiaires de la traduction n'ont le droit d'y apporter aucun changement sans le consentement préalable du traducteur; d) que le traducteur est autorisé à interdire toute utilisation abusive de sa traduction et à s'opposer en général à toute atteinte préjudiciable à son honneur ou à sa réputation.


18. De même, le traducteur est investi du droit exclusif d'autoriser la publication, la présentation, la transmission, la retraduction, l'adaptation, la modification et autres transformations de sa traduction, et, d'une manière générale, l'utilisation de sa traduction sous quelque forme que ce soit.


19.Il appartient au traducteur, pour toute utilisation publique de sa traduction, un droit à la rémunération pécuniaire dont le montant est fixé par le contrat ou par la loi.


CHAPITRE III SITUATION ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE DU TRADUCTEUR


20.Le traducteur doit être assuré de conditions d'existence lui permettant d'accomplir avec efficacité et dignité la tâche sociale qui lui est confiée.


21.Le traducteur doit être associé à la fortune de son oeuvre, avoir droit notamment à une rémunération proportionnelle au produit commercial de l'oeuvre traduite.


22.Il doit être reconnu que la traduction peut se présenter aussi sous l'aspect d'un travail sur commande et ouvrir, à ce titre, un droit à une rémunération indépendante des profits commerciaux de l'oeuvre traduite.


23.La profession de traducteur, au même titre que les autres professions, doit recevoir dans chaque pays une protection équivalente à celle que ce pays accorde à d'autres professions, par des conventions collectives, des contrats-types, etc.


24.Les traducteurs doivent bénéficier dans chaque pays de tous les avantages garantis aux travailleurs intellectuels, et notamment de tous systèmes d'assurances sociales, en matière de retraite de vieillesse, de maladie, de chômage et de prestations familiales.


CHAPITRE IV ASSOCIATIONS ET SYNDICATS DE TRADUCTEURS


25.Les traducteurs, comme les représentants d'autres professions, jouissent du droit de constituer des associations ou syndicats professionnels.


26.En dehors de la défense des intérêts moraux et matériels des traducteurs, ces organisations ont pour rôle de veiller au relèvement de la qualité des traductions et de traiter toutes les autres questions relatives à la traduction.


27.Elles interviennent auprès des pouvoirs publics dans la préparation et l'établissement des mesures législatives et réglementaires concernant la profession. Charte du traducteur


28.Elles s'efforcent de maintenir des contacts permanents avec les organisations ayant recours à la traduction (syndicats d'éditeurs, entreprises industrielles et commerciales, administrations publiques ou privées, organes de presse, etc.) en vue d'une étude et d'une solution de leurs problèmes communs.


29.En veillant à la qualité des oeuvres traduites dans leur pays, elles se tiennent en liaison avec les organismes culturels, les sociétés d'auteurs, les sections nationales du Pen Club, les représentants de la critique littéraire, les sociétés savantes, les universités et les instituts de recherche technique et scientifique.


30.Elles sont appelées à exercer une action d'arbitrage et d'expertise dans tous les différends opposant traducteurs et utilisateurs de traduction.


31.Il leur appartient de donner leur avis sur la formation et le recrutement des traducteurs, de même que de participer avec les instituts spécialisés et les universités à la réalisation de ces buts.


32.Elles s'efforcent de réunir les informations de toutes provenances intéressant la profession pour les mettre à la disposition des traducteurs sous forme de bibliothèques, dossiers, revues, bulletins, et créent, à cette fin, des services de renseignement théoriques et pratiques, organisent des colloques et des réunions.


CHAPITRE V ORGANISATIONS NATIONALES ET FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DES TRADUCTEURS


33. S'il existe dans un pays plusieurs groupements de traducteurs constitués soit sur une base régionale, soit par catégories de traducteurs, il est souhaitable que ces groupements coordonnent leurs efforts, tout en gardant leur individualité, dans une organisation nationale centrale.


34. Dans les pays où il n'existe pas encore d'association ou de syndicat de traducteurs, il est suggéré à ces derniers d'unir leurs efforts en vue d'aboutir à la création indispensable d'un tel organisme, aux conditions requises par les législations de ces pays.


35. Afin d'assurer par des efforts communs la réalisation de leurs buts sur le plan mondial, les organisations nationales représentatives des traducteurs sont appelées à s'unir dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs (FIT).


36.L'association des traducteurs en groupements nationaux, de même que celle de ces derniers dans la Fédération internationale des traducteurs doit s'accomplir en toute liberté.


37.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs défend les droits matériels et moraux des traducteurs sur le plan international, suit l'évolution des questions théoriques et pratiques relatives à la traduction et s'efforce de contribuer à la diffusion de la culture dans le monde. 38.La Fédération internationale des traducteurs réalise ces objectifs en représentant les traducteurs sur le plan international, notam-ment dans les rapports avec les organisations gouvernementales, non gouvernementales et supranationales, en participant à des réunions pouvant intéresser les traducteurs et la traduction à l'échelle internationale, en éditant des publications et en organisant ou en faisant organiser des congrès permettant l'étude de questions intéressant la traduction et les traducteurs. 39. D'une manière générale, la Fédération internationale des traducteurs prolonge l'action des sociétés de chaque pays sur le plan international, coordonne leurs efforts et définit sa ligne de conduite commune. 40.Les associations nationales et la Fédération internationale des traducteurs, leur organisme central, puisent l'énergie nécessaire à la poursuite de leurs buts professionnels dans le sentiment de solidarité existant entre les traducteurs et dans la dignité de la traduction qui contribue à une meilleure compréhension entre les peuples et à l'épanouissement de la culture dans le monde.


The Translator's Charter (approved by the Congress at Dubrovnik in 1963 and amended in Oslo on July 9, 1994)


The International Federation of Translators


noting


that translation has established itself as a permanent, universal and necessary activity in the world of today;


that by making intellectual and material exchanges possible among nations it enriches their life and contributes to a better understanding amongst men;

that in spite of the various circumstances under which it is practised translation must now be recognised as a distinct and autonomous profession; and


desiring


to lay down, as a formal document, certain general principles inseparably connected with the profession of translating, particularly for the purpose of


stressing the social function of translation, laying down the rights and duties of translators,


laying the basis of a translator's code of ethics, improving the economic conditions and social climate in which the translator carries out his activity, and


recommending certain lines of conduct for translators and their professional organisations, and to contribute in this way to the recognition of translation as a distinct and autonomous profession,


announces the text of a charter proposed to serve as guiding principles for the exercise of the profession of translator.


SECTION I GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TRANSLATOR


1. Translation, being an intellectual activity, the object of which is the transfer of literary, scientific and technical texts from one language into another, imposes on those who practice it specific obligations inherent in its very nature.


2. A translation shall always be made on the sole responsibility of the translator, whatever the character of the relationship of contract which binds him/her to the user.


3. The translator shall refuse to give to a text an interpretation of which he/she does not approve, or which would be contrary to the obligations of his/her profession.


4. Every translation shall be faithful and render exactly the idea and form of the original – this fidelity constituting both a moral and legal obligation for the translator.


5. A faithful translation, however, should not be confused with a literal translation, the fidelity of a translation not excluding an adaptation to make the form, the atmosphere and deeper meaning of the work felt in another language and country.


6. The translator shall possess a sound knowledge of the language from which he/she translates and should, in particular, be a master of that into which he/she translates.


7. He/she must likewise have a broad general knowledge and know sufficiently well the subject matter of the translation and refrain from undertaking a translation in a field beyond his competence.


8. The translator shall refrain from any unfair competition in carrying out his profession; in particular, he/she shall strive for equitable remuneration and not accept any fee below that which may be fixed by law and regulations.


9. In general, he/she shall neither seek nor accept work under conditions humiliating to himself/herself or his/her profession.


10.The translator shall respect the legitimate interests of the user by treating as a professional secret any information which may come into his/her possession as a result of the translation entrusted to him/her.


11.Being a "secondary" author, the translator is required to accept special obligations with respect to the author of the original work.


12. He/she must obtain from the author of the original work or from the user authorisation to translate a work, and must furthermore respect all other rights vested in the author.


