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How carbs from food end up as fat-Futurity.org

How carbs from food end up as fat-Futurity.org | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

The same gene that helps convert a big plate of holiday cookies into fat could also provide a new target for potential treatments for fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity.Researchers are unlocking the molecular mechanisms of how our body converts dietary carbohydrates into fat, and as part of that research, they found that a gene called BAF60c contributes to fatty liver, or steatosis.

In the study, to be published online December 6 in the journal Molecular Cell, the researchers found that mice that have had the BAF60c gene disabled did not convert carbohydrates to fat, despite eating a high-carb diet.

“This work brings us one step forward in understanding fatty liver disease resulting from an excessive consumption of carbohydrates,” says the study’s senior author, Hei Sook Sul, professor at University of California, Berkeley’s Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology.

“The discovery of this role of BAF60c may eventually lead to the development of treatment for millions of Americans with fatty liver and other related diseases.”

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Ayahuasca Psychedelic Tested for Depression

Ayahuasca Psychedelic Tested for Depression | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A psychedelic drink used for centuries in healing ceremonies is now attracting the attention of biomedical scientists as a possible treatment for depression. Researchers from Brazil last month published results from the first clinical test of a potential therapeutic benefit for ayahuasca, a South American plant-based brew. Although the study included just six volunteers and no placebo group, the scientists say that the drink began to reduce depression in patients within hours, and the effect was still present after three weeks. They are now conducting larger studies that they hope will shore up their findings.

The work forms part of a renaissance in studying the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic or recreational drugs—research that was largely banned or restricted worldwide half a century ago. Ketamine, which is used medically as an anaesthetic, has shown promise as a fast-acting antidepressant; psilocybin, a hallucinogen found in ‘magic mushrooms’, can help to alleviate anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer; MDMA (ecstasy) can alleviate post-traumatic stress disorder; and patients who experience debilitating cluster headaches have reported that LSD eases their symptoms.
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Dementia 'halted in mice brains'

Dementia 'halted in mice brains' | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Tweaking the brain's immune system with a drug has prevented mice developing dementia, a study shows.

The team at Duke University, in the US, showed immune cells which start attacking nutrients in the brain may be a trigger for the disease.

They say their findings could open up new avenues of research for a field that has not developed a single drug to slow the progression of the disease.

Experts said the findings offered new hope of a treatment.

The researchers indentified microglia - normally the first line of defence against infection in the brain - as major players in the development of dementia.

They found some microglia changed to become exceptionally adept at breaking down a component of protein, an amino acid called arginine, in the early stages of the disease.

As arginine levels plummeted, the immune cells appeared to dampened the immune system in the brain.
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Breast tissue provides clues to avoid effects of aging

Breast tissue provides clues to avoid effects of aging | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Our tissue's inability to repair itself as we grow older is thought to correlate with the decline in the presence of stem cells. So it follows that if stem cell function can be preserved beyond the norm, it could have implications for the aging process and adverse effects of tissue degeneration, such as cancer. Scientists from the University of Toronto have followed this line of thinking through research on the mammary glands of genetically modified mice, finding that development of the tissue can be manipulated to avoid the effects of aging.

Led by Professor Rama Khoka, the researchers were investigating the relationship between enzymes that break down and then rebuild tissue, and the inhibitors that regulate this process. Known as metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), how these elements interact can dictate the health of the tissue, and whether it effectively regenerates or begins to deteriorate, possibly leading to cancer.

The researchers worked with mice engineered to be missing at least one of the four different kinds of TIMPs, experimenting with various combinations to observe the impacts on tissue. They discovered that removing TIMP1 and TIMP3 caused the number of stem cells to actually increase and continue to function, resulting in breast tissue that remained young throughout the mice's lives.

"Normally you would see these pools of stem cells, which reach their peak at six months in the mice, start to decline," says Khoka. "As a result, the mammary glands start to degenerate, which increases the risk of breast cancer occurring. However, we found that in these particular mice, the stem cells remained consistently high when we measured them at every stage of life."
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Internet of things devices meant to simplify our lives may end up ruling them instead

Internet of things devices meant to simplify our lives may end up ruling them instead | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Technology’s promise of wonderful things in the future stretches from science fiction to science fact: self-driving cars, virtual reality, smart devices such as Google Glass, and the internet of things are designed to make our lives easier and more productive. Certainly inventions of the past century such as the washing machine and combustion engine have brought leisure time to the masses. But will this trend necessarily continue?

