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The medicine in our minds-Placebos

The medicine in our minds-Placebos | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

They are the miracle pills that shouldn't really do anything. Placebos come in all shapes and sizes, but they contain no active ingredient. And yet, mysteriously, they often seem to work.

Over the last couple of decades, there has been a huge amount of research into what dummy pills can do and how they work.

We know that in the right situations, they can be very effective at relieving self-reported conditions like pain and depression.

But the latest research suggests they might even be able to help relieve the symptoms of a major neurological disorder, as Paul Pattison found out.

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A Gadget Designed to Finally Make Doctors Wash Their Hands Enough | Design | WIRED

A Gadget Designed to Finally Make Doctors Wash Their Hands Enough | Design | WIRED | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
5,000 patients died last year from healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the United States. The culprit is usually unwashed hands.

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According to the Centers for Disease Control, almost 75,000 patients died last year from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the United States. It’s consistently ranked as one of ten leading causes of death. HAIs are defined as infections that patients contract after they’ve been admitted—that is, the patient arrives at the hospital with one ailment, and then picks up a new infection during his stay. Those preventable infections cost hospitals around $30 billion in added costs a year.

The culprit is usually unwashed hands. Studies vary, but show that on average hospital workers only wash their hands between 10 and 50 percent of the time they enter or exit a patient room. That number, of course, is supposed to be 100 percent. When harried hospital workers forget to wash their hands and move from, say, a sick patient to a surgery, bacteria can travel with them. Unfortunately, “the problem is invisible,” says Brent Nibarger, chief client officer at Biovigil Hygiene Technologies. “The bacteria and things that get transported, you can’t see it. We often say if the bugs glowed orange or green or yellow you could solve this more powerfully.”

Bacteria might not emit flashes of color, but a gadget can. This summer, Biovigil rolled out their first product: a sensor-laden electronic badge that uses traffic-light language—red, yellow, and green flashing lights—to hold doctors accountable for hand-hygiene.

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First US patient receives cluster headache-stopping facial implant

First US patient receives cluster headache-stopping facial implant | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

 

Although there's presently no cure for cluster headaches, a new neurostimulator is claimed to help control them. While they may not be quite as well-known as migraines, cluster headaches are even more painful, and can occur several times a day. There's presently no cure, although a new "neurostimulator" is claimed to help control them. A US clinical trial of the device has just begun, with a test subject recently having had one implanted beneath his cheekbone.

Developed by San Francisco-based Autonomic Technologies Inc (ATI), the "almond-sized" device was inserted through a 2-cm (0.8-in) incision in the recipient's gum, at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Anchored to the skull under the cheekbone, on the side of the face affected by the headaches, the implant works by stimulating the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). This is a nerve bundle located behind the nose, and it's associated with the transmission of the headache pain. Past approaches have included permanently cutting or chemically burning the SPG.

When a patient feels a cluster headache coming on, they place a separate handheld controller against their cheek. It wirelessly activates the neurostimulator, which in turn blocks the pain signals sent via the SPG. The controller is preprogrammed by the patient's physician, to provide a length and level of stimulation that's appropriate to their particular condition.

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Single injection reverses type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice without side effects

Single injection reverses type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice without side effects | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

There are numerous research efforts underway to develop new treatments and improve the lives of people suffering type 2 diabetes, whose ranks have increased dramatically in recent decades due in large part to the so-called obesity epidemic. A new generation of safer and more effective diabetes drugs could be in the offing with researchers at the Salk Institute discovering that when mice with diet-induced diabetes were given a single injection of a protein, their blood sugar levels were restored to a healthy range for more than two days.

Although type 2 diabetes can sometimes be managed through a healthy diet and regular exercise in the initial stages, tablets that boost the body's production of insulin are generally prescribed as the disease progresses. Such tablets can have side effects, including nausea and diarrhea, and aren't suitable for everyone, such as pregnant women and those with severe liver, kidney or heart disease. They can also cause blood glucose levels to drop too low, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia.

Now Salk researchers have found that injecting obese mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in humans with a single dose of protein FGF1 quickly restored their blood glucose levels to normal levels where they remained for more than two days. Importantly, even when given high doses, the mice suffered none of the side effects common to most current diabetes treatments, such as weight gain or heart and liver problems.

