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Everything You Thought You Knew About Learning Is Wrong - Practice Retrieval

Everything You Thought You Knew About Learning Is Wrong - Practice Retrieval | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

Psychology Today


http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/brain-candy/201201/everything-you-thought-you-knew-about-learning-is-wrong



Taking notes during class? Topic-focused study? A consistent learning environment? All are exactly opposite of the best strategies for learning.


Interleaving


First, he told me, think about how you attack a pile of study material.

“People tend to try to learn in blocks,” Bjork said. “Mastering one thing before moving on to the next.”

Instead of doing that Bjork recommends interleaving. The strategy suggest that instead of spending an hour working on your tennis serve, you mix in a range of skills like backhands, volleys, overhead smashes, and footwork.

“This creates a sense of difficulty,” Bjork said. “And people tend not to notice the immediate effects of learning.”

Instead of making an appreciable leap forward with your serving ability after a session of focused practice, interleaving forces you to make nearly imperceptible steps forward with many skills. But over time, the sum of these small steps is much greater than the sum of the leaps you would have taken if you’d spent the same amount of time mastering each skill in its turn.

Bjork explains that successful interleaving allows you to “seat” each skill among the others. “If information is studied so that it can be interpreted in relation to other things in memory, learning is much more powerful,” he said. There’s one caveat: Make sure the mini skills you interleave are related in some higher-order way. If you’re trying to learn tennis, you’d want to interleave serves, backhands, volleys, smashes, and footwork — not serves, synchronized swimming, European capitals, and programming in Java.


Studying in one location


Studying in only one location is great as long as you’ll only be required to recall the information in the same location. If you want information to be accessible outside your dorm room, or office, or nook on the second floor of the library, Bjork recommends varying your study location.


Spacing


Interleaving and varying your study location will help whether you’re mastering math skills, learning French, or trying to become a better ballroom dancer. A somewhat related phenomenon — the spacing effect, which was first described by Hermann Ebbinghaus in 1885 — will also help.

“If you study and then you wait, tests show that the longer you wait, the more you will have forgotten,” Bjork said.


But here’s the cool part: If you study, wait, and then study again, the longer the wait, the more you’ll have learned after this second study session. Bjork explains it this way: “When we access things from our memory, we do more than reveal it’s there. It’s not like a playback. What we retrieve becomes more retrievable in the future. Provided the retrieval succeeds, the more difficult and involved the retrieval, the more beneficial it is.


Practice Retrieval


Bjork also recommends taking notes just after class, rather than during — forcing yourself to recall a lecture’s information is more effective than simply copying it from a blackboard. You have to work for it. The more you work, the more you learn, and the more you learn, the more awesome you can become.




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The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader
Improving schools by helping leaders bridge the gap between theory and practice.
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Mindsets: Why Do Some People Learn Faster?

Mindsets: Why Do Some People Learn Faster? | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Do we ignore mistakes, brushing them aside for the sake of our self-confidence? Or do we investigate the errors, seeking to learn from the snafus? The latter approach, suggests a series of studies, could make you learn faster.

 

Jonah Lehrer writes:

 

One of the essential lessons of learning, which is that people learn how to get it right by getting it wrong again and again."

 

"Education isn’t magic. Education is the wisdom wrung from failure."

 

"A new study, forthcoming in Psychological Science, and led by Jason Moser at Michigan State University, expands on this important concept. The question at the heart of the paper is simple: Why are some people so much more effective at learning from their mistakes? After all, everybody screws up. The important part is what happens next. Do we ignore the mistake, brushing it aside for the sake of our self-confidence? Or do we investigate the error, seeking to learn from the snafu?"

 

Growth Mindset 

 

"It turned out that those subjects with a growth mindset were significantly better at learning from their mistakes. Because the subjects were thinking about what they got wrong, they learned how to get it right."

 

"Fear of failure (fixed mindset) can actually inhibit learning."

 

Praise: How Matters

 

Students praised for their intelligence almost always chose to bolster their self-esteem by comparing themselves with students who had performed worse on the test.

 

In contrast, kids praised for their hard work were more interested in the higher-scoring exams. They wanted to understand their mistakes, to learn from their errors, to figure out how to do better.

 

The experience of failure had been so discouraging for the “smart” kids that they actually regressed.

