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8 Common Mistakes in How Our Brains Think and How to Prevent Them - Belle Beth Cooper

8 Common Mistakes in How Our Brains Think and How to Prevent Them - Belle Beth Cooper | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Get ready to have your mind blown.

 

I was seriously shocked at some of these mistakes in thinking that I subconsciously make all the time. Obviously, none of them are huge, life-threatening mistakes, but they are really surprising and avoiding them could help us to make more rational, sensible decisions.

 

Being aware of the mistakes we naturally have in our thinking can make a big difference in avoiding them. Unfortunately, most of these occur subconsciously, so it will also take time and effort to avoid them—if you even want to.

 

Regardless, I think it’s fascinating to learn more about how we think and make decisions every day, so let’s take a look at some of these thinking habits we didn’t know we had.

 

1. We surround ourselves with information that matches our beliefs

We tend to like people who think like us. If we agree with someone’s beliefs, we’re more likely to be friends with them. While this makes sense, it means that we subconsciously begin to ignore or dismiss anything that threatens our world views, since we surround ourselves with people and information that confirm what we already think.

 

This is called confirmation bias. If you’ve ever heard of the frequency illusion, this is very similar. The frequency illusion occurs when you buy a new car, and suddenly you see the same car everywhere. Or when a pregnant woman suddenly notices other pregnant women all over the place. It’s a passive experience, where our brains seek out information that’s related to us, but we believe there’s been an actual increase in the frequency of those occurrences.

 

Confirmation bias is a more active form of the same experience. It happens when we proactively seek out information that confirms our existing beliefs.

 

Not only do we do this with the information we take in, but we approach our memories this way, as well. In an experiment in 1979 at the University of Minnesota, participants read a story about a women called Jane who acted extroverted in some situations and introverted in others. When the participants returned a few days later, they were divided into two groups. One group was asked if Jane would be suited to a job as a librarian, the other group were asked about her having a job as a real-estate agent. The librarian group remembered Jane as being introverted and later said that she would not be suited to a real-estate job. The real-estate group did the exact opposite: they remembered Jane as extroverted, said she would be suited to a real-estate job and when they were later asked if she would make a good librarian, they said no.

 

In 2009, a study at Ohio State showed that we will spend 36 percent more time reading an essay if it aligns with our opinions. "Whenever your opinions or beliefs are so intertwined with your self-image you couldn’t pull them away without damaging your core concepts of self, you avoid situations which may cause harm to those beliefs." – David McRaney

 

This trailer for David McRaney’s book, You are Now Less Dumb, explains this concept really well with a story about how people used to think geese grew on trees (seriously), and how challenging our beliefs on a regular basis is the only way to avoid getting caught up in the confirmation bias:

 

2. We believe in the “swimmer’s body” illusion

 

This has to be one of my favorite thinking mistakes I came across. In Rolf Dobelli’s book, The Art of Thinking Clearly, he explains how our ideas about talent and extensive training are well off-track: "Professional swimmers don’t have perfect bodies because they train extensively. Rather, they are good swimmers because of their physiques. How their bodies are designed is a factor for selection and not the result of their activities."

 

The “swimmer’s body illusion” occurs when we confuse selection factors with results. Another good example is top performing universities: are they actually the best schools, or do they choose the best students, who do well regardless of the school’s influence?

 

What really jumped out at me when researching this section was this particular line from Dobelli’s book: "Without this illusion, half of advertising campaigns would not work."

 

It makes perfect sense, when you think about it. If we believed that we were predisposed to be good at certain things (or not), we wouldn’t buy into ad campaigns that promised to improve our skills in areas where it’s unlikely we’ll ever excel.

 

3. We worry about things we’ve already lost

 

No matter how much I pay attention to the sunk cost fallacy, I still naturally gravitate towards it.

 

The term sunk cost refers to any cost (not just monetary, but also time and effort) that has been paid already and cannot be recovered. So, a payment of time or money that’s gone forever, basically.

 

The reason we can’t ignore the cost, even though it’s already been paid, is that we wired to feel loss far more strongly than gain. Psychologist Daniel Kahneman explains this in his book, Thinking Fast and Slow: "Organisms that placed more urgency on avoiding threats than they did on maximizing opportunities were more likely to pass on their genes. So, over time, the prospect of losses has become a more powerful motivator on your behavior than the promise of gains. The sunk cost fallacy plays on this tendency of ours to emphasize loss over gain."

