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The Sharing Economy Lacks A Shared Definition

The Sharing Economy Lacks A Shared Definition | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

You may have noticed the terms “sharing economy,” “peer economy,” “collaborative economy,” and “collaborative consumption” being used synonymously. Ideas like “crowdsourcing,” the “maker movement,” and “co-creation” are being thrown into the mix. The space is getting muddy and the definitions are being bent out of shape to suit different purposes. So, do I think these terms have different meanings? Yes. Are their common core ideas that explain the overlap? Absolutely.

 

People have asked me why I have not publicly clarified this earlier. To be honest, it is hard to do so without being accused of trying to “defend” a term. The words used concern me less than how they are being defined, and the core meaning of the space being misunderstood. Definitions are hard, especially when they are trying to capture new ideas never expressed before. As Bertrand Russell famously once said: “Everything is vague to a degree you do not realize until you have tried to make it precise.” When I first began writing about this space nobody knew how big it might get. Its growth and expanding nature are, for the most part, a good thing but we need clear definitions that will enable us to move forward with a common understanding.

ddrrnt's insight:

ht @Zaq Mosher  https://twitter.com/wwjimd/status/406893277984849920

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New Rules for the New Economy

New Rules for the New Economy | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

1) Embrace the Swarm. As power flows away from the center, the competitive advantage belongs to those who learn how to embrace decentralized points of control.

2) Increasing Returns. As the number of connections between people and things add up, the consequences of those connections multiply out even faster, so that initial successes aren't self-limiting, but self-feeding.

3) Plentitude, Not Scarcity. As manufacturing techniques perfect the art of making copies plentiful, value is carried by abundance, rather than scarcity, inverting traditional business propositions.

4) Follow the Free. As resource scarcity gives way to abundance, generosity begets wealth. Following the free rehearses the inevitable fall of prices, and takes advantage of the only true scarcity: human attention.

5) Feed the Web First. As networks entangle all commerce, a firm's primary focus shifts from maximizing the firm's value to maximizing the network's value. Unless the net survives, the firm perishes.

6) Let Go at the Top. As innovation accelerates, abandoning the highly successful in order to escape from its eventual obsolescence becomes the most difficult and yet most essential task.

7) From Places to Spaces. As physical proximity (place) is replaced by multiple interactions with anything, anytime, anywhere (space), the opportunities for intermediaries, middlemen, and mid-size niches expand greatly.

8) No Harmony, All Flux. As turbulence and instability become the norm in business, the most effective survival stance is a constant but highly selective disruption that we call innovation.

9) Relationship Tech. As the soft trumps the hard, the most powerful technologies are those that enhance, amplify, extend, augment, distill, recall, expand, and develop soft relationships of all types.

10) Opportunities Before Efficiencies. As fortunes are made by training machines to be ever more efficient, there is yet far greater wealth to be had by unleashing the inefficient discovery and creation of new opportunities.


Via Xaos, Spaceweaver
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Xaos's curator insight, December 19, 2012 3:24 AM

1) Embrace the Swarm. As power flows away from the center, the competitive advantage belongs to those who learn how to embrace decentralized points of control.

2) Increasing Returns. As the number of connections between people and things add up, the consequences of those connections multiply out even faster, so that initial successes aren't self-limiting, but self-feeding.

3) Plentitude, Not Scarcity. As manufacturing techniques perfect the art of making copies plentiful, value is carried by abundance, rather than scarcity, inverting traditional business propositions.

4) Follow the Free. As resource scarcity gives way to abundance, generosity begets wealth. Following the free rehearses the inevitable fall of prices, and takes advantage of the only true scarcity: human attention.

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An economy that serves people and nature, not the other way around

An economy that serves people and nature, not the other way around | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Snippets from Christine Milne's speech at the National Press Club in Canberra.

26 Sep 2012


"The economy is a tool; a tool we humans invented - like democracy and politics - to help govern our relationships between each other, and between ourselves and the world we live in. If our economic tools are not getting the outcomes we want, making us happy, safe, healthy, better educated and fulfilled and protecting and preparing our country for an increasingly uncertain future in a world on track to be 4 degrees warming, then it is time our economic tools changed."


"Most of the battles of political philosophy over the last two centuries have been about competing views of how to run an economy. Where the old economic right, broadly speaking, has sought to create a 'strong' economy and the old left sought to create a 'fair' economy, neither has grappled with how an economy can be strong or fair when ecological limits are being reached: 'without environment there is no economy'."


