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Cultural & Personality Differences That Affect Teamwork

Cultural & Personality Differences That Affect Teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it

 

Members of a team don't all have to come from the same background, or share the same religion or political ideas to work effectively together. However, when personality or cultural clashes occur, you need to be able to solve the conflicts with little or no disruption to your business.

 

At the same time, thoughtful planning can help you avoid misunderstandings and maintain a successful working team....

 

*Categories:

A person’s country of origin can influence how he approaches his work.

Communication and relationship differences also occur between other sub-groups.

 

Gender, race and emotional and cognitive intelligence separate coworkers. Different educational and occupational backgrounds further diversify individuals in a team. Influential, loud, quiet and confrontational personalities also influence the way a group operates...

 

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Use Staff Retreats to Boost Teamwork, Profits

Use Staff Retreats to Boost Teamwork, Profits | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Your staff is a team. And the team consists of people in a variety of skilled positions needed to conduct your business and deliver on your brand promise.


If your company is to thrive, economically and as a social group, it is vital to bring your staff along with you at every stage, building a healthy corporate culture by addressing the inevitable gaps that open up between your people and your corporate vision.


Off-site staff retreats offer an invaluable opportunity for the whole team to pause, step back from their everyday duties of working “in the business” and gain enough perspective to reflect “on the business” in constructive ways.


A successful retreat will not only sharpen your focus and clarify your priorities; it will boost staff morale and benefit your bottom line.



Top-10 Checklist for Retreat Planning


1. Purpose and Themes...


2. Goals and Desired Outcomes...


3. Location...


4. Budget...


5. Moderator: Internal or External?...


6. Schedule...


7. Business Agenda...


8. Team Builders...


9. Social Activities...


10. Movement Experiences...



 >> Last Thoughts

Once you have defined your purpose and goals and drafted your 10-step planning framework, think through how you will measure the return on investment from these efforts.


You should be able to use next-quarter productivity and sales metrics as indicators as long as you can factor out normal seasonal market moderators.


When determining your objectives, don’t underestimate the power of team building.


A unified, friendly staff of employees who express passion for your vision will have a positive impact on your customers. What you net is not an intangible.


It is powerful fuel for your business engine.


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9 Ways To Share Your Strategic Thinking Skills With Your Team

9 Ways To Share Your Strategic Thinking Skills With Your Team | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it

 

You already have the tools you need to help your team succeed your strategic thinking skills. Here's how to put them to use.

 

Here is a checklist from a panel of brilliant minds for what you and your team can do now to raise their strategic thinking capacity:

❂ YOUR PEOPLE

1. Connect your people with what matters....

2. Focus on competencies not job skills....

3. Build them with projects they don’t keep...

 

THE TEAM'S PRACTICES

4. Create think time. Every expert acknowledged the tension between day-to-day demands and time to think...

 

5. Put up the periscope. A critical habit of highly strategic teams is  "putting up your periscope." ...

6. Avoid outsourcing your thinking. The quick fix to solving strategic challenges is to bring in outside consultants...

 

THE RIGHT TOOLS

Finally, you want to arm your people with the right tools to perform the practices. They key is to give them clarity.

7. The North Star. As Jessica Amortegui, director of global talent development at VMware told: "The formal top-down approach where strategy is rolled down to execute no longer works in this [fast-paced] environment." ...

 

8. The winning formula. Gerber advocates that finding a repeatable formula produces predictable results, the way McDonald’s has a proven operating manual for a successful restaurant...

 

9. The vocabulary. The words you use are tools that will shape your organization...

 

 

┣ Supportive

┣┣ Fostering Strategic Thinking

 

┣┣┣ 3 Essential Steps to Thinking Strategically

 

 

 Bonus  

 

 

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Towards Better Group Work: Seeing the Difference between Cooperation and Collaboration

Towards Better Group Work: Seeing the Difference between Cooperation and Collaboration | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


The author argues that being unaware of the differences between cooperation and collaboration impedes teachers from organizing group work as effectively as possible.


True collaboration is simply too valuable not to take advantage of because it provides students with a significant opportunity to learn from one another, negotiate meaning, and improve their social skills.


The purpose of this article is twofold: the author highlights the difference between cooperative work and collaborative work in general; she also suggests practical activities that serve as stepping stones to promote collaboration in English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms.

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Collaboration—a chimera or a realistic goal?

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"....let me finish with a metaphor of a potluck dinner, where people cook and bring different dishes to the table. The dinner is more exciting than what each individual would have eaten individually—but the guests return back to their homes being able to cook only the same dish they brought to the pot - luck.


Even though they may have gotten reci - pes, they still need to learn to make the new dishes themselves. 


On the other hand, had they cooked together in the first place they would have observed and learned a lot more from one another; they would have taken away some practical, hands-on skills even if cooking together had meant a messier and a more chaotic process. So give collaboration a chance! It is worth the effort." _ Olga Kozar



Highly Utilisable Supportive Info2


Highly Utilisable Supportive Info1



Bonus ↻

Similarities and Differences between Cooperative and Collaborative Learningp



Bonus ↻↻

Collaborative and Cooperative Approaches to Online Group Work: The impact of task type



Further Info 



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Let's Get Results, Not Excuses!

Let's Get Results, Not Excuses! | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Here's a no-nonsense approach to increasing productivity, performance and profit.


This unique look at corporate problem-solving allows one to rid a company of the disease of excuse-making.


