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An Outsider's Perspective Can Drive Innovation

An Outsider's Perspective Can Drive Innovation | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
There is immense value in an outsider’s perspective in innovation because they don’t have blinders on. Outsiders can make new connections, and will question the dogma within a certain industries’ walled garden.
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Teacher Tools and Tips
Tools, tips and practices to share with teachers
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Teacher Reviewed Educational Apps for 2012 - We Are Teachers

Teacher Reviewed Educational Apps for 2012 - We Are Teachers | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Reviews and best practices from teachers who have used apps.

Via Dr. Susan Bainbridge
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We Can Be Co-Teaching Change Agents

We Can Be Co-Teaching Change Agents | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Teachers in co-teaching settings have the additional opportunity to guide educational reform in ways that create meaningful educational experiences and break down barriers as we increase access between learners and curriculum.

Co-teachers have the opportunity to guide the transformation and help change the way students view themselves as learners AND the way teachers and parents view educating diverse learners.
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Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
At root, the fundamental point is that tyranny does not flourish because perpetrators are helpless and ignorant of their actions. It flourishes because they actively identify with those who promote vicious acts as virtuous [49]. It is this conviction that steels participants to do their dirty work and that makes them work energetically and creatively to ensure its success. Moreover, this work is something for which they actively wish to be held accountable—so long as it secures the approbation of those in power.
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Trust Us: Politicians Keep Most Of Their Promises

Trust Us: Politicians Keep Most Of Their Promises | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Regardless of what happens between now and the GOP convention, there is little doubt that Donald Trump has undermined our understanding of primary politics. It …
Sharrock's insight:
This would be a good article to share with students in social studies elective classes that deal with campaigns and US government (voting). The teacher could start with a question about politicians keeping their campaign promises after voted in to office. After discussion, teacher could introduce research project that combines research validity and verification, fact-checking websites, and "changing conditions" having an impact on following through. They may also explore what "good faith" means and how it applies to these kinds of questions. 

The teacher could decide to split researchers into pairs or small groups. They could research this question regarding congressional candidates, senate, and other offices where candidates must be voted in. I don't know if research is available so teacher might want to check with school librarian to check if project can be carried through for congressional or senate candidates. 
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Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Children by Leah Davies, M.Ed.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children is a psychiatric disorder that can persist into adulthood. Students with ODD have an underdeveloped conscience and poor relationship skills. They display a great deal of aggression and purposefully annoy others. The actions of these children seriously interfere with their functioning at home and at school. Being defiant and argumentative are typical ways children ages two to three and young adolescents behave; however, students with ODD exhibit a pattern of these behaviors beyond age three and throughout their school years.
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These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital

These Charts Show How Globalization Has Gone Digital | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Just 15 years ago, cross-border digital flows were almost non-existent. Today, they exert a larger impact on global economic growth than traditional flows of goods, which developed over centuries.

Via Seth Dixon
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"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

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Leoncio Lopez-Ocon's curator insight, March 31, 6:13 AM

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

Trish Harris's curator insight, March 31, 7:40 AM

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

malbert's curator insight, April 4, 4:15 PM

"Yes, globalization. For many people, that word conjures up, at best, images of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories. At worst, it harkens back to acrid debates about trade deficits, currency wars and jobs moving to China. In fact, since the Great Recession of 2008, the global flow of goods and services has flattened, and cross-border capital flows have declined sharply. But globalization overall isn't on the wane. Like so much in our world today, it has reinvented itself by going digital."

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

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Mission | The Pluralism Project

What is Pluralism? 

 The plurality of religious traditions and cultures has come to characterize every part of the world today. But what is pluralism? Here are four points to begin our thinking: 

 First, pluralism is not diversity alone, but the energetic engagement with diversity. Diversity can and has meant the creation of religious ghettoes with little traffic between or among them. Today, religious diversity is a given, but pluralism is not a given; it is an achievement. Mere diversity without real encounter and relationship will yield increasing tensions in our societies. 

Second, pluralism is not just tolerance, but the active seeking of understanding across lines of difference. Tolerance is a necessary public virtue, but it does not require Christians and Muslims, Hindus, Jews, and ardent secularists to know anything about one another. Tolerance is too thin a foundation for a world of religious difference and proximity. It does nothing to remove our ignorance of one another, and leaves in place the stereotype, the half-truth, the fears that underlie old patterns of division and violence. In the world in which we live today, our ignorance of one another will be increasingly costly. 