"What is not excusable is that the old parties continue to do so. They have failed to keep up over recent decades when the huge ecological challenges of the 21st century - from accelerating global warming to food and water shortages, from air and water pollution to energy crises and resource depletion in a world headed to 9 billion people - have become overwhelming. How can we say we are working towards a strong or fair economy when we aren't addressing these challenges? Just as we hit the limits, the big old parties are moving closer to each other and further out of touch with what people and the real world need."


"To set us on our new path, a path to an economy which serves the needs of people and nature, both for today and for tomorrow:

  • We will need new economic tools;
  • We will need to learn to do more with less;
  • We will need to reprioritise our investments; and
  • We will need sensible management of taxation and revenue to fund these investments.
It is a case of rethink, reduce, reuse and recycle"

"What will be different is that we will have replaced the idea that Australia's wealth is dependent on digging-it-up, cutting-it-down and shipping-it-overseas with the knowledge that our prosperity depends at a personal and collective level on our brains, on our health, on our creativity and on a healthy environment."


"But are the Greens actually anti-growth? That depends on what you are growing and how it is measured. I am for growing natural, human, social, manufactured and financial capital and I am against growing global warming, species extinction, poverty, poor health, inequality, conflict and corruption."


"The Greens want to see everyone given the opportunity to "practise the Art of Living", we want to see people lifted out of poverty, and we know that unless this is done while protecting the environment which sustains us it can only last a very short time. That is what growth is supposed to achieve. The problem is, we measure it with the wrong tools; tools which tell us we're growing when in fact we're not.

If economic growth as it is currently measured isn't actually making us happier, healthier, cleverer or safer then it isn't real growth. If we are growing our economy in defiance of physical limits, that isn't real growth: it's a confidence trick."

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Archive for ‘P2PF/Orange Report’: Synthetic overview of the collaborative economy full appendixes

Archive for ‘P2PF/Orange Report’: Synthetic overview of the collaborative economy full appendixes | The Next Edge | Scoop.it
Rushkoff on “Synthetic Overview of the Collaborative Economy Report”   “There is no longer any excuse to remain ignorant of the vast peer-to-peer landscape that is slowly but surely replacing ...

Via Networked Labour - One Big Meshwork
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Shareable: Governance of Open Source: George Dafermos Interview

Shareable: Governance of Open Source: George Dafermos Interview | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

In my opinion, the sharing economy has been feeding on and catering to some fundamental human needs and desires since the very dawn of civilisation. That does not mean it is not related to peer production. On the contrary, peer production reinforces collaborative consumption and the sharing economy. It does so in two main ways. It creates and evolves technological infrastructures which transform the scope of increasingly more activities and the context in which they take place, thus turning them into peer activities.


To illustrate, consider how users of P2P file-sharing networks have redefined the consumption of cultural goods like music as an essentially peer activity. Most readily visible, however, is the way in which peer production promotes the sharing economy by means of enriching the commons. If we think of the commons as a shareable economic infrastructure, then we can see clearly how peer production liberates the sharing economy from constraints long imposed upon it by exclusive property regimes.


George Dafermos from Delft University of Technology has been one of the few researchers specializing in the governance of free software communities and, thereby, has established more clear criteria for genuine peer production.

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Transforming the Economic System

Transforming the Economic System | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

The thing that I think is important about it, and why it could be transformative — including the direction that is represented by this cutting-edge part of the movement — is that it is asking itself: Are we up to, really, what it would take to transform an economic system? Not just doing projects isolated, but projects that build up and begin to ask that big, big questions in a strategic way, not simply a tactical way. …


I don’t think we here are talking about projects alone, I don’t think we are talking only about entrepreneurship, I don’t think we are talking only about impact investing.


I think we are talking — and I sometimes wear a historian’s hat — I think we are talking about laying down the foundations. … We are establishing the pre-history in this work, step by step, of the possible great transformation.


Via David Hodgson
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Shareable: Co-opoly Envisions a New Path for Making & Sharing

Shareable: Co-opoly Envisions a New Path for Making & Sharing | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Co-opoly is a new board game about cooperatives that used crowdfunding and fair trade in its production.


