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« Bad Banks » : une bombe de 1.000 milliards d’euros pour les contribuables européens

« Bad Banks » : une bombe de 1.000 milliards d’euros pour les contribuables européens | The France News Net - Latest stories | Scoop.it
Six ans après la crise, plus de 1.000 milliards d’euros d’actifs douteux ou illiquides restent stockés dans les « bad banks ».

 

Plus de 1.000 milliards d’euros d’actifs restent encore stockés dans les « bad banks » - AFP

Eclipsée par la crise des dettes souveraines et par la récession des économies réelles, la crise des « subprimes » n’est pas une affaire classée. Détonateur de la bombe financière européenne, elle laisse une facture que les banques et les Etats européens ne sont pas près de régler. Pour se sauver, de grands établissements de crédit, paralysés par les créances douteuses et les actifs illiquides accumulés au fil des ans depuis 2007, ont constitué des « bad banks ». Bilan, six ans après le début de la crise financière : plus de 1.000 milliards d’euros d’actifs restent encore stockés dans ces structures de défaisance en Europe.

En amont, la création de ces dernières répond toujours à la nécessité de tirer un trait arbitraire sur les actifs toxiques et non stratégiques, pour que les activités cœur de métier restent attractives aux yeux des investisseurs. Mais les « bad banks » peuvent prendre différentes formes : une structure nationale rachetant des actifs aux banques privées, comme l’a fait l’Irlande avec la Nama (National Asset Management Agency) ; une banque insolvable nationalisée et séparée en « good bank » et « bad bank » ; et enfin une structure de cantonnement à l’intérieur d’un établissement privé.

Partie émergée de l’iceberg

C’est le schéma retenu par plusieurs banques françaises. Dont, en tête, Dexia. La « bad bank » de l’établissement franco-belge recensait fin mars 266 milliards d’euros d’actifs douteux gérés en extinction. Un record en Europe. Mais deux des poids lourds du secteur ont également eu recours à une « bad bank » interne. Natixis, la banque de financement et d’investissement du groupe coopératif BPCE, s’est doté en 2009 d’une GAPC (gestion active des portefeuilles cantonnés), regroupant 35 milliards d’actifs toxiques ou illiquides. Quatre ans plus tard, à la fin mars 2013, la banque n’en gérait plus « que » 13,5 milliards, misant sur la fermeture de sa GAPC à la mi-2014. La Société Générale suit une trajectoire analogue : sa « bad bank » Inter Europe Conseil, constituée début 2010 avec 35,5 milliards d’euros d’actifs douteux, en rassemblait 8,8 milliards à la fin de 2012.

Les plus de 1.000 milliards logés au sein des « bad banks » européennes ne constituent toutefois que la partie émergée de l’iceberg. Des centaines de milliards de créances douteuses et de fonds communs de créance, dont la valeur de marché s’est brutalement dégradée, figurent dans les livres des banques européennes. La banque de financement et d’investissement du Crédit Agricole, Cacib, n’a pas créé de « bad bank » et ne détenait plus, à la fin 2012, que 1,15 milliard d’actifs douteux en cours de cession.

Ces actifs dégradés, que les Etats, les banques et les marchés savent si mal évaluer, constituent-ils une bombe financière à retardement ? Une gestion à très long terme, en extinction ou au gré des opportunités de marché, permettra aux banques de digérer leurs erreurs. Mais elle pèse sur le dynamisme du secteur financier.


Via Jacques Le Bris
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