Teaching-Aspect 2&3
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K-12 Education Subsidies

K-12 Education Subsidies | Teaching-Aspect 2&3 | Scoop.it
May 2009 Overview Origins of Federal Intervention Rising Federal Intervention since the 1960s Educational Outcomes Have Not Improved Misallocation and Bureaucracy Conclusions   Overview Federal control over K-12 education has risen dramatically in recent decades. Congress has increased funding for the schools while imposing layers of rules and regulations on local school districts. Federal expendi...
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 6:18 PM
Although there is more funding, from the 1970s until now the average test score of a "final product of the public school" has risen only 1 or 2 points in each testing area. The overall test performances have not really improved through the "No Child Left Behind Act" and the effectiveness of federal programs is lacking substantially. The emphasis on federal involvement has "failed to bring systematic improvements." The federal government funds in the status quo and renames it to give education a seemingly new and improved look.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 6:20 PM
Federal programs "redistribute income from taxpayers to the beneficiaries of programs." If we were to eliminate federal money in education, this money could otherwise be used to further education personally for students through tutors, college, etc. State and local government could easily decide the correct use of public education money without federal involvement. Studies have shown that government has been unsuccessful in redistributing money for less-privileged schools, because these schools are getting a very small amount more than the wealthier schools and therefore these schools are unable to accomplish what is needed.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 6:22 PM
"The responsibility for k-12 education rests with the states under the constitution." The federal government therefore is there to supplement the states. There is a distinct difference between national problems and common state problems, which the federal government fails to see. In comparison, Canada has no federal department of education and data suggests that as a whole Canada perfroms better than US students in reading, math, and science.
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Policy Priorities:The Never-Ending Story of ESEA Reauthorization:The Never-Ending Story of ESEA Reauthorization

Policy Priorities:The Never-Ending Story of ESEA Reauthorization:The Never-Ending Story of ESEA Reauthorization | Teaching-Aspect 2&3 | Scoop.it
Founded in 1943, ASCD (formerly the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) is an educational leadership organization dedicated to advancing best practices and policies for the success of each learner. Our 175,000 members in 119 countries are professional educators from all levels and subject areas––superintendents, supervisors, principals, teachers, professors of education, and school board members.
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 8:28 PM
There have been many bills introduced to reauthorize ESEA, but they have all seemingly been watered down and never covered the 2 big issues of accountability and teacher evaluation and only regarded annual testing, states' regulations, and the yardstick. There is also a push to limit the federal role in education which has not properly been incorporated in any proposals. The greatest desire is to make something that allows success, growth, and progress for students and teachers alike.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 8:28 PM
The greatest problem lies in that NCLB frustrates states and educators because of its "one size fits all approach." The things that come along with this approach create barriers for student progress instead of aiding them. It creates false comparability and is therefore deceptive in its results. It also created a "layer of paperwork" to evaluate teachers and instead of bettering the quality of the teachers, it just caused frustration for teachers and administrators alike. The goal is to shift the accountability to the states and away from the federal government.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 8:29 PM
The president announced that he would offer waivers from specific provisions of NCLB as long as they agree to use certain reform measures. States had to put individual applications in and the ones granted the waivers were allowed to set student achievement goals and create their own improvements for the lower schools. With this, they were required to follow common core standard, focus on the lowest 15% of the lower schools, and to create teacher evaluations with student performance a factor in it. The main goal is to reauthorize ESEA, but the waivers serve the purpose now until they expire in 2014-2015 and hopefully by then congress is not in a stalemate.
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What's Wrong With Standardized Tests? | FairTest

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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 5, 2014 8:11 AM
Standardized tests measure using "superficial questions" and avoid deeper thinking and creativity completely. The tests encourage old, ineffective teaching techniques and bad practices like grade retention and tracking. The tests are not reliable, because any given student could perform different from day to day, therefore leaving inaccuracy in the results.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 5, 2014 8:17 AM
While there is no evident bias, a lot of times there is underlying bias that are not detected by "statistical bias-reduction techniques." Although the amount we know about how the brain works has risen, standardized tests have not changed in accordance with the research. These tests are formatted with the ideal that students break knowledge into separate parts, but the exact opposite is true. Psychologists have found that our brains can not get the information in pieces, we have to make connections with what we already know to what we are learning.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 6, 2014 7:49 AM
Multiple-choice and short answer assessments are a poor measure of comprehension of all skills and do not test on real-world tasks. These tests therefore are not particularly helpful to teachers because they do not give a useful individual evaluation. They do not show how a student learns and do not show how much a student learns. The No Child Left Behind has made the US students the most tested on Earth. It requires state tests of students in grades 3-8 and once in high school and has also increased benchmark tests. Other countries completely shy away from standardized tests and include observation, performance-based assessment, and evaluation as well as a combination of other techniques in order to measure student learning and teacher effectiveness.
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Testing Can Not Measure Teachers' Effectiveness