As a result, all the accompanying problems--denial of responsibility, pessimism, procrastination, projection of blame, and reactive thinking--disappear.
 


Review:

The title is the whole point of the book. The 200+ pages that follow elaborate on the simple point of exchanging results for excuses. The message is a simple one that might well have fit into a volume only half as thick.
At times the authors are tediously repetitious and sometimes the overuse of metaphors seems a bit contrived or trite. However, the book reads very quickly and stays directly on the point at all times.
The authors make a convincing case that eliminating excuses in the workplace is a "magic bullet" for controlling virtually every other common problem we face daily.
They open with what the problems are, why they're all related to excuses and step by step what we can do to get rid of excuses and start getting results instead.
The authors don't pull any punches or wander around in the world of "but if". They tell it "Pollianna" straight. If you want results, instead of excuses, read this book.  URL


Content

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Now on Amazon for 0.01 US Dollars :)



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Coordination in Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork

Coordination in Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Coordination is an essential ingredient of a teamwork-centered approach to autonomy.


In this paper, the authors discuss some of the challenges and requirements for successful coordination, and briefly how they have used KAoS HARTservices to support coordination in a multi-team human-robot field exercise...



Teamwork-Centered Autonomy

Planning technologies for intelligent systems often take an autonomy-centered approach, with representations,mechanisms, and algorithms that have been designed to accept a set of goals, and to generate and execute a complete plan in the most efficient and sound fashion possible.


While this approach may be the best choice for situations where it is impractical or impossible for humans to provide close supervision of the intelligent system, it is not sufficient for the increasing number of applications that require close and continuous interaction with people and with other autonomous components...



Understanding Coordination The Challenge of Human-Agent Coordination


Requirements for Effective Coordination

• Interpredictability

• Common ground

• Directability



Team Composition
The available team members consisted of two humans and five robots. The humans were to play distinct roles. One was the “Commander” who was to establishingsubteams and manage the overall search process.

Relying on a combined speech and graphical interface the Commander operated remotely without direct sight of the area of operation.

The second human played the role of“Lieutenant.” The Lieutenant would be assigned to a team just like the robots and he worked in the field generally alongside and in sight of them.

He wore a backpack that carried a laptop to provide a similar speech and visual interface as the Commander’s, through a head mounted display...


The Coordinated Operations Exercise
Mission Scenario
Consider a scenario in which an intruder must be discovered and
apprehended on a cluttered Navy pier. 

To support the search, you can draw on the abilities of an additional human and five robots.

While there are plenty of issues to address including robot capabilities, sensor limitations, and localization, we focused on the coordination aspects of the task.

The task was We specifically designed  to have more robots than a single individual could easily handle by teleoperation. It was also made sure the scenario included more than one human, since this provides its own challenges..


Mission Execution
The Commander must first secure the area boundaries, and forms two subteams to block the two possible avenues of escape.

Using natural language, the Commander composed two teams and assigned leaders for each of them.

One team (Team Alpha) was fully robotic, two robots with one assigned as the leader.

The other team (Team Bravo) was mixed, two robots with the Lieutenant assigned to lead.

Acknowledgement policies provided useful feedback to the Commander that teams had been successfully formed, since there was no external indication of the fact.

The Commander next defined an area of interest on his display and tasked each team to secure a particular side.

After issuing the commands, the Commander dynamically created an obligation policy through speech to be notified by the team leaders when each team was in position.

Once in position, the coordination policy took effect and the robot team leader reported.

The boundaries having been made secure, the Commander directed each team to begin a search of the area.

The autonomous team began to search under the direction of its robotic team leader.

The Lieutenant used natural language to direct his team for the search.

When the intruder was found by a robot, the appropriate team leader was informed according to existing coordination policies.

To apprehend the intruder, the Lieutenant tried to use the tBot, a robot not currently assigned to his team.

The coordination services enforced the chain of command and prevented the action. The Lieutenant then proceeded through the policy-required chain of command to acquire permission—i.e., he asked the Commander.

The Commander dynamically assigned the tBot to the Lieutenant’s team. The Lieutenant was now authorized to make use of the tBot, and the apprehension was successful.

Notice that the dynamic assignment of an agent to a certain group automatically brought with it all of that group’s extant regulatory structure, including the authority for that group’s leader to give orders to his charges...


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Benjamin Voyer on the psychology of teamwork

Benjamin Voyer on the psychology of teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


§ How would you describe the psychology of teamwork?

The study of teamwork began with the emergence of social psychology and an interest in how groups behave, particularly as against another group. This is the idea of having an “in group” that you’re a member of and that becomes part of your social identity, and then the “out group” against which you discriminate and define yourself. It has developed into its own field of organisational psychology.


Teams don’t always do better than individuals, but there is a Helen Keller quote I particularly like: “Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much.” This summarises the trade-off. 



§ But things can go wrong?

Yes. Power plays a big role... You can attribute most of what goes wrong in medical units to dysfunction in the team.



§ So someone always leads a team?

Yes. There are basically two styles of leadership—democratic and autocratic...



§ Is there a gender issue?

Yes. All the studies done on gender differences in leadership suggest that women have a more democratic style of leadership and men a more autocratic style. It has to do with the way we socialise and educate people....



§ So you’re less likely to be a good team player?

Possibly. For both men and women power increases independent self-construal. But power also increases interdependent self-construal for women whereas it decreases that for men. So, men will be more autocratic (this does not mean bullying here)...



§ What makes things go wrong?

