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New X-ray tech provides clear view of soft tissues

New X-ray tech provides clear view of soft tissues | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

X-ray machines are all large devices that can only image hard structures such as bone, unless a contrast-enhancing solution such as barium is present in the patient ... right? Well, no, not all of them. A new system developed by researchers at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital is small enough to be considered portable, doesn't expose patients to as much radiation, and can image soft tissues in minute detail.

 

Ordinarily, X-ray machines emit beams of electromagnetic radiation from a single source. The experimental new machine, however, utilizes "a nanostructured surface with an array of tiny tips," each one of those micron-sized tips emitting its own beam of electrons. Those beams pass through a microstructured plate, and are converted into X-rays.

 

 


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I've been waiting for this for a long long ... long time 

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Living for 1,000 years: an 'out of this world' future awaits us

Living for 1,000 years: an 'out of this world' future awaits us | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
... already been born got me thinking. What might life be like in this long-range future? Will boredom set in as we count the centuries; or will what promises to be an incredible technology-rich life keep the excitement alive?
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13 Emerging Nanotechnologies and Next Generation Materials ...

13 Emerging Nanotechnologies and Next Generation Materials ... | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Policy Horizons Canada worked with futurist and data visualizer Michell Zappa of Envisioning to produce a report called MetaScan 3: Emerging Technologies and accompanying infographics. We are reproducing the summary for emerging nano ...
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12-Year Old Child Reveals One of the Best Kept Secrets in the World - YouTube

12-year old exposes the immorality of the global banking system and why sound money is essential to freedom and stopping the spread of misery on this planet.
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It's shameful how light is dimmed upon those who shine

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Direct brain-to-brain communication demonstrated in human subjects

Direct brain-to-brain communication demonstrated in human subjects | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
In a first-of-its-kind study, an international team of neuroscientists and robotics engineers has demonstrated the viability of direct brain-to-brain communication in humans.
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Researchers Grow Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Identical Electronic Properties

Researchers Grow Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Identical Electronic Properties | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Using custom-made organic precursor molecules, researchers have succeeded for the first time in growing single-walled carbon nanotubes with identical electronic properties.


In future, it will be possible to specifically equip carbon nanotubes with properties which they need for electronic applications, for example. Researchers at Empa in Dübendorf/Switzerland and the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart have succeeded for the first time in growing single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with only a single, prespecified structure. The nanotubes thereby have identical electronic properties. The decisive trick here: The team has taken up an idea which originated from the Stuttgart-based Max Planck researchers and produced the CNT from custom-made organic precursor molecules. The researchers started with these precursor molecules and have built up the nanotubes on a platinum surface, as they report in the latest issue of the scientific journal Nature. Such CNTs could be used in future, for instance, in ultra-sensitive light detectors and very tiny transistors.

 

For 20 years, material scientists working on the development of carbon nanotubes for a range of applications have been battling a problem – now an elegant solution is at hand. With their unusual mechanical, thermal and electronic properties, the tiny tubes with their honeycomb lattice of graphitic carbon have become the embodiment of nanomaterials. They could be used to manufacture the next generation of electronic and electro-optical components so that they are even smaller and with even faster switching times than before. But to achieve this, the material scientists must specifically equip the nanotubes with desired properties, and these depend on their structure. The production methods used to date, however, always result in a mixture of different CNTs. The team from Empa and the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research has now remedied the situation with a new production path for single-walled nanotubes.


The researchers have thus proved that they can unambiguously specify the growth and thus the structure of long SWCNTs using custom-made molecular seeds. The SWCNTs synthesized in this study can exist in two forms, which correspond to an object and its mirror image. By choosing the precursor molecule appropriately, the researchers were able to influence which of the two variants forms. Depending on how the honeycomb atomic lattice is derived from the original molecule – straight or oblique with respect to the CNT axis – it is also possible for helically wound tubes, i.e. with right- or left-handed rotation, and with non-mirror symmetry to form. And it is precisely this structure that then determines which electronic, thermo-electric and optical properties of the material. In principle, the researchers can therefore specifically produce materials with different properties through their choice of precursor molecule.

 

In further steps, Roman Fasel and his colleagues want to gain an even better understanding of how SWCNTs establish themselves on a surface. Even if well in excess of 100 million nanotubes per square centimeter already grow on the platinum surface, only a relatively small fraction of the seeds actually develop into «mature» nanotubes. The question remains as to which processes are responsible for this, and how the yield can be increased.