SECTION II RIGHTS OF THE TRANSLATOR


13.Every translator shall enjoy all the rights with respect to the translation he/she has made, which the country where he/she exercises his/her activities grants to other intellectual workers.


14. A translation, being a creation of the intellect, shall enjoy the legal protection accorded to such works.


15.The translator is therefore the holder of copyright in his/her translation and consequently has the same privileges as the author of the original work.


16.The translator shall thus enjoy, with respect to his/her translation, all the moral rights of succession conferred by his/her authorship.


17. He/she shall consequently enjoy during his/her lifetime the right to recognition of his/her authorship of the translation, from which it follows, inter alia, that a) his/her name shall be mentioned clearly and unambiguously whenever his/her translation is used publicly; b) he/she shall be entitled to oppose any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his/her translation; c) publishers and other users of his/her translation shall not make changes therein without the translator's prior consent; d) he/she shall be entitled to prohibit any improper use of his/her translation and, in general, to resist any attack upon it that is prejudicial to his/her honour or reputation.


18. Furthermore, the exclusive right to authorise the publication, presentation, broadcasting, re-translation, adaptation, modification or other rendering of his/her translation, and, in general, he right to use his/her translation in any form shall remain with the translator.


19. For every public use of his/her translation the translator shall be entitled to remuneration at a rate fixed by contract or law.


SECTION III ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POSITION OF THE TRANSLATOR


20.The translator must be assured of living conditions enabling him/her to carry out with efficiency and dignity the social task conferred on him/her.


21.The translator shall have a share in the success of his/her work and shall, in particular, be entitled to remuneration proportional to the commercial proceeds from the work he/she has translated.


22.It must be recognised that translation can also arise in the form of commissioned work and acquire as such rights to remuneration independent of commercial profits accruing from the work translated.


23.The translating profession, like other professions, shall enjoy in every country a protection equal to that afforded to other professions in that country, by collective agreements, standard contracts, etc.


24.Translators in every country shall enjoy the advantages granted to intellectual workers, and particularly of all social insurance schemes, such as old-age pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and family allowances.


SECTION IV TRANSLATORS' SOCIETIES AND UNIONS


25.In common with members of other professions, translators shall enjoy the right to form professional societies or unions.


26.In addition to defending the moral and material interests of translators, these organisations shall have the task of ensuring improvement in standards of translation and of dealing with all other matters concerning translation.


27.They shall exert their influence on public authorities in the preparation and introduction of legal measures and regulations concerning the profession.


28.They shall strive to maintain permanent relations with organisations which are users of translations (publishers' associations, industrial and commercial enterprises, public and private authorities, the Press, etc.) for the purpose of studying and finding solutions to their common problems.


29.In watching over the quality of all works translated in their countries, they shall keep in touch with cultural organisations, societies of authors, national sections of the Pen Club, literary critics, learned societies, universities, and technical and scientific research institutes.


30.They shall be competent to act as arbiters and experts in all disputes arising between translators and users of translations.


31.They shall have the right to give advice on the training and recruitment of translators, and to co-operate with specialised organisations and universities in the pursuit of these aims.


32.They shall endeavour to collect information of interest to the profession from all sources and to place it at the disposal of translators in the form of libraries, files, journals and bulletins, for which purpose they shall establish theoretical and practical information services, and organise seminars and meetings.


SECTION V NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRANSLATORS


33.Where several groups of translators exist in a country, organised either on a regional basis or into different categories, it will be desirable for these groups to co-ordinate their activities in a central national organisation, at the same time preserving their identity.


34.In countries where societies or unions of translators are not yet in existence, it is suggested that translators should join forces to bring about the necessary establishment of such an organisation, in accordance with the relevant legal requirements of their country.


35.To ensure the attainment of their aims at world level by common effort, national translators' organisations are called upon to unite in the Fédération internationale des traducteurs (International Federation of Translators [FIT]).


36.Translators shall join their national organisations of their own free will and the same must apply to the societies with respect to their association with the International Federation of Translators.


37.The International Federation of Translators shall defend the material and moral rights of translators at the international level, keep in touch with progress in theoretical and practical matters relating to translation, and endeavour to contribute to the spread of civilisation throughout the world.


38.The International Federation of Translators shall attain these objectives by representing translators at the international level, particularly through relations with governmental, non-governmental and supranational organisations, by taking part in meetings likely to be of interest to translators and translation at the international level, by publishing works, and by organising or arranging for the organisation of congresses at which questions concerning translation or translators may be examined.


39.In general the International Federation of Translators shall extend the activities of the societies of every country at the international level, co-ordinate their efforts and define its common policy.


40.The national societies and the International Federation of Translators, their central organisation, derive the strength necessary for the pursuit of their professional objectives from the feeling of solidarity existing among translators and from the dignity of translation which contributes to better understanding among nations and to the spread of culture throughout the world.


Nairobi Recommendation


 a) communicating to translators current information concerning terminology required by them in the general course of their work;


b) collaborating closely with terminology centres throughout the world with a view to standardising and developing the internationalisation of scientific and technical terminology so as to facilitate the task of translators. In association with professional organisations or associations and other interested parties, Member States should facilitate exchanges of translators between different countries, so as to allow them to improve their knowledge of the language from which they work and of the socio-cultural context in which the works to be translated by them are written.  With a view to improving the quality of translations, the following principles and practical measures should be expressly recognised in professional statutes mentioned under sub-paragraph 7 (a) and in any other written agree-ments between the translators and the users: a) translators should be given a reasonable period of time to accomplish their work; b) any documents and information necessary for the understanding of the text to be translated and the drafting of the translation should, so far as possible, be made available to translators; c) as a general rule, a translation should be made from the original work, recourse being had to retranslation only where absolutely necessary; d) a translator should, as far as possible, translate into his own mother tongue or into a language of which he or she has a mastery equal to that of his or her mother tongue.


VI. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


The principles and norms set forth in this Recommendation may be adapted by developing countries in any way deemed necessary to help them meet their requirements, and in the light of the special provisions for the benefit of developing countries introduced in the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris on 24 July 1971 and the Paris Act (1971) of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.


VII. FINAL PROVISION


Where translators and translations enjoy a level of protection which is, in certain respects, more favourable than that provided for in this Recommendation, its provisions should not be invoked to diminish the protection already acquired.


Download here: http://www.ceatl.eu/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/FIT_charter.pdf

La traduction en langue française des revendications d’un brevet européen déposé dans une autre langue officielle satisfait à la mission de l’Inpi, de sorte qu’il ne peut être exigé du directeur général de l’Inpi de recevoir un dépôt volontaire de la traduction du brevet.

Une société a déposé, en langue allemande, un brevet européen, lequel lui a été délivré par l'Office européen des brevets.
Elle a voulu en déposer une traduction en français à l'Institut national de la propriété industrielle (Inpi).
Le directeur général de l'INPI a refusé de recevoir cette traduction.

Dans un arrêt du 12 avril 2013, la cour d'appel de Paris a rejeté le recours de la société contre cette décision.

La Cour de cassation rejette le pourvoi de la société, le 9 juin 2015.
Elle rappelle que la France a renoncé aux exigences en matière de traduction prévues à l'article 65, paragraphe 1, de la Convention de Munich.
Ainsi, la Haute juridiction judiciaire considère que c'est à bon droit que l'arrêt retient que, dès lors que la mission de l'Inpi consiste à diffuser les informations techniques contenues dans les titres de propriété industrielle et que ce sont les revendications qui déterminent l'étendue de la protection conférée par le brevet européen, la traduction en langue française des revendications d'un brevet déposé dans une autre langue officielle satisfait à cette mission, de sorte qu'il ne peut être exigé du directeur général de l'Inpi de recevoir un dépôt volontaire de la traduction de l'entier brevet.