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Hieu Ngo's curator insight, August 6, 7:38 PM

There are so many diseases and health problems out there. Just as it seems when we might have gotten rid of a problem/disease, a new one pops up to take its place. Yet, this article shows that we can and will adapt as we have time and time again. Mankind will continue living on. Curing type 2 diabetes in mice is just a small step in curing type 2 diabetes in people. But sometimes, one small step can make all the difference.

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‘Rewired’ mice show signs of longer lives with ...

‘Rewired’ mice show signs of longer lives with ... | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Mice lacking a specific protein (TRAP-1) live longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses, such as tissue degeneration, obesity, and spontaneous tumor formation, when compared with normal mice, researchers at The Wistar Institute have...
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Hieu Ngo's curator insight, August 6, 7:43 PM

I chose this article because it shows that even now, we are still making advances in medicine. What we have today would seem alien to the people of the '50s. And yet, there is always progress to be made. Although this is only in mice, maybe some day we can implement this in people too. 

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Google calls for guinea pigs for ambitious 'Baseline' health study

Google calls for guinea pigs for ambitious 'Baseline' health study | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

 

Study with Duke and Stanford Universities aims to revolutionise treatment of disease through the study of healthy people. By Samuel Gibbs

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Google’s latest project from its Google X “moonshot” division is every bit as ambitious as some of its robotics and communications projects like Glass.

Google wants to map how the human body behaves when it’s healthy, which could dramatically improve modern medicine.

What are they doing?

The Baseline study is a scientific investigation into what it means to be healthy. It will collect data from healthy individuals, crunch the numbers and define a healthy state for a human being from real-world people.

Why study the healthy?

Why study someone who isn’t sick? Modern medicine is good at treating diseases with obvious symptoms. But at the point at which a disease is showing symptoms severe enough to send someone to the doctor, the disease has been running wild within that person’s body for a good while.

By defining a baseline of what it means to be healthy, it is a lot easier to detect changes and pick up serious, life-threatening diseases before they become dangerous. Catching illness much earlier can either diminish the impact or neutralise the disease before symptoms appear.

Who's being studied?

Google’s study will initially take 175 volunteers from various groups of ethnicity, habit and area and conduct testing of methods and practices to inform a much larger study later on. That small select group of people is expected to expand to around 400 or so by the end of the year.

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Human blood platelets grown in bone marrow-replicating bioreactor

Human blood platelets grown in bone marrow-replicating bioreactor | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Scientists have already successfully coaxed stem cells into becoming red blood cells, which could be used to create "man-made" blood for transfusion. Red blood cells, however, aren't the only component of human blood. Now, researchers at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital have also created functional human platelets, using a bioreactor that simulates the medium in which blood cells are naturally produced – bone marrow.

The main role of platelets (also known as thrombocytes) is to stop wounds from bleeding, by essentially "plugging the hole" in the skin with a clot. Without sufficient numbers of them in the blood, spontaneous and excessive bleeding can occur. Such shortages can be caused by diseases, as a result of undergoing chemotherapy, or by other factors. In these situations, transfusions of platelets harvested from donated blood are often necessary.

In previous studies, scientists have successfully gotten induced pluripotent stem cells to change into megakaryocytes – these are the cells that ordinarily sit in the bone marrow and release platelets into the bloodstream. Unfortunately, it's proven difficult to get those lab-grown megakaryocytes to produce platelets outside of the body.

That's where Brigham and Women’s new "bioreactor-on-a-chip" comes into the picture. By mimicking bone marrow's extracellular matrix composition, stiffness, micro-channel size and shear forces, it persuades the megakaryocytes to produce anywhere from 10 to 90 percent more platelets than was previously possible.

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Students developing an injectable foam to treat battlefield wounds

Students developing an injectable foam to treat battlefield wounds | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

When a soldier is wounded on an extremity such as an arm or leg, applying a bandage and/or tourniquet to stop the bleeding is typically a fairly straight-ahead process. However, in cases where an injury is received right at the junction between an extremity and the torso – places such as the neck, shoulder or groin – things get a lot trickier. Gauze pads treated with clotting agents are often packed into the wound, although they're not always sufficient for staunching the flow. A group of students from Johns Hopkins University are working on a better alternative, in the form of a hardening foam that's injected into the wound.

The treatment system is based around a syringe-style device that contains two liquids, namely polyol and a diisocyanatein, that are kept in separate compartments – it's not unlike one of those two-part epoxy applicators.