 

The problem with praising kids for their innate intelligence — the “smart” compliment — is that it misrepresents the psychological reality of education. It encourages kids to avoid the most useful kind of learning activities, which is when we learn from our mistakes.

 

Foresaking Self-Improvement for the Sake of Self-Confidence

 

Unless we experience the unpleasant symptoms of being wrong the mind will never revise its models.

 

We’ll keep on making the same mistakes, forsaking self-improvement for the sake of self-confidence. Samuel Beckett had the right attitude: “Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try Again. Fail again. Fail better.”

 

 

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Tim Malone's curator insight, March 10, 11:18 PM

If something interests you, you'll learn faster and more effectively. It's called engagement!

Carol Rine's curator insight, March 11, 6:56 PM

My Cheetah Chat two weeks ago was about the importance of a GROWTH mindset.

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Bell-to-Bell Learning: An obligation not an option

Bell-to-Bell Learning: An obligation not an option | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Making every minute count doesn't preclude student empowerment; it promotes it.
Mel Riddile's insight:

"And for most students there were other challenges associated with poverty. With everything kids went through to make it to school, it was imperative that I make it worth their while. Bell to bell wasn't an option to me; it was an obligation."

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Mel Riddile's curator insight, May 5, 6:54 AM

"With everything kids went through to make it to school, it was imperative that I make it worth their while. Bell to bell wasn't an option to me; it was an obligation."

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20 Ways to Provide Effective Feedback to Your Students ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

20 Ways to Provide Effective Feedback to Your Students ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
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Six Scaffolding Strategies to Use with Your Students

Six Scaffolding Strategies to Use with Your Students | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
What’s the opposite of scaffolding a lesson? It would be saying to students something like, “Read this nine-page science article, write a detailed essay on the topic it explores, and turn it in by Wed
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Teachers Need Grit, Too! - Angela Duckworth | Mindset

Teachers Need Grit, Too! - Angela Duckworth | Mindset | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

Angela Lee Duckworth, a psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania, became famous (famous for an academic, at least) for her theory of “grit”—the notion that long-term passion and perseverance in pursuit of one’s goals was a key ingredient for student success.

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5 Assessment Forms That Promote Content Retention

5 Assessment Forms That Promote Content Retention | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

If we hope to construct enduring understanding in our students, it's critical that, now more than ever, we know their strengths and interests. 

The First 3 Assessment Forms
  • Tests Where Notes or Textbooks are Permitted
  • Take-Home Tests
  • Student-Made Tests

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Arranging Classroom Furniture: An Unobtrusive Glimpse into How Teachers Teach

Arranging Classroom Furniture: An Unobtrusive Glimpse into How Teachers Teach | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

How teachers arrange the furniture in classrooms gives a peek into how teachers teach. 


Do such photos of classroom furniture give observers a glimpse of how teachers teach? Yes, they do, but only a hint.

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6 Targets To Teach The Way The Brain Learns

6 Targets To Teach The Way The Brain Learns | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
6 Targets To Teach The Way The Brain Learns
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Five Rules to Help End Student Boredom & Increase Engagement

Five Rules to Help End Student Boredom & Increase Engagement | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
It's time to end classroom boredom, says educator Barbara Blackburn, who offers 5 rules for student engagement with examples from her own teaching & consulting.
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Can Brain Training Really Make You Smarter? « Annie Murphy Paul

Can Brain Training Really Make You Smarter? « Annie Murphy Paul | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
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9 Steps To Scaffold Learning For Improved Understanding

9 Steps To Scaffold Learning For Improved Understanding | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
9 Steps To Scaffold Learning For Improved Understanding


1. Ask a question

2. Present a mystery to solve

3. Ask students to draw what they know

4. Give enough time to research

5. Ask students to draw the mystery and solution

6. Ask students to share their drawing with other students

7. Ask students to combine ideas in one drawing

8. Probe students with what-if questions

9. Return to step #4 as necessary

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27 Simple Ways To Check For Understanding

27 Simple Ways To Check For Understanding | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
27 Simple Ways To Check For Understanding
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Mindset: Interview with author, Yvonne vd Ven

Mindset: Interview with author, Yvonne vd Ven | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

"I told her that the first mice were less able to solve new problems than the other ones, and that brain development can only be created by trying, trying, trying.