© LegalNews 2015 - Stéphanie BAERT
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Patrick Modiano: the Nobel Prize-winner nobody had read
Last year, an unfamiliar French author won the Nobel Prize for Literature. New translations will now make his seductive works more familiar to the English-speaking world

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Patrick Modiano has a large and dedicated following in France, but has been little read in Britain Photo: Wesley Merritt
By Duncan White10:00AM BST 18 Jul 2015Comment
Who the hell is Patrick Modiano? On October 9 last year, this obscure French novelist had the temerity to win the Nobel Prize, baffling the anglophone literary world. Only a handful of his books had been translated into English and few of them were in print. Who was this nobody usurping the rightful claims of writers we had actually read?
Embarrassingly, it turned out that he was formidably prolific, with some 30 books to his name and a dedicated following in France. Modiano was simply a French thing we didn’t consume, like snails.
Now, though, at 69 years of age, Modiano is on the menu. Old translations are being reissued and new ones are in the works. The publication of The Occupation Trilogy next month will allow an English audience to read his celebrated 1968 debut, La place de l’étoile, for the first time. The edition also includes his second and third novels, The Night Watch (1969) and Ring Roads (1972), both of which were published in English in the early Seventies but which have now had their translations revised by Frank Wynne (who also translates La place de l’étoile).
• Patrick Modiano's The Search Warrant: an extract
In France, he gets on the bestseller lists and is one of those rare writers who combine literary seriousness with commercial success. You can see the appeal: his books come in at under 150 pages and draw on the conventions of detective fiction to create suspense. Missing Person, which won the prestigious Prix Goncourt in 1978, is perhaps the quintessential Modiano novel. Like a classic film noir, it begins in the offices of a private detective agency, but it turns out the mystery we are trying to solve is the true nature of the narrator’s own identity. Resolution, however, is always fugitive.
The motivation for this careful excavation of the past is the attempt to answer that familiar question: who the hell is Patrick Modiano? “I write to discover who I am, to find an identity,” Modiano said in a 1976 interview. That search inevitably leads back to the most shameful period in French 20th-century history. He has described himself as “a product” of “the dunghill of the Occupation”, and early in his career he even claimed to have been born in 1947, rather than 1945, to distance himself from its corruption. In his work, however, he has repeatedly, even compulsively, returned to the Occupation in the attempt to understand himself better.

(PHOTO: Gerard Rondeau / Agence VU)
The Occupation brought his parents together. His mother, Luisa Colpeyn, was a Flemish actress who left Brussels for Paris during the war and ended up writing Dutch subtitles for Continental Films, a studio established by the Nazis (her most impressive role after the war was in Godard’s Bande à part). Albert Modiano was a Sephardic Jew whose family were originally from Tuscany but had settled in Salonika. During the Occupation, Albert worked the black market, and it is not clear how much his illegal activities involved collaborating with the Germans or if they earned him a measure of protection. He certainly refused to wear the yellow star. The one time he was picked up by the police in a random shakedown he managed to escape in the confusion caused by a power cut.
Albert and Luisa met in the cosmopolitan demi-monde that thrived in the années noires. Not long after the liberation of Paris, Luisa became pregnant with Patrick. His younger brother, Rudy, was born two years later. An intense fraternal bond was forged in the absence of their parents. In his 2004 memoir, Un pedigree (of which a translation is to be published in September), Modiano recalls his mother as “a pretty woman with a dry heart” and his father as distant, never speaking of his wartime experiences. The boys were sent to live with friends and hired help around the country. Modiano shuffled from school to school, frequently expelled for indiscipline. Rudy died at the age of 10, from leukaemia (Modiano dedicated his first eight books to him). At 15, Modiano ran away from home and, shortly after, his father walked out on the family.
• Gaby Wood on Patrick Modiano and the language of loss
Despite his chaotic education, Modiano still qualified for an elite high school in Paris and later the Sorbonne. He lasted one year at university before dropping out to become a writer. By then, he was already attending literary parties on the Left Bank, thanks largely to the novelist Raymond Queneau, who had been his maths tutor. Through such connections, he was able to publish his first book with Gallimard, France’s most prestigious publisher, at just 22.
La place de l’étoile is Modiano’s most famous book, but also his least typical: a frenetic, hallucinatory picaresque, jumping abruptly between time frames, locations and narrative perspectives to leave the reader dizzy and disoriented. It tells the life and adventures of Rafael Schlemilovitch, a French Jew born at the end of the war. He is raised by English governesses and at Swiss boarding schools before a vast “Venezuelan inheritance” from an uncle allows him to adopt a grand lifestyle.
The novel is a fragmented history of French anti-Semitism, and the title itself is a pun: both the location of the Arc de Triomphe and, more abstractly, where Jews were forced to wear the yellow star (l’étoile). Schlemilovitch writes essays about French Jewish writers who were collaborators, but as he does so he appears to become one of them, writing anti-Semitic pamphlets among the pro-fascist Action Française crowd in the Thirties. The novel’s style clearly parodies France’s most famous anti-Semitic writer, Céline.
• Alberto Manguel’s dizzying account of curiosity
Things swiftly become even stranger. Schlemilovitch works in Switzerland as an agent in “the white slave trade”, selling French girls to Brazilian brothels; later, in Normandy, he becomes the lover of a French marquise straight out of Proust. In Vienna, he is pursued through the streets by Hitler disguised as Captain Hook, but is spared Auschwitz, having set up a brothel to cater for high-ranking Nazis. He becomes the lover of Eva Braun and a confidant of Hitler, as “official Jew of the Third Reich”. Schlemilovitch tries to escape to Israel but is arrested, tortured and seemingly executed – then wakes up on a couch in Vienna being psychoanalysed by Freud.
The novel is self-consciously outrageous (Modiano himself removed some offensive passages from later editions) and its ironic pitch is unrelenting. Conventions and pieties are torn to pieces in a manner befitting a book published in Paris in 1968.
If La place de l’étoile launched Modiano’s career with a “big bang”, his next two novels trace the cooling and maturation of his distinctive style. The Night Watch, a surreal, cyclical nightmare, is about a double agent working for both the French Gestapo and the resistance. Ring Roads concerns a young writer in search of his father, whom he finds running black market deals in sinister company on the outskirts of Paris. In his introduction to The Occupation Trilogy, William Boyd makes the case that the 1974 Louis Malle film Lacombe, Lucien, for which Modiano wrote the script, should be considered the fourth part of the series. In the movie, a teenage boy from the provinces makes his way into Paris to volunteer for the resistance, only to be rejected and end up working for the French Gestapo.
Even after the trilogy and the screenplay, Modiano could not stop himself returning to the Occupation. In 1988, he came across a missing-person notice in a Paris newspaper from December 1941. The mystery of 15-year-old Dora Bruder prompted him to write a novel, Honeymoon (1990), in which he imagined her escape and life after the war. He then began to research what had actually happened to her, patiently sifting through every bureaucratic scrap for clues. He found only one other official mention, on a list of names deported to Auschwitz. His account of the search, Dora Bruder (1997), is profoundly moving in its generosity and futility.
“I always have the impression that I write the same book,” Modiano said after winning the Nobel Prize. “Which means that it’s already 45 years that I’ve been writing the same book in a discontinuous manner.” While his books are certainly repetitious, it is his gift to make this into a virtue: the more Modiano you read, the more seductive his work becomes. This is why it’s important to have as much translated as possible. It is cumulative reading that makes his books so hypnotic and compulsive.

The Occupation Trilogy by Patrick Modiano, translated by Frank Wynne, is published by Bloomsbury (352pp, £18.99, ebook £7.47). To order a copy from The Telegraph for £16.99 plus £1.99 p&p, call 0844 871 1515 or see books.telegraph.co.uk
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Kansas University classics professor emeritus Stanley Lombardo’s dramatic reading of his translation of “Inferno” at this weekend’s Fringe Festival KC may be abridged, but he doesn’t leave out author Dante Alighieri’s famously ominous line, “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here.”

Over the next 45 minutes — the max time allowed for Fringe performances — Lombardo, his drum and a walking stick will transport the audience through the 14th-century poem’s circles of hell, complete with sodomites wandering beneath an eternal rain of fire flakes and sinners in a frozen lake gnawing on one another’s skulls.

Not your typical poetry slam material.