The idea is that when a medic is treating an injured soldier on the battlefield, they use a single plunger on the device to simultaneously inject the two liquids into the wound. As the liquids mix, a chemical reaction occurs. This causes them to transform into a polyurethane foam that expands to fill the wound cavity, and then hardens.

When a soldier is wounded right at the junction between an extremity and the torso, it can be difficult to treat. A group of students from Johns Hopkins Un...
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Personality and heart attacks: A new look

A new study has addressed the relationship between personality and heart attacks. Distressed (type D) personality (TDP), characterized by high negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), along with depression, anxiety and other negative affects (such as demoralization, hopelessness, pessimism and rumination) have been implicated as potential risk factors for coronary artery disease. While some evidence suggests that the NA dimension of TDP overlaps at least partially with depression, other studies underline how ‘TDP refers to a chronic, more covert form of distress that is distinct from depression'.
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'Human corneas re-grown in mice'

'Human corneas re-grown in mice' | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Scientists have developed a new technique to regrow human corneas.

Using key tracer molecules, researchers have been able to hunt down elusive cells in the eye capable of regeneration and repair.

They transplanted these regenerative stem cells into mice - creating fully functioning corneas.

Writing in the journal Nature, they say this method may one day help restore the sight of victims of burns and chemical injuries.

Limbal stem cells (LSC) are crucial for healthy eyesight - these cells work to maintain, repair and completely renew our corneas every few weeks.

Without them the cornea - the transparent outermost layer of the eye - would become cloudy and our vision disrupted.

A deficiency of these cells due to disease or damage through injury to the eye are among the commonest reasons behind blindness worldwide.

But the cells have so far been extremely difficult to identify, buried in a matrix of other structures in the limbal part of the eye - the junction between the cornea and the white of the eye (the sclera).

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Cardiac pacemaker powered by body's own muscles developed

Cardiac pacemaker powered by body's own muscles developed | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Over the past few decades, cardiac pacemaker technology has improved to the point that pacemakers have become a commonplace medical implant that have helped improve or save the lives of many millions of people around the world. Unfortunately, the battery technology used to power these devices has not kept pace and the batteries need to be replaced on average every seven years, which requires further surgery. To address this problem, a group of researchers from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has developed a cardiac pacemaker that is powered semi-permanently by harnessing energy from the body's own muscles.

The research team, headed by Professor Keon Jae Lee of KAIST and Professor Boyoung Joung, M.D. at Severance Hospital of Yonsei University, has created a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator that has been used to directly stimulate the heart of a live rat using electrical energy produced from small body movements of the animal.

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Gold nanoparticles may be used to melt away fat

Gold nanoparticles may be used to melt away fat | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Liposuction may be a popular method of instant body fat reduction, but it certainly isn't perfect. Patients can experience bruising, there can be lumps that have to be addressed with a second procedure, plus things other than fat cells – such as connective tissue and nerves – can inadvertently also get removed. Two researchers, however, are developing what could be a better form of liposuction, that involves first using injected gold microparticles to melt the fat.

The technique was conceived by University of California, San Diego nanomedicine expert Adah Almutairi, and her brother Khalid who is a plastic and reconstructive surgeon. They were inspired by earlier research in which injected gold nanoparticles were drawn specifically to cancer cells, then heated up using near-infrared light to effectively "cook" those cells while leaving others unharmed.

The Almutairis believe that something similar could be done to fat cells.

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Superbug defences shattered by breakthrough drug design (Wired UK)

Superbug defences shattered by breakthrough drug design (Wired UK) | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

A team of molecular scientists has uncovered a way to disable the defensive structure of the multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, paving the way for new antibiotics that target this barrier.

Gram-negative bacteria are often found in the gut, but can become resistant to antibiotics and can cause infections of the blood, surgical sites, as well as pneumonia and meningitis. Misuse of antibiotics has led to a worrying trend of drug-resistant bacteria in circulation, leading to the emergence of "superbugs", and it has been singled out as one of the greatest single problems threatening the future of our health.

"These drug resistance numbers increase every year, making antibiotics useless, which results in hundreds and thousands of patient's deaths," Changjiang Dong, from the University of East Anglia Norwich Medical School, told Wired.co.uk. "So we are trying to find a way to solve this drug resistance problem."

He and his team have now found a way around this particular bacterium's defences, according to a paper published in Nature: lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This is a molecule made up of a tough outer membrane that the UAE team wanted to crack. Until now, how the molecule's transport proteins are utilised to create that membrane has been unknown.

