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Teacher Education for Languages with Technology / Formation des enseignants de langue avec les TICE
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Investigating Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Classroom context: Mohebbi 2013

Investigating Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Classroom context: Recent Findings, Future Outlook
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Bibliography of vocabulary acquisition research
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Five tips to encourage spontaneous talk

Five tips to encourage spontaneous talk | TELT |

1. Teach masses of vocabulary,

2. Involve students in lots of oral interaction

3. Expose learners to lots of comprehensible aural input

4. Model to students creative ways to put a message across

5. Ask them to practise digitally-mediated interactional writing independently

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Going beyond the parrot stage

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Audio Diaries: feedback via SoundCloud

Audio Diaries: feedback via SoundCloud | TELT |

The concept of Audio Diaries is actually quite simple. Students record something (on or off topic, with or without using target vocabulary or language structures). Students are then given feedback on their grammatical, lexical, and phonological errors. Finally, students re-record the same exact monologue, but this time, they must address their errors. In this way, students are getting delayed corrective feedback and forced uptake of feedback, in addition to raising their noticing and metacognitive skills. They are also getting individual attention, targeted practice in their “weak” areas, and more opportunities for speaking without the pressures of speaking in class.

Aside form typical complaints about too much homework, students seem to enjoy Audio Diaries. They enjoy the feedback and being able to have another chance to express their thoughts in a clearer way. In addition, by listening more closely to individuals I am better able to pinpoint and help them with their weaknesses in and out of class. Likewise, I am better able to notice persistent and common patterns and address them in class.

Shona Whyte's insight:

Some background on the role of feedback on learning, links to technical information, and some action research on regular audio recording for accuracy in oral production.


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Recycling activities: narrow reading/listening

Recycling activities: narrow reading/listening | TELT |
As mentioned in previous posts, listening in my opinion is not taught effectively in many MFL classrooms as students are often engaged in listening comprehension tasks that 'feel' more like tests a...
Shona Whyte's insight:

Practical suggestions for exploiting listening and reading texts for maximum comprehension and vocabulary retention

Teaching, Learning & Developing with Technology's curator insight, August 3, 2015 7:29 PM

Practical suggestions for exploiting listening and reading texts for maximum comprehension and vocabulary retention

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Vocabulary Activities

Vocabulary Activities | TELT |

We all have our go-to activities – those activities that we have found to be effective for our context, students, and style. I’d like to share a few of my favorite ways to teach vocabulary.



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Lots of activities, resources, and links for vocabulary teaching

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Reading/Viewing for writing: lesson template

The topic for next week's writing class is ......(insert topic here)

Read this article and highlight any relevant vocabulary (insert link here)

Read this (different) article and highlight any relevant ideas (insert link here)



Here is a talk on this topic (insert link here)

What are the speaker's 5 main points?

Look at the transcript - any relevant vocabulary?

If you were in the audience, what one question would you ask?



Here is an article on this topic (insert link here)

What is the overall point the writer is trying to make?

What are the main ideas?

What examples does the writer use?

Does the writer talk about effects (e.g. as a result....consequently....)

Do you notice any vocabulary that you found in the listening or other articles?



Now, after doing all that reading and listening, write 250 words on the question (insert a question related to the topic here).

Shona Whyte's insight:

Great example of a) cut-out-and-keep writing prompt lesson and b) potential action research topic/project

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Late Second Language Learners’ Oral Proficiency - Saito - 2015

"How long does it take for late L2 learners to reach ultimate attainment and how extensively can they improve their L2 oral ability?"


"First and foremost, the current results indicated that experience effects were evident for linguistic correlates of comprehensibility rather than accentedness. As learners gain L2 experience, they may prioritize the development of good prosody, optimal speech rate, as well as proper vocabulary and grammar usage (over segmental accuracy and sophisticated use of vocabulary and grammar) for the purpose of achieving successful communication in their private, business, and academic settings. The findings can be well accounted for by an interactionist view, which states that comprehensibility rather than ac- centedness is what learners essentially aim to achieve during their interactions with interlocutors and that comprehensibility is a crucial variable, especially in late SLA (Gass & Mackey, 2006)."

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Carefully designed and controlled study of 39 Japanese users of English L2 in Canada showed that the comprehensibility of their speech improved with length of residence, but not listeners' perceptions of its accentedness. Even long-term residents (13 years) were perceived as significantly different from a native-speaker baseline, and analyses of pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary and grammar confirmed the difference.