 

Publication: Juan Ramon Sanchez-Valencia, et al., “Controlled Synthesis of Single-Chirality Carbon Nanotubes,” Nature 512, 61–64 (07 August 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13607

 
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Potential for 'in body' muscle regeneration, rodent study suggests

Potential for 'in body' muscle regeneration, rodent study suggests | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
What if repairing large segments of damaged muscle tissue was as simple as mobilizing the body’s stem cells to the site of the injury? New research in mice and rats suggests that “in body” regeneration of muscle tissue might be possible by harnessing the body’s natural healing powers.
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New algorithm identifies weak spots in body tissue prior to injury

New algorithm identifies weak spots in body tissue prior to injury | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Muscle and tendon strains or tears may soon be detectable prior to injury, thanks to new algorithms developed by researchers at Washington University in St ...

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When it comes to muscle, tendon, and bone injuries, early diagnosis can save you from a world of hurt and lengthy rehabilitation. Researchers at Washington University in St Louis have developed algorithms that may one day – after some refinement in imaging techniques – identify tiny strains before they turn into serious injuries.


The researchers combined mechanical engineering with image-analysis techniques to create the algorithms, one of which they measured as being 1,000 times more accurate than older methods at quantifying very large stretches near tiny cracks and tears. Another algorithm predicts where cracks are likely to form.

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Pharma puts Watson brain to work to speed up R&D, cut drug development costs

Pharma puts Watson brain to work to speed up R&D, cut drug development costs | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi are using IBM Watson’s computer brain/big data cruncher to support research and development.

Via Emmanuel Capitaine , Philippe Marchal/Pharma Hub, eMedToday
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Introducing the multi-tasking nanoparticle for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

Introducing the multi-tasking nanoparticle for diagnostic and therapeutic applications | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Kit Lam and colleagues from UC Davis and other institutions have created dynamic nanoparticles (NPs) that could provide an arsenal of applications to diagnose and treat cancer. Built on an easy-to-make polymer, these particles can be used as contrast agents to light up tumors for MRI and PET scans or deliver chemo and other therapies to destroy tumors. In addition, the particles are biocompatible and have shown no toxicity. The study was published online today in Nature Communications.

 

“These are amazingly useful particles,” noted co-first author Yuanpei Li, a research faculty member in the Lam laboratory. “As a contrast agent, they make tumors easier to see on MRI and other scans. We can also use them as vehicles to deliver chemotherapy directly to tumors; apply light to make the nanoparticles release singlet oxygen (photodynamic therapy) or use a laser to heat them (photothermal therapy) – all proven ways to destroy tumors.”

 

Jessica Tucker, program director of Drug and Gene Delivery and Devices at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, said the approach outlined in the study has the ability to combine both imaging and therapeutic applications in a single platform, which has been difficult to achieve, especially in an organic, and therefore biocompatible, vehicle.

 

"This is especially valuable in cancer treatment, where targeted treatment to tumor cells, and the reduction of lethal effects in normal cells, is so critical,” she added.

 

 Though not the first nanoparticles, these may be the most versatile. Other particles are good at some tasks but not others. Non-organic particles, such as quantum dots or gold-based materials, work well as diagnostic tools but have safety issues. Organic probes are biocompatible and can deliver drugs but lack imaging or phototherapy applications.

 

Built on a porphyrin/cholic acid polymer, the nanoparticles are simple to make and perform well in the body. Porphyrins are common organic compounds. Cholic acid is produced by the liver.

 

To further stabilize the particles, the researchers added the amino acid cysteine (creating CNPs), which prevents them from prematurely releasing their therapeutic payload when exposed to blood proteins and other barriers. At 32 nanometers, CNPs are ideally sized to penetrate tumors, accumulating among cancer cells while sparing healthy tissue.

 

In the study, the team tested the nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, for a wide range of tasks. On the therapeutic side, CNPs effectively transported anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin. Even when kept in blood for many hours, CNPs only released small amounts of the drug; however, when exposed to light or agents such as glutathione, they readily released their payloads. The ability to precisely control chemotherapy release inside tumors could greatly reduce toxicity. CNPs carrying doxorubicin provided excellent cancer control in animals, with minimal side effects.


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Chromatophagy, A New Cancer Therapy: Starve The Diseased Cell Until It Eats Its Own DNA

Chromatophagy, A New Cancer Therapy: Starve The Diseased Cell Until It Eats Its Own DNA | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Nutritional starvation therapy is under intensive investigation because it provides a potentially lower toxicity with higher specificity than conventional cancer therapy. Autophagy, often triggered by starvation, represents an energy-saving, pro-survival cellular function; however, dysregulated autophagy could also lead to cell death, a process distinct from the classic caspase-dependent apoptosis.


