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Learn iBook Author

Learn iBook Author | The Random Me | Scoop.it
Follow these simple steps to learn how to create your own iBook and send it to the iBookstore! You can find searchable transcripts of these tutorials at http://ecjourno.com/diyjourno/

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Christy P.Novack's curator insight, March 25, 2013 2:48 PM

Tutorials for iBook Author

Sylvia Guinan's curator insight, January 24, 1:51 AM

Fantastic publishing guide.

John Rudkin's curator insight, January 26, 3:00 AM

Excellent tutorial created as a series of videos.

The Random Me
My collection of items from the web that help inform me and my colleagues on eLearning and other topics of interest.
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Is the pedagogy of MOOCs flawed?

Is the pedagogy of MOOCs flawed? | The Random Me | Scoop.it
This is a question that I tackle in my Udemy course The Wide World of MOOCs. Almost immediately after I uploaded this preview to YouTube, someone on Twitter politely challenged me. She took umbrage...
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3 Steps for Creating Effective Learning Objecti...

3 Steps for Creating Effective Learning Objecti... | The Random Me | Scoop.it
3 Steps for Creating Effective Learning Objectives [INFOGRAPHIC] | LearnDash on E-Learning-Inclusivo (Mashup) curated by juandoming (RT @juandon: 3 Steps for Creating Effective #Learning Objectives [INFOGRAPHIC] | LearnDash | @scoopit
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e-learning, conocimiento en red: How do employers view Online Degree? [infographic] Drexel University Online. @drexelonline

e-learning, conocimiento en red: How do employers view Online Degree? [infographic] Drexel University Online. @drexelonline | The Random Me | Scoop.it
e-learning, conocimiento en red y web colectiva (RT @eraser: posteito #elearning How do employers view Online Degree?
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Mobile Messaging - The Future of Health Care Technology - Business 2 Community

Mobile Messaging - The Future of Health Care Technology - Business 2 Community | The Random Me | Scoop.it
Mobile Messaging The Future of Health Care Technology - http://t.co/V2KYRf8ZEr

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The future of health apps: Personalized advice combining your diet, sleep pattern and fitness regime

The future of health apps: Personalized advice combining your diet, sleep pattern and fitness regime | The Random Me | Scoop.it

Most fitness and health apps only record a single type of data. I use a dozen or so different services to track my exercise regime, diet and sleep pattern as a result. Moves for iOS is my virtual pedometer, while Nike+ tracks the odd run I do throughout the week. MyFitnessPal takes care of my food intake, but requires that I input any and all exercise – including calories burned, which I don’t know most of the time – manually.

 


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Khalid Mindbody's curator insight, September 22, 9:51 AM

Integration is the future.

 

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How MyFitnessPal Became The Strongest Digital-Health Startup—Without Silicon Valley's Help

How MyFitnessPal Became The Strongest Digital-Health Startup—Without Silicon Valley's Help | The Random Me | Scoop.it
The venture-capital firms behind Google and Facebook are backing a company that's helped millions lose weight.

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shelbylaneMD's curator insight, August 16, 2013 8:46 PM

Digital Health & Automation are the wave of the future.

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3 Universities Will Grant Credit for 2U's Online Courses - Wired Campus - The Chronicle of Higher Education

3 Universities Will Grant Credit for 2U's Online Courses - Wired Campus - The Chronicle of Higher Education | The Random Me | Scoop.it

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Does research support flipped learning? | eScho...

Does research support flipped learning? | eScho... | The Random Me | Scoop.it
by Merris Stansbury "Though quantitative and rigorous qualitative data on flipped learning is limited, a recent literature review based on teacher reports, course completion rates, and supported methodology research indicates that flipped...
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Impactful Management Research: The Importance of Finding the Voice of Practice in Management Research

Impactful Management Research: The Importance of Finding the Voice of Practice in Management Research | The Random Me | Scoop.it
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Useful Research; Advancing Theory and Practice

Useful Research; Advancing Theory and Practice | The Random Me | Scoop.it

For decades there has been an ongoing, at times heated, debate over how relevant to real-world organizational concerns academic organizational research should be. The contributors to this book argue that in order to keep organizational research relevant to both theory and practice, research must deviate from the orthodoxy of traditional positivistic research. The true test of whether knowledge is useful to practice is not whether it is “theoretically” impactful but whether it is theoretically impactful and results in improved organizational effectiveness.