Crowdfunding, coworking, and open source have remade the world in substantive, meaningful ways and changed the course of how we conduct creative projects and business transactions alike. At the Toolbox for Education and Social Action, we put these new models to use making the widely celebrated board game, Co-opoly: The Game of Cooperatives. In less than a year, we’ve sold nearly 1,000 copies of Co-opoly to people in 20 countries around the world, which surpassed our wildest expectations. Like the models that inspired us, Co-opoly also tries to break the mold, redefining how we learn and play, and especially how games are made.


Via Rick Passo
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Polyeconomy - diverse types of coexisting economic systems

Polyeconomy - diverse types of coexisting economic systems | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

• currencies - They include mainstream currencies like dollar, euro, pound etc. As well as growing number of alternatives like bitcoin, ripple, LETS and more. They have in common creation of virtual artifact and attempting to use it for measuring people perceptions of values.


• barter - In barter people exchange directly without using any virtual artifacts like currencies. In most cases by just looking what each party has to offer and than simple exchanging it.


• timeshare - In timesharing communities people use a natural measurement - time. People consider everyone’s time having same value and don’t make up hourly rates as it often happens in currency based systems.


• shared benefit - Shared benefit systems make an assumption that if we decide to support something with our contributions. We care about outcome of such collective effort. By participating in them we have possibility of choosing how we want to direct certain share of such beneficial outcome. Collectives practicing it can use many various ways of assigning shares of created benefit to individual contributions.


• social karma - Various systems incorporating elements of trust and reputations related to concept of social karma In what we could consider its pure form, for our contributions we only ask for public confirmation of them. This way over time we build up a portfolio which we can later present to others. It can play very well in situations where we support causes which we find beneficial for everyone in general. Also when we want to share something scarce, like a round trip to the moon, we can take advantage of social karma in process of choosing to who we want to offer them.


• free sharing - This system requires no accounting at all. All transactions happen because we want to share and care about each other. As more and more goods we can make abundant it becomes much simpler to freely share them.


Via Christophe CESETTI
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Ferananda's comment, September 14, 2012 9:18 PM
Oh yes...polyeconomy in all levels of wealth. I love the beginning of the website. Can`t wait for more!
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Happy Planet Index

nef's Happy Planet Index is an innovative measure that shows the ecological efficiency with which human well-being is created around the world.


It is the first ever index to combine environmental impact with well-being to measure the environmental efficiency with which country by country, people live long and happy lives.


visit neweconomics.org for more.

also see video re: 21 hr work week.

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Future Money: Breakdown or Breakthrough?

Future Money: Breakdown or Breakthrough? | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

James Robertson has been described as the ‘grandfather of green economics’; he might equally be called the father of Renegade Economics: over the last three decades nobody has been more eloquent or straightforward in their advocacy of a new economic order.

 

Robertson's main focus has been the money system. Many years ago he identified the means by which money is created as the principal culprit in our failure to create a more just and sustainable society. In his new book, Future Money: Breakdown or Breakthrough? he summarises the problems with current monetary arrangements and offers an alternative which could set civilization on a much happier, healthier and long-lived course.


Via David Hodgson, Elle D'Coda
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Peer-to-peer production and the coming of the commons

Peer-to-peer production and the coming of the commons | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Our proposal is that the users of the commons should be commons-friendly enterprise structures and not profit-maximising companies. These ethical companies, whose members are the commoners/contributors themselves, would be organised as global open design companies. These would be linked to networks of small factories that produce on the basis of shared values and could more easily adopt open-book management, open recruiting and open supply lines, ensuring transparency to the whole network, in order to create maximum mutual alignment between participants. This is simply an extension of the existing organisational practices of ‘immaterial commons production’, which combines full transparency of all actions with negotiated coordination. (...)

 

It requires distributed access to physical places for collaboration – co-working centres – as well as the widespread possibility for peer learning. Distributed access to financial capital is a further condition, notably crowd-funding, social lending and distributed, decentralised currencies such as cryptography-based digital money Bitcoin. The spread of these peer to peer forms of funding has already attracted the attention of the Bank of England executive director, Andrew Haldane, who has suggested that peer to peer finance models could sweep away the inefficient retail banks before too long.

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Why I Decided, 11 Years Ago, to Live Without Money

Why I Decided, 11 Years Ago, to Live Without Money | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Daniel Suelo's decision to live without money was conceived on a backpacking trip to Alaska in 1998.  He writes, 

 

"Thus began a hypothesis of why wild nature’s economy is balanced while the commercial economy is not and can never be. I saw that nature is a constant free current – a true currency, that is. Money and possession represent our control, our interruption, of nature’s current, both in our minds and in our environment."