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Does science link carbs and obesity? – Melinda Wenner Moyer – Aeon

Does science link carbs and obesity? – Melinda Wenner Moyer – Aeon | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A carbs-rich diet has been blamed for the alarming explosion of obesity and chronic disease. What does the science show?

A decade ago, I said goodbye to wheat. I had been carrying around 15 extra pounds since high school and I was sick of it. A friend claimed that going wheat-free helped her lose weight and feel more energetic. A diet that didn’t require counting calories? Sounded good to me, so I gave it a shot. Six months later, those 15 pounds, close to seven kilos, were history.

Slowly, wheat found its way back into my world – oh how I missed bread! – and in 2009 I decided I was done. I haven’t regained much of the weight, nor do I feel different now. I can’t help but wonder, then, why my diet worked. Was it that my body truly functioned better without wheat? Was the claim true that carbohydrates, especially grains, promoted weight gain more than other types of foods?

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‘Nanojuice’ could help diagnose gastrointestinal illnesses | KurzweilAI

‘Nanojuice’ could help diagnose gastrointestinal illnesses | KurzweilAI | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
The combination of nanojuice and photoacoustic tomography illuminates the intestine of a mouse (credit: Jonathan Lovell) University at Buffalo researchers

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University at Buffalo researchers are developing a new imaging technique using nanoparticles suspended in liquid to form “nanojuice” that patients would drink to help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease and other gastrointestinal illnesses.

Doctors would strike the nanoparticles, once they reach the small intestine, with a harmless laser light, providing an unparalleled, non-invasive, real-time view of the organ.

Described July 6 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, the advancement could help doctors better identify, understand, and treat gastrointestinal ailments.

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Evermind uses household appliances to monitor the elderly or infirm

Evermind uses household appliances to monitor the elderly or infirm | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Evermind helps you keep tabs on the well-being of elderly or disabled relatives or friends by alerting you remotely when electrical appliances are switched ...
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Does a 'fishy' lifestyle keep brains healthy? - Futurity

Does a 'fishy' lifestyle keep brains healthy? - Futurity | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

 

Researchers have linked eating baked or broiled fish with brain health later in life—but say it's not about the omega-3 fatty acids.

The findings, published online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, add to growing evidence that lifestyle factors contribute to brain health later in life.

Scientists estimate that more than 80 million people will have dementia by 2040, which could become a substantial burden to families and drive up health care costs, according to senior investigator James T. Becker, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Some studies have predicted that lifestyle changes such as a reduction in rates of physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity could lead to fewer cases of Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions of cognitive impairment in the elderly.

The antioxidant effect of omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in high amounts in fish, seeds, and nuts, and certain oils, also have been associated with improved health, particularly brain health.

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Hieu Ngo's curator insight, August 6, 7:35 PM

I chose this article because there is so little we, as mankind, know about our own brains. Different neuro-scientists will have different methods of doing things. And yet, some of what they do, albeit completely different, will have the same effect in the end. This article shows that while it may seem hard, we are learning new things about the human body every day as well as showing a way we can contribute to our own brain health later in life. 

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Cancer screening with a simple "universal" blood test

Cancer screening with a simple "universal" blood test | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A universal blood test screening for cancer is the goal of a lab at the University of Bradford, reducing unneeded and expensive biopsies.

 

Although many dread the prick of a blood test, most would find it a preferable testing method to invasive and expensive biopsies. That's why a blood test for cancer is the goal of many research efforts, including one at the University of Bradford in the UK, where researchers are claiming to have devised a simple universal blood test for the disease that relies on the fact that white blood cells in cancer patients are already damaged from battling cancerous cells.

"White blood cells are part of the body’s natural defense system," says Professor Diana Anderson, who led the research. "We know that they are under stress when they are fighting cancer or other diseases, so I wondered whether anything measurable could be seen if we put them under further stress with UVA light."

To put her theory to the test, the University of Bradford team used a comet assay, which involves exposing DNA to UV light and applying an electric field to induce it to travel through an agar medium. The more damaged the DNA, the more elongated its comet-like tail, as the structure is no longer as tightly compressed together.

"We found that people with cancer have DNA which is more easily damaged by ultraviolet light than other people," says Anderson. "So the test shows the sensitivity to damage of all the DNA – the genome – in a cell."