A recent study shows how arginine starvation specifically kills tumor cells by a novel mechanism involving mitochondria dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation, DNA leakage, and chromatin autophagy, where leaked DNA is captured by giant autophagosomes. 


Cells when stressed, whether cancerous or not, undergo a process of cellular suicide that involves controlled dismantling of its interior components such as proteins, DNA, and various compartments.  By far the most famous of such processes is “apoptosis”.  The authors in this study have found another, distinct process involving mitochondria dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA leakage, and chromatin autophagy.

 

The senior author, Professor Hsing-Jien Kung, both a cancer biology at UC Davis and  the Director of the National Health Research Institutes in Taipei, Taiwan, first discovered in 2009 the basic mechanism by which arginine shortage kills cancer cells.

 

“Traditional cancer therapies involve ‘poisoning‘ by toxic chemicals or ‘burning‘ by radiation cancer cells to death, which often have side effects,” according to Professor Kung. “An emerging strategy is to ‘starve’ cancer cells to death, taking advantage of the different metabolic requirements of normal and cancer cells. This approach is generally milder, but as this study illustrates, it also utilizes a different death mechanism, which may complement the killing effects of the conventional therapy.”



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The perseverance of man kind ! 

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The next graphene? Engineers to study new class of ultra-thin film materials

The next graphene? Engineers to study new class of ultra-thin film materials | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Three University of California, Riverside engineers are part of team recently awarded a nearly $1.7 million grant from the National Science Foundation to characterize, analyze and synthesize a new class of ultra-thin film materials that could improve the performance of personal electronics, optoelectronic devices and energy conversion systems.

The team is led by Alexander Balandin, University of California Presidential Chair in Electrical and Computer Engineering and founding chair of the materials science and engineering program at UC Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering. Other members of the team are Roger Lake, a UC Riverside professor, Alexander Khitun, a UC Riverside research professor, and Tina Salguero, an assistant professor at the University of Georgia.

The project targets a new class of materials, termed van der Waals materials, and heterostructures implemented with such materials. The ultra-thin materials may consist of just one atomic plane, which explains the term "two-dimensional" materials. The project will investigate novel electrical, optical, and thermal phenomena in such materials and heterostructures.


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Nanoengineers develop next-generation battery - Nanowerk

Nanoengineers develop next-generation battery - Nanowerk | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Introduction to Nanotechnology ... The new battery also performs better than two other future technologies: lithium-sulfur batteries, currently in the prototype stage, and lithium-air batteries, now under development.
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Scientists watch bioengineered self-healing muscle tissue grow within a mouse

Scientists watch bioengineered self-healing muscle tissue grow within a mouse | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

The living skeletal muscle tissue grown by Duke University researchers is 10 times stronger than any previously bioengineered muscles. Not only does it contract as strongly and as rapidly as the real thing, but it is also capable of self-healing, both in the lab and after implantation into an animal. This has been proven beyond doubt through a novel approach that involves peeking at the growing muscle tissue through a glass window in the back of a living mouse.

 

 


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DNA nanotechnology places enzyme catalysis within an arm's length

DNA nanotechnology places enzyme catalysis within an arm's length | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Researchers in the field of DNA nanotechnology, taking advantage of the binding properties of the chemical building blocks of DNA, twist and self-assemble DNA into ever-more imaginative 2- and 3-dimensional structures for medical, electronic and...
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Secret Documentary 2014 HDElevator from Earth to Space in Future ...

Secret Documentary 2014 HDElevator from Earth to Space in Future ... | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
bioengineering nanotechnology thapanar suwanmajo dolores njoku. Epigraft Euroderm future perspectives nanotechnology nanomedicine 2013 link:www sinostemcells com.
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Life in space? Sea plankton discovered attached to ISS outer hull

Life in space? Sea plankton discovered attached to ISS outer hull | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Russian scientists say they made a “unique” discovery while analyzing samples from the exterior of the International Space Station – traces of tiny sea creatures on the station’s windows and walls. It remains unclear how marine plankton ended up in space.
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Wherever these plankton might have originated from (Earth&co) and however they got on that windshield, the question is - how did they survive & -- can retrofitting a viable biotechnology out of it come anytime sooner ?? May we interest you in an outer space exoskeltal suit or ... a sun screen lotion for a gilt free tan ladies & gentlemen  ? ...

