How do we know that students have learned a language? We can assess students using formative and summative assessments but how do we know that students will actually be able to use their language in real-life, authentic situations? In short, how do we know that our students are competent in the target language? One way to judge this competency is through students’ performance. However, how do we know that this performance is an accurate measure of what students actually know? In this section we will examine these questions further by looking at competence versus performance.