Both produce benefits but walking cuts risk of heart trouble by a greater amount when the same energy is expended-
Brisk walking reduces the risk of heart disease more effectively than running when the energy expenditure of both activities is balanced out, a study has found.
Researchers compared data from two studies of 33,060 runners and 15,045 walkers. For the same amount of energy used, walkers experienced greater health benefits than runners.
The effects on participants, who were aged 18 to 80, were observed over a period of six years.
Running reduced the risk of heart disease by 4.5% while walking reduced it by 9.3%.
Calorie for calorie, walking also had a stronger impact on heart disease risk factors. The risk of first-time high blood pressure was reduced by 4.2% by running and 7.2% by walking.
First-time high cholesterol risk was lowered by 4.3% by running and 7% by walking.
The risk of first-time diabetes was reduced by about 12% by both walking and running.
"Walking and running provide an ideal test of the health benefits of moderate-intensity walking and vigorous-intensity running because they involve the same muscle groups and the same activities performed at different intensities," said study leader Dr Paul Williams, from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California.
In May, Google launched the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab with hardware from the Canadian quantum computing company D-Wave and technical expertise from NASA. It was an ambitious open research project aimed at exploring both the capabilities of quantum computer architecture and the mysteries of space exploration — but in the months since, they've stayed quiet about exactly what kind of work they've been doing there.Tomorrow, they're breaking the silence with a brief short film, set to debut at the Imagine Science Films Festival at Google New York. The film takes a look at various researchers working on the project, as well as the computer itself, which has to be operated at near-absolute-zero temperatures. Researchers hope the quantum architecture will eventually be used to optimize solutions across complex and interconnected sets of variables currently outside the capabilities of conventional computing. That could allow for new solutions in computational medicine or help NASA to construct a more comprehensive picture of the known universe. "We don't know what the best questions are to ask that computer," says NASA's Eleanor Rieffel in the video. "That's exactly what we're trying to understand."
Utah biotech firm to argue its patents on breast and ovarian cancer genes are necessary to fund further research
The US supreme court will hear oral arguments next week to decide whether companies can patent human genes, in a landmark case which could alter the course of US medical research and the battle against diseases such as breast and ovarian cancer.
A coalition of scientists, cancer survivors, patients, breast cancer groups and professional medical associations, which has brought the case, will argue that genes are "products of nature", like organs of the body and should not be exploited for commercial gain.
Such patents are illegal and violate the first amendment, they say. They are challenging patents on two genes linked to breast and ovarian cancer owned by Myriad Genetics, a biotechnology company, because they say the patents have stymied research and the free exchange of ideas.
Myriad, based in Salt Lake City, Utah, will ask the court to uphold the patents, which it says is vital compensation for developing a potentially life-saving test to asses the risks of breast and ovarian cancer and to advance medicine. Myriad's BRACAnalysis test looks for mutations on the breast cancer predisposition gene, or BRCA.
In March 2010, a New York district court agreed with an American Civil Liberties Union challenge to Myriad's patents on "isolated" forms of BRCA1 and BRCA2, by arguing that genes should not be patented. But the US Court of Appeals for the federal court has now ruled twice that the isolated genes patented in Myriad's case has a "markedly different chemical structure" from DNA within the body.
Breast Cancer Action, one of the plaintiffs in the case, said that the patents has meant that Myriad has become "the gatekeeper of all research on the BRCA gene".
The Obesity Policy Coalition has applauded the Victorian Government’s Healthy Eating Enterprise stating it is going to the heart of the issue and tackling some of the key drivers of obesity by integrating and embedding principles around healthy eating where people work, play and live.