 

This collection examines how useful research can be achieved and argues that in order to keep organizational research relevant to theory and practice, the approach must deviate from the orthodoxy of positivistic, “pure” research approaches. The contributing authors were selected for their demonstrated ability to conduct useful research, and they bring their unique professional experience to their chapters by describing the choices they make and the tactics they employ.

 

The core message of this book is that in order to conduct research that is useful, researchers must learn from practice and intentionally position their work so that it finds a pathway to practice. While each chapter can stand alone, the book is crafted to provide multiple complementary perspectives on the topic of useful research. It does an outstanding job of describing what it takes to bridge the gap between theory and practice. It goes beyond advocacy, theoretical debate, and restatements of the problem to focus on the types of research methods that produce useful research. Topics include crafting research programs to yield useful knowledge, academic careers that yield useful knowledge, pathways to practice, institutional agents such as MBA programs and journals.

 

Table of Contents

Section I: Introduction and Framing
1 )Introduction: The Value Stream of Organization and Management Science: Edward Lawler & Sue Mohrman (CEO, USC)

Section II: Exemplars
2) Rob Cross, University of Virginia
3) Amy Edmundson, Harvard University
4) CEO exemplars—Sue and Monty Mohrman (CEO)
Commentary: Richard Hackman, Harvard University

Section III: Bodies of Work that have Influenced Practice
5) Ed Lawler, CEO and Phil Mirvis, Boston College
6) C.K. Prahalad, University of Michigan
7) Mike Beer, Harvard University, emeritus & TruePoint Commentary: Thoughts on an Academic Career with Impact – Jim O’Toole, University of Denver

Section IV: Pathways: Research to Practice
8) Books with Impact – George Benson, University of Texas, Arlington
9) Collaborations with Consulting Firms/The Role of Consulting Firms – Ruth Wageman
10) Evidence Based Management/Sticky Concepts—Denise Rousseau, Carnegie Mellon
11) Classroom—impact of education—conditions for application, etc. –Paula Jarzabkowski
12) Professional Associations—Workshops and Tools — Wayne Cascio
13) Organization Development—Chris Worley and Tom Cummings Practitioner Perspective: Pathways with Impact—Roundtable of Practitioners Commentary: Gary Latham

Section V: Barriers and Enablers
14) Business Schools/MBA programs – Chris Worley, CEO, and Tom Cummings, USC
15) Journals—Theresa Welbourne, CEO Roundtable Discussion of Deans, Department Heads and Journal Editors in Attendance Commentary: Sarah Rynes

Section VI: Putting it All Together – Section Framing by Lawler and Mohrman
16) Reflective Chapter – Andy Van De Ven, University of Minnesota
17) Mohrman and Lawler –Learnings from the Conference and Book: What Academic Research Would Look Like if We Took Seriously a Mandate to do Research that Impacts Theory and Practice.

 

 

Source:

Titel Fast Fundamentals: Useful Research: Research for Theory and Practice: Framing the Challenge
Berrett-Koehler Series
Susan Albers Mohrman, Edward E. Lawler III
Uitgever Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2011
ISBN 1605096008, 9781605096001


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For my doctoral students, this is a review of the book we will be using in our Advanced Research Topics class this fall.  

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Research impact and scholars’ geographical diversity

Research impact and scholars’ geographical diversity | The Random Me | Scoop.it

Abstract

In recent years there has been a sharp increase in collaborations among scholars and there are studies on the effects of scientific collaboration on scholars’ performance. This study examines the hypothesis that geographically diverse scientific collaboration is associated with research impact. Here, the approach is differentiated from other studies by: (a) focusing on publications rather than researchers or institutes; (b) considering the geographical diversity of authors of each publication; (c) considering the average number of citations a publication receives per year (time-based normalization of citations) as a surrogate for its impact; and (d) not focusing on a specific country (developed or developing) or region. Analysis of the collected bibliometric data shows that a publication impact is significantly and positively associated with all related geographical collaboration indicators. But publication impact has a stronger association with the numbers of external collaborations at department and institution levels (inter-departmental and inter-institutional collaborations) compared to internal collaborations. Conversely, national collaboration correlates better with impact than international collaboration.