We asked Lombardo a little more about himself and his unusual craft. Five things to know:


Former Kansas University classics professor Stanley Lombardo will give a one-man performance in “The Inferno” as part of Fringe Festival KC on July 18, 22 and 25 at Westport Coffee House.
1 — Who is he?

Lombardo, 72, retired in May 2014 after 37 years at KU. He’s renowned for translating ancient epics. Since his own college days, he said, he wanted to write poetry and study Greek. He started with Homer.

2 — What does translation have to do with performance?

When it comes to ancient poets like Homer, a lot. “Homer composed for performance — for generations, it wasn’t written down,” Lombardo said, explaining that he takes that to heart in his written translations. “If it doesn’t work as a performance for me, it won’t work on the page ... I want it to come to life.”

3 — Why Dante?

Lombardo’s done a lot of Homer performances, but only excerpts here and there from Dante — nothing this “elaborate.” His director for “The Inferno,” KU theater professor John Gronbeck-Tedesco, suggested it. Plus, Fringe material has to be new.

4 — Favorite thing about performing?

“Occupying the mind of the original author in the most intimate way,” Lombardo said. “For me, translation has always been not just, ‘What do these words mean?’ but ‘What is the mind that produced this amazing piece of poetry?’”

5 — What else is he up to these days?

Translating “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” which has required studying Akkadian (an extinct east Semitic language). Also continuing to perform dramatic readings at colleges campuses across the country.
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Which brilliant books have never been translated into English? Join the discussion
Frank Cottrell Boyce has discovered some new literary heroes at the most beguiling library in the world, The International Jugendbibliothek. It was set up after the second world war by a Jewish refugee after Nazi book burning and banning. Here Frank tells us all about it – and kicks off a discussion on the missing classics in our lives
We also share a first chapter of Pushkin Press’s Secret of The Blue Glass, (AKA the Japanese Borrowers) by Tomiko Inui, published this month for the first time in English, but beloved in Japan since 1967)

A visit to the James Krüss exhibition at The International Jugendbibliothek in a Munich castle was a revelation to Frank Cottrell Boyce – and got him wondering what amazing works of literature are we missing out on because they haven’t been translated into English? Photograph: Frank Cottrell Boyce
Frank Cottrell Boyce
Monday 20 July 2015 08.44 BST Last modified on Thursday 30 July 2015 10.33 BST
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I found myself some new heroes this week. When Germany was rebuilding itself after the war, a Jewish refugee who had made it to Britain in 1936 decided to give up her comfortable job at the BBC and go back to Germany and help. Her name was Jella Lepman and her speciality was children’s books.

The Nazis had burnt and banned children’s books. They had destroyed the infrastructure of the Imagination just as surely as the Allies had destroyed the road network. Jella Lepman wanted to rebuild that infrastructure. With no budget, she blagged and begged books from foreign publishers, laying down the foundations of a library of international children’s books.


The best British children's illustrators in the Bratislava awards – in pictures
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She produced cheap editions of books that had been banned, including a version of Emil and the Detectives by Eric Kastner, printed on newspaper. There are still copies in existence - frail and evocative as ancient papyrus. Look at one and you can feel the hunger for fun.

In 1951, she organised an exhibition of children’s literature from all over the World, out of which grew IBBY (the International Board of Books for Young People). Her original collection was eventually moved to a kind of fairytale castle in suburban Münich - Schloss Blutenburg - and became The International Jugendbibliothek - surely the most beguiling library in the world. It has pointy towers, windy corridors and a river aglitter with dragonflies.


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Frank Cottrell Boyce: Surely real diversity involves listening as well as talking, translating as well as writing? Photograph: CHRISTOPHER THOMOND/CHRISTOPHER THOMOND
Jella Lepman galvanised many distinguished writers to help her - including Eric Kastner, Astrid Lindgren and PL Travers. Also, James Krüss, an exhibition of whose work takes up one of the towers of the castle. Krüss’ work is a vortex of drawings, nonsense poems, novels, TV scripts, radio shows. You can feel a restless, urgent energy in the exhibition, as though he was trying single-handedly to fill up all the gaps left by those burnt books, to rebuild a culture of fantasy and play.

Letter for the King by Tonke Dragt - review
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One of the James Kruss images at the exhibition, as seen by Frank, who had never heard of him until visiting the The International Jugendbibliotek. Photograph: James Kruss/Frank Cottrell Boyce
I felt embarrassed to admit that I’d never heard of him. And began to wonder why. When I was a child, a fair whack of the books I read were translations - either from the classics like The Arabian Knights, Anansi or Heidi to contemporary stuff like The King of the Copper Mountain or the Moomins.

I don’t think the same is true any more. Apart from Cornelia Funke’s Inkheart and Tonke Dragt’s The Letter to the King, I’m hard pressed to think of a popular book that wasn’t written in English. How has this happened? In London you can find native speakers of almost any language on Earth, but you’d be hard pressed to find any of the literature of those languages. Publishing - maybe the English language - seems to be becoming a one way street. Given the recent decline in the teaching of modern languages in our schools, it’s a one way street that may soon become a cul-de-sac.


What are your favourite books in translation?
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Schloss Blutenburg has only one entrance. It’s a defensive building, designed to keep intruders out. Jella Lepman threw open its doors and welcomed everyone in. Who is doing that now for English-speaking children? Writers are campaigning at the moment to get make our children’s books reflect the diversity of our society. It’s called DiversityMatters. But surely real diversity involves listening as well as talking, translating as well as writing. So to those of you reading this whose first language is not English - what are we missing? What books were written in your native tongue that never made it to ours?


'Oh, what happiness!' - 10 best Moomins quotes ever
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Do you know a foreign language classic that has never been translated into English. Let us know on Twitter @GdnChildrensBks or by email childrens.books@theguardian.com and we’ll add them to this blog.

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One of the beautiful illustrations by Farshid Mesghali for the Tiny Owl publication of Samad Behrangi’s The Little Black Fish (translated into English by Azita Rass) a book that is read by every child in Iran. Illustration: Farshid Mesghali/Tiny Owl
Let’s have a shout out for some publishers who are bringing the world’s stories in translation to English-speakers. Pushkin children’s press launched in 2013 with a remit to share these tales from different languages and cultures with younger readers, and to open the door to the wide, colourful worlds. They’ve notably published Tonke Dragt’s Letter for the King (read first chapter here) and Annie M G Schmidt’s Cat That Came in Off the Roof (read a review here), an absolute classic in Holland and Europe but never before translated into English. Alma Books launch their children’s list in September 2015, and it looks to include some fascinating pairings of foreign language classics with well known illustrators, for example Gabriel-Ernest by Saki, with illustrations by Quentin Blake and and Gregory Funaro’s subversively inventive Alistair Grim’s Odditorium, with illustrations by Chris Mould. Also do check out Tiny Owl, whose aim is to bring quality translated global literature with a focus on Iranian books, to an English speaking audience, including Samad Behrangi’s absolute classic The Little Black Fish, which every Iranian child has read - think of it as the Iranian equivalent of We’re Going on a Bear Hunt – and look out for our Iranian lit gallery coming to the site soon!
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Le dossier est consacré à l’interprétation comme et en interaction. Ce domaine de recherche a connu un véritable essor au cours des vingt dernières années (suite aux travaux pionniers de Brian Harris et de Cecilia Wadensjö). Cette forme d’interprétation souvent appelée « interprétation communautaire » (community interpreting), et considérée comme une forme de médiation, est pratiquée dans de nombreuses situations sociales, dans lesquelles sont engagés les migrants et les communautés minoritaires. Elle est considérée comme la forme la plus répandue d’interprétation dans le monde. Son étude implique de prendre en compte tant la réalité de l’ici et maintenant des échanges (les dimensions linguistiques et interactionnelles), mais aussi les cadres sociaux et institutionnels dans lesquels cette pratique s’inscrit. Les contributions réunies dans le dossier dirigé par Anna Claudia Ticca et Véronique Traverso abordent ces différentes dimensions à travers l’étude d’interactions enregistrées dans différents champs professionnels, la santé, le droit, l’éducation scolaire. Elles offrent une vue d’ensemble sur les recherches les plus récentes sur ce sujet et soulèvent les débats liés à différentes formes de community interpreting en France, au Mexique, en Allemagne, en Italie et aux États-Unis