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Hieu Ngo's curator insight, August 6, 8:16 PM

I found this interesting because it provides an easy alternative to find if someone has cancer as opposed to making them go through a series of procedures which can potentially be very expensive in the end. Overall, this article shows that there isn't necessarily one way to do something and that sometimes, there is a better and easier way to having healthy human beings.

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New microchip promises to streamline and simplify diabetes diagnoses

New microchip promises to streamline and simplify diabetes diagnoses | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

For people who don't already know, here's the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes: the body produces little or no insulin in the case of type 1, and isn't able to utilize the insulin that it does produce in type 2. It's a significant difference, so it's important that patients are diagnosed correctly. Thanks to a new microchip developed by a team at Stanford University led by Dr. Brian Feldman, doing so could soon be quicker, cheaper and easier than ever before.

In order to determine that a patient has type 1 diabetes as opposed to type 2, tests must be performed to confirm the presence of tell-tale antibodies in a sample of their blood. These tests must be performed by extensively-trained personnel in a lab, they involve the use of radioactive materials, take days to get results, and cost hundreds of dollars per test.

Because of these factors, the tests are sometimes not even performed, as it's generally assumed that children will get type 1 and adults will get type 2. In recent years, however, childhood obesity has caused a rise in the number of kids getting type 2, plus there's also a puzzling increase in adults with type 1.

That's where the Stanford chip comes in.

It can be incorporated into a hand-held device that could be used in the field with minimal training, delivering results in minutes. The chip doesn't require any radioactive material, is worth about $20, and can be used for about 15 tests before needing to be replaced. Additionally, it only requires a drop of blood, as opposed to the larger amount needed in the traditional system.

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EC 'confident' in brain project

EC 'confident' in brain project | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

The European Commission has responded to criticism of its billion-euro Human Brain Project, declaring confidence that objections will be satisfied.

The statement also defends the ability of the project to set its own scope, which critics have said is too narrow.

But it says new recommendations for management of the HBP and the balance between its core and partner projects (both contentious issues) are expected in September.

Critics cautiously welcomed the reply.

Under the heading "no single roadmap for understanding the human brain", Robert Madelin (the relevant director-general within the EC) responded directly to last week's open letter.

"As a public funding agency, we take all such signals seriously," he wrote. "We welcome debate."

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Memories 'need space' in brain

Memories 'need space' in brain | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Similar memories overlap physically in the brain and this produces less confusion if the brain area responsible is larger, according to new research.

Scientists scanned the brains of 15 people recalling four similar scenes, in a study published in PNAS.

They spotted overlapping memory traces in a specific corner of the hippocampus called "CA3", a known memory area.

If their CA3 was bigger, the subjects were less confused and there was less overlap in the traces.

Most of us store many similar memories, relating to the places we spend most time and the people we know best. Normally we can tell them apart, though some of us may be better at it than others.

The CA3 region was thought to process each memory using distinct sets of brain cells. These findings suggest, however, that when two episodes incorporate similar content, they may in fact be "remembered" by physically overlapping networks - and more space could be beneficial.

"Our results may help to explain why we sometimes find it difficult to differentiate between similar past memories, and why some people are better at doing this than others," said Prof Eleanor Maguire, the study's senior author, from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at University College London (UCL).

The 15 subjects watched four short movies, showing two different actions happening in each of two different places. They were then prompted to remember each one, 20 times over, inside a brain scanner.

Scans revealed distinguishable memory activity in the CA3 region, but not three other compartments of the hippocampus. Importantly, the four different memory traces showed significant overlap.

Furthermore, that overlap was more apparent in people who said they were more confused by the similarities between the four memories.

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Clue to why some people are healthy and obese

Clue to why some people are healthy and obese | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Some obese people may be able to remain metabolically healthy despite their size because their bodies produce low levels of a certain molecule, according to a study published today in the journal Cell.

High levels of the molecule, called heme oxygenase-1 or HO-1, are linked to metabolic illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease, as well as high blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol, which lead to these diseases.

Early tests in mice show that blocking HO-1 can improve metabolic healthiness. This suggests a potential new strategy for treating obesity-related disease.

Past research has estimated 25-30% of obese people have no metabolic illnesses or risk factors. But the reasons were unknown.

So the research team from the Medical University of Vienna and the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg, Germany, set out to investigate whether HO-1 was responsible.

In studies of human tissue, they found higher levels of HO-1 in liver and fat biopsies from people who were obese and insulin-resistant compared with obese people who were metabolically healthy.