 Third, pluralism is not relativism, but the encounter of commitments. The new paradigm of pluralism does not require us to leave our identities and our commitments behind, for pluralism is the encounter of commitments. It means holding our deepest differences, even our religious differences, not in isolation, but in relationship to one another. 

Fourth, pluralism is based on dialogue. The language of pluralism is that of dialogue and encounter, give and take, criticism and self-criticism. Dialogue means both speaking and listening, and that process reveals both common understandings and real differences. Dialogue does not mean everyone at the “table” will agree with one another. Pluralism involves the commitment to being at the table — with one’s commitments. —Diana L. Eck, 2006
Sharrock's insight:
US History teachers at the secondary school level, as well as Global Studies and Participation in Government teachers, should explore this site and try to answer the big questions posed in this site. 

Although this site focuses on religious diversity in the United States, it is also about answering the bigger questions about citizenship. It asks who Americans are when they say, "One nation under God"? So often, people make comments in social networks and in face to face conversations about the endangering of Christian beliefs and make claims that the USA is a Christian nation. They dismiss or forget the USA's exceptionalism is linked to its pluralism. For the country to be "great", it must uphold and appreciate this history of inclusion, but must also include the ability to dialogue--not just talk for or talk at others--but to actually dialogue. Diana Eck explains: "Dialogue means both speaking and listening, and that process reveals both common understandings and real differences. Dialogue does not mean everyone at the “table” will agree with one another. Pluralism involves the commitment to being at the table — with one’s commitments." 

I learned about this site from a Great Courses audiobook by Prof. Charles Kimball http://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/comparative-religion.html. As I listen to the first few discs, it occurs to me that Marshall McLuhan's descriptions of violence and tribalism are manifesting. We have to educate more people with messages from the Pluralism Project to drive back the tide of fear and intolerance. 
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Lynnette Van Dyke's curator insight, March 30, 7:49 PM
US History teachers at the secondary school level, as well as Global Studies and Participation in Government teachers, should explore this site and try to answer the big questions posed in this site. 

Although this site focuses on religious diversity in the United States, it is also about answering the bigger questions about citizenship. It asks who Americans are when they say, "One nation under God"? So often, people make comments in social networks and in face to face conversations about the endangering of Christian beliefs and make claims that the USA is a Christian nation. They dismiss or forget the USA's exceptionalism is linked to its pluralism. For the country to be "great", it must uphold and appreciate this history of inclusion, but must also include the ability to dialogue--not just talk for or talk at others--but to actually dialogue. Diana Eck explains: "Dialogue means both speaking and listening, and that process reveals both common understandings and real differences. Dialogue does not mean everyone at the “table” will agree with one another. Pluralism involves the commitment to being at the table — with one’s commitments." 

I learned about this site from a Great Courses audiobook by Prof. Charles Kimball http://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/comparative-religion.html. As I listen to the first few discs, it occurs to me that Marshall McLuhan's descriptions of violence and tribalism are manifesting. We have to educate more people with messages from the Pluralism Project to drive back the tide of fear and intolerance. 
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Adrienne Rich on What a Rare Blue Bird Taught Her About the Confluence of Art, Science, and Politics in Human Life

Adrienne Rich on What a Rare Blue Bird Taught Her About the Confluence of Art, Science, and Politics in Human Life | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
In praise of the moments when "a piece of the universe is revealed as if for the first time." With an eye to the parallels between science, poetry, and politics, Rich reflects on how names can both dignify and objectify, grant power and take it away
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Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions

Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing—but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.
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On genetics Oliver James is on a different planet to the rest of us | Spectator Health

On genetics Oliver James is on a different planet to the rest of us | Spectator Health | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Few books risk such damage to the public understanding of science as those by Oliver James. Inexplicably popular despite their scientific illiteracy and mediocre writing, they are promoted widely by James’s regular, shriekingly aggressive media appearances. A glance at the studies shows the absurdity of the extreme blank-slate position advanced in Not In Your Genes: environments clearly matter, but so does DNA, and the perversity of denying this becomes ever more acute with each new genetic discovery. Truly understanding human psychology and helping those with psychiatric illnesses requires us to have a realistic view of the causes of differences between people. That realistic view is Not In This Book.
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6th Grade Speed Dating Genres

6th Grade Speed Dating Genres | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

We're speed dating this week. Several 6th grade teachers want their students to explore different fiction genres. I decided to make some personal ads (pictured above) for different genres or subgenres. I already had resources lists in Destiny for these genres, so it made it easy. We have eleven tables, which we'll load with books and an ad. Students will have to rotate through at least 4 tables. They'll be discussing genres in class, but I made an exit ticket so I can track which are the most popular (I still have one more book order to place.) If you're interested, here's a link to the ads, and a link to the exit ticket. The ads document has the titles listed separately at the end, to make it easier for my aides to cut them out! :)


Via Mary Reilley Clark, GwynethJones
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From Mary: "Feel free to use or modify!"