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Calico journal: new issue

Review Article

Quantitative considerations for improving replicability in CALL and applied linguistics

Luke Plonsky



The more things change, the more they stay the same, or do they? Revisiting classroom interaction approaches and their effects on quantity and characteristics of language production

Linda Carol Jones , Cheryl A. Murphy , Amalie Holland


Input and output grammar instruction in tutorial CALL with a complex grammatical structure

Joseph Collentine , Karina Collentine


Engaging in mobile phone-based activities for learning vocabulary: An investigation in Japan and Taiwan

Glenn Stockwell , Yi Chun Liu


Comprehending and learning from Internet sources: A conceptual replication study of Goldman, Braasch, Wiley, Greasser and Brodowinska

Susanne Rott , Bianca Gavin

Shona Whyte's insight:

Empirical research in CALL and technology-mediated language learning/teaching

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Compleat Lexical Tutor

A complete website for learning and learning about English and French words. You can test your vocabulary level, then work on the words at the level where you are weak. Use wordlists, online concordancer and dictionary, texts, and a database to store your work and view the work of others. French parallel site is almost complete.


Instructions for learners:


Lexical Tutor > Tutorial Guide (Original - about 2005 but still relevant)

You can use this site to expand your English vocabulary systematically (and your French vocabulary too). The site has a set of diagnostic vocabulary tests, and a corresponding set of vocabulary lists linked to concordance, dictionary, and quizzes to help you explore the nuances of form, meaning, and collocation of the words on these lists. Here's one way to proceed:

- Test yourself to determine your next zone of vocabulary growth. Start with either the Classic (GSL+UWL) or BNC (1-14k) word recognition tests (GSL=General Service List; UWL=University Word List; BNC = British National Corpus).
- Go to the Learn from Lists pages and find the level which you are weak on either the same scheme you chose for your test.
 Work your way through the list with the aid of the dictionary and concordance. Develop an approach that suits you--make notes, cut and paste examples and definitions to the Group Lex Database provided, or a spreadsheet on your own computer. Also, a set of progress tests is linked to the the 2000 and UWL lists at roughly 250-word intervals.

- If you do not like learning from lists, or want to learn more about new words by meeting them in other contexts, then you can paste complete authentic texts into VP Cloze, which will make you exercises for words from the frequency band you are working on.

- Or, if you want to work outside the frequency framework altogether, but not entirely independently, then you can read a novel  (Jack London's Call of the Wild or de Maupassant's Boule de Suif) with full click-on lexical support.  - or make your own resource-supported texts at Hypertext Builder

The 1000, 2000, and University/Academic Word Lists contain words you need to know - read the research page to learn why.

Shona Whyte's insight:

Grading first year student translations and looking for places to send them to learn vocabulary

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Teaching and learning vocabulary: implications from acquisition research

Teaching and learning vocabulary: implications from acquisition research | TELT |

To me, these findings support an intermediate position between the “let it all hang out” of strongly communicative approaches, for example, and the “drill and kill” of more closely teacher-controlled methods such as grammar-translation.  To learn new words, some kind of grunt work is required, but it needs to come from their learners rather than imposed top-down by teachers. And it needs to be done intelligently.

Shona Whyte's insight:

Recent post on vocabulary learning and teaching.

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Involvement Load Hypothesis: Hulstijn & Laufer 2001

According to the ILH, tasks with a higher involvement load are considered to be more effective for word learning and retention than tasks with lower involvement loads. For comparison purposes, each task is assigned a specific number which relates to an involvement load index. Total absence of a factor is assigned 0, a moderate presence is assigned 1 and strong presence is assigned a score of 2.

(0) Absent: Learner doesn’t need to understand or produce word.
(1) Moderate: Learner is required to learn the word by external source (teacher).
(2) Strong: Learner makes decision to learn or produce the word.


(0) Absent: Meaning or translation of word is provided.
(1) Present: Learner must look up meaning / translation of a word.


(0) Absent: Words are not compared with other words.
(1) Moderate: Words are compared to other words in provided contexts.
(2) Strong: Words are compared to other words in self-created contexts.


For example, if a teacher provides students with some new words and their definitions and asks students to create original sentences with them, the task would be assigned the following involvement load score:
Need: Moderate, (1): the assignment is imposed by the teacher.
Search: Absent (0): the definitions are provided.
Evaluation: (2) High: the students need to write their own original sentences.
Total Score: 3


The results of the test found that retention of the new vocabulary directly correlated with involvement load. Participants who had completed tasks with the lowest involvement load scored lowest and those who had completed tasks with the highest involvement load scored highest. This provides evidence in support of the ILH.

Shona Whyte's insight:

From Geoff Jordan and Dan Brown: research supporting engaging learners to improve vocabulary learning.

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Research shows grammar syllabus can't work: Geoff Jordan

Research shows grammar syllabus can't work: Geoff Jordan | TELT |

Geoff Jordan: "[In] most English language teaching […] students are led through units of a coursebook, spending much of the time working on isolated linguistic structures and carefully-controlled vocabulary in a sequence which is externally predetermined and imposed on them by the textbook writer.