On the surface, tech that simplifies hectic modern lives seems a good idea. But we risk spending more of the time freed by these devices designed to free up our time through the growing need to micromanage them. Recall that an early digital technology designed to help us was the continually interrupting Microsoft Office paperclip.

It’s possible that internet-connected domestic devices could turn out to be ill-judged, poorly-designed, short-lived technological fads. But the present trend of devices that require relentless updates and patches driven by security threats and privacy breaches doesn’t make for a utopian-sounding future. Technology growth in the workplace can lead to loss of productivity; taken to the home it could take a bite out of leisure time too.
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Think you're so smart? It might just be Google - Futurity

Think you're so smart? It might just be Google - Futurity | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
All the information available online has a strange effect on our brains: We feel a lot smarter than we really are, a new study shows.

In 9 different experiments with more than 1,000 participants, Yale University psychologists found that if subjects received information through internet searches, they rated their knowledge base as much greater than those who obtained the information through other methods.

“This was a very robust effect, replicated time and time again,” says Matthew Fisher, a PhD student and the lead author of the study. “People who search for information tend to conflate accessible knowledge with their own personal knowledge.”

For instance, in one experiment people searched online for a website that answers the question, “How does a zipper work?” The control group received the same answer that they would have found online, but without searching for it themselves.

When later asked how well they understood completely unrelated domains of knowledge, those who searched online rated their knowledge substantially greater than those who were only provided text. Prior to the experiment, no such difference existed.

The effect was so strong that even when a full answer to a question was not provided to internet searchers, they still had an inflated sense of their own knowledge.

“The cognitive effects of ‘being in search mode’ on the internet may be so powerful that people still feel smarter even when their online searches reveal nothing,” says Frank Keil, professor of psychology and linguistics and senior author of the paper.
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Toward a model of synchrony in brain networks

Toward a model of synchrony in brain networks | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
(MedicalXpress)—Resting state networks (RSNs) in the brain are topographies of neural structures between which lag states propagate due to fluctuations of physical and other activities. Studying these networks reveals information about the functional connectivity of neural structures and regions. Results from various studies have confirmed that brain activity is spatially structured, linked to the representation of function, and has clinical relevance.

Functional connectivity is different from the brain's structural connectivity, which describes brain regions that are anatomically attached to each other. Regions with no structural connectivity can nonetheless have functional connectivity as nodes in a functionally connected RSN. Many common RSNs have been mapped in healthy subjects, and researchers believe that understanding the relationships between these networks can contribute to a fundamental model of brain function.

One of the tremendous advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the ability to study brain functional activity without the need for subjects to perform complex tasks. Using fMRI to study resting-state functional connectivity yields a wealth of information about different stages of consciousness and patterns of synchronous activity. One of the neurological features that has emerged from such research is the existence of lags in intrinsic activity as represented by fluctuations of the blood-oxygen level-dependent signals (BOLDs), which are temporally synchronous within the somatomotor system.

Last year, researchers at the departments of radiology and neurology at Washington University published an analysis demonstrating that, contrary to the belief that BOLDs were synchronous with resting state networks (RSNs), the lag topography of BOLDs and RSNs is actually orthogonal. Additionally, they established that BOLDs are not attributable to hemodynamic factors and have neural origin.
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Maritha dotws's curator insight, April 4, 8:48 AM

Click here to get more info ... http://sh.st/gYGy5

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‘Nanoneedles’ generate new blood vessels in mice, paving the way for new regenerative medicine | KurzweilAI

‘Nanoneedles’ generate new blood vessels in mice, paving the way for new regenerative medicine | KurzweilAI | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Scientists have developed “nanoneedles” that have successfully prompted parts of the body to generate new blood vessels, in a trial in mice.

The researchers, from Imperial College London and Houston Methodist Research Institute in the USA, hope their nanoneedle technique could ultimately help damaged organs and nerves repair themselves and help transplanted organs thrive.

In a trial described in Nature Materials, the team showed they could deliver nucleic acids DNA and siRNA to back muscles in mice. After seven days there was a six-fold increase in the formation of new blood vessels in the mouse back muscles, and blood vessels continued to form over a 14 day period.