Sommaire

Dossier : Traduire et interpréter en situations sociales : santé, éducation, justice
Page 7 à 30Interprétation, traduction orale et formes de médiation dans les situations sociales Introduction
Page 31 à 44L’entretien clinique en présence d’un interprète : la traduction comme activité de coordination
Page 45 à 74Territoires corporels, ressenti et paroles d’action : des moments délicats de la consultation médicale avec interprète
Page 75 à 90La pratique multilingue, les régimes linguistiques et la culture traductionnelle dans des hôpitaux allemands
Thematic Section: Translating and interpreting in social situations: health, education, justice
Page 91 à 108In the service of surveillance: Immigrant child language brokers in parent-teacher conferences
Dossier : Traduire et interpréter en situations sociales : santé, éducation, justice
Page 109 à 131L’interprétariat par visioconférence au sein des chambres de l’instruction en France : une étude conversationnelle de l’activité d’interprétariat dans un dispositif interactionnel médiatisé
Varia
Page 135 à 153Analyse de conversation, anthropologie linguistique et analyse critique du discours : historiciser les débats, intégrer les approches
Comptes rendus
Page 157 à 160Daniel WRANA, Alexander ZIEM, Martin REISIGL, Martin NONHOFF, et Johannes ANGERMULLER (eds)DiskursNetz. Wörterbuch der interdisziplinären Diskursforschung Berlin, Suhrkamp, 2014
Page 160 à 163Johannes ANGERMULLER, Martin NONHOFF, Eva HERSCHINGER, Felicitas MACGILCHRIST, Martin REISIGL, Juliette WEDL, Daniel WRANA, et Alexander ZIEM (eds) Diskursforschung. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch, Band 1 „ Theorien, Methodologien und Kontroversen“ Bielefeld, Transcript, coll. Diskursnetz, 2014 et Martin NONHOFF, Eva HERSCHINGER, Johannes ANGERMULLER, Felicitas MACGILCHRIST, Martin REISIGL, Juliette WEDL, Daniel WRANA, et Alexander ZIEM (eds) Diskursforschung. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch, Band 2 „ Methoden und Analysepraxis. Perspektiven auf Hochschulreformdiskurse“ Bielefeld, Transcript, coll. Diskursnetz, 2014
Page 163 à 166Johannes ANGERMULLER, Dominique MAINGUENEAU et Ruth WODAK (eds) The Discourse Studies Reader. Main currents in theory and analysis Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 2014
Page 166 à 168François GROSJEAN Parler plusieurs langues. Le monde des bilingues Paris, Albin Michel, 2015
Page 168 à 171Valelia MUNI TOKE La grammaire nationale selon Damourette et Pichon 1911-1939 : l’invention du locuteur Lyon : ENS Éditions, 2013, 345 p. (préface de Michel Arrivé)
Page 171 à 174Penner HEDY Guaraní aquí. Jopara allá : Reflexiones sobre la (socio) lingüística paraguaya Berne, Peter Lang (“Fondo hispánico de lingüística y filología”, 19), 2014, 233 p.
Fiche technique

Langage et société 2015/3 (N° 153). 186 pages. 
ISSN : 0181-4095. 
ISSN en ligne : 2101-0382. ISBN : 9782735117543. 
Lien : <http://www.cairn.info/revue-langage-et-societe-2015-3.htm>.

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enfilmez's comment, May 18, 2015 4:24 PM
I found a very good site "http://preply.com/en/portuguese-by-skype"; from there you can learn speak portuguese with native speakers online.
Preply is a great platform for getting good teachers help especially for learning International Languages.
I highly recommend it.
By Trisha Gupta

"Tamil was a major factor for my fame within Tamil Nadu; but it was only after the translation in English that Salma rose to different heights," says the Tamil poet and novelist Salma, whose Irandam Jamangalin Kathai, about the world of women in a Tamil Muslim community, was published in Lakshmi Holmström's translation as The Hour Past Midnight. The novel was longlisted for the DSC Prize in 2011, and sold over 3,000 copies (roughly 5,000 in Tamil, says her publisher, Kannan Sundaram of Kalachuvadu). Shamsur Rahman Faruqi may have long been the brightest star of the Urdu literary world, but to the Indian reader in English, he really only appeared on the horizon with the publication of The Mirror of Beauty (2013), his own translation of his magnum opus Kai Chand Thay Sar- e-Aasmaan (2006). KR Meera's Aarachar might have won coveted Malayalam honours like the Vayalar, Odakkuzhal and Kerala Sahitya Akademi awards, and sold close to 50,000 copies--but it was only with its translation into English as Hangwoman (2014), that the book entered literary conversation outside of Kerala, applauded for its startlingly ambitious take on life, death, sex and the media through the eyes of a young Kolkata woman appointed executioner, and for J Devika's effervescent translation. And so it goes.

"Before the award, I was known as 'a leading writer from Kerala'... When I won the Crossword Book Award in 1999, the press qualified me as 'a leading Indian writer',"

Many regional language writers have only received national recognition late in their lives, because of translation into English. "Before the award, I was known as 'a leading writer from Kerala'... When I won the Crossword Book Award in 1999, the press qualified me as 'a leading Indian writer'," says M Mukundan (Crossword website), whose Kesavan's Lamentations won in the translation category in 2006. This is, of course, testament to an unfair linguistic landscape where English has an easier claim on the national. But it warrants greater scrutiny. If, as Marathi writer Bhalchandra Nemade and Indian English novelist Aatish Taseer would have it, English has squeezed the life out of Indian languages --"English is encroaching upon the innocence of children," Nemade said, in an interview on Scroll; 'How English Ruined Indian Literature' is the title of Taseer's New York Times opinion piece--why does English publishing seem more enthusiastic than ever in directing the many streams of that literature towards us, in translation? If this were a pessimistic critical theory paper, one might argue that the very impulse towards translation is preservationist, and things can only be preserved when they're dead. But however seductive this idea of embalming might be, literature in the other Indian languages seems anything but corpse-like. And yet, being translated into English seems to afford writers in even the most thriving of these literary languages--Bangla, Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi--a new lease of life.

Because those of us who live in India but read only in English have grown dead to these languages; translation is the jadui kathi, the magic wand through which we might awake to their pleasures. English has turned us into Sleeping Beauties, and now only English can rouse us. And because whatever Nemade might wish for, neither our history nor the market allow for a clean separation between English and regional language cultures. A dedicated and growing community of Indian readers in English--while not exactly huge yet--is keen to read regional language literature (and read about it), while Indian language readers are often influenced by the 'buzz' English can create around authors.



Translation lists at HarperCollins India and Penguin Books India have certainly increased both in number and variety over the last five years. Penguin brought out 22 translations in 2013, 20 in 2014, and has 23 on the 2015 publication schedule. "We now publish an average of 20 titles in translation: five contemporary fiction titles and 15 classics (a mix of fiction, drama, poetry, memoir)," says Penguin's managing editor R Sivapriya, who heads its translations list. "The numbers must have been half that in 2012." Minakshi Thakur, who heads the same list at Harper, concurs: "We used to do five to six titles, this year onwards we'll have 10 to 12. Earlier most publishers would only do classics, but we want to work with writers who are working now; [build] a list of future classics." Penguin's recent successes include a book as contemporary as Sachin Kundalkar's 2006 Marathi novel Cobalt Blue, which sold over 2,000 copies in Jerry Pinto's 2013 translation, and one as grand and dastan-like as The Mirror of Beauty, which sold 5,000 copies in 1,000-page hardback.

At the more academic end of the spectrum, too, the translation list at Oxford University Press has seen 10 percent annual growth since 2009. It now stands at 125 titles from 18 languages, including less-represented literatures like Dogri (Shailender Singh's Hashiye Par (For a Tree to Grow) and Tamil Dalit writing like Cho Dharman's Koogai: The Owl (translated by Vasantha Surya). But this is still a niche readership, and the slow rate of growth makes publishing solely translations unsustainable. The independent Katha Books, which pioneered translations from the Indian languages, has shifted its focus to translations of children's books.