 

CLICK on the LINKS in the Scoopit & Make a Copy

in your Google Docs!

 

The exit ticket would also translate well to a Kahoot!

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Sarah Scholl's curator insight, March 29, 3:54 PM

Feel free to use or modify!

Margareta's curator insight, April 1, 9:55 AM

Feel free to use or modify!

Margareta's curator insight, April 1, 9:56 AM

Feel free to use or modify!

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Who Caused the Economic Crisis?

Who Caused the Economic Crisis? | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

A MoveOn.org Political Action ad plays the partisan blame game with the economic crisis, charging that John McCain’s friend and former economic adviser Phil Gramm “stripped safeguards that would have protected us.” The claim is bogus. Gramm’s legislation had broad bipartisan support and was signed into law by President Clinton. Moreover, the bill had nothing to do with causing the crisis, and economists – not to mention President Clinton – praise it for having softened the crisis.

A McCain-Palin ad, in turn, blames Democrats for the mess. The ad says that the crisis “didn’t have to happen,” because legislation McCain cosponsored would have tightened regulations on Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. But, the ad says, Obama "was notably silent" while Democrats killed the bill. That’s oversimplified. Republicans, who controlled the Senate at the time, did not bring the bill forward for a vote. And it’s unclear how much the legislation would have helped, as McCain signed on just two months before the housing bubble popped.

In fact, there’s ample blame to go around. Experts have cited everyone from home buyers to Wall Street, mortgage brokers to Alan Greenspan.

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20+ Tools to Create Your Own Infographics

20+ Tools to Create Your Own Infographics | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

A picture is worth a thousand words – based on this, infographics would carry hundreds of thousands of words, yet if you let a reader choose between a full-length 1000-word article and an infographic that needs a few scroll-downs, they’d probably prefer absorbing information straight from the infographic. What’s not to like? Colored charts and illustrations deliver connections better than tables and figures and as users spend time looking back and forth the full infographic, they stay on the site longer. Plus, readers who like what they see are more likely to share visual guides more than articles.

 

While not everyone can make infographics from scratch, there are tools available on the Web that will help you create your very own infographics. In this article, we’re listing more than 20 such options to help you get your messages across to your readers, visually....


Via Ana Cristina Pratas, Jeff Domansky
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Jeff Domansky's curator insight, June 5, 11:42 PM

Nice updated list of infographics tools.

 
Bart van Maanen's curator insight, June 6, 11:38 AM
Soms kun je een verhaal goed vertellen met een infographic, regelijk een vorm die zich goed laat delen op sociale media. Misschien kun je er ook wel een creatief cv mee maken. Maak je eigen #infographics met een van deze online tools. 
Frederic Martorell Miro's curator insight, June 10, 2:21 AM

Il y a surement une appli qui nous concerne

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Motivation

Motivation | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

There are many systems and theories of motivation (for example see 'see also' below). But what if we look deeper? What are the internal structures that lead to us acting (as opposed, perhaps, to not acting). Here key systems: Content theories of....

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A 2,000-Year History of Alarm Clocks

A 2,000-Year History of Alarm Clocks | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Dating to the year 725, Yi Xing’s ingenious version of an alarm clock is one of the world’s earliest recorded devices of that nature. Along with the water clock Plato used to wake himself up for his legendary dawn lectures in the 4th century BCE, it is evidence that humans have been looking for ways to rise on time for thousands of years.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder & Music Infographic - e-Learning Infographics

Autism Spectrum Disorder & Music Infographic - e-Learning Infographics | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Music education proves to be especially helpful to those with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism and music go hand and hand when thoughtfully implemented.
Via Chris Carter
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What is Otherness?