 

 

The authors:"The fact that international collaboration has a lower correlation to publications’ impact may bedue to the apparent challenge of collaboration across national and cultural boundaries. The reason for intra-departmentalcollaboration’s low correlation to publications’ impact may be explained by exchanging redundant knowledge among theresearchers in the same departments (as usually have access to similar kinds of resources and equipment).Therefore, the findings support that having co-authors with diverse knowledge and skills enhance scholars’ knowledgeand experience through decreasing the research project process, including writing and revision process of publication (asthe output of the work) and also improving the impact."

 

Source:

 

Journal of Informetrics

Volume 7, Issue 3, July 2013, Pages 683–692

  Research impact and scholars’ geographical diversityAlireza Abbasi,   Ali Jaafarihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.04.004,


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Marilyn Korhonen's comment, June 10, 2013 4:23 PM
The results reveal that research impact is positively associated with all levels of collaboration metrics. Thus, in general, the publications with more diverse authors (collaborations) have better impact especially if the collaborations are more external rather than internal, considering their affiliations’ departments and institutes but more internal collaborations considering their country.
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DropTask - Visual Task Management for Individuals and Teams

DropTask - Visual Task Management for Individuals and Teams | The Random Me | Scoop.it
Visualize your workload like never before with DropTask, a complete reimagining of task management on the web.

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AC Norman's curator insight, August 6, 2013 6:46 PM

To do-variant.

Mary A. Axford's curator insight, August 12, 2013 9:05 AM

Haven't tried it, but FYI.

Mike Carrington's curator insight, August 14, 2013 7:13 PM

Like the idea - should make dividing large tasks into manageable chunks much simpler. Could be useful for organising myself and for organising school group work.

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Infographie : "How will the MOOCs make money?" ...

Infographie : "How will the MOOCs make money?" ... | The Random Me | Scoop.it
uTOP Inria's insight: (Pandodaily - 22 août 2013) (Infographie : "How will the #MOOCs make money?
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Integrating Game Design Principles into Instructional Design for e-Learning

Integrating Game Design Principles into Instructional Design for e-Learning | The Random Me | Scoop.it
These are my live blogged notes from the webinar. Any typos, awkward phrasing, or errors are mine, not the presenter's. My side commentary in italics. Integrating Game Design Principles into Instru...
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3 Major Misconceptions about ELearning | LearnDash

3 Major Misconceptions about ELearning | LearnDash | The Random Me | Scoop.it
While many people (including myself) contest that elearning is a viable solution for organizations large and small, there are some unfortunate misconceptions regarding elearning that decrease its effectiveness.
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The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research, 2nd Edition - Free eBook Share

The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research, 2nd Edition - Free eBook Share | The Random Me | Scoop.it
eBook Free Download: The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research, 2nd Edition | PDF, EPUB | ISBN: 0495601438 | 2009-03-03 | English | PutLocker

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Fox eBook's curator insight, August 15, 2013 8:54 PM

Don’t worry; you don’t need a lot of math to ace statistics. Not with THE ESSENTIALS OF STATISTICS: A TOOL FOR RESEARCH, that is. It’s practical, it’s easy to follow, and it explains the basics of statistics in ways you can understand without the complicated math. Plus, it’s packed with study tools so you can get ready for the test with no problem!

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

PART I: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Chapter 2: Basic Descriptive Statistics: Percentages, Ratios and Rates, Frequency Distributions
Chapter 3: Charts and Graphs
Chapter 4: Measures of Central Tendency
Chapter 5: Measures of Dispersion
Chapter 6: The Normal Curve

PART II: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
Chapter 7: Introduction to Inferential Statistics, the Sampling Distribution, and Estimation
Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing I: The One-Sample Case
Chapter 9: Hypothesis Testing II: The Two-Sample Case
Chapter 10: Hypothesis Testing III: The Analysis of Variance
Chapter 11: Hypothesis Testing IV: Chi Square

PART III: BIVARIATE MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION
Chapter 12: Introduction to Bivariate Association and Measures of Association for Variables Measured at the Nominal Level
Chapter 13: Association Between Variables Measured at the Ordinal Level
Chapter 14: Association Between Variables Measured at the Interval-Ratio Level

PART IV: MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES
Chapter 15: Partial Correlation and Multiple Regression and Correlation