+++

In a country as multilingual as India, translation has often been the only medium for a Malayalee reader to read the work of a Bengali writer, or an Oriya reader to discover a Kashmiri poet. Most readers in each of these linguistic communities have historically read translations in their mother tongue. Perhaps literary flows, even then, were somewhat unidirectional: I can't keep track of the Biharis and Malayalees I know whose literarily-inclined parents grew up reading Sarat Chandra Chatterjee and Tagore in Hindi and Malayalam translations respectively, but I would be hard put to name any Bengali readers who read Hindi or Malayalam writers (they did read Russian and English classics in Bangla). But as the Indian upper middle classes have grown more monolingual, reading almost entirely in English, it is mainstream English publishers who must take on the task of bringing a multifarious Indian literature to these readers. In SR Faruqi's words, the rising readership for English translations is attributable to "the growth, in geometrical proportions, of Indians who... sadly enough, have no real claim to any other language".



Sometimes an older translation in another language still serves as a route to English. Khushwant Singh and Vikram Seth had both read Sankar's Bangla bestseller Chowringhee in a Hindi translation, and their admiration for this chronicle of life at a 50s Calcutta hotel was partially responsible for Penguin's agreeing to publish Arunava Sinha's English translation, according to both Sankar and Sinha. Today, while Hindi remains an important link language between readers in North India and writers elsewhere, at least some Hindi publishers' decisions about translations may be routed through English. Aditi Maheshwari, translations head at the Hindi publishing house Vani Prakashan, stresses Vani's commitment to translating directly from the original language, whether it be Herta Müller's German or KS Sethumadhavan's Malayalam. But it is hard to deny the role of English (publishing and media) in foregrounding a potentially translatable writer, such as Tamil's Perumal Murugan.

Many Indian language writers cannot but recognise the unfortunately disproportional power English wields, knowing the only way to deal with it is to make it work for them, as much as possible. But writers from languages with a strong critical culture and a large literary readership can often experience a gulf between that vibrancy of exchange and their reception in English.

"English took me to other forums [but I soon saw the] lag between the interest in English in translation and English in original."

"Within Hindi, there's a rich conversation my work and I are part of, though not without its politics and prejudices," says Hindi writer Geetanjali Shree. "English took me to other forums [but I soon saw the] lag between the interest in English in translation and English in original." Her 2001 novel Tirohit appears in Rahul Soni's attentive translation as The Roof Beneath Their Feet (HarperCollins, 2013). "Some 60 people have done research on my books [before any translation], colleges have held discussions. For Katha Satisar (2005), I got ten Hindi literary prizes, including the Vyas Samman and Mahatma Gandhi Samman," agrees the Hindi writer Chandrakanta, author of this acclaimed historical take on Kashmiri Hindus, which Zubaan publishes later this year as A Saga of Satisar. Her intimate account of life in a Srinagar neighbourhood, Ailan Galli Zinda Hai (1986), was shortlisted for the 2012 DSC Prize as Zubaan's translation, A Street in Srinagar, but has not even sold 2,000 copies. "How is it possible that a novel that has been recognised, does not sell? Perhaps Satisar will do better."

While Hindi's literary universe, for example, was (and is) perfectly able to provide a launching pad for a serious writer such as herself, Shree concedes that its "being older" means it "has still to update its training in events, awards, markets". Yet vastly more copies are sold of a successful book in most Indian languages than in English. Benyamin's novel Aadujeevitham, a spare, arresting account of one man's brutal experience as a labourer in the Gulf, sold over one lakh copies across a hundred editions in Malayalam, according to its author. Translated lucidly into English by Joseph Koippally as Goat Days, the book is also one of Penguin's greatest successes-- but with 10,000 copies. Even Chowringhee, with over 30,000 copies sold in English, barely compares with the 100,000 copies its author ascribes to Bengali sales (not counting the huge pirated edition sales in Bangladesh, as he reminds me). And while Hangwoman gave Aarachar and its author a new visibility, only 2,000 hardback English copies have sold till date. Of course, any comparison of sales figures must acknowledge that English books are priced much higher.

"I hope we help the writers with their ambitions, I think we do, but not as much as they deserve," says Sivapriya. "It requires enormous effort to train the gaze of the English reader on them." Thakur agrees, admitting, "It is still a struggle to sell out 3,000 copies of most titles", but adding, "That's the case with most original English [literary] fiction too." Bhima: Lone Warrior, Gita Krishnankutty's 2013 translation of Randamoozham, Malayalam giant MT Vasudevan Nair's classic telling of the Mahabharata from Bhima's perspective, has sold 6,000 copies, she says. "The epic still sells, retellings do well in our market. Translate anything [to do with] Satyajit Ray and it'll do very well. [Take] our 14 Stories project, stories by various writers that Ray made into films--that's the kind of book which goes on to backlist well."

"[I]n a bitter irony, Murugan's novel One Part Woman, which became the focus of a moral censorship campaign that forced the author to give up writing, has sold nearly 10,000 copies."

Controversy of any kind works wonders for sales, in any language. Taslima Nasreen's Lajja, banned in Bangladesh and inciting death threats, is one of Penguin's highest selling translations, with 30,000 copies sold till date. And in a bitter irony, Murugan's novel One Part Woman, which became the focus of a moral censorship campaign that forced the author to give up writing, has sold nearly 10,000 copies. The independent publisher Zubaan Books sold almost 7,000 copies of Urvashi Butalia's translation of Baby Halder's candid memoir of life as a domestic servant, A Life Less Ordinary. Penguin's other successes from before 2012 are all 20th century classics in their original languages: Shrilal Shukla's Raag Darbari, Manto's Bitter Fruit, Tagore's stories and poems, Bhisham Sahni's Tamas.

+++

Often, however, English's ripple effect bears little connection to sales. Meera's Yellow is the Colour of Longing (2011) was long-listed for the Frank O'Connor prize and short-listed for the Crossword award, but did not sell beyond the first print run of 2,000. Being translated, however, brought Meera national exposure, with glowing reviews across the English media and speaking engagements at literature festivals, from Jaipur to Chandigarh, Odisha to Goa, held on a scale that most regional literatures cannot yet muster funds for. The publicity that an English translation receives sometimes triggers fresh interest in the original linguistic community. "If a book is awarded nationally or internationally, it gets more attention [from local readers]," says Benyamin.

Meera and Benyamin both believe the English media covers literature more than Malayalam, and Benyamin, like Sankar, thinks reviews in English are fairer. "A Malayalee reader would believe a bookshop owner more than a critic," says Benyamin. "English reviews were well-researched and positive, maybe because my book was already famous."

"Through English, I rediscovered my Bengali readers," agrees Sankar, long dismissed as middlebrow by Bengali critics. "I never had any good reviews [in Bangla. But] some Bengali readers think, if it's translated by Penguin, and getting rave reviews in London, maybe they should read it."

For writer Uday Prakash, English translation has helped lift his work out of what he sees as Hindi's insular, non-risk- taking, institutionally corrupt world, and made it part of 'world literature'. "When I wrote Peeli Chattri Wali Ladki, I was attacked and abused in the Hindi world. But Jason Grunebaum's English translation, The Girl with the Golden Parasol, got me to Penguin and then to Yale University Press."

Yet English translation is no panacea. Much depends on quality, the publisher's interest and distribution channels. "Older translations of my work, like Jai Ratan's [one of India's most prolific translators], were targeted at an Indian English reader, and could not travel abroad. Jason is young, and a fiction writer himself; his translation reflects how language in America has changed," Prakash adds.

English translation does not guarantee exposure. Although she gained an Indian English readership as early as 2000, after academic Nita Kumar translated her 1997 novel Mai into English for Kali For Women, Geetanjali Shree insists that her writing continues to be routed through Hindi. "Serious readers of my works, such as Annie Montaut, Alessandra Consolaro, Vasudha Dalmia and Francesca Orsini are advanced scholars keen to promote Hindi literature in the West. I am known in Russia and Poland because of Hindi!"