The nanoneedles are tiny porous structures that act as a sponge to load significantly more nucleic acids than solid structures. This makes them more effective at delivering their payload. They can penetrate the cell, bypassing its outer membrane, to deliver nucleic acids without harming or killing the cell.

The nanoneedles are made from biodegradable silicon, meaning that they can be left in the body without leaving a toxic residue behind. The silicon degrades in about two days, leaving behind only a negligible amount of a harmless substance called orthosilicic acid.
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Team finds 'exploding head syndrome' more common in young people than thought

Team finds 'exploding head syndrome' more common in young people than thought | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Washington State University researchers have found that an unexpectedly high percentage of young people experience "exploding head syndrome," a psychological phenomenon in which they are awakened by abrupt loud noises, even the sensation of an explosion in their head. Brian Sharpless, a Washington State University assistant professor and director of the university psychology clinic, found that nearly one in five—18 percent—of college students interviewed said they had experienced it at least once. It was so bad for some that it significantly impacted their lives, he said."Unfortunately for this minority of individuals, no well-articulated or empirically supported treatments are available, and very few clinicians or researchers assess for it," he said.

The study also found that more than one-third of those who had exploding head syndrome also experienced isolated sleep paralysis, a frightening experience in which one cannot move or speak when waking up. People with this condition will literally dream with their eyes wide open.The study is the largest of its kind, with 211 undergraduate students interviewed by psychologists or graduate students trained in recognizing the symptoms of exploding head syndrome and isolated sleep paralysis. The results appear online in the Journal of Sleep Research.Based on smaller, less rigorous studies, some researchers have hypothesized that exploding head syndrome is a rare condition found mostly in people older than 50.
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The Virtual Course That Could Change How Students Study Medicine

The Virtual Course That Could Change How Students Study Medicine | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Physicians assistants are highly paid medical professionals who provide a lot of the same healthcare services that doctors do. They take patient histories and perform physical exams, diagnose illnesses and develop treatment plans, prescribe medications and counsel patients. And in surgical settings, they suture wounds and assist with the procedures.
PAs, as they’re known in the industry, typically earn master’s degrees in medical science before practicing. These programs usually last three academic years and include classroom instruction in topics ranging from anatomy to pharmacology. Students also participate in more than 2,000 hours of clinical rotations. This training entails a lot of rigorous coursework—education that would, in theory, be hard to deliver outside the brick-and-mortar walls of the 175 or so higher-education institutions with accredited PA master’s programs.

Or maybe not. Soon, an aspiring PA might be able to complete nearly all this coursework online—and through an Ivy League to boot: Yale.

Yale announced earlier this month that it’s partnering with 2U, Inc.—a firm that helps selective nonprofit universities develop virtual degree programs—to launch its online PA initiative. The project is still pending approval by the accrediting commission for PA schools and from various state licensing agencies. But if it gets the green light, it would likely be the country’s first fully online PA degree. (Some programs are considered "hybrid" and entail a combination of on-campus and online coursework.) It would also become Yale’s first fully online master’s program and join the university’s existing on-campus PA program, which was launched in the early 1970s. The online program would cost the same as the on-campus one, whose sticker price is $35,654 annually for the first two years, excluding other fees.
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Edinburgh Medical School's curator insight, March 31, 2:56 PM

Physician Assistants first, what next?

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Scientists create functioning "mini-lungs" to study cystic fibrosis

Scientists create functioning "mini-lungs" to study cystic fibrosis | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Cambridge have grown functional "mini-lungs" using stems cells derived from the skin cells of patients with a debilitating lung disease. Not only can the development help them in coming up with effective treatments for specific lung diseases like cystic fibrosis, but the process has the potential to be scaled up to screen thousands of new compounds to identify potential new drugs.

Creating miniature organoids has been the focus of many a research group, as it allows scientists to better understand the processes that take place inside an organ, figure out how specific diseases occur and develop or even work towards creating bioengineered lungs.

The research team from the Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute studied a lung disease called cystic fibrosis, which is caused by genetic mutation and shortens a patient's average lifespan. Patients have great difficulty breathing as the lungs are overwhelmed by thickened mucus.