Appendix A: Area Under the Normal Curve
Appendix B: Distribution of t
Appendix C: Distribution of Chi Square
Appendix D: Distribution of F
Appendix E: Using Statistics: Ideas for Research Projects
Appendix F: An Introduction to SPSS for Windows
Appendix G: Code Book for the General Social Survey, 2006
Appendix H: Glossary of Symbols
Answers to Odd-Numbered Computational Problems

 

Free Download Here: http://www.foxebook.net/the-essentials-of-statistics-a-tool-for-social-research-2nd-edition/

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Lift Weights Without The Weights

Lift Weights Without The Weights | The Random Me | Scoop.it
Toning up with bulky cast-iron weights could be a thing of the past with the invention of "magnetic" dumbbells. The sleek and innovative O2 Magnetic Dumbbells consist solely of two electro-magnetic rings worn above and below the elbow.

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Nike+ FuelBand and Jawbone UP workout data can now be synced with your MapMyFitness account

Nike+ FuelBand and Jawbone UP workout data can now be synced with your MapMyFitness account | The Random Me | Scoop.it
MapMyFitness continues to embrace the growing popularity of health and fitness wearables after adding support for the Nike+ FuelBand and UP wristband by Jawbone.

UP users can now ...

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How Is Information Technology Changing Healthcare? [INFOGRAPHIC]

How Is Information Technology Changing Healthcare? [INFOGRAPHIC] | The Random Me | Scoop.it
"Health informatics" is the intersection of healthcare, information technology and business. Check out an infographic explaining this healthcare-IT mashup.

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Lara Cooke's curator insight, August 19, 2013 12:25 AM

New ways to teach MDs?

Keith Russell's curator insight, September 12, 2013 7:07 PM

Nice infographic.......

Sandra Davidson's curator insight, February 3, 11:42 AM

Neat infographic about health informatics

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E-learning enhances business performance | IT-Online

E-learning enhances business performance | IT-Online | The Random Me | Scoop.it
The e-learning industry is currently worth nearly $6-billion in the US and an estimated 77% of American companies are using online learning to develop and...
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Creating a Course: "Understanding by Design"

Creating a Course: "Understanding by Design" | The Random Me | Scoop.it

“A synthesis of cognitive research endorses the idea that deep understanding of subject matter transforms factual information into usable knowledge. Knowledge learned at the level of rote memory rarely transfers; transfer most likely occurs when the learner knows and understands underlying concepts and principles that can be applied to problems in new contexts. Learning with understanding is more likely to promote transfer and application than simply memorizing information from a text or lecture.”

"This post will outline how to design a course or unit in any subject using research-based tools that have come out of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL)."


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AACSB 2013 Business Accreditation Standards: new impact metrics covering all core business of impactelligent business schools, research, engagement and teaching

AACSB 2013 Business Accreditation Standards: new impact metrics covering all core business of impactelligent business schools, research, engagement  and teaching | The Random Me | Scoop.it

Impact: In an environment of increasing accountability, it is important that AACSB accreditation focus on appropriate high-quality inputs (human, financial, physical, etc.) and the outcomes of those inputs within the context of the business school's mission and supporting strategies. That is, in the accreditation process, business schools must document how they are making a difference and having impact. This means that AACSB will continue to emphasize that business schools integrate assurance of learning into their curriculum management processes and produce intellectual contributions that make a positive impact on business theory, teaching, or practice. Impact also has a broader meaning in that the business school, through the articulation and execution of its mission, should make a difference in business and society as well as in the global community of business schools and management educators.Examples of metrics that schools might use to assess the impact of their activities, including scholarship and the creation of intellectual contributions, are provided below. Some activities, including scholarship, may have multiple impacts, while others have limited or no impact. Sometimes the impact of an activity or intellectual contribution may not be known or identifiable for a number of years. It is also important to note that evidence that intellectual contribution outcomes have "made a difference" may result from a single outcome produced by one or more faculty members and/or students, a series or compilations of works, or collaborative work with colleagues at other institutions or in practice. The list of categories and examples provided below is not intended to be limiting or exhaustive. Schools may identify and report other examples not included here.