What is Otherness? | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
George Herbert Mead’s classic text, Mind Self and Society, established that social identities are created through our ongoing social interaction with other people and our subsequent self-reflection about who we think we are according to these social exchanges. Mead’s work shows that identities are produced through agreement, disagreement, and negotiation with other people. We adjust our behaviour and our self-image based upon our interactions and our self-reflection about these interactions (this is also known as the looking glass self).
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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, April 1, 12:18 PM
When we perceive someone as a stranger, we "other" them. Although the post is sociological in nature, philosophers (Derrida, Levinas, Butler, etc.) took up the topic.
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How Meaningful Feedback for Teachers and Students Improves Relationships

How Meaningful Feedback for Teachers and Students Improves Relationships | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
A National Teacher of the Year demonstrates how he regularly tries to improve his teaching practice, this time by giving and getting more authentic feedback.
Via Dean J. Fusto, Ivon Prefontaine
Sharrock's insight:
Acknowledging we do not know everything and we are learners,is important in teaching. What do students bring to the conversation? That is an important question.

School managers and executives can take that as a message in providing feedback for teachers. As well, I am finding that teachers do not always have time to reflect and have peer level conversations.
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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, March 30, 10:48 AM
Acknowledging we do not know everything and we are learners,is important in teaching. What do students bring to the conversation? That is an important question.

School managers and executives can take that as a message in providing feedback for teachers. As well, I am finding that teachers do not always have time to reflect and have peer level conversations.
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Why We Seem To Be Talking More And Working Less—The Nature Of Work Has Changed | Digital Tonto

Why We Seem To Be Talking More And Working Less—The Nature Of Work Has Changed | Digital Tonto | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Mr. Mankins's greater point—and the subject of much of his other writing—is that we should put more thought into how we adopt and use our newfound communication assets. Surely, we all spend time attending meetings and conference calls, reading and responding to messages that could be used more productively. That’s frustrating.

However—and this is a crucial point—we don’t know those interactions will be fruitless until we actually have them.

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The associations of birth order with personality and intelligence in a representative sample of U.S. high school students

This study helps establish reliable effect size estimates for birth order on self-report data of personality and on intelligence, taking into account several background factors, in a large representative sample of U.S. high school students. In a between-family design, we found very small associations between birth order and personality, with an average absolute partial correlation of .02. The partial correlations between birth order and cognitive abilities were slightly higher, the average being .04, with a maximum overall association of .08 for verbal ability, where positive associations indicate higher scores for firstborns. In sum, although the direction of some of the effects supported the hypothesized relation between birth order and both personality and intelligence, we would conclude that the magnitude of the effects would indicate that birth order is not an important consideration to either of these outcomes.
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Finland's hugely exciting experiment in basic income, explained

Finland's hugely exciting experiment in basic income, explained | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
It's the biggest test of basic income to date.

Via Xaos
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5 of The Best Digital Storytelling Apps for Kids ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

5 of The Best Digital Storytelling Apps for Kids ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Via Maria Margarida Correia, John Evans
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Lee Hall's curator insight, June 20, 2:48 PM
Students will enjoy using these apps. They won't even realize they are learning.
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How teachers find out about how students learn - TeachingHOW2s

How teachers find out about how students learn - TeachingHOW2s | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Dr Yana Weinstein is an assistant professor of cognitive psychology at the University of Massachusetts. We met on Twitter and decided to collaborate on the results of her questionnaire. But how? I’d only recently discovered BoardThing — an online collaborative tool based on a virtual whiteboard and sticky notes — and found it perfect for our purposes. While there is a chat function on the app, we used Skype simultaneously for even better results.

The first thing we did was co-create a concept map of the way data changes from raw data to appearing in journal, blogs and books.

Then we went back and forth discussing, creating and amending the visuals. 
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Mark E. Deschaine, PhD's curator insight, March 8, 10:17 AM
How teachers find out what how students learn integrates theoretical and practical components. It is important to understand curriculum and teaching as complicated conversations that integrate the two.
Carlos Vázquez's curator insight, March 8, 10:44 PM
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Virginia Katsimpiri's curator insight, March 9, 6:08 AM
How teachers find out what how students learn integrates theoretical and practical components. It is important to understand curriculum and teaching as complicated conversations that integrate the two.
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Douglas Walton - Google Scholar Citations

Douglas Walton - Google Scholar Citations | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

At Wikipedia--https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doug_Walton


