the plastic brain
Follow
Find
7.4K views | +1 today
the plastic brain
learning changes the brain
Curated by iPamba
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Brain Formation Pattern Shows Why Early Trauma May Leave No Clues

Brain Formation Pattern Shows Why Early Trauma May Leave No Clues | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Researchers discovered the first known instance where a set of inhibitory interneurons comes into a brain region early in development to lay down a template for a later network. Image is for illustrative purposes only.

 

Some of the earliest nerve cells to develop in the womb shape brain circuits that process sights and sounds, but then give way to mature networks that convert this sensory information into thoughts. This is the finding of a study led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center and published in the February 3 edition ofNeuron.

Specifically, the study in mice found that nerve circuit templates in part of the brain’s cortex – the layer that regulates thought and memory – are first laid down during mammalian development by nerve cells that secrete the signaling chemical somatostatin (SST). Later in the process, a second wave of related nerve cells, parvalbumin (PV) neurons, arrives to build the faster, more precise circuits needed for higher brain functions.

The study results could advance the understanding of neurologic and psychiatric conditions like epilepsy, schizophrenia, and others that have been linked by past studies to unexplained problems in adult PV nerve networks. According to the study authors, many PV defects could have their origin, not during adult life, but instead in the SST templates that set circuit parameters in the first place.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

A simple way to break a bad habit

A simple way to break a bad habit | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Can we break bad habits by being more curious about them? Psychiatrist Judson Brewer studies the relationship between mindfulness and addiction -- from smoking to overeating to all those other things we do even though we know they're bad for us. Learn more about the mechanism of habit development and discover a simple but profound tactic that might help you beat your next urge to smoke, snack or check a text while driving.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Can We Decipher the Language of the Brain?

Can We Decipher the Language of the Brain? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
A new initiative gets us closer to understanding how our brain cells communicate
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Conversational Skills Improved in People With Autism by Blood Pressure Medication

Conversational Skills Improved in People With Autism by Blood Pressure Medication | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Marc Lewis: The Biology of Desire - Rethinking Addiction

Marc Lewis: The Biology of Desire - Rethinking Addiction | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Author Marc Lewis joins The Agenda to discuss why he believes society needs to rethink how it treats addiction.

 

TVO - About This Video:

"Marc Lewis says the disease model of addiction is wrong and has become an obstacle to healing. He joins The Agenda to explain how treatment through the disease model often fails, and why it needs to be retooled to help people overcome their addiction."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Epilepsy Drug Could Protect From Nerve Damage in Multiple Sclerosis

Epilepsy Drug Could Protect From Nerve Damage in Multiple Sclerosis | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Children With Sensory Processing Disorder Have Altered Pathways for Brain Connectivity

Children With Sensory Processing Disorder Have Altered Pathways for Brain Connectivity | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

You Can Count On It: Both Hemispheres of the Brain Process Numbers

You Can Count On It: Both Hemispheres of the Brain Process Numbers | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Mindfulness: the craze sweeping through schools is now at a university near you

Mindfulness: the craze sweeping through schools is now at a university near you | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Even Cambridge is offering sessions to combat an increase in student stress. But is mindfulness, as some critics insist, just a silly fad?
more...
Lon Woodbury's curator insight, January 26, 7:20 PM

Is "mindfulness" taking on the aspects of a "fad?"  This reminds me of the saying something along the lines of:  -Nothing can be so positive that Americans can't overdo it-. -Lon

Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Can the "Critical Periods" Be Reinstated Later in Life to Correct Developmental Problems?

Can the "Critical Periods" Be Reinstated Later in Life to Correct Developmental Problems? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
A neuroscientist from Harvard studies how to restore the malleability of a child’s brain later in life
more...
Frances's curator insight, January 25, 8:12 AM

How much do we know about how the brain works?

Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Migraine Frequency Decreased by Medical Marijuana

Migraine Frequency Decreased by Medical Marijuana | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Patients diagnosed with migraine headaches saw a significant drop in their frequency when treated with medical marijuana, according to a new study from researchers at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

The study, published this week in the journal Pharmacotherapy, examined patients diagnosed with migraines and treated with medical marijuana between Jan. 2010 and Sept. 2014. It found the frequency of migraines dropped from 10.4 to 4.6 headaches per month, a number considered statistically and clinically significant.