Mission Alignment Impact

 

Alignment of intellectual contribution outcomes with themes or focus areas valued by the business school's mission (e.g., global development, entrepreneurship, innovation)

 

Percentage of intellectual contribution outcomes that align with one or more "mission-related" focus areas for research

 

Percentage of faculty with one or more intellectual contribution outcomes that align with one or more mission-related focus areas

 

Research awards and recognition that document alignment with one or more "mission-related" focus areas for research

 

Substantive impact and carry-forward of mission as stated in Standard 1 and as referenced throughout the remaining accreditation standards

 

Linkage between mission as stated in Standard 1 and financial history and strategies as stated in Standard 3

 

A: ACADEMIC IMPACT

 

Publications in highly recognized, leading peer-review journals (journals in a designated journal list, Top 3, Top 10, etc.)

 

Citation counts

 

Download counts for electronic journals

 

Editorships, associate editorships, editorial board memberships, and/or invitations to act as journal reviewers for recognized, leading peer-review journals

 

Elections or appointments to leadership positions in academic and/or professional associations and societies

 

Recognitions for research (e.g., Best Paper Award), Fellow Status in an academic society, and other recognition by professional and/or academic societies for intellectual contribution outcomes

 

Invitations to participate in research conferences, scholarly programs, and/or international, national, or regional research forums

 

Inclusion of academic work in the syllabi of other professors' courses

 

Use of academic work in doctoral seminars

 

Competitive grants awarded by major national and international agencies (e.g., NSF and NIH) or third-party funding for research projects

 

Patents awarded

 

Appointments as visiting professors or scholars in other schools or a set of schools

 

B: TEACHING IMPACT

 

Grants for research that influence teaching/pedagogical practices, materials, etc.

 

Case studies of research leading to the adoption of new teaching/learning practices

 

Textbooks, teaching manuals, etc., that are widely adopted (by number of editions, number of downloads, number of views, use in teaching, sales volume, etc.)

 

Publications that focus on research methods and teaching

 

Research-based learning projects with companies, institutions, and/or non-profit organizations

 

Instructional software (by number of programs developed, number of users, etc.)

 

Case study development (by number of studies developed, number of users, etc.)

 

C: BACHELOR'S/MASTER'S LEVEL EDUCATION IMPACT

 

Mentorship of student research reflected in the number of student papers produced under faculty supervision that lead to publications or formal presentations at academic or professional conferences

 

Documented improvements in learning outcomes that result from teaching innovations that incorporate research methods from learning/pedagogical research projects

 

Hiring/placement of students

 

Career success of graduates beyond initial placement

 

Placement of students in research-based graduate programs

 

Direct input from organizations that hire graduates regarding graduates' preparedness for jobs and the roles they play in advancing the organization

 

Movement of graduates into positions of leadership in for-profit, non-profit, and professional and service organizations

 

D: DOCTORAL EDUCATION IMPACT

 

Hiring/placement of doctoral students, junior faculty, and post-doctoral research assistants

 

Publications of doctoral students and graduates

 

Invited conference attendance, as well as awards/nominations for doctoral students/graduates

 

Research fellowships awarded to doctoral students/graduates

 

Funding awards for students engaged in activities related to doctoral research

 

Case studies that document the results of doctoral research training activities, such as the transfer of knowledge to industry and impact on corporate or community practices

 

Research outputs of junior faculty members (including post-doctoral junior professors, assistant professors, doctoral research assistants, and doctoral students) that have been influenced by their mentors/supervisors

 

E: PRACTICE/COMUNITY IMPACT

 

Media citations (e.g., number, distribution, and effect)

 

Requests from the practice community to utilize faculty expertise for consulting projects, broadcast forums, researcher-practitioner meetings, faculty/student consulting projects, etc.

 

Publications in practitioner journals or other venues aimed directly at improving management expertise and practice

 

Consulting reports

 

Research income from various external sources such as industry and community/governmental agencies to support individual and collaborative research activities

 

Case studies based on research that has led to solutions to business problems

 

Adoption of new practices or operational approaches as a result of faculty scholarship

 

Presentations and workshops for business and management professionals

 

Invitations for faculty to serve as experts on policy formulation, witnesses at legislative hearings, members of special interest groups/roundtables, etc.