Research suggests that interlanguage development progresses in stages and that it’s impossible to alter stage order or to make learners skip stages. Thus, teachability is constrained by learnability and any coursebook-driven syllabus which attempts to impose an external linguistic syllabus on learners is futile: learning happens in spite of and not because of the course design.


Futile because

[According to Mike Long] : "Controlling grammar, vocabulary and sentence length results in a limited source of target-language use upon which learners must rely in order to learn the code. The often tiny samples are worked and reworked in class, whether practiced until rote-memorized, milked meta-linguistically, or both, and learners are expected to learn the full language on the basis of access to such limited data”.

Shona Whyte's insight:

I just reblogged this; it's worth following the links in the original post, and taking a look round Jordan's blog for further arguments.

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CALL journal open access articles: Task Design and CALL

CALL journal open access articles: Task Design and CALL | TELT |


Dubbing Projects For The Language Learner: A Framework For Integrating Audiovisual Translation Into Task-Based Instruction

Martine Danan


The Effects Of Authentic Audience On English As A Second Language (Esl) Writers: A Task-Based, Computer-Mediated Approach

Julian Cheng Chiang Chen & Kimberly Lynn Brown


Critical Issues In Telecollaborative Task Design

R. O'Dowd & P. Waire


Website Analysis As A Tool For Task-Based Language Learning And Higher Order Thinking In An Efl Context

Debopriyo Roy


Learner Activities In A Collaborative Call Task

C. Leahy


Verbal Interaction In Second Life: Towards A Pedagogic Framework For Task Design

Kristi Jauregi, Silvia Canto, Rick de Graaff, Ton Koenraad & Machteld Moonen


Telecollaboration In Multimodal Environments: The Impact On Task Design And Learner Interaction

Mirjam Hauck & Bonnie L. Youngs


Task Design And Its Induced Learning Effects In A Cross-Institutional Blog-Mediated Telecollaboration

Wen-Chun Chen, Yu-Chih Doris Shih & Gi-Zen Liu


Task Design For Audiographic Conferencing: Promoting Beginner Oral Interaction In Distance Language Learning

Fernando Rosell-Aguilar


Learner Interaction Management In An Avatar And Chat-Based Virtual World

Mark Peterson


L2 Morphosyntactic Development In Text-Based Computer-Mediated Communication

M. Rafael Salaberry


Learner Experiences In Web-Based Language Learning

Jeong-Bae Son


Supporting Language Students' Interactions In Web-Based Conferencing Marie-Noëlle Lamy & Robin Goodfellow


Developing And Evaluating A Web-Based Collocation Retrieval Tool For Efl Students And Teachers

Hao-Jan Howard Chen


Vocabulary On The Move: Investigating An Intelligent Mobile Phone-Based Vocabulary Tutor

Glenn Stockwell

Shona Whyte's insight:

Open access till December 2015

Bhushan THAPLIYAL's comment, January 8, 2015 12:36 AM
Super ! Merci beaucoup !
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Latin as a second language: the 'a' of SLA

Latin as a second language: the 'a' of SLA | TELT |
 Teaching Latin to HumansHow to Honor both the Language and the Learner: Justin Slocum Bailey


If I summon my explicit knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, or “reading strategies” to make sense of a sentence, I have not gotten better at understanding Latin; I have merely coped with my inability to understand Latin at that level. It’s sometimes important or rewarding to be able to cope with texts above one’s level. But why structure our Latin courses so that this is the best possible outcome?

Shona Whyte's insight:

Interesting application of hard-line cognitivist theory of acquisition (VanPatten) to teaching/learning of classical languages.

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Games in the Language Classroom: free eBook by Adam Simpson

Games in the Language Classroom: free eBook by Adam Simpson | TELT |


10 good reasons why we should use games in the language classroom;

Are we really sure about using games in the language classroom?;

The 9 golden rules of using games in the language classroom;

3 strategies for incorporating games into beginner level classes;

Great kids games to use with adult language learners;

3 great games for verb tense review;

Using games to teach vocabulary?

Shona Whyte's insight:

Free PDF or other formats, very practical ideas and rationale, links to examples.

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Developing productive competence: Jack Richards

Developing productive competence: Jack Richards | TELT |
All language users have greater receptive competence (language they can understand) than productive competence (language they can produce). I can read great novels for example, but I could never write one. Traditionally, in language teaching we recognize this fact in the distinction between active and passive language knowledge, particularly in relation to vocabulary learning, where it is normally assumed that learners should be able to understand far more words than they can use. And it has generally been accepted that in second-language learning, new items first become part of learners’ receptive competence before becoming part of their productive competence.
Shona Whyte's insight:

Teaching implications of some (oldish) SLA research findings, references included.