Of the 121 patients studied, 103 reported a decrease in monthly migraines while 15 reported the same number and three saw an increase in migraines.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Can a brain scan uncover your morals?

Can a brain scan uncover your morals? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Brains images are becoming standard evidence in some of the country’s most controversial and disturbing death penalty trials – including the case of Steven Northington
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

How Can I "See" Memories?

How Can I "See" Memories? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Answered by Jame Ward, professor of cognitive neuroscience, U. of Sussex

"Constructing a mental image relies on coordinating several different processes in the brain. The hippocampus, long regarded as the main storage site for memories of complex events, has recently—and perhaps surprisingly—been found to be important for imagining new or fictitious events. Indeed, recent research has shown that patients with damage to the hippocampus not only have problems remembering the past, they also struggle to imagine the future.

Although the hippocampus may be involved in combining various elements from a real or imagined scene, it probably has little to do with the experience of “seeing” an image in your mind. Creating a mental image requires further coordination involving regions of the brain that contribute to vision, such as the parietal lobes—which aid in perceiving spatial relations and perspective—and the temporal lobes—which help us to discern shape, color and faces. When we recall a friend's face, for instance, we activate the same neurons that would be involved in actually seeing the person if he or she was standing right in front of us, as well as those neurons in the hippocampus that encode memories. Thus, intriguingly, with mental imagery, we see from the inside out rather than the outside in."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Neural Pathway Responsible for Opioid Withdrawal Discovered

Neural Pathway Responsible for Opioid Withdrawal Discovered | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Stanford researchers manipulated the brains of morphine-addicted mice and allowed the animals to overcome withdrawal symptoms. The finding could offer a new approach to quieting symptoms that often lead to recurring drug use.

In addition to the desire to experience a “high,” one of the obstacles drug addicts encounter is the difficulty of overcoming a myriad of harsh withdrawal symptoms including anxiety, depression, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. When people learn to associate the loss of drug use with the pain of withdrawal, it can create an urge to use that is as strong as the “high” itself, making it even more difficult to quit.

Some of these symptoms can be partially managed, but new research by Stanford biologists holds the promise to develop a more effective treatment for drug addiction by suppressing the urges at their origin within the brain.

A recent discovery by Stanford scientists has both pinpointed and controlled nerve centers in the brain that react to this aversive withdrawal stimuli. In this study, scientists were able to eliminate negative reactions to opiate withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

“Most research that studies drug addiction is focused on the reward pathway because that is the reason you start to take drugs, but people who really get addicted also take drugs to get rid of the withdrawal effect. This is especially important in opiate addiction,” said lead investigator Xiaoke Chen, an assistant professor of biology at Stanford.

The research, published in the current issue of Nature, began by studying the nucleus accumbens, a group of neurons in the brain that is commonly associated with drug reward. Other studies, however, have also shown that it responds to aversive stimuli, including drug withdrawal.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Pinpointing How The Brain Controls Our Written Words

Pinpointing How The Brain Controls Our Written Words | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Research Replicates a Folding Human Brain in 3D

Research Replicates a Folding Human Brain in 3D | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Rhythmic Brain Waves Help Integrate Memories

Rhythmic Brain Waves Help Integrate Memories | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Humans have the remarkably ability to integrate information from multiple memories and infer indirect relationships. But how does our brain support this important function? Neuroscientists from the Donders Institute at Radboud University (Nijmegen, the Netherlands) have now shown that rhythmic brain waves, called theta oscillations, engage and synchronize the brain regions that support the integration of memories. The results were published in the journal Current Biology.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Why do we dream? - Amy Adkins

Why do we dream? - Amy Adkins | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
In the 3rd millennium BCE, Mesopotamian kings recorded and interpreted their dreams on wax tablets. In the years since, we haven't paused in our quest to understand why we dream. And while we still...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Like Mother, Like Daughter--the Science Says So, Too

Like Mother, Like Daughter--the Science Says So, Too | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
A new study bolsters evidence that brain structure and mood disorders are genetically passed from mother to daughter
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Inflammatory Changes in the Brain Appear Twenty Years Before Alzheimer’s Onset

Inflammatory Changes in the Brain Appear Twenty Years Before Alzheimer’s Onset | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

How the Brain Reacts to Scrambled Stories

How the Brain Reacts to Scrambled Stories | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Research shows that people tend to prefer linear narratives, but can also be engaged by just the right amount of disruption.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Is Dementia Risk Falling?