 

This research study is a great example of how it works: Hal Arkes and Catehrine Blumer created an experiment in 1985 which demonstrated your tendency to go fuzzy when sunk costs come along. They asked subjects to assume they had spent $100 on a ticket for a ski trip in Michigan, but soon after found a better ski trip in Wisconsin for $50 and bought a ticket for this trip too. They then asked the people in the study to imagine they learned the two trips overlapped and the tickets couldn’t be refunded or resold. Which one do you think they chose, the $100 good vacation, or the $50 great one?

Over half of the people in the study went with the more expensive trip. It may not have promised to be as fun, but the loss seemed greater.

 

So, just like the other mistakes I’ve explained in this post, the sunk cost fallacy leads us to miss or ignore the logical facts presented to us, and instead make irrational decisions based on our emotions—without even realizing we’re doing so:

 

The fallacy prevents you from realizing the best choice is to do whatever promises the better experience in the future, not which negates the feeling of loss in the past.

 

Being such a subconscious reaction, it’s hard to avoid this one. Our best bet is to try to separate the current facts we have from anything that happened in the past. For instance, if you buy a movie ticket only to realize the movie is terrible, you could either:

a) stay and watch the movie, to “get your money’s worth” since you’ve already paid for the ticket (sunk cost fallacy)

or
b) leave the cinema and use that time to do something you’ll actually enjoy.

The thing to remember is this: you can’t get that investment back. It’s gone.

 

Don’t let it cloud your judgement in whatever decision you’re making in this moment—let it remain in the past.

 

4. We incorrectly predict odds

 

Imagine you’re playing Heads or Tails with a friend. You flip a coin, over and over, each time guessing whether it will turn up heads or tails. You have a 50/50 chance of being right each time.

 

Now suppose you’ve flipped the coin five times already and it’s turned up heads every time. Surely, surely, the next one will be tails, right? The chances of it being tails must be higher now, right?

Well, no. The chances of tails turning up are 50/50. Every time. Even if you turned up heads the last twenty times. The odds don’t change.

 

The gambler’s fallacy is a glitch in our thinking—once again, we’re proven to be illogical creatures. The problem occurs when we place too much weight on past events, believing that they will have an effect on future outcomes (or, in the case of Heads or Tails, any weight, since past events make absolutely no difference to the odds).

 

Unfortunately, gambling addictions in particular are also affected by a similar mistake in thinking—the positive expectation bias. This is when we mistakenly think that eventually, our luck has to change for the better. Somehow, we find it impossible to accept bad results and give up—we often insist on keeping at it until we get positive results, regardless of what the odds of that happening actually are.

 

5. We rationalize purchases we don’t want

 

I’m as guilty of this as anyone. How many times have you gotten home after a shopping trip only to be less than satisfied with your purchase decisions and started rationalizing them to yourself? Maybe you didn’t really want it after all, or in hindsight you thought it was too expensive. Or maybe it didn’t do what you hoped, and was actually useless to you.

 

Regardless, we’re pretty good at convincing ourselves that those flashy, useless, badly thought-out purchases are necessary after all. This is known as post-purchase rationalization or Buyer’s Stockholm Syndrome.

 

The reason we’re so good at this comes back to psychology: Social psychologists say it stems from the principle of commitment, our psychological desire to stay consistent and avoid a state of cognitive dissonance.

 

Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort we get when we’re trying to hold onto two competing ideas or theories. For instance, if we think of ourselves as being nice to strangers, but then we see someone fall over and don’t stop to help them, we would then have conflicting veiws about ourselves: we are nice to strangers, but we weren’t nice to the stranger who fell over. This creates so much discomfort that we have to change our thinking to match our actions—i.e. we start thinking of ourselves as someone who is not nice to strangers, since that’s what our actions proved.

 

So in the case of our impulse shopping trip, we would need to rationalize the purchases until we truly believe we needed to buy those things, so that our thoughts about ourselves line up with our actions (making the purchases).

The tricky thing in avoiding this mistake is that we generally act before we think, leaving us to rationalize our actions afterwards.