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Quick and dirty vocabulary gapfill: Olya Sergeeva

Quick and dirty vocabulary gapfill: Olya Sergeeva | TELT |

"Apparently, just 12 lexical verbs (say, get, go, know, think, see, make, come, take, want, give, and mean) account for 45% of lexical verbs used in conversation. Biber and Reppern suggest that, since they are so frequently used in speech, these verbs require more attention in class than they currently do, judging by the coursebooks that they reviewed, and that they should be used more to exemplify various grammar structures.


I’m thinking of giving the students an occasional gap-fill exercise based on the reading and listening texts that we are working on, with these verbs gapped out. Finding and replacing the various forms of these verbs could be time-consuming, but there’s a free nifty little text editor called Notepad++ in which one can make such a gap-fill exercise in one click.



Shona Whyte's insight:

This is clever.


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Dealing with Vocabulary in Class : Nation 2013

Lecturer : Paul Nation
Paul Nation is emeritus professor of Applied Linguistics at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. His special interests are language teaching, and methodology and vocabulary learning.

Ten different ways of dealing with words encountered in intensive reading and in other class work are examined.



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Listening with both ears by Rose Bard | tea4teachers

Listening with both ears by Rose Bard | tea4teachers | TELT |

"The usual listening activities (in published materials), which are not the same as participating in a conversation, tend to focus on top-down processes, but research shows that limited vocabulary knowledge, combined with a failure to recognise words in a stream of speech, impacts enormously on comprehension."

Shona Whyte's insight:

New article on listening in ELT

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Ibérica: Spanish LSP journal

Ibérica: Spanish LSP journal | TELT |
John Flowerdew (City University of Hong Kong, China)
Revisiting metadiscourse: conceptual and methodological issues concerning signalling nouns

Matthew Peacock (City University of Hong Kong, China)
Stance adverbials in research writing


Raquel Taranilla (Hamad bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Qatar)
El género de la sentencia judicial: un análisis contrastivo del relato de hechos probados en el orden civil y en el orden penal


Isabel Negro Alousque (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
Hugo Chávez and the building of his self-image through metaphor


Patrizia Anesa (University of Bergamo, Italy) & Antoinette Fage-Butler (Aarhus University, Denmark)
Popularizing biomedical information on an online health forum


Carmen Pérez-Sabater & Begoña Montero-Fleta (Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain)

ESP vocabulary and social networking: The case of Twitter


Baramee Kheovichai (Silpakorn University, Thailand)

Metaphorical scenarios in business science discourse


Sven Tarp (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa & Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Denmark)
On the disciplinary and functional status of economic lexicography


Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo (Università degli Studi di Napoli 'Suor Orsola Benincasa', Italy)
Stance in TED talks: Strategic use of subjective adjectives in online popularisation

Shona Whyte's insight:

Interesting range of articles, mostly in English. Open access.


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Out of the window: Sandy Millin

Out of the window: Sandy Millin | TELT |
A very simple activity, which works very well as a filler, as revision, or as the prompt for a whole lesson. All you need is a window with something going on outside. Ask the students to look out o...
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Simple low-prep speaking activity which can be tweaked to work on vocabulary and present continuous.

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EUROCALL Review: new issue on INTENT

EUROCALL Review: new issue on INTENT | TELT |

Papers stemming from the INTENT conference on ‘Telecollaboration in University Foreign Language Education’ held at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, University of León, Spain, on 14 February 2014.

Promoting critical thinking in online intercultural communication.

Marie-Thérèse Batardière.

Why in the world would I want to talk to someone else about my culture?

Chesla Ann Bohinski and Yumei Leventhal.

A blended learning scenario to enhance learners’ oral production skills. Hee-Kyung Kim.

Combining Skype with Blogging: A chance to stop reinforcement of stereotypes in intercultural exchanges? L. Lynette Kirschner.

English learning in an intercultural perspective: Russia and Norway. Anne-Mette Bjøru.

Pan-American teletandem language exchange project. Aurora Castillo-Scott.

Regular paper

An e-portfolio to enhance sustainable vocabulary learning in English. Hiroya Tanaka, Akio Ohnishi, Suzanne M. Yonesaka and Yukie Ueno.

Recommended website

ABA English. Reviewed by Rafael Seiz Ortiz.


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Scooped by Shona Whyte! | TELT |
City lilacs In crack-haunted alleys, overhangs, plots of sour earth that pass for gardens, in the space between wall and wheelie bin, where men with mobiles make urgent conversation, where bare-legged girls shiver in April winds, where a new mother stands on her doorstep and blinks at the brightness of morning, so suddenly born - in all these places the city lilacs are pushing their cones of blossom into the spring to be taken by the warm wind.
Shona Whyte's insight:

Listen to poety and read along.  Use it for shadow-reading, to practice intonation, or to pick up vocabulary of a literary nature

Shona Whyte's curator insight, March 9, 2015 9:52 AM

Resources for listening to poetry