Is Dementia Risk Falling? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
By Esther Landhuis on January 25, 2016

"Cases are more prevalent but the risk of cognitive decline shows a surprising drop in some countries"

"The percent of adults over 70 years of age with cognitive impairment dropped from 12.2 to 8.7 between 1993 and 2002. "


more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

How Our Memories Guide Attention

How Our Memories Guide Attention | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
A team of researchers has discovered that differences in the types of memories we have influence the nature of our future encounters. Their findings show how distinct parts of the brain, underlying different kinds of memories, also influence our attention in new situations.

“We’ve long understood there are different types of memories, but what these findings reveal are how different kinds of memories can drive our attention in the future,” explains Elizabeth Goldfarb, the study’s lead author and a doctoral candidate in NYU’s Department of Psychology.

It’s been established that the types of memories we have include episodic memories—characterized by our recollections of the contextual details of life events, such as remembering the layout and location of objects in a familiar room —as well as “habitual” or “rigid” memories. The latter are frequently invoked in our daily lives and are reflexive in nature—for instance, if you take a right turn at a stop sign you pass on your way to work everyday, and you then habitually take a right instead of a left even when you are not going to work.

Previous research has shown that these different types of memories depend on different brain systems, with the hippocampus important for episodic memories and the striatum mediating habitual memories. Less understood, however, are the neurological processes by which these different kinds of memories can function as guides of attention to novel situations.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

Childhood Depression and Altered Brain Connectivity Linked to Poverty

Childhood Depression and Altered Brain Connectivity Linked to Poverty | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Functional MRI scans show areas in the brains of poor children with normal connectivity highlighted in red and blue, and weakened connectivity shown in green. The areas in green are among several areas — detailed in other brain scans — where connections are weakened in children raised in poverty. Credit: Deanna Barch.

 

"Many negative consequences are linked to growing up poor, and researchers at Washington University St. Louis have identified one more: altered brain connectivity.

Analyzing brain scans of 105 children ages 7 to 12, the researchers found that key structures in the brain are connected differently in poor children than in kids raised in more affluent settings. In particular, the brain’s hippocampus — a structure key to learning, memory and regulation of stress — and the amygdala — which is linked to stress and emotion — connect to other areas of the brain differently in poor children than in kids whose families had higher incomes.

Those connections, viewed using functional MRI scans, were weaker, depending on the degree of poverty to which a child was exposed. The poorer the family, the more likely the hippocampus and amygdala would connect to other brain structures in ways the researchers characterized as weaker. In addition, poorer preschoolers were much more likely to have symptoms of clinical depression when they reached school age.

The study is available online Friday, Jan. 15, in The American Journal of Psychiatry."

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by iPamba
Scoop.it!

What Is Autism?

What Is Autism? | the plastic brain | Scoop.it
Steven Shapin on “In a Different Key: The Story of Autism,” by John Donovan and Caren Zucker.

 

"The world is unpredictable and disorderly. Sometimes your train is late; sometimes it rains when it’s not supposed to; the drugstore doesn’t have the brand of dental floss you like. Boundaries are violated and rules are ignored. The green spinach on your plate touches the white chicken, and someone has bought your boxer shorts from J. C. Penney instead of from Kmart. People are hard to figure out. Sometimes they promise and don’t deliver; it’s not clear whether the expression on a face is a smile or a sneer, or, if it is a smile, what it’s about. People say things that they don’t mean literally: they tell jokes and they use ironic expressions. Other people’s minds are a foreign country in which we’re guests, tourists, or strangers, unsure where we are and what’s expected of us.

"Some people accept all this as the way things are in an imperfect world, and they get on with life as best they can. Others find these unpredictabilities intolerable. To cope, they construct physical and mental neighborhoods where things are more regular and better arranged. Repetition reassures, whether it’s to do with your environment, your speech, or your bodily movements. People want these sorts of order with different degrees of necessity, secure them with different kinds of success, and, when they don’t succeed, react to failure with different degrees of despair and disengagement."

more...
No comment yet.