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'The Economist' Discusses Money Creation

'The Economist' Discusses Money Creation | The Next Edge | Scoop.it
An unnamed journalist at The Economist seems to have caught on to the significance of money creation by banks, after reading Richard Duncan's latest book The New Depression.

 

This is not capitalism, [Duncan] suggests, but “creditism”. It is this system which has broken down, and unless you understand it, you will not be able to fix it.


Via Connor Turland
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Currency as a commons - currencies that work!

Currency as a commons - currencies that work! | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Currency as a commons - currencies that work!

Increasing awareness is existing that 97% of money is created by private banks as they issue loans to us, and because almost all money is created through instruments which require repayment and interest, there is always more debt than money. Loans are issued to serve economic activity, and as such a growth imperative is created which purports the need to increasingly exploit (commodify) more of life, of resources, to pay back the interest on the debt.

 

Redesigning the role of Money and redesigning Currency as a commons

 

A second approach then wants to redesign the role of money, or to redesign money itself as a commons. The first would be happening by money not being issued by private banks, but by the state, and geared towards common goals and objectives set by the community of users, its citizens. The second angle then is concerned with redesigning currency itself as a commons, poses as a central question, how do we design currencies to foster human relationships?


Out of the experiences of the development process around Helsinki Timebank another angle was discussed in the workshop, namely that of the development of a currency as a pedagogical process, bringing people together to learn and engage in commoning (the co-governing and carrying of responsibility for our currency commons).

 

via @knowledgEnabler

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Sustainable Energy Roadmaps | Worldwatch Institute

Sustainable Energy Roadmaps | Worldwatch Institute | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Transitioning from a carbon-intensive economy to a low-carbon future presents challenges and opportunities for developing countries. The Sustainable Energy Roadmaps help countries successfully navigate the change to an infrastructure capable of meeting the energy challenges of the 21st century.


The approach examines a country’s potential for renewable energy production such as wind, solar, small hydropower and biomass. Existing energy infrastructure is analyzed to identify the potential for, and hurdles to, increased efficiency and energy storage. At the same time, current socio-economic and policy environments are factored into the analysis to identify barriers to low-carbon development and determine international best practices to suggest how they can be overcome. Equally important, funding options that might be available from private, public, and multilateral institutions to help bring renewable energy projects into being are assessed.

The project strengthens government and civil society capacity, enhances stakeholder engagement, and advances policies that combat climate change...


Learn more about the program and sustainable energy roadmaps at the article link.


Via Lauren Moss
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Michelle Coe's curator insight, October 10, 2013 1:27 PM

Some US states need to follow this roadmap!

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Part of Nature cartoon by Stuart McMillen - Recombinant Records

Part of Nature cartoon by Stuart McMillen - Recombinant Records | The Next Edge | Scoop.it
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The debt strike is the key weapon to restore popular power | via P2P Foundation

The debt strike is the key weapon to restore popular power | via P2P Foundation | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

For every creditor there must be a debtor and both are necessary. While the creditors – the banks – have realised their power, the debtors – everyone else – haven’t. A glance at the level of private debt reveals just how much potential there is.


Student debt now stands at an estimated £40.3bn, while a combination of stagnant pay and high living costs has left Britain’s average family with unsecured loans worth £7944 each – a staggering total of £210bn of unsecured debt. It is a severe drag on an already knackered economy. Suppose, though, if people refused to repay.


Rather than channelling falling incomes back to the banks that scripted the recession, they simply reject repayment. Immediately, there would be a union of debtors capable of clawing power away from financiers. The old cliché would kick in: ‘Owe the bank £10,000 and the bank owns you. Owe the bank £10,000,000 and you own the bank’. Like those canals and railways of industrial Britain, the credit cards and student loans of financialised Britain give people leverage over elites. The difference is that it now takes debt strikes, and not labour strikes, to harness this power.

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Towards a Resilient Global Economy

It is this profound vulnerability that I would like to address in calling for a new metric to characterize the health and stability of our economic system — that of Global Resilience.


Resilience is the capacity for a system to absorb disruptions without losing key functionality. The human body, as one example, is resilient against parasitic viruses like influenza when it bolsters a strong immune response and preserves the vital functions of circulation, digestion, mobility, and consciousness. By contrast, it is not resilient against a physical blow to the brain stem that quickly produces a vegetative state or death. Resilience is the dynamic repose of the system that enables it to mitigate disruptions or adapt to them in a timely manner.