Certainly, Euro-American academic networks have been crucial in spreading regional Indian literature, providing the focused language training and university presses needed to support high-quality literary translation. Hindi departments in the USA, for instance, have produced such wonderful translators as Grunebaum and Daisy Rockwell, who has translated the late Hindi writer Upendranath Ashk.




But how far have translations to English travelled? Over the five years that the DSC Prize has been awarded at the Jaipur Literature Festival, only six out of the 29 shortlisted titles have been translations (UR Ananthamurthy's Bharathipura and A Street in Srinagar in 2011, Uday Prakash's The Walls of Delhi in 2013, Anand's Book of Destruction and Goat Days in 2014 and The Mirror of Beauty in 2015). None has won yet.

All of this is not to ignore that several regional language cultures inhabit positions of superiority with regard to some others: think of Hindi with regard to Urdu, or at a very different angle, to Bhojpuri. English may not be able to speak to this (though it has brought Dalit writers like P Sivakami, Urmila Pawar and Ajay Navaria some welcome attention). But it seems to me difficult to stand either with Nemade, denying that this collective landscape has been forever altered by a flood called English, or with Taseer--taking a position higher and safer than everyone else, and then bemoaning the flood. Bilinguality--reading in at least one Indian language besides English--is one way to withstand the waters. But translation, even in English, if we do more of it and better--while acknowledging that the ground is not level--can let the monolingual reader into several languages. For many of us, it might be the most feasible way to grow some roots.

(Trisha Gupta is a Delhi-based writer)

Images have been provided by Open Magazine.
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Charles Tiayon's curator insight, May 16, 2015 2:48 AM

POWERFULLY WELL WRITTEN - A MUST-READ POST ON TRANSLATION AND LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE/SHIFT IN AN INESCAPABLY MULTILINGUAL WORLD"

"Tamil was a major factor for my fame within Tamil Nadu; but it was only after the translation in English that Salma rose to different heights," says the Tamil poet and novelist Salma, whose Irandam Jamangalin Kathai, about the world of women in a Tamil Muslim community, was published in Lakshmi Holmström's translation as The Hour Past Midnight. The novel was longlisted for the DSC Prize in 2011, and sold over 3,000 copies (roughly 5,000 in Tamil, says her publisher, Kannan Sundaram of Kalachuvadu). Shamsur Rahman Faruqi may have long been the brightest star of the Urdu literary world, but to the Indian reader in English, he really only appeared on the horizon with the publication of The Mirror of Beauty (2013), his own translation of his magnum opus Kai Chand Thay Sar- e-Aasmaan (2006). KR Meera's Aarachar might have won coveted Malayalam honours like the Vayalar, Odakkuzhal and Kerala Sahitya Akademi awards, and sold close to 50,000 copies--but it was only with its translation into English as Hangwoman (2014), that the book entered literary conversation outside of Kerala, applauded for its startlingly ambitious take on life, death, sex and the media through the eyes of a young Kolkata woman appointed executioner, and for J Devika's effervescent translation. And so it goes.


Many regional language writers have only received national recognition late in their lives, because of translation into English. "Before the award, I was known as 'a leading writer from Kerala'... When I won the Crossword Book Award in 1999, the press qualified me as 'a leading Indian writer'," says M Mukundan (Crossword website), whose Kesavan's Lamentations won in the translation category in 2006. This is, of course, testament to an unfair linguistic landscape where English has an easier claim on the national. But it warrants greater scrutiny. If, as Marathi writer Bhalchandra Nemade and Indian English novelist Aatish Taseer would have it, English has squeezed the life out of Indian languages --"English is encroaching upon the innocence of children," Nemade said, in an interview on Scroll; 'How English Ruined Indian Literature' is the title of Taseer's New York Times opinion piece--why does English publishing seem more enthusiastic than ever in directing the many streams of that literature towards us, in translation? If this were a pessimistic critical theory paper, one might argue that the very impulse towards translation is preservationist, and things can only be preserved when they're dead. But however seductive this idea of embalming might be, literature in the other Indian languages seems anything but corpse-like. And yet, being translated into English seems to afford writers in even the most thriving of these literary languages--Bangla, Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi--a new lease of life. "

Google Translate can overlay the translation of signs and text right on your screen. Google
Welcome to Travel App Tuesday, a new feature on the IBTraveler blog.

We’ve come a long way since the days of lugging hefty travel guides on vacation. Now, there’s an app for virtually every travel need -- and a dizzying amount of new ones hit the market practically every day. Travel App Tuesday will attempt to cut through some of that noise and highlight the travel apps that are worth the space on your phone or tablet -- and the ones that simply add to the digital clutter. To kick things off, I thought I’d check out an offering from that most ubiquitous digital presence in our lives: Google.

Google Translate

Available on: Android, iOS

Cost: Free

Part of the charm of traveling abroad is making your way through a foreign country and adopting the universal language of smiles, gestures and frantic pantomiming. Carrying along a book of frequently used phrases used to be a common, if inefficient, supplement -- but it would do when you needed to pull up “Where is the bathroom?” in a pinch.

Still, a translation book doesn’t account for mangled pronunciations and is frankly unwieldy in most situations, especially in a digital world. The Google Translate app, which has been around for a while, has been an excellent substitute: Type in a word or phrase and the app spits out its translation in some 90 other languages. You can even play the translation out loud in many of the featured languages and get translations of pictures you take of signs or other text.

But earlier this year, Google added some features that make Google Translate truly indispensable for international travelers. Now, the app lets you instantly translate text using your phone’s camera. You simply point it at a sign or text and the app overlays the translation on your screen -- even when you don’t have an Internet or data connection. So far, the feature is available for translations back and forth between English and Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, German and Russian. Google says it’s working on expanding to other languages. See how it works in the following GIF:



Google Translate’s other new feature makes conversation between different-language speakers practically seamless. It can translate a conversation as it happens. You enter “conversation mode” by tapping the mic in the app to start speaking a selected language. Tap the mic a second time, and the app recognizes which of two languages are being spoken and provides real-time translations. See a demonstration in the video below:



Verdict: Google Translate is a must for globe-trotters who want to communicate more easily while abroad. There is a bit of a time lag in conversation mode, and we wish the handy camera feature was available in more languages, but on balance, it's worth installing on your phone or tablet. Especially because it doesn't cost a thing. And the language of free is pretty universal. 
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Microsoft’s near-instant translation tool for Skype entered preview last December, but the company’s making it widely available starting today. After a five-month testing period, the sign-up requirement for Skype Translator has been removed.

“Skype Translator makes it possible for people to communicate irrespective of what language they speak.”
Microsoft revealed the ambitious Skype Translator at Re/code’s 2014 Code Conference. A creation of Microsoft’s Research Lab, it’s comprised of voice translation and Bing Translate-powered text interpretation. When you speak, your words are translated, recorded to a transcript, and relayed in your Skype video call partner’s native language (Italian, Chinese, English, Spanish, or Mandarin are supported). Text translation is comparable to Google Translate and other such online services.

In a blog post following last year’s unveiling, Skype executive Gurdeep Pall couched Translate as “a new chapter of communication” capable of “allowing humans to bridge geographic and language boundaries to connect mind to mind and heart to heart in ways never before possible.”

Related: Can Skype Translator really help you converse in any language? We tested it to see


That’s a bit hyperbolic judging by the current state of Skype Translator. Our overall impressions are mostly positive, but both the voice and text translation have a ways to go before they can substitute for an interpreter or foreign language skills. Microsoft, cognizant of that, says it’s using machine learning to improve the quality of translation over time. The more it’s used, the more accurate the translations supposedly become.

Microsoft’s made it clear that it’s in the translation software game for the long haul. The company believes machine-powered language software has the potential to transform industries. As one example, Microsoft in a blog post highlighted Pro Mujer, a non-profit development organization based in New York that uses Skype Translator to provide women in Latin America with services typically out of reach.