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Life at the Speed of Light - Craig Venter

Life at the Speed of Light - Craig Venter | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Human deep space exploration missions require a thorough understanding of the prolonged environmental effects on life. The use of genomics and synthetic biology will transform such missions by reducing the overall risk and mass needed to sustain crew health in space. As the lead Center for space biology and synthetic biology, NASA Ames is in pursuit of these challenges.

Regarded as one of the leading scientists in genomic research of the 21st century, J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., will speak about the profound impacts these new tools will have on human⊃1;s existence on Earth and beyond.

The Director's Colloquium Summer Series is presented by the Office of the Chief Scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center as part of the Center's 75th anniversary celebration.


Videos and Slides: Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies - Elaine Mardis (2014)Improving Pacific Biosciences' Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing Technology through Advanced Matrix Factorization ?DNA Sequencing, Information Theory, Advanced Matrix Factorization and all that...It's quite simply, the stuff of Life...
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Scientists make diseased cells synthesize their own drug

Scientists make diseased cells synthesize their own drug | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
In a new study that could lead to many new medicines, scientists have adapted a chemical approach to turn diseased cells into unique manufacturing sites for molecules that can treat a form of muscular dystrophy.
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Scientists discover how to 'switch off' autoimmune diseases

Scientists discover how to 'switch off' autoimmune diseases | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Scientists have made an important breakthrough in the fight against debilitating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis by revealing how to stop cells attacking healthy body tissue. Rather than the body's immune system destroying its own tissue by mistake, researchers have discovered how cells convert from being aggressive to actually protecting against disease.
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An end to drug errors? Eliminate medication errors with intelligent scanning system

An end to drug errors? Eliminate medication errors with intelligent scanning system | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
Mint Solutions tackles medication errors with scanning system that ensures patients get the right pills.

 

MIT alumni entrepreneurs Gauti Reynisson MBA ’10 and Ívar Helgason HS ’08 spent the early 2000s working for companies that implemented medication-safety technologies — such as electronic-prescription and pill-barcoding systems — at hospitals in their native Iceland and other European countries.

 

But all that time spent in hospitals soon opened their eyes to a major health care issue: Surprisingly often, patients receive the wrong medications. Indeed, a 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine found that 1.5 million hospitalized patients in the United States experience medication errors every year due, in part, to drug-administration mistakes. Some cases have adverse or fatal results.

 

Frustrated and seeking a solution, the Icelandic duo quit their careers and traveled to MIT for inspiration. There, they teamed up with María Rúnarsdóttir MBA ’08 and devised MedEye, a bedside medication-scanning system that uses computer vision to identify pills and check them against medication records, to ensure that a patient gets the right drug and dosage.

 

Commercialized through startup Mint Solutions, MedEye has now been used for a year in hospitals in the Netherlands (where the startup is based), garnering significant attention from the medical community. Through this Dutch use, the co-founders have determined that roughly 10 percent of MedEye’s scans catch medication errors.

 

“Medication verification is a pinnacle point of medical safety,” says Helgason, a physician and product developer. “It’s a complicated chain of events that leads up to medication mistakes. But the bedside is the last possible place to stop these mistakes.”

 

Mint Solutions’ aim, Reynisson says, is to aid nurses in rapidly, efficiently, and correctly administering medication. “We want the device to be the nurse’s best friend,” says Reynisson, now Mint’s CEO. The device, he adds, could yield savings by averting medication mishaps, which can cost hundreds of millions of dollars.


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Introducing the multi-tasking nanoparticle for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

Introducing the multi-tasking nanoparticle for diagnostic and therapeutic applications | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

Kit Lam and colleagues from UC Davis and other institutions have created dynamic nanoparticles (NPs) that could provide an arsenal of applications to diagnose and treat cancer. Built on an easy-to-make polymer, these particles can be used as contrast agents to light up tumors for MRI and PET scans or deliver chemo and other therapies to destroy tumors. In addition, the particles are biocompatible and have shown no toxicity. The study was published online today in Nature Communications.

 

“These are amazingly useful particles,” noted co-first author Yuanpei Li, a research faculty member in the Lam laboratory. “As a contrast agent, they make tumors easier to see on MRI and other scans. We can also use them as vehicles to deliver chemotherapy directly to tumors; apply light to make the nanoparticles release singlet oxygen (photodynamic therapy) or use a laser to heat them (photothermal therapy) – all proven ways to destroy tumors.”


Jessica Tucker, program director of Drug and Gene Delivery and Devices at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, said the approach outlined in the study has the ability to combine both imaging and therapeutic applications in a single platform, which has been difficult to achieve, especially in an organic, and therefore biocompatible, vehicle.