There are two big phenomena. One is “group think”—when the group develops its own mind, so that group members stop being critical. The Challenger disaster is a good example of this....


The other thing that can go wrong is “group polarisation” or “group shift”. Sometimes when you put people in a team they take a more extreme decision than they would have taken individually, either more conservative or more adventurous....



§ Is that because people feel less culpable if the culpability is spread?

There is a diffusion of responsibility, yes. The optimal number of people in a team is five. If you have large teams of 10 or 12, people don’t have the same impression of accountability...



§ What about the group turning a blind eye, as with the BBC and Jimmy Saville?

When something goes wrong in teams the “we” goes and the “I” comes back as people try to save their own face. Very few people try to save the whole team’s face.



§ Doesn’t that mean you were never part of the team anyway—you were just serving your own advantage?

There are cross-cultural differences. In the West the default is the individual, but in China or Japan the group is the default unit...



§ So how do you form a good team?

Well, it should be as small as possible, the team should have clear boundaries about membership, members should be chosen for their task skills and interpersonal skills and you have to choose a team with a high probability of developing cohesion.



§ Easy.

As a team member you need to develop the ability to see the perspective of the other...


................................................

BENJAMIN VOYER is a marketing and psychology professor at ESCP Europe Business School in London and the London School of Economics. He is an associate fellow of the British Psychological Society and writes widely on teamwork, particularly with respect to health care.


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Teamwork And Performance Under Pressure

Teamwork And Performance Under Pressure | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Listen in as Positive Coaching Alliance goes 1-on-1 in interviews with top pro and college players, coaches, executives and other major sports figures who provide tips, tools, information and inspiration for youth and high school sports coaches, parents and student-athletes.



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Feminism Without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarit

Feminism Without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarit | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Bringing together classic and new writings of the trailblazing feminist theorist Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Feminism without Borders addresses some of the most pressing and complex issues facing contemporary feminism.


Forging vital links between daily life and collective action and between theory and pedagogy, Mohanty has been at the vanguard of Third World and international feminist thought and activism for nearly two decades.


This collection highlights the concerns running throughout her pioneering work: the politics of difference and solidarity, decolonizing and democratizing feminist practice, the crossing of borders, and the relation of feminist knowledge and scholarship to organizing and social movements. Mohanty offers here a sustained critique of globalization and urges a reorientation of transnational feminist practice toward anticapitalist struggles.


Feminism without Borders opens with Mohanty's influential critique of western feminism ("Under Western Eyes") and closes with a reconsideration of that piece based on her latest thinking regarding the ways that gender matters in the racial, class, and national formations of globalization.


In between these essays, Mohanty meditates on the lives of women workers at different ends of the global assembly line (in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States); feminist writing on experience, identity, and community; dominant conceptions of multiculturalism and citizenship; and the corporatization of the North American academy.


She considers the evolution of interdisciplinary programs like Women's Studies and Race and Ethnic Studies; pedagogies of accommodation and dissent; and transnational women's movements for grassroots ecological solutions and consumer, health, and reproductive rights.


Mohanty's probing and provocative analyses of key concepts in feminist thought—"home," "sisterhood," "experience," "community"—lead the way toward a feminism without borders, a feminism fully engaged with the realities of a transnational world.



About The Author(s)

Chandra Talpade Mohanty is Professor of Women's Studies at Hamilton College and Core Faculty at the Union Institute and University in Cincinnati. She is coeditor of Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures and Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism.

http://bit.ly/1vUSzMG

http://bit.ly/1vUSSam



In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

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Supportive insights:

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http://bit.ly/1uZCEeF

http://bit.ly/1psR3io

http://bit.ly/1vSvjj0

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http://bit.ly/120008O



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Classified: Food Bank Exercise Tests Students’ Leadership, Teamwork Skills

Classified: Food Bank Exercise Tests Students’ Leadership, Teamwork Skills | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


The Wells Fargo room was transformed into a food bank Monday, its tables splayed with packages of pasta, cans of beans, and Vienna sausages.


Stuffing the food into boxes in the shortest amount of time with the least mistakes amidst a frenzy of changing demands and diminishing resources forced undergraduates to adjust leadership styles, rethink roles, and put lessons from Lecturer Frank Schultz’s Leading Strategy Implementation class into action.


Unlike other classroom role-playing exercises, Schultz says, the experiential “Think Now, Bag Later” activity did not depend on students’ acting ability.


“It showed them how they typically behave in organizations and allowed them to better appreciate their strengths and weaknesses in various organizational roles,” he explained.

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A team managed by Nicola Roessler, BS 14, packed only seven boxes. She says her team’s downfall was a bottleneck in quality control and resources drying up. “We didn’t have enough kidney beans,” she says.


After the exercise, Schultz asked students if readings and lectures on how organizations work on projects were relevant to what the students experienced.


Did the student teams share resources sequentially, as in an assembly-line style, or reciprocally, where there needs to be more communication and coordination?


Students said the use of good organizational structure and communication could make the more complex, reciprocal relationships simpler and more manageable.


PricewaterhouseCoopers is using the 42 boxes of food stuffed by the students for a food drive to benefit the Berkeley Food and Housing Project, which is researching ways of developing a more efficient way to pack food...



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Teamwork & Collaboration Skills

Teamwork & Collaboration Skills | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


The ability to work effectively with others on a common task; taking actions which respect the needs and contributions of others; contributing to and accepting the consensus; negotiating a win-win solution to achieve the objectives of the team...