 

Being aware of this mistake can help us avoid it by predicting it before taking action—for instance, as we’re considering a purchase, we often know that we will have to rationalize it to ourselves later. If we can recognize this, perhaps we can avoid it. It’s not an easy one to tackle, though!

 

6. We make decisions based on the anchoring effect

 

Dan Ariely is a behavioural economist who gave one of my favorite TED talks ever about the irrationality of the human brain when it comes to making decisions.

 

He illustrates this particular mistake in our thinking superbly, with multiple examples. The anchoring effect essentially works like this: rather than making a decision based on pure value for investment (time, money, etc.), we factor in comparative value—that is, how much value an option offers when compared to another option.

 

Let’s look at some examples from Dan, to illustrate this effect in practice:

One example is an experiment that Dan conducted using two kinds of chocolates for sale in a booth: Hershey’s Kisses and Lindt Truffles. The Kisses were one penny each, while the Truffles were fifteen cents each. Considering the quality differences between the two kinds of chocolates and the normal prices of both items, the Truffles were a great deal, and the majority of visitors to the booth chose the Truffles.

 

For the next stage of his experiment, Dan offered the same two choices, but lowered the prices by one cent each. So now the Kisses were free, and the Truffles cost fourteen cents each. Of course, the Truffles are even more of a bargain now, but since the Kisses were free, most people chose those instead.

 

Your loss aversion system is always vigilant, waiting on standby to keep you from giving up more than you can afford to spare, so you calculate the balance between cost and reward whenever possible. – You Are Not So Smart

Another example Dan offers in his TED talk is when consumers are given holiday options to choose between. When given a choice of a trip to Rome, all expenses paid, or a similar trip to Paris, the decision is quite hard. Each city comes with its own food, culture and travel experiences that the consumer must choose between.

 

When a third option is added, however, such as the same Rome trip, but without coffee included in the morning, things change. When the consumer sees that they have to pay 2,50 euros for coffee in the third trip option, not only does the original Rome trip suddenly seem superior out of these two, it also seems superior to the Paris trip. Even though they probably hadn’t even considered whether coffee was included or not before the third option was added.

 

Here’s an even better example from another of Dan’s experiments:

Dan found this real ad for subscriptions to The Economist, and used it to see how a seemingly useless choice (like Rome without coffee) affects our decisions.

 

To begin with, there were three choices: subscribe to The Economist web version for $59, the print version for $125, or subscribe to both the print and web versions for $125. It’s pretty clear what the useless option is here. When Dan gave this form to 100 MIT students and asked them which option they would choose, 84% chose the combo deal for $125. 16% chose the cheaper, web-only option, and nobody chose the print-only option for $125.

 

Next, Dan removed the ‘useless’ print-only option which nobody wanted and tried the experiment with another group of 100 MIT students. This time, the majority chose the cheaper, web-only version, and the minority chose the combo deal. So even though nobody wanted the bad-value $125 print-only option, it wasn’t actually useless—in fact, it actually informed the decisions people made between the two other options by making the combo deal seem more valuable in relation.

 

This mistake is called the anchoring effect, because we tend to focus on a particular value and compare it to our other options, seeing the difference between values rather than the value of each option itself.

 

Eliminating the ‘useless’ options ourselves as we make decisions can help us choose more wisely. On the other hand, Dan says that a big part of the problem comes from simply not knowing our own preferences very well, so perhaps that’s the area we should focus on more, instead.

 

7. We believe our memories more than facts

 

Our memories are highly fallible and plastic. And yet, we tend to subconsciously favor them over objective facts. The availability heuristic is a good example of this. It works like this: Suppose you read a page of text and then you’re asked whether the page includes more words that end in “ing” or more words with “n” as the second-last letter. Obviously, it would be impossible for there to be more “ing” words than words with “n” as their penultimate letter (it took me a while to get that—read over the sentence again, carefully, if you’re not sure why that is).However, words ending in “ing” are easier to recall than words like hand, end, or and, which have “n” as their second-last letter, so we would naturally answer that there are more “ing” words.

 

What’s happening here is that we are basing our answer of probability (i.e. whether it’s probable that there are more “ing” words on the page) on how available relevant examples are (i.e. how easily we can recall them). Our troubles in recalling words with “n” as the second last letter make us think those words don’t occur very often, and we subconsciously ignore the obvious facts in front