 

"This is especially valuable in cancer treatment, where targeted treatment to tumor cells, and the reduction of lethal effects in normal cells, is so critical,” she added.

 

 Though not the first nanoparticles, these may be the most versatile. Other particles are good at some tasks but not others. Non-organic particles, such as quantum dots or gold-based materials, work well as diagnostic tools but have safety issues. Organic probes are biocompatible and can deliver drugs but lack imaging or phototherapy applications.


Built on a porphyrin/cholic acid polymer, the nanoparticles are simple to make and perform well in the body. Porphyrins are common organic compounds. Cholic acid is produced by the liver.


To further stabilize the particles, the researchers added the amino acid cysteine (creating CNPs), which prevents them from prematurely releasing their therapeutic payload when exposed to blood proteins and other barriers. At 32 nanometers, CNPs are ideally sized to penetrate tumors, accumulating among cancer cells while sparing healthy tissue.


In the study, the team tested the nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, for a wide range of tasks. On the therapeutic side, CNPs effectively transported anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin. Even when kept in blood for many hours, CNPs only released small amounts of the drug; however, when exposed to light or agents such as glutathione, they readily released their payloads. The ability to precisely control chemotherapy release inside tumors could greatly reduce toxicity. CNPs carrying doxorubicin provided excellent cancer control in animals, with minimal side effects.


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Tissue regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanomolecules | KurzweilAI

Tissue regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanomolecules | KurzweilAI | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

The research group of Arun K. Sharma*, PhD has developed a system for patients with urinary bladder dysfunction that may protect them against an inflammatory reaction** resulting from tissue regeneration, which can negatively impact tissue growth, development and function.

 

The researchers treated a highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs). (Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles, or PAs, are biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials used in a wide range of settings and applications.) When compared with control PAs, the treated scaffold reduced the innate inflammatory response, resulting in superior bladder function.

 

 


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A very very interesting read 

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40 Maps That Explain The Middle East

40 Maps That Explain The Middle East | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
These maps are crucial for understanding the region's history, its present, and some of the most important stories there today.

Via Seth Dixon, Sharrock
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Sharrock's curator insight, August 5, 5:30 AM
Seth Dixon's insight:

Titles like the one for this article, 40 maps that explain the Middle East, are becoming increasingly common for internet articles.  They helps us feel that we can explain all of the world's complexities and make sense of highly dynamic situations.  While we can all agree that maps are great analytical tools that can be very persuasive, sometimes we can pretend that they are the end all, be all for any situation.  Maps can also be used to show how something that we thought was simple can be much complex and nuanced than we had previously imagined, as demonstrated by this article, 15 Maps that Don't Explain the Middle East at All.  Both perspectives have their place (and both articles are quite insightful). Not connected to the Middle East, but East Asia, this article entitled Lies, Damned Lies and Maps continues the discussion of maps, truth and perception.  

 

Tags: MiddleEast, conflict, political, borders, colonialism, devolution,historical, mapping

Linda Denty's curator insight, August 5, 3:42 PM

As Seth Dixson says, maps only tell a part of a story, but this may assist as part of an overall understanding of the history of the area.

Ruth Reynolds's curator insight, August 5, 5:10 PM

Some of the histories in maps is helpful in realising the complexities of the issues.

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Nanomedicine Company MagForce Takes $15M From Thiel’s Mithril Capital | TechCrunch

Nanomedicine Company MagForce Takes $15M From Thiel’s Mithril Capital | TechCrunch | TeKeeG | Scoop.it
MagForce injects iron oxide nanoparticles into a patient and then vibrates them with a magnetic field to generate heat that helps kill cancer cells. It sounds..
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Gel turns to bone-growing scaffold when injected into the body

Gel turns to bone-growing scaffold when injected into the body | TeKeeG | Scoop.it

In the field of regenerative medicine, one of the current areas of interest involves the use of scaffolding-like materials that a patient's own cells can be "seeded" onto. As the cells grow and populate the material, they gradually replace it, until all that remains is a solid piece of tissue or bone. Now, scientists at Houston's Rice University have taken that concept a step further, using a polymer that is liquid at room temperature, but that solidifies into a scaffold when injected into patients' bodies.

The Rice team created a hydrogel containing a polymer known as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), which has also recently been put forward as a "reversible glue" for temporarily sealing eye injuries while patients are in transit. As long as it's kept below body temperature, the polymer remains in a liquid state. Once heated by the body, however, it becomes a semi-solid.

 

 


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