Behavioural indicators include...

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Do I Have These Skills?


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Managing Multicultural Teams

Managing Multicultural Teams | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Business management magazine, blogs, case studies, articles, books, and webinars from Harvard Business Review, addressing today's topics and challenges in business management...


When a major international software developer needed to produce a new product quickly, the project manager assembled a team of employees from India and the United States.


From the start the team members could not agree on a delivery date for the product.


The Americans thought the work could be done in two to three weeks; the Indians predicted it would take two to three months.


As time went on, the Indian team members proved reluctant to report setbacks in the production process, which the American team members would find out about only when work was due to be passed to them.


Such conflicts, of course, may affect any team, but in this case they arose from cultural differences.


As tensions mounted, conflict over delivery dates and feedback became personal, disrupting team members’ communication about even mundane issues.


The project manager decided he had to intervene—with the result that both the American and the Indian team members came to rely on him for direction regarding minute operational details that the team should have been able to handle itself.


The manager became so bogged down by quotidian issues that the project careened hopelessly off even the most pessimistic schedule—and the team never learned to work together effectively.


Multicultural teams often generate frustrating management dilemmas. Cultural differences can create substantial obstacles to effective teamwork—but these may be subtle and difficult to recognize until significant damage has already been done.


As in the case above, which the manager involved told us about, managers may create more problems than they resolve by intervening.


The challenge in managing multicultural teams effectively is to recognize underlying cultural causes of conflict, and to intervene in ways that both get the team back on track and empower its members to deal with future challenges themselves...



<><><> Super Bonus:

 A Manager’s Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals

http://bit.ly/YXwrD7




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Thirteen Tactics for Increasing Teamwork

Thirteen Tactics for Increasing Teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Work teams have ups and downs, opportunities and constraints, and stars and shirkers. 


The following ideas show you how to seize the advantages present in your teams and how to overcome handicaps that plague them. 


  1. Create a teamwork culture...


  1. Start at the top...


  1. Hire team players...


  1. Insist on exceptional internal customer service...


  1. Use teams to interview and select job candidates...


  1. Define teamwork...


  1. Make employees feel like part of the team...


  1. Create teams...


  1. Experiment with self-directed teams...


  1. Serve customers through teams...


  1. Celebrate team victories...


  1. Get tough on those who thwart the teamwork initiative...


  1. Grant special dispensation...



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☑Improving Group Dynamics: Helping Your Team Work More Effectively ▲

☑Improving Group Dynamics: Helping Your Team Work More Effectively ▲ | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Learn how to help your people work together more effectively.



Helping Your Team Work More Effectively

Imagine that you've brought together the brightest people in your department to solve a problem.


You had high hopes for the group, so you feel frustrated when people can't come to a decision.


Several factors are holding the group back.


To start with, one person is very critical of colleagues' ideas. You suspect that her fault-finding is discouraging others from speaking up.


Another has hardly contributed to the sessions at all. When asked for his opinion, he simply agrees with a more dominant colleague.


Finally, one group member makes humorous comments at unhelpful times, which upsets the momentum of the discussion.


These are classic examples of poor group dynamics, and they can undermine the success of a project, as well as people's morale and engagement.


In this article, we'll look at what group dynamics are, and why they matter. We'll then discuss some examples of poor group dynamics, and we'll outline some tools that you can use to deal with them.


Key Points

The term "group dynamics" describes the way in which people in a group interact with one another. When dynamics are positive, the group works well together. When dynamics are poor, the group's effectiveness is reduced.


Problems can come from weak leadership, too much deference to authority, blocking, groupthink and free riding, among others.

To strengthen your team's dynamics, use the following strategies:

  • Know your team.
  • Tackle problems quickly with good feedback.
  • Define roles and responsibilities.
  • Break down barriers.
  • Focus on communication.
  • Pay attention.


Keep in mind that observing how your group interacts is an important part of your role as a leader. Many of the behaviors that lead to poor dynamics can be overcome if you catch them early.


What Causes Poor Group Dynamics? 

Group leaders and team members can contribute to a negative group dynamic:

>> Weak leadership... 


>> Excessive deference to authority...


>> Blocking: this happens when team members behave in a way that disrupts the flow of information in the group. People can adopt blocking roles such as:  

  • The aggressor...
  • The negator...
  • The withdrawer...
  • The recognition seeker...
  • The joker...


>> Groupthink...


>> Free riding...


>> Evaluation apprehension...



Strategies for Improving Team Dynamics: 

☕ Know Your Team...

☕ Tackle Problems Quickly...

☕ Define Roles and Responsibilities...

☕ Break Down Barriers...

☕ Focus on Communication...

☕ Pay Attention...



▲On Group Dynamics:

http://bitly.com/7ygPK

http://bitly.com/1oGEc57

http://bitly.com/1pp4Ggn

http://bitly.com/1BbsaKS



▲Important read on Belbin's Theory:

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http://sco.lt/79FBkf



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Why my philosophy students will be working together for a change (>‿◠)✌

Why my philosophy students will be working together for a change (>‿◠)✌ | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it

 

Teamwork doesn’t suit everyone, but collaborating with others at university is a rehearsal for working life...

 

Some years ago it was all the rage to talk about the “personal transferable skills” a university education should provide in the fast-moving, fluid and flexible new world of work.

 

Dreading the exercise, we took an audit of our philosophy curriculum to see how we did. Numeracy?