Using mouse models, the researchers then deleted the HO-1 gene in immune cells called macrophages. This left the mice with better liver function and an increase in insulin sensitivity, indicating improved metabolic health.

As one of the strongest predictors of unhealthy obesity, the researchers said the HO-1 molecule was now a candidate biomarker for identifying metabolically unhealthy obese people to detect the onset of disease.

“This could allow clinicians to use targeted interventions to prevent disease progression specifically in obese individuals who show early signs of type 2 diabetes,“ senior study author J. Andrew Pospisilik, from the Max Planck Institute, told Cell.

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One Doctor’s Quest to Save People by Injecting Them With Scorpion Venom | Magazine | WIRED

One Doctor’s Quest to Save People by Injecting Them With Scorpion Venom | Magazine | WIRED | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Because it’s so late on a Monday afternoon, there is a listless vibe inside the University of Washington lecture hall where Jim Olson is about to speak...
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Scientists develop a 'nanosubmarine' that delivers complementary molecules inside cells

Scientists develop a 'nanosubmarine' that delivers complementary molecules inside cells | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

With the continuing need for very small devices in therapeutic applications, there is a growing demand for the development of nanoparticles that can transport and deliver drugs to target cells in the human body.

Recently, researchers created nanoparticles that under the right conditions, self-assemble – trapping complementary guest molecules within their structure. Like tiny submarines, these versatile nanocarriers can navigate in the watery environment surrounding cells and transport their guest molecules through the membrane of living cells to sequentially deliver their cargo.

Although the transport of molecules inside cells with nanoparticles has been previously achieved using various methods, researchers have developed nanoparticles capable of delivering and exchanging complementary molecules. For practical applications, these nanocarriers are highly desirable, explains Francisco Raymo, professor of chemistry in the University of Miami College of Arts and Sciences and lead investigator of this project.

"The ability to deliver distinct species inside cells independently and force them to interact, exclusively in the intracellular environment, can evolve into a valuable strategy to activate drugs inside cells," Raymo says.

The new nanocarriers are15 nanometers in diameter. They are supramolecular constructs made up of building blocks called amphiphilic polymers. These nanocarriers hold the guest molecules within the confines of their water-insoluble interior and use their water-soluble exterior to travel through an aqueous environment. As a result, these nanovehicles are ideal for transferring molecules that would otherwise be insoluble in water, across a liquid environment.

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Salamanders give clues to how we might regrow human limbs

Salamanders give clues to how we might regrow human limbs | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Humans have some regenerative abilities but compared to creatures like the salamander, which has an amazing ability to regenerate after injury, we’re pretty limited. Not only are salamanders the only adult vertebrates able to regrow full limbs, they’re able to regenerate an impressive repertoire of complex structures including parts of their hearts, eyes, spinal cord and tails.

In recent years, researchers have been studying salamander regeneration in the hope that the knowledge gathered would contribute to understanding how can they regenerate, and how to promote human regeneration.

Although we do not yet understand the exact mechanisms by which salamanders are able to regrow their limbs, we do know that this animal regeneration takes place by the reprogramming of adult cells. This means that for regeneration to take place, adult cells – such as muscle cells – that form the limb have to lose their muscle identity and proliferate to give rise to new cells that will contribute to form the new structure.

This process is rarely found in mammalian cells and this has been suggested as the basis for their poor regenerative abilities. But clearly, unravelling the mechanisms underlying this reprogramming is central to understanding why certain vertebrates can regenerate their limbs while others can’t, and how to repeat this process in humans. If we were able to crack this puzzle, it could lead to strategies to enhance the reprogramming of cells from patients, and to better understand their disease and design appropriate cures.

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Electronic eye sensor watches out for glaucoma - Futurity

Electronic eye sensor watches out for glaucoma - Futurity | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A successful prototype suggests that surgeons could one day implant glaucoma-sensing devices in the eye during cataract surgery.

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Researchers have designed a high-tech, low-power sensor that can be placed permanently in a person’s eye to track hard-to-measure changes in pressure and monitor for diseases like glaucoma.

The sensor would be embedded with an artificial lens during cataract surgery and would detect pressure changes instantaneously, then transmit the data wirelessly using radio frequency waves.

“No one has ever put electronics inside the lens of the eye, so this is a little more radical,” says Karl Böhringer, professor of electrical engineering at University of Washington. “We have shown this is possible in principle. If you can fit this sensor device into an intraocular lens implant during cataract surgery, it won’t require any further surgery for patients.”

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