"When I introduced the PhD thesis of ELFA project member Niina Hynninen (read the intro here), I outlined some considerations for studying language regulation when English is spoken as a lingua franca.
[In this post: ] I go deeper into her data and findings on four areas of language regulation. First, what kind of overt comments do ELF users make on the quality of their/others’ English? Second, what kind of explicit corrections are made in their talk? Then I move on to more subtle forms of language regulation: instances where reformulations are embedded in a second speaker’s utterance (“embedded repairs”) and reformulations involving third-party intervention (“mediation”)."