Douglas Neil Walton (PhD University of Toronto, 1972) is a Canadian academic and author, well known for his many widely published books and papers on argumentation, logical fallacies and informal logic. He is presently Distinguished Research Fellow of theCentre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR) at the University of Windsor, Canada, and before that (2008-2014), he held the Assumption Chair of Argumentation Studies at the University of Windsor. Walton’s work has been used to better prepare legal arguments and to help develop artificial intelligence. His books have been translated worldwide, and he attracts students from many countries to study with him. A special issue of the journal Informal Logic surveyed Walton’s contributions to informal logic and argumentation theory up to 2006 (Informal Logic, 27(3), 2007). A festschrift honoring his contributions, Dialectics, Dialogue and Argumentation: An Examination of Douglas Walton’s Theories of Reasoning and Argument, ed. C. Reed and C. W. Tindale, London: College Publications, 2010, shows how his theories are increasingly finding applications in computer science. A list of titles of many of Walton’s books is given below. Links to preprints of many of his published papers can be found on the websitewww.dougwalton.ca. [1]

Walton’s work represents a distinctive approach built around a set of practical methods to help a user identify, analyze and evaluate arguments in specialized areas such as law and science, as well as arguments of the kind used in everyday conversational discourse. Walton has called this approach logical argumentation, and as a method it has twelve defining characteristics, shown below in a simplified list.

The method analyzes and evaluates argumentation concerning a contestable claim, one where there is evidence for the claim as well as against it. The claim is tested evidentially by the pro and con arguments that support or attack it.The procedure for examining and criticizing the arguments on both sides forms a dialogue structure in which two sides, the claimant and its opponent, take turns putting forward speech acts (for example, asking questions and putting forward arguments).The dialogue has rules for incurring and retracting commitments that are activated by speech acts. For example, when a participant makes an assertion (claim), he or she becomes committed to the proposition contained in the assertion.The method uses the notion of commitment (acceptance) as the fundamental tool for the analysis and evaluation of argumentation rather than the notion of belief. The reason is that belief is held to be a psychological notion internal to an agent that can only be determined indirectly, by inference to the best explanation of the agent’s speech and actions.The method assumes a database of commonly accepted knowledge that, along with other commitments, provides premises for arguments. The knowledge base is set in place at the opening stage, but can be revised as new relevant information comes in.The method comprises the study of explanations as well as arguments, including the form of argument called inference to the best explanation or abductive reasoning.The dialogue system is dynamic, meaning that it continually updates its database as new information comes in that is relevant to an argument being considered.The arguments advanced are (for the most part) defeasible, meaning that they are subject to defeat as new relevant evidence comes in that refutes the argument.Conclusions are accepted on a presumptive basis, meaning that in the absence of evidence sufficient to defeat it, a claim that is the conclusion of an argument can be tentatively accepted, even though it may be subject to later defeat.The dialogue uses critical questioning as a way of testing plausible explanations and finding weak points in an argument that raise doubt concerning the acceptability of the argument.The method uses standards of proof. Criteria for acceptance are held to depend on standards that require the removal of specifiable degrees of reasonable doubt.The method is based on argumentation schemes, such as argument from expert opinion, that represent commonly used types of arguments that are defeasible.

In the method, schemes work as heuristic devices that only offer presumptive support of a claim that may have to be withdrawn as new evidence comes in. The schemes connect arguments together into sequences, often called chaining, by taking the conclusion of one argument as a premise in a subsequent argument. Some common schemes are argument from goal-based reasoning, argument from negative consequences, argument from positive consequences, inference to the best explanation (abductive reasoning), argument from sign, argument from analogy, argument from precedent, argument from an established rule, argument from evidence to a hypothesis, argument from cause to effect, argument from correlation to cause, argument from sunk costs, argument from threat, argument from perception, argument from witness testimony, argument from expert opinion, argument from ignorance, argument from commitment, direct ad hominem argument, argument from inconsistency of commitments, slippery slope argument (Walton, Reed & Macagno 2008). [2]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doug_Walton 

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When looking to find detailed research on dialogue and the ways we communicate, research citing Douglas Walton is a great place to start!

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Meet the Silent Killer That Stalked U.S. Troops

Meet the Silent Killer That Stalked U.S. Troops | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Discrimination led not only to unequal pay and poorly-provisioned regiments, but grossly deficient medical care. Many white medical officers were unwilling to treat black units, one white doctor observing that “[v]ery few surgeons will do precisely for blacks as they would for whites.” And there were only three black physicians serving the Union Army’s 166 black regiments.
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