 

Thank heaven for compulsory first-year logic. Reasoning skills? You bet! Self-awareness and self-criticism? Hmm … maybe a bit too much. Teamwork? Let me get back to you on that.

 

How many major history books can you think of by joint authors? Biographies? Works of literary criticism? OK, there was Ogden and Richards’ The Meaning of Meaning in 1923. And Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style. But the fact that Strunk died in 1946 and White didn’t start working on the edition that bears his name until the 50s rather makes my point.

 

Why is it that the arts and humanities have been so resistant to team authorship?

Is the cult of originality so ingrained and unshakeable? It is true that one’s ego gets submerged when writing with another person.... In some cases, eventually, neither author can remember who had which idea first. Or rather, perhaps we both think the good ones were ours and rotten ones the other person’s.

 

 

What about student teamwork?

"Well, in my new class students will be working without a line. They all need to muck in to produce their report, and much of their final grade will depend on other students’ efforts, although there will be individual assignments too.

 

Some students who had been interested in the class decided not to take it when they realised their grade would partly be based on the work of others.

 

That’s understandable. Still, for most people this course is simply a rehearsal for working life.

 

If you can’t work in a team you’d better be brilliant, already rich, or not worried about being poor. Or an academic in the arts and humanities." 

Jonathan Wolff is professor of philosophy and dean of arts and humanities at University College London

 

  

Insights (>‿◠)✌

 

 

Super Bonus... 

The Nature and Meaning of Teamwork

In its best instances team sport allows members to transform individual interests into a common interest, and in the process discover of part of their own identities. Teamwork is made intelligible by the collective pursuit of victory, but moral requirements importantly condition that activity. To some extent, the dynamic of team sport instantiates a basic experience of human sociality.

 

Mhd.Shadi Khudr's insight:

 

“Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much”
― Helen Keller

 

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The Logic of Collective Action.. A novel insight

The Logic of Collective Action.. A novel insight | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Mancur Olson's The Logic of Collective Action explains why some groups are able to have a larger influence on government policy than others.


This book develops an original theory of group and organizational behavior that cuts across disciplinary lines and illustrates the theory with empirical and historical studies of particular organizations.


Applying economic analysis to the subjects of the political scientist, sociologist, and economist, Mancur Olson examines the extent to which the individuals that share a common interest find it in their individual interest to bear the costs of the organizational effort.


The theory shows that most organizations produce what the economist calls “public goods”—goods or services that are available to every member, whether or not he has borne any of the costs of providing them. Economists have long understood that defense, law and order were public goods that could not be marketed to individuals, and that taxation was necessary.


They have not, however, taken account of the fact that private as well as governmental organizations produce public goods.


The services the labor union provides for the worker it represents, or the benefits a lobby obtains for the group it represents, are public goods: they automatically go to every individual in the group, whether or not he helped bear the costs. It follows that, just as governments require compulsory taxation, many large private organizations require special (and sometimes coercive) devices to obtain the resources they need.


This is not true of smaller organizations for, as this book shows, small and large organizations support themselves in entirely different ways.


The theory indicates that, though small groups can act to further their interest much more easily than large ones, they will tend to devote too few resources to the satisfaction of their common interests, and that there is a surprising tendency for the “lesser” members of the small group to exploit the “greater” members by making them bear a disproportionate share of the burden of any group action.


All of the theory in the book is in Chapter 1; the remaining chapters contain empirical and historical evidence of the theory’s relevance to labor unions, pressure groups, corporations, and Marxian class action. 

harvard.edu


▶▶ Continue Reading via Google Books



➲ Novel Insights

 Collective Action - building alliances against corruption

In the face of the widespread and deep-rooted corruption problem that affects society in general, governments, their procuring entities and the private sector in equal measure, it seems highly unlikely that individual activities alone will be sufficient to bring about significant ethical changes and improve the transparency of business processes.


This is precisely where "Collective Action" methods become important:
‘Collective Action’ enables corruption to be fought collectively, with various interest groups, working together and building an alliance against corruption so that the problem can be approached and resolved from multiple angles. Source



➲ The Collective Action problem


A collective action problem is any failure of a group of individuals to achieve an outcome everyone one likes at least as well as the outcome that results from everyone acting in her own self-interest.

This problem of collective action can be divided into two general classes:

First, individuals could fail to coordinate when coordination is preferred to not coordinating...


The second class of collective action problem involves a failure to achieve an outcome everyone prefers over the outcome arrived at because each individual wanted to achieve her most preferred outcome without, in essence, paying for it herself....URL



 What is Collective Action?

Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective. It is enacted by a representative of the group.


It is a term that has formulations and theories in many areas of the social sciences including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science and economics.


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 The advantages of Collective Action:

  • Collective Action describes various methods of combating corruption. It is a matter of acting collectively and forming alliances against corruption. Collective Action calls for cooperation on the part of participants from the worlds of politics, business and society at large.
  • The ultimate goal is thereby to create fair and equitable market conditions, that is a "Level Playing Field", for all marketplace participants and to eliminate the temptation of corruption for all those concerned.
  • Collective Action helps to set up the conditions for fair competition within a corrupt environment.
  • Collective Action promotes innovation, as the bidder is selected solely on the basis of price, quality and capacity to innovate.
  • Observance of anti-trust law when collaborating with other companies must be ensured by a neutral monitor (e.g. in the form of a non-governmental organization).
  • Collective Action can, if necessary, cover gaps in legislation or replace or augment inadequate local law. Source


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Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems

Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


What makes teamwork tick?

Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed.


Therefore, teamwork rules! Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings.


Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehensive logical theory, TeamLog, underpinning teamwork in dynamic environments.


The authors justify design choices by showing TeamLog in action. The book guides the reader through a fascinating discussion of issues essential for teamwork to be successful:


  • What is teamwork, and how can a logical view of it help in designing teams of agents?


  • What is the role of agents' awareness in an uncertain, dynamic environment?


  • How does collective intention constitute a team?


  • How are plan-based collective commitments related to team action?


  • How can one tune collective commitment to the team's organizational structure and its communication abilities?


  • What are the methodological underpinnings for teamwork in a dynamic environment?


  • How does a team and its attitudes adjust to changing circumstances?


  • How do collective intentions and collective commitments arise through dialogue?


  • What is the computational complexity of TeamLog?


  • How can one make TeamLog efficient in applications?



This book is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students in computer science and artificial intelligence as well as for developers of multi-agent systems.


Students and researchers in organizational science, in particular those investigating teamwork, will also find this book insightful.


Since the authors made an effort to introduce TeamLog as a conceptual model of teamwork, understanding most of the book requires solely a basic logical background.



>> Review



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Enhancing Virtual-Environment-Based Teamwork Training with Non-Verbal Communication

Enhancing Virtual-Environment-Based Teamwork Training with Non-Verbal Communication | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Virtual reality simulations for individual training of surgical skills are increasingly used in medical education and have been shown to improve patient outcome.


Since recent research suggests that a large percentage of mistakes in clinical settings are due to problems with non-technical skills like communication, teamwork training simulators are developed and used to address this problem.


Virtual-environment-based teamwork training simulators are very cost-efficient and allow for non-co-located settings, but have their limitations in communication among the participants.


The authors present an inexpensive camera-based system for capturing aspects of non-verbal communication of participating users and projecting these onto the avatars in the simulation.


This additional information has the potential of increasing the realism of the simulation and the effectiveness of team communication, resulting in a better training outcome – for all kinds of simulation that involves human communication.


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What is 'Virtual Team'?

A Virtual Team – also known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) – is a group of individuals who work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology.


They have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose, have interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to work for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.


Geographically dispersed teams allow organizations to hire and retain the best people regardless of location.


A virtual team does not always mean teleworkers. Teleworkers are defined as individuals who work from home.


Many virtual teams in today’s organizations consist of employees both working at home and small groups in the office but in different geographic locations.

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Delivering the Cross-cultural Virtual Teamwork Experience

Delivering the Cross-cultural Virtual Teamwork Experience | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


A modem geographically dispersed workforce often takes the form of virtual teams, where competent individuals located anywhere in a transnational firm represent organizational knowledge assets that need to interact to accomplish organizational tasks.


This new organization form is likely to be most fruitful when virtual team members have skills with the supporting technologies, an aptitude for asynchronous, distributed teamwork, and often, some sensitivity to cultural issues that may arise when working with a colleague from another culture.


The authors of this article argue that this work form is becoming increasingly common, and that exposure to it is beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students who are likely to work in this fashion at some point in their careers.


The authors offer a model for the study of virtual teamwork and brief reviews of relevant literature on virtual team support technologies and cross-cultural management issues pertaining to technology use.


What is presented here is an exercise that involved U.S. and Mexican MBA students in a cross- cultural virtual teamwork experience... This offers some suggestions for using this type of exercise in an undergraduate or graduate MIS or MBA course, and some of observations gathered along the way...

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The Virtual Team: An Emerging Organizational Form

Technological Support of Virtual Teams The virtual team is enabled by emerging computing and telecommunications technologies that support and coordinate communication and workflow between inter- and intraorganizational actors on an "anywhere" and increasingly "anytime" basis...


Socio-cognitive process dynamics Much has been written about group process variables and their impact on group work... While few efforts have yet been made to validate how group process variables are exhibited by virtual teams, the proposed model assumes that factors such as leadership, communication, interactions, participation, power and influence, and conflict and consensus-building that have been shown to have a profound impact on the completion of the task in a conventional environment will have similar effects on tasks undertaken in a collaboratory.


The information processing dynamics are expected to play an influential role in the task outcomes, especially in virtual groups. Availability of the technology, its limits, media richness, its filters and mechanisms are all variables to be examined for the impact on task completion and decision making...

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METHOD

Subjects Twenty American MBA students and twenty Mexican MBA students voluntarily participated in the study.


Subjects posted brief descriptions of themselves (age, professional and personal interests) to a web site devoted to supporting the exercise.


On the basis of this information, subjects sent messages via Email to desired candidates from the other country until pairings were ultimately decided upon.


They then undertook the task. Task Dyads created a five-page strategic plan for the implementation of a joint MBA international business capstone course that establishes strong international bonds between the students of both institutions.


The task was quite complex, entailing the planning of one- week visits by students from one campus to the partner's and vice versa...



CONCLUSION

The economic incentive to utilize CMC technologies to support collaborative work instead of requiring team members to travel for a traditional face-to-face meeting is often significant, and becomes more compelling as distances increase.


Electronic mail supports asynchronous communication for virtual teams, but it can now be augmented (or even replaced) by Web-based CMCs that support inexpensive and virtually free real time interaction.


Real time interaction is not only supported by the Internet's infrastructure but is being utilized by organizations reaching out to their workers, business partners and customers.