The effect was enormous. She suddenly wasn't afraid to fail anymore and she started seeking challenges."

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Why don't students remember what they’ve learned?

Why don't students remember what they’ve learned? | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Curricula and assessment aren’t designed with memory in mind   We’ve all had the experience of cramming for an exam and forgetting most of what we learned within a few weeks or days.
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ICTPHMS's comment, May 5, 9:41 AM
You are welcome! Thank you for the rescoop!
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Alternatives to Traditional Homework - Awesome Chart for Teachers

Alternatives to Traditional Homework - Awesome Chart for Teachers | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
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What Keeps Students Motivated to Learn?

What Keeps Students Motivated to Learn? | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
What keeps students motivated to learn? Relevance, connections, and their teachers' emotional investment, among just a few criteria.
Mel Riddile's insight:

"The number one thing that students said makes them want to try hard and succeed is knowing that teachers care about them."

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Does Teaching Kids To Get 'Gritty' Help Them Get Ahead?

Education circles are abuzz with a new concept: that resilience and persistence are just as important as intelligence to predicting student success and achievement. But can "grit" actually be taught?
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Class Discussion to Encourage Critical Thinking: Resources for Grades 9-12

Class Discussion to Encourage Critical Thinking: Resources for Grades 9-12 | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

Resources By Topic:

About Socratic Seminars

About Socratic Seminars

Socratic Seminars: Patience & Practice

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Praise That Backfires: Why Calling Kids "Smart" Might Hurt More Than Help | Mindset

Praise That Backfires: Why Calling Kids "Smart" Might Hurt More Than Help | Mindset | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
When you praise children for being smart, you expect them to fearlessly conquer new academic challenges because they believe they're smart. But many psychologists and educators claim the opposite is true: that labeling kids as
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7 Important Tips for Providing Effective Feedback to Your Students

7 Important Tips for Providing Effective Feedback to Your Students | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
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Caution: Using video in the classroom may be hazardous to learning

"Research has shown that these types of videos (Khan Academy) may be positively received by students. They feel like they are learning and become more confident in their answers, but tests reveal they haven't learned anything.


The apparent reason for the discrepancy is misconceptions. Students have existing ideas about scientific phenomena before viewing a video. If the video presents scientific concepts in a clear, well illustrated way, students believe they are learning but they do not engage with the media on a deep enough level to realize that what was is presented differs from their prior knowledge.


There is hope, however. Presenting students' common misconceptions in a video alongside the scientific concepts has been shown to increase learning by increasing the amount of mental effort students expend while watching it."

My PhD: http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/super/theses/PhD(Muller).pdf 

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How Assessment (for learning) Can Lead to Deeper Learning

How Assessment (for learning) Can Lead to Deeper Learning | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Most educators, policymakers, and parents agree that today's students need a mix of knowledge, skills, and dispositions to prepare them to be successful and engaged citizens. Given that students need
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‘Smarter,’ by Dan Hurley : Mindset

‘Smarter,’ by Dan Hurley : Mindset | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
A journalist explores the possibility that cognitive exercises improve working memory and problem solving.


Individuals who engage in cognitive exercise, the company claims, will be “better able to stay focused, ignore distractions, plan next steps, remember instructions and start and finish tasks.” The pool of people who could benefit from such training is vast, the site suggests: “children and adults with attention deficits or learning disorders, victims of brain injury or stroke, and adults experiencing information overload or the natural effects of aging.”

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What’s the ‘Sweet Spot’ of Difficulty For Learning?

What’s the ‘Sweet Spot’ of Difficulty For Learning? | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Parents and teachers wrestle with all the time: Should we be making learning easier for kids—or harder? The answer, according to research in cognitive science and psychology, is both.
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Cultivating a Growth Mindset Inside Inclusion Classrooms

Cultivating a Growth Mindset Inside Inclusion Classrooms | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it
Carol Dweck's growth mindset research can lead to greater collaboration among co-teachers and help all students in inclusion classrooms master the Common Core.
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Are You Stuck With Their Mindset?

Are You Stuck With Their Mindset? | The Lead Learner is the Learning Leader | Scoop.it

Just because we are stuck with their policies doesn't mean we should be stuck with their mindset. - Michael Fullan

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