To create working mini-lungs, the researchers took skin cells from patients with the most common form of cystic fibrosis and reprogrammed them to an induced pluripotent state (iPS), which allows the cells to grow into a different type of cell inside the body.
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Artificial Platelets Could Soon Enter Human Trials | DiscoverMagazine.com

Artificial Platelets Could Soon Enter Human Trials | DiscoverMagazine.com | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Cell-sized particles could help with blood clotting in the face of donor shortages.
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Drugs that dramatically increase healthy lifespan discovered by Scripps Research, Mayo Clinic | KurzweilAI

Drugs that dramatically increase healthy lifespan discovered by Scripps Research, Mayo Clinic | KurzweilAI | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

A research team from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), Mayo Clinic and other institutions has identified a new class of drugs that in animal models dramatically slows the aging process, alleviating symptoms of frailty, improving cardiac function, and extending a healthy lifespan.

They found two drugs — the cancer drug dasatinib (sold under the trade name Sprycel) and quercetin, a natural compound found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and also sold as a supplement that acts as an antihistamine and anti-inflammatory — can kill senescent cells. These are cells that have stopped dividing and accumulate with age, accelerating the aging process.

The scientists coined the term “senolytics” for this new class of drugs.

“We view this study as a big first step toward developing treatments that can be given safely to patients to extend healthspan or to treat age-related diseases and disorders,” said TSRI Professor Paul Robbins, PhD, who with Associate Professor Laura Niedernhofer, MD, PhD, led the research efforts for the paper at Scripps Florida. “When senolytic agents, like the combination we identified, are used clinically, the results could be transformative.”

“The prototypes of these senolytic agents have more than proven their ability to alleviate multiple characteristics associated with aging,” said Mayo Clinic Professor James Kirkland, MD, PhD, senior author of the new study. “It may eventually become feasible to delay, prevent, alleviate or even reverse multiple chronic diseases and disabilities as a group, instead of just one at a time.”

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Alzheimer's study finds possible cause of disease

Alzheimer's study finds possible cause of disease | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A study using mice has uncovered a possible cause of Alzheimer’s disease, and suggests that a drug currently being investigated in human clinical trials to treat cancer could prevent the illness.

The research has been heralded as offering hope of finding new treatments for dementia.

The findings, by Duke University in America and published in the Journal of Neuroscience, are surprising, according to one of the authors, as they contradict current thinking on the disease.
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Smartphone-based device could provide rapid, low-cost molecular tumor diagnosis | KurzweilAI

Smartphone-based device could provide rapid, low-cost molecular tumor diagnosis | KurzweilAI | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
A smartphone-based device developed by Harvard Medical School investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital could bring rapid, accurate molecular diagnosis of cancer and other diseases to locations lacking the latest medical technology.

The device uses technology for making holograms to collect detailed microscopic images for digital analysis of the molecular composition of cells and tissues.

“The global burden of cancer, limited access to prompt pathology services in many regions, and emerging cell profiling technologies increase the need for low-cost, portable and rapid diagnostic approaches that can be delivered at the point of care,” said Cesar Castro, HMS instructor in medicine at Mass General and co-lead author of a report in PNAS Early Edition.

“The emerging genomic and biological data for various cancers, which can be essential to choosing the most appropriate therapy, supports the need for molecular profiling strategies that are more accessible to providers, clinical investigators and patients.
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Franklin Delano Williams's curator insight, April 15, 10:44 AM

......This will help bring "real-time diagnosis" to Frontier/Rural America at an affordable cost.  Hope our Frontier Rural Health Network can get in on the pilot "field studies" for this  device.

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Thought-Controlled Genes Could Someday Help Us Heal

Thought-Controlled Genes Could Someday Help Us Heal | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
People can control prosthetic limbs, computer programs and even remote-controlled helicopters with their mind, all by using brain-computer interfaces. What if we could harness this technology to control things happening inside our own body? A team of bioengineers in Switzerland has taken the first step toward this cyborglike setup by combining a brain-computer interface with a synthetic biological implant, allowing a genetic switch to be operated by brain activity. It is the world's first brain-gene interface.

The group started with a typical brain-computer interface, an electrode cap that can register subjects' brain activity and transmit signals to another electronic device. In this case, the device is an electromagnetic field generator; different types of brain activity cause the field to vary in strength. The next step, however, is totally new—the experimenters used the electromagnetic field to trigger protein production within human cells in an implant in mice.
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Shape-shifting nanoprobes report on internal body conditions using magnetic fields

Shape-shifting nanoprobes report on internal body conditions using magnetic fields | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new type of shape-shifting nanoprobe that can perform high-resolution remote biological sensing not possible with current technology. Around one-tenth the size of a single red blood cell, the nanoprobes are designed to provide feedback on internal body conditions by altering their magnetic fields in response to their environment. The researchers predict wide-spread applications for the nanoprobes in the fields of chemistry, biology, engineering and, one day, to aid physicians in high-accuracy clinical diagnostics.