 

Tools/methods developed for companies

 

Memberships on boards of directors of corporate and non-profit organizations

 

F: EXECUTVE EDUCATION IMPACT

 

Sustained and consistent involvement of research-active faculty in executive education programs

 

Sustained success of executive education programs based on demand, level of participation, and repeat business

 

Market research confirming value of executive education programs delivered by research-active faculty

 

Consulting activities of research active faculty that stem from participation in executive education activities

 

Inclusion of cases and other materials in degree programs that can be identified as resulting from executive education activity

 

Partnerships between the school and organizations that participate in executive education programs, which benefit the school's teaching, research, and other activities and programs

 

Involvement of executive education participants and their organizations in the teaching mission of the school (e.g., executive-in-residence program)

 

Linkage between organizations participating in executive education and student internships, as well as placement of graduates in entry-level positions

 

G: RESEARCH CENTRE IMPACT

 

Invitations by governmental or other agencies/organizations for center representatives to serve on policy-making bodies

 

Center research projects funded by external governmental, business, or non-profit agencies

 

Continued funding (e.g., number of donors, scale of donations)

 

Number of web visits to research center website (e.g., tracking data from Google Analytics)

 

Number of attendees (representing academics, practitioners, policymakers, etc.) at center-sponsored events

 

Sustained research center publications that are funded by external sources or that are highly recognized as authoritative sources of analysis and perspectives related to the center's core focus

Fulltext AACSB standards: http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation/business/standards/2013/2013-business-standards.pdf

 


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How good is research really? Measuring the citation impact of publications with percentiles increases correct assessments and fair comparisons

How good is research really? Measuring the citation impact of publications with percentiles increases correct assessments and fair comparisons | The Random Me | Scoop.it

The goal of bibliometric research itself is the development and testing of new performance indicators for research evaluation. For example, to address specific disadvantages of the original h index, nearly 40 variants of the h index have been proposed, most of which are redundant in terms of their application. We need new citation impact indicators that normalize for any factors other than quality that influence citation rates and that take into account the skewed distributions of citations across papers. The percentile indicators described in this paper might provide a solution.

 

The authors:" In addition to analysing the distribution of percentiles, it is possible to focus on percentile rank classes. Bornmann proposes—also as an alternative to the hindex —the Ptop 10% or PPtop 10% indicators, which can be considered to belong to the group of ‘success indicators’ in bibliometrics, to evaluate an institute. These indicators count the number of successful publications by a research unit, taking into account normalization over age and field. Ptop 10% is the number and PPtop 10% is the proportion of publications that belong to the top 10% most frequently cited publications. A publication belongs to this group if it is cited more often than 90% of publications published in the same field and in the same year."

 

"Ptop 10% and PPtop 10% have the additional benefit that they do not use an arbitrary threshold to determine the successful publications in a set, which is a disadvantage of the h index."

 

"PPtop 10% offers a third advantage over the h index in terms of allowing direct comparisons between publication sets. Statistically, it could be expected that 10% of publications from a random sample (drawn from InCites) would belong to the top 10% of the most-cited publications in a given subject category and publication year. The expected PPtop 10% would therefore be 10%."

 

 

Source:

science & societyEMBO reports (2013) 14, 226 - 230 doi:10.1038/embor.2013.9How good is research really?

Measuring the citation impact of publications with percentiles increases correct assessments and fair comparisons

Lutz Bornmann & Werner Marx


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Facebook makes users feel envious, dissatisfied: German study reveals social network's big role in users' emotional life

Facebook makes users feel envious, dissatisfied: German study reveals social network's big role in users' emotional life | The Random Me | Scoop.it

In a joint research study conducted by the Department of Information Systems of the TU Darmstadt (Prof. Dr. Peter Buxmann) and the Institute of Information Systems of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Dr. Hanna Krasnova), Facebook members were surveyed regarding their feelings after using the platform. More than one-third of respondents reported predominantly negative feelings, such as frustration. The researchers identified that envying their "Facebook friends" is the major reason for this result.

 

Project manager Dr. Hanna Krasnova, who is currently a post-doctoral researcher at the Humboldt-Universität, explained that, "Although respondents were reluctant to admit feeling envious while on Facebook, they often presumed that envy can be the cause behind the frustration of "others" on this platform -- a clear indication that envy is a salient phenomenon in the Facebook context. Indeed, access to copious positive news and the profiles of seemingly successful 'friends' fosters social comparison that can readily provoke envy. By and large, online social networks allow users unprecedented access to information on relevant others -- insights that would be much more difficult to obtain offline." Those who do not engage in any active, interpersonal communications on social networks and primarily utilize them as sources of information, e.g. reading friends' postings, checking news feeds, or browsing through photos, are particularly subject to these painful experiences.


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