Related: Skype releases preview version of its almost instant language translation tool

“As we enter an era in which computing experiences need to be more personal, Skype has looked at ways to help communities create stronger connections and be productive,” Pall said. “[Skype Translator] is now removing another barrier to make it possible for people to communicate irrespective of what language they speak.”

Skype Translator is still exclusive to PCs running Windows 8/8.1/10 — you can grab it from the Windows Store, but you’ll have to uninstall the standard edition of Skype and switch on Translation in the settings menu to use it. On mobile, it’s still exclusive to Windows Phone, but Pall said the goal is to “deliver the best Skype Translator experience on each individual platform” as expeditiously as possible. Here’s hoping for an Android, iOS, and Mac client sometime soon.
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Almost a year ago, Microsoft demoed one of the best features it could have ever invented for its video chat and messaging application at Re/code’s Code Conference, and the company is finally ready to make Skype Translator available to anyone interested in trying it. Last December, the company released a preview version of it, but only to users patient enough to sign up for access and wait to be allowed in.

DON’T MISS: 11 huge features of the next iPhone and iPhone Plus revealed by insider

Skype Translator offers real-time translation of spoken languages, though only English, Spanish, Italian and Mandarin are supported for the time being. Still, this is a major achievement, as the software can enable conversations between individuals who don’t speak a common language.

In the future, Microsoft plans to add real-time translation support for more languages. Additionally, Skype Translator works with instant messages too, and it supports 50 written languages.

Microsoft warns on its website that the app is still available only as a preview, meaning that users can expect certain inconsistencies as they try the app.

“Skype Translator is a brand-new experience from Skype, and it’s still learning and improving the way it translates calls,” the company says. “As a preview user of Skype Translator you’ll be instrumental in helping us refine the technology and bring us closer to our goal of overcoming language barriers worldwide. Even the smallest conversations help Skype Translator learn and grow, which can enrich your communication and lead to amazing things.”

The Skype Translation preview version can be downloaded right away by following this link – though you will need to have at least Windows 8.1 running on your computer (Windows 10 Technical Preview is also supported).

Related stories
How to get Windows 10 for free even if you don't qualify for a free upgrade
Microsoft's biggest Surfaces yet will come in crazy 55-inch and 84-inch sizes
History suggests Microsoft's plan to bring Android and iOS apps to Windows is doomed to fail
More from BGR: 11 huge features of the next iPhone and iPhone Plus revealed by insider

This article was originally published on BGR.com
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Skype Translator is one of those technologies that makes you stop and say “woah, future.” A mythical service that can translate your speech in seamless real time, with accompanying transcripts, could eventually surmount the language barrier. But until then, we have Skype Translator, and it’s a great start.

We took a look at Skype Translator in an advanced preview, and since then, the gates to this translation wonder have remained locked up behind a slow-rollout invite process. Well, no longer. Everyone can now try Skype Translator—with live translating for English, Spanish, Italian, and Mandarin—to your heart’s desire. Have an abuela in South America or a conversation partner in Chongqing? Call ‘em, and connect. It’s not exactly as fluid as talking natively on the phone, but building the future of how we communicate is slow work. [Skype]
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12/16/14 5:45pm
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Darren Orf
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Original post by Darren Orf on GIZMODO
Skype Translator Hands-On: Close But No Babel Fish



When Skype announced its real-time translation program back in May, most of us seized on the sci-fi-ness off it all—Star Trek's universal translator, Babel fish, etc. But the technology is very real, and has been for years, just it separate pieces. Skype Translator is is the commercial culmination of those efforts, bringing all those things, like speech recognition, automated translation, and machine learning, into one program.

This week Skype began rolling out the "first phase" of Translator, a beta version of the service's live speech translating feature (between Spanish and English for now) and text translation for 40+ languages.

The promise of breaking down the global language barrier is a lofty one—solving the human speech puzzle with all its nuance and imperfection would give our machines a skill that has forever been uniquely human. Skype Translator doesn't quite reach it. Not yet, anyway.

The Experience



To test, I decided to have some lengthy convos with Manuel Méndez, managing editor at Gizmodo Español. Having not spoken a syllable of Spanish since high school, I opted to speak in my native Inglés (that's one of about five words that I remember) while Manuel, who's a completely fluent English speaker and smarter than me, checked Skype's Spanish-to-English accuracy.

In Translator, you're given a live translation on the right as you're speaking, both in your native language and whatever language your caller is speaking. Now, picture all of the Skype conversations you've ever had. This will not be like that. For Skype Translator to work properly, there is a little mental conditioning involved. For one, you must speak slowly. Skype Translator's speech recognition is good, and plenty fast, but that accuracy decreases as you speed up in words per minute. "Hey, how is it going?" can change to "Hey is going?" pretty quickly.

Also, you'll need to make exaggerated pauses when you're done speaking. Skype Translator will translate pretty quickly. If you're someone who "ums" and "ahhs" and pauses between phrases, your sentence will appear in little chunks, which can be annoying as hell.



Skype Translator will start the conversation with audio translation turned on, meaning after every translated sentence, your male or female avatar, will hop in and basically ready what was just translated. After about five minutes, I turned this feature off (which turns it off for the other speaker as well) and just read the transcripts.

Once you're able to rewire your brain to Translator speak, then this program is really quite amazing. The speech recognition is the foundation of all the translation work. It needs to be perfect. Microsoft says headphones with a dedicated microphone will yield the best results, and for the most part, that was true. But even talking unplugged and over loud music, Translator was still able to do its thing pretty accurately.

But where Skype aces speech recognition, Translator might need some extra credit to get a passing grade in translation. For example, during a Skype chat translation of the following sentence:

"I think I have a handle on this guy."

I was saying to Manuel that I think I understand Skype Translator, calling said program by "guy." However, Skype Translator didn't know that (understandably) and translated:

"Pere creo que tengo un mango de este tipo."

Which literally means "I think I have a dick of this type," with "mango" meaning "handle" but also being a slang term for "dick." Your Grandma living in Honduras just became very concerned.



This is probably an outlier in possible translation mishaps, but they do pop up here and there. That's why Skype Translator Beta really feels like a language assistant that a true translator. According to Manuel, if a Spanish speaker with no English knowledge tried to decipher Skype's rendition of my beautiful prose, they would have a tough time understanding.

Because I know no Spanish whatsoever, I can relate. Generally, I could get the impression of what Manuel was trying to say, but it would show up somewhat broken. But if you have a basic understanding of the language, not necessarily fluent but know a couple hundred words and general grammar, Skype Translator fills in the blanks.

How It Works

In a follow-up post to Skype's Monday beta launch, the team created a helpful little infographic showing how exactly the program's cogs turn:



This an overly simplistic representation of the advanced computer science going on here, but Skype Translator recognizes your voice, corrects for any stuttering or ticks, translates and then delivers to the listener—all in a split second.

After some setup—selecting your language, your digital voice avatar—you enter the Translator app, which looks basically like Skype proper on Windows 8.1 but with a few extras. Now, when you chat with a friend, a translation toggle pops up beneath their profile. When you switch on the toggle, Skype will ask you what language the person you're about to call speaks and writes.

This is important because if you get this confused, Skype will try to translate English phonetically into Spanish, which comes out like jumbled nonsense. Set this up right (and make sure your caller does the same), and place the call like normal.



The verdict? Translator isn't quite there yet. For now, the language barrier is still here. But Skype has created the battering ram that will one day hopefully breach its walls.
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Dear friend,

Metaglossia has been nominated for theTop 100 Language Lovers 2015 competition (See http://www.lexiophiles.com/english/top-100-language-lovers-2015-lets-get-it-started-tll15)!

We sincerely thank you for your sustained interest in what we have been doing since 2005 to foster mutual understanding amidst humanity's infinite diversity of conceptual frames.

Owing to its one stop-shop of minute-by-minute information on the various aspects of language translation and interpretation --- some of which are hardly always perceivable at first sight ---, Metaglossia is now reachable from over 95 percent of world's countries.

We look forward to winning the competition one day, thanks to your kind support and, especially, your kind votes. Voting (May 26th – June 14th, 23:59 pm CET).
Kind regards.
Charles Tiayon
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