Dubbed geometrically encoded magnetic sensors (GEMs), the nanoprobes are microengineered from two plates of magnetic metal disks 0.5 to 2 micrometers in diameter and just tens of nanometers thick. These are formed either side of a polymer gel to create a microminiature sandwiched component.

More specifically, the polymer is a layer of hydrogel, a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic (absorb water) and are able to expand significantly dependent upon the level of the moisture in the environment in which they are used. Similarly, the gel can also contract when the environment is low in moisture. As such, the expanding or contracting of this gel then changes the distance between the two magnetic disks, and in turn increases or decreases the magnetic field.
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Geographic tongue: the mysterious condition that makes maps in your mouth

Geographic tongue: the mysterious condition that makes maps in your mouth | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Geographic tongue (GT) is a medical condition in which the upper layer of the tongue, which consists of tiny hair-like protrusions (called papillae), is damaged due to an expanding inflammation. As a result, red patches devoid of papillae can be observed on the surface of the tongue. A noticeable characteristic of the condition is an evolving map-like appearance of the affected tongue (hence its name).

GT, which is harmless and affects about 2% of the population, was first reported more than 180 years ago. It has been investigated ever since, but the actual cause of the condition remains unknown. GT has been associated with different diseases such as psoriasis.
Maps and maths

In a recent investigation, published in New Journal of Physics, we treated GT as a dynamical system – a mathematical description that enables one to examine how something evolves over time – that consists of a large number of coupled (interacting) elements such as the hair protrusions. Each of these elements can be found in one of three states: a healed (unaffected) state, an excited state and a recovering state. Once an element is excited, it then goes through a remission period in which it cannot be excited.

Other well-known natural phenomena that can be treated in this manner include the heart muscle (where the cardiac cells are the coupled elements) and forest fires (where the trees are the elements) – once a fire has started, it then moves to fresh areas until it has burned everywhere that it can. The forest then enters a long recovering period and eventually completely recovers. Systems that can be described in this way fall in the category of “excitable media”.

A similar process also happens with GT. But as it is a chronic condition, it will reoccur at a later time. By identifying GT as a novel example of excitable media dynamics, we were able to examine and visualise the evolution of the condition using numerical simulations.
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Personal cancer vaccine research 'exciting' say experts

Personal cancer vaccine research 'exciting' say experts | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Tailor-made cancer vaccines that target unique genetic errors in a patient's tumour have been developed in the US.

Safety tests on three people, published in the journal Science, showed the immune system could be trained to fight skin cancers.

The American team say the early results mark a "significant step" towards personalised cancer vaccines.

The charity Cancer Research UK called the tests an "exciting but very early-stage trial".

UV light can transform healthy skin cells into deadly melanomas by damaging the DNA.

The tumours are a genetic mess, containing hundreds of random mutations that are different in every patient.
Neoantigens

The mutations can change the proteins that stick out from the surface of cells and act like identifying flags.

The team, mainly based in St Louis and Oklahoma City, analysed the genetic mutations to predict the new and unique flags that would be flown by the cancer cells.

A computer algorithm then analysed the new flags, known as neoantigens, to decide which would be the best targets for a vaccine.
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Rats, reasoning, and rehabilitation: Neuroscientists uncovering how we reason

Rats, reasoning, and rehabilitation: Neuroscientists uncovering how we reason | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Even rats can imagine: A new study finds that rats have the ability to link cause and effect such that they can expect, or imagine, something happening even if it isn't. The findings are important to understanding human reasoning, especially in older adults, as aging degrades the ability to maintain information about unobserved events.

"What sets humans apart from the rest of the animal kingdom is our prodigious ability to reason. But what about human reasoning is truly a human-unique feature and what aspects are shared with our nonhuman relatives?," asks Aaron Blaisdell of the University of California, Los Angeles. "This is the question that drives my passion for research on rational behavior in rats."

Blaisdell hopes that his work with rats will teach us more about what it means to be human. His recent studies are part of a growing body of work on reasoning - the ability to figure out how to move from one state of affairs to another, to achieve a particular outcome.