Real time collaboration tools are proliferating and adoption is growing rapidly. The real time collaboration (RTC) marketplace is made up of three interlocking technologies: audioconferencing, dataconferencing and videoconferencing.


The two CMC technologies used in the present study are based on these two infrastructures and use their popular and robust protocols. From the results of this study, organizations in the United States and Mexico can give increased consideration to using CMC technologies to support virtual teams composed of people from both cultures. However, before creating cross-cultural virtual teams, managers should realize that differing levels of facility with a chosen language, as well as the amount of experience team members may have with this work style may bear upon how well the technology is perceived to support the team's tasks and may also affect perceptions of member competence and contribution to the task.


Considering the ubiquity of transnational business organizations, the increasing popularity of team work, and the existence of technologies that can support geographically dispersed and both synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, the business community will likely want to have college graduate recruits (as well as extant employees) who are familiar with the technological, collaborative, and cultural aspects of cross-cultural virtual teamwork. The present exercise is a step in that direction...



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


► What is Cross-Cultural Teamwork

Actions and achievements of a group of people from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds working together in a co-operative way, or, the work produced by that group or team.



► Cross-Cultural Perspective Can Help Teamwork in the Workplace


► Supportive 
Together We Innovate


>> Bonus >>
How to Manage ► Virtual Teams ◄



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Flying Monkeys: Lessons in Teamwork

Flying Monkeys: Lessons in Teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Have you ever told your kids something and later regretted it?


I've written before about letting them see my high school yearbook and what a mistake that was, but one time I confessed a fear I had as a kid and regret it to this day.


You see, I once told my kids that as a young child I was afraid of the flying monkeys in The Wizard of OZ .


They couldn't believe that something that fake could have been scary.


And so, my children being the loving compassionate people they are, immediately began hatching a plan to humiliate their loving father.

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We can learn 5 things from this little incident. We already know these, we just tend to forget sometimes:


  1. A common goal...
  2. Each team member has a uniquely valuable strength...
  3. Let your team have fun...
  4. Let your team fail... 
  5. Be vulnerable... 

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And yes, they still tease me about being afraid of the flying monkeys. Hey, those dudes were scary!



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Teamwork Quality and the Success of Innovative Projects: A Theoretical Concept and Empirical Evidence

Teamwork Quality and the Success of Innovative Projects: A Theoretical Concept and Empirical Evidence | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


An extensive body of literature indicates the importance of teamwork to the success of innovative projects.


This growing awareness, that “good teamwork” increases the success of innovative projects, raises new questions:


What is teamwork, and how can it be measured?


Why and how is teamwork related to the success of innovative projects?


How strong is the relationship between teamwork and various measures of project success such as performance or team member satisfaction?


This article develops a comprehensive concept of the collaboration in teams, called Teamwork Quality (TWQ).


The six facets of the TWQ construct, i.e., communication, coordination, balance of member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion, are specified.


Hypotheses regarding the relationship between TWQ and project success are tested using data from 575 team members, team leaders, and managers of 145 German software teams.


The results of the structural equation models estimated show that TWQ (as rated by team members) is significantly associated with team performance as rated by team members, team leaders, and team external managers. However, the magnitude of the relationship between TWQ and team performance varies by the perspective of the performance rater, i.e., manager vs. team leader vs. team members.


Furthermore, TWQ shows a strong association with team members’ personal success (i.e., work satisfaction and learning)...



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Insightful >> The Food Bank:: BBVA :: Great Teamwork Success Stories

Insightful >> The Food Bank:: BBVA :: Great Teamwork Success Stories | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Unidos es posible. Grandes logros en equipo.


Together, Anything is Possible


THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY

A GREAT CYCLE OF SOLIDARITY. THAT IS ONE WAY TO DEFINE THE WORK OF EACH OF THE NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS THROUGHOUT SPAIN THAT SHARE THE SINGLE OBJECTIVE OF COLLECTING FOOD TO DISTRIBUTE AMONG THOSE IN NEED.


THIS HUGE UNDERTAKING WOULD BE IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT THE THOUSANDS OF VOLUNTEERS WHO OFFER THEIR SERVICES FOR THE COMMON GOOD.


WITH EVERYBODY’S HELP, THE WORLD CAN BE A SLIGHTLY BETTER PLACE...



“THEIR WORK, SO TENACIOUS AND ATTENTIVE TO THE NEEDS OF SO MANY PEOPLE, SHOULD BE A CAUSE OF GREAT PRIDE FOR ALL CONCERNED, BUT ALSO A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY TO REFLECT ON THE SHORTAGES AND DIFFICULTIES FACED BY SO MANY SPANIARDS.”



“WE WORK WITH ENTHUSIASM TO RAISE RESOURCES FOR THOSE MOST IN NEED. OUR MISSION IS TO HELP PEOPLE.”

José Antonio Busto (President of the Spanish Federation of Food Banks).



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7 Habits of Highly Effective People >> Habit 6: Synergize

7 Habits of Highly Effective People >> Habit 6: Synergize | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


To put it simply, synergy means "two heads are better than one." Synergize is the habit of creative cooperation.


It is teamwork, open-mindedness, and the adventure of finding new solutions to old problems.


But it doesn't just happen on its own. It's a process, and through that process, people bring all their personal experience and expertise to the table.


Together, they can produce far better results that they could individually.


Synergy lets us discover jointly things we are much less likely to discover by ourselves.


It is the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.


One plus one equals three, or six, or sixty--you name it...

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Valuing differences is what really drives synergy.