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Rachel Botsman: The currency of the new economy is trust | Video on TED.com

TED Talks There's been an explosion of collaborative consumption -- web-powered sharing of cars, apartments, skills.
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What GNH (Gross National Happiness) measures

Gross National Happiness #GNHin  Butan measures: compassion,social sustainable development, fairness of distribution, environmental conservation.

 

They want to be 100% organic & biodynamic. They pledge to be carbon neutral. They also measure material and inmaterial dimension of education and are moving from a monarchy to a democracy. All the hierarchy reports from the point of view of GNH.

 

GNH is Not hippie happiness but: a transformative approach, a non-dual perspective (understading of the oneness of people and land) and a systemic approach (considering all levels of the system). Bottom up and top down. They are also creating a Center to apply GNH.

 

Tho Ha Vinh and Julia Kim on Gross National Happiness (GNH) in Bhutan, at the Presencing Global Forum 2012 in Berlin...


Via Ferananda
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Owning Our Future: The Emerging Ownership Revolution

Owning Our Future: The Emerging Ownership Revolution | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

As long as businesses are set up to focus exclusively on maximizing financial income for the few, our economy will be locked into endless growth and widening inequality. But now people across the world are experimenting with new forms of ownership, which Kelly calls generative: aimed at creating the conditions for all of life to thrive for many generations to come. These designs may hold the key to the deep transformation our civilization needs.

 

by Marjorie Kelly

Read a 30-page excerpt of the book, including the Foreword by David Korten, Prologue, and first chapter.


Via Christophe CESETTI
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Ferananda's comment, September 14, 2012 9:20 PM
Very important question. I was reading a blog speaking about this topic. Thank you for this link. It comes at the right time.
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Can Open Source Manufacturing Save Humanity?

Can Open Source Manufacturing Save Humanity? | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

It leverages collaborative “hackerspace” dens and fab labs, while the Social Engineering-Knowledge Database simplifies searching for free open source hardware designs and creating materials lists by organizing them into packages with things like CAD files, assembly instructions, and a bill of materials.


via | Disinformation


Via jean lievens, P2P Foundation
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Welcome to the new reputation economy (Wired UK)

Welcome to the new reputation economy (Wired UK) | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Imagine a world where banks take into account your online reputation alongside traditional credit ratings to determine your loan; where headhunters hire you based on the expertise you've demonstrated on online forums such as Quora; where your status from renting a house through Airbnb helps you become a trusted car renter on WhipCar; where your feedback on eBay can be used to get a head-start selling on Etsy; where traditional business cards are replaced by profiles of your digital trustworthiness, updated in real-time. Where reputation data becomes the window into how we behave, what motivates us, how our peers view us and ultimately whether we can or can't be trusted.


Welcome to the reputation economy, where your online history becomes more powerful than your credit history.


Via Peter Vander Auwera
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About ‘Money and Sustainability’ | Money and Sustainability

About ‘Money and Sustainability’ | Money and Sustainability | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

We tend to assume that we must have a single, monopolistic currency, funded through bank debt, enforced by a central bank. But we don’t need any such thing! In fact, the present system is outdated, brittle and unfit for purpose (witness the eurozone crisis). Like any other monoculture, it’s profitable at first but ultimately a recipe for economic and environmental disaster. The alternative is a monetary ‘ecosystem’, with complementary currencies alongside the conventional one.

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Why Millennials Don't Want To Buy Stuff

Why Millennials Don't Want To Buy Stuff | The Next Edge | Scoop.it

Compared to previous generations, Millennials seem to have some very different habits that have taken both established companies and small businesses by surprise. One of these is that Generation Y doesn't seem to enjoy purchasing things.


The Atlantic's article "Why Don't Young Americans Buy Cars?" mused recently about Millennials' tendency to not care about owning a vehicle. The subtitle: "Is this a generational shift, or just a lousy economy at work?"


What if it's not an "age thing" at all? What's really causing this strange new behavior (or rather, lack of behavior)? Generational segments have profound impacts on perception and behavior, but an "ownership shift" isn't isolated within the Millennial camp. A writer for USA Today shows that all ages are in on this trend, but instead of an age group, he blames the change on the cloud, the heavenly home our entertainment goes to when current media models die. As all forms of media make their journey into a digital, de-corporeal space, research shows that people are beginning to actually prefer this disconnected reality to owning a physical product.

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