From reasoning in rats to differences in reasoning among people with autism and schizophrenia, researchers are discussing the latest science on reasoning in a symposium today at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS) conference in San Francisco.
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Even 'last resort' antibiotics are starting to fail - Futurity

Even 'last resort' antibiotics are starting to fail - Futurity | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Bacteria frequently implicated in respiratory and urinary infections in hospitals may soon develop complete resistance to antibiotics, even those used as a last resort, experts warn.

A new study shows that two genes that confer resistance against a particularly strong class of antibiotics can be shared easily among a family of bacteria responsible for a significant portion of hospital-associated infections.

Drug-resistant germs in the same family of bacteria recently infected several patients at two Los Angeles hospitals. Those infections are linked to medical scopes believed to have been contaminated with bacteria that can resist carbapenems, potent antibiotics that are supposed to be used only in gravely ill patients or those infected by resistant bacteria.

“Carbapenems are one of our last resorts for treating bacterial infections, what we use when nothing else works,” says senior author Gautam Dantas, associate professor of pathology and immunologyat Washington University in St. Louis.
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Blood test uses human stem cells to predict severe drug reactions

Blood test uses human stem cells to predict severe drug reactions | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Scientists have developed a blood test using human stem cells that predicts whether new drugs will cause severe side effects. The test, which only requires blood from a single donor, could help prevent catastrophic inflammatory reactions known as a cytokine storm in people participating in drug trials.

"As biological therapies become more mainstream, it’s more likely that drugs being tested on humans for the first time will have unexpected and potentially catastrophic effects," says Professor Jane Mitchell from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London, who led the study. "We’ve used adult stem cell technology to develop a laboratory test that could prevent another disaster like the TGN1412 trial."

In 2006 six healthy young men were hospitalized with multiple organ failure after experiencing a cytokine storm as a result of taking part in the first tests in humans of the drug TGN1412.

Tests on human cells are essential because biological therapies, or "biologics" (such as the cancer drugs Herceptin and Avastin), use antibodies which are specific to humans. They can cause severe reactions, such as a cytokine storm, that don’t occur in animal studies.
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'Fat gene' may control if you're apple or pear shaped - Futurity

'Fat gene' may control if you're apple or pear shaped - Futurity | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
People who carry a lot of weight around their bellies are more likely to develop diabetes and heart disease than those who have bigger hips and thighs.

But why does fat accumulate in different places to make these classic “apple” and “pear” shapes?

A new study with zebrafish suggests that a gene called Plexin D1 appears to control both where fat is stored and how fat cells are shaped, known factors in health and the risk of future disease.
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Death Is Optional | Edge.org

Death Is Optional | Edge.org | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it

Let me give you an example that I'm thinking about a lot today, concerning the future of humankind in the field of medicine. At least to the best of my understanding, we're in the middle of a revolution in medicine. After medicine in the 20th century focused on healing the sick, now it is more and more focused on upgrading the healthy, which is a completely different project. And it's a fundamentally different project in social and political terms, because whereas healing the sick is an egalitarian project ... you assume there is a norm of health, anybody that falls below the norm, you try to give them a push to come back to the norm, upgrading is by definition an elitist project. There is no norm that can be applicable to everybody.

And this opens the possibility of creating huge gaps between the rich and the poor, bigger than ever existed before in history. And many people say no, it will not happen, because we have the experience of the 20th century, that we had many medical advances, beginning with the rich or with the most advanced countries, and gradually they trickled down to everybody, and now everybody enjoys antibiotics or vaccinations or whatever, so this will happen again.

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Testosterone boost 'could cut deaths'

Testosterone boost 'could cut deaths' | The future of medicine and health | Scoop.it
Boosting men's testosterone levels could potentially prevent deaths from heart disease and type 2 diabetes, UK doctors and scientists say.

Boosting men's testosterone levels could potentially reduce deaths from heart disease and type 2 diabetes, UK doctors and scientists say.

A team in Sheffield has shown the sex hormone has a "major impact" on the way sugar and fat are handled by the body.

At the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, they said low testosterone was common in type 2 diabetes.

Experts said the field was being "turned upside down" as testosterone was previously considered a villain.

It was thought to explain why men are more prone to heart disease. There are also concerns about the damaging impact of testosterone, as seen in bodybuilders who abuse the hormone.

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