Do you truly value the mental, emotional, and psychological differences among people?


Or do you wish everyone would just agree with you so you could all get along?


Many people mistake uniformity for unity; sameness for oneness. One word--boring!


Differences should be seen as strengths, not weaknesses. They add zest to life.



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Teamwork? Good, Until It’s Not: When Working Alone Works Best

Teamwork? Good, Until It’s Not: When Working Alone Works Best | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Teamwork. Support. Group (there's that word) synergy.

These are all hallmarks of positive business-speak and, one would assume, business practice.


They've become the modern calling cards of businessmen who want to appear non-hierarchical, hip, in touch with the new spirit of entrepreneurship.


But could these buzzwords and the actions they entail have a counterintuitive dark side? 



Teamwork can undermine motivation and commitment...


The plus side of the team...


When to delegate – and when to go it alone...

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"Hell is other people." Jean Paul Sartre's famous quote can describe teams within juggernaut organizations, or scrappy start-ups where the employees are practically living together at the office.


Does your team need help getting along?


Are you challenged by managing employees who hate each other?


Would you like to enjoy happier and more productive relationships?

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Lessons from Geese on Teamwork

Lessons from Geese on Teamwork | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


'Individual empowerment results from quality honking'


Lessons from Geese provides a perfect example of the importance of team work and how it can have a profound and powerful effect on any form of personal or business endeavour.


When we use these five principles in our personal and business life it will help us to foster and encourage a level of passion and energy in ourselves, as well as those who are our friends, associates or team members.

It is essential to remember that teamwork happens inside and outside of business life when it is continually nurtured and encouraged.



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➬The Importance of Teamwork in Nursing

➬The Importance of Teamwork in Nursing | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


In today’s health care market, the practice of teamwork has gained in popularity. This is especially true for professional nurses. When nurses function as part of a unit, and when they act as part of a team, the job itself is easier and more efficient. Moreover, overall patient care is enhanced...


In nursing, when teamwork is emphasized and valued, every member works together to meet their patients’ needs; improved patient outcomes is their common goal...


There are many relevant clinical examples of how teamwork improves patient care.


  Every discipline is integral...


...example of the benefits of teamwork in patient care occurs when the respiratory therapist effectively works with the attending physician, and when she communicates with the patients’ assigned nurse.



 A collaborative environment...

The Institute for Health care Improvement also recognizes the importance of teamwork. In their book, "Crossing the Quality Chasm:

A New Health System for the 21st Century," teamwork is cited as essential in caring for patients with complex problems.


First, consider the use of the hospitalist in the acute care setting...


Second, because the hospitalist spends so much time in the hospital, he or she understands the systems and protocols that support patient care activities within the hospital...


Finally, because hospitalists are constantly on site, they improve the team’s ability to respond rapidly to patient crises, thereby improving continuity of care and clinical outcomes.


By being on site, bnursing teamwork, nurses communicationy being an integral part of the hospital team, and by knowing and helping to improve the system, hospitalists are reviving the "collaborative" model of patient care.


They strongly conclude that "effective working teams must be created and maintained."



Unit-based councils...

Teamwork is also emphasized in the concept of shared governance.


Nursing is a profession that is recognized by a society as having a specialized body of knowledge and a commitment to a service ideal, as well as professional autonomy and accountability for their specialized practice.


Nurses are in many aspects given the privilege of self-regulating or governing their profession.


The concept of shared governance in nursing has been used over the past 20 years as a mechanism for health care organizations to empower nurses to participate in decision-making within an organization, particularly in regards to making decisions that affect nursing practice...



➣➤ Teamwork is a key component of many professions; when employees feel as if they are part of a unit, relevant outcomes are improved.


Nurses report enhanced job satisfaction and patient care outcomes are met. No longer can nurses function in isolation.


Their profession mandates teamwork and effective communication. -



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See >>  5 Useful Principles for Practical Nursing Leadership

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Teamwork – a matter of balance and insigh

Teamwork – a matter of balance and insigh | TeamWork-SAGA | Scoop.it


Teamwork doesn’t appear magically just because someone mouths the words.


It doesn’t thrive just because of the presence of talent and ambition. It doesn’t flourish simply because a team has tasted success...


Why are some teams better than others — and in particular why do some teams never appear to be successful, no matter how good their membership or how strong their collective will to succeed?


While teamwork and team approaches are often enthusiastically promoted and embraced by principals in schools, we need only a limited experience with teams to appreciate that “collaborative situations are also full of contradictions, competition, and conflicts”.


It may be useful for educational leaders to reflect on situations where the success or failure of a task has been largely dictated by the quality of the interrelationships achieved with other people within the group.


Such interrelationships may be thrust upon us through formal organisational structures of the school or informally through a group of individual teachers wanting to maximise the achievement of a shared goal through the pooling of their expertise.

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Margerison and McCann (1995) — developers of Team Management Systems (TMS)—have found that the ‘types of work’ teams must undertake if they to be successful is essentially as follows:

1. Advising: Gathering and reporting information


2. Innovating: Creating and experimenting with ideas


3. Promoting: Exploring and presenting opportunities


4. Developing: Assessing and testing the applicability of new approaches


5. Organising: Establishing and implementing ways of making things work


6. Producing: Concluding and delivering outputs


7. Inspecting: Controlling and auditing the working of systems


8. Maintaining: Upholding and safeguarding standards and processes


9. Linking: Coordinating and integrating the work of others



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