Testing Can Not Measure Teachers' Effectiveness | Teaching-Aspect 2&3 | Scoop.it
"What do we really know about high stakes testing? “There are several misconceptions that have led to the misguided policies that are having disastrous effects on public schools. Taken from a docum...
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, February 19, 2014 7:51 AM
Aspect 2
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 5, 2014 7:53 AM
There is a big misconception that testing is the best way to measure the effectiveness of a teacher. There is no proof that there is a relationship between test scores and overall student success. A better way to evaluate would perhaps be a smaller scale pilot test. There are consistently changes with test scores from year to year and even test to test. Therefore, these tests are not a good predictor of the effectiveness of the teaching. There are tests in New York called Regents examinations and Grades 3-8 Assessments which only measure student learning. They do not even reach into teacher quality or "student learning growth," which is therefore such an unfair test, because it is leaving a lot of extra room for inaccuracy in the calculations.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 5, 2014 8:02 AM
When so much teacher success is based off of this high stakes test, then the relationship between teacher and student suffers, because the test takes first place. Teachers focus their curriculum for testing alone, so other areas like enrichment activities that help build a well-rounded person suffer. Schools also feel the pressure to place students who would not perform well in programs without high stakes tests in order to keep the results high. They feel a similar pressure with discouraging higher level kids from AP classes to keep their scores especially high. The relationship between student and teacher becomes a competition as well as the teacher and teacher relationship for the best test scores.
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Federal Role in Education

This page discusses the role of the U.S. Department, providing a brief history of the Department as well as a descrption of the Department's mission and staffing.
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 7, 2014 8:11 AM
Aspect 3
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 25, 2014 8:00 AM
For the most part, it is state and local governments that have the control over education. States and districts usually create schools, curriculum, and the graduation requirements. Most of the money comes from the state and local governments as well as private sources. In fact, about 87.7% of the funding is non-Federal money. Therefore, the Federal contribution is about 10.8% from the Department of Education and other similar agencies. The Department of Education works to target their minimal contributions where they can be used to their maximum. This targeting shows the aim of the Federal government in education as the "emergency response system." They fill the spaces between the local and state governments and arise when needed.
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How Standardized Testing Damages Education (Updated July 2012) | FairTest

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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 5, 2014 7:32 AM
Aspect 2
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 6, 2014 8:07 AM
Standardized test results are used to make important educational decisions and tend to leave certain groups to a disadvantage. High school graduation tests are used in 25 states and hurt minority and disabled students as well as they do not push life skills or anything useful for college. Tracking usually hurts lower kids because it pushes for them to be put in lower classes instead of adding challenges and helping them. Holding a student back generally does not academically help students, but instead causes frustration and can often cause dropping out. Screening and readiness tests often misdiagnose personal needs of students. These tests and results often cause minority, low-income, English learners, and disabled students to become lower academically compared to middle class whites who tend to be challenged and progress quickly.
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Role Of Federal Government In Public Education:  Historical Perspectives

Role Of Federal Government In Public Education:  Historical Perspectives | Teaching-Aspect 2&3 | Scoop.it
By Carolyn Jefferson-Jenkins and Margaret Hawkins Hill
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, February 19, 2014 7:53 AM
Aspect 3
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 7, 2014 8:03 AM
The role of federal government in education has increased and there has been a transition from local control to state and federal control. Recently, Congress has been in a debate about the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the reviving of it. The federal level is involved in debating curriculum standards, funding, goals, teacher quality, and accountability. Federal funding encompasses roughly 10% of school budgets. There are constantly questions and debates about federal involvement and Leagues around the US strive to answer them.
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The Arbitrary Albatross: Standardized Testing and Teacher Evaluation

The Arbitrary Albatross: Standardized Testing and Teacher Evaluation | Teaching-Aspect 2&3 | Scoop.it
On Chicago's streets and Hollywood's silver screens, education reform has been cast as a false dilemma between students and teachers. Reputable actresses and liberal mayors have both fallen prey. At
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Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 4, 2014 7:51 AM
These tests do not fully measure a teacher's ability, because they focus on solely facts and not "meaningful undersanding." The most important skill these tests are teaching is bubble filling on Scantrons and that is hardly important in our changing 21st century. Students learn much more than what is on these tests and teachers should be responsible for this. The amount that standardized tests cover is hardly a fragment of the curriculum.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 4, 2014 8:05 AM
More than half of the states and DC use standardized tests to evaluate teachers and given the detrimental effects it has had, this needs to change. Perhaps a reform is due and there should be a more observation with "student input, and a range of student work." The majority of professions use a system where their success is largely determined by what peers and supervisors see them doing. These observations by others are actually accurate, while results of a high-stakes test are merely estimates. Almost all professions have a system of "feedback and observation" in order to measure success. In the classroom, all it would take is to sit in during a class or a look at students' work and if the teacher's current strategies are ineffective, administrators could look further into the problem and perhaps aid the teacher with more training or something of the sort.
Michelle Ruoff's comment, March 4, 2014 8:13 AM
Perhaps there should be less of a focus on evaluations completely and teaching should be professionalized. There could be an entrance exam as a "gateway to licensing" and once a teacher has shown their expertise, then they may instruct. Doctors, Lawyers and jobs of the like all require and entrance exam and are only allowed to practice once they have sufficiently proven their mastery. If there were more barriers to get into this profession, overall there would be more respect and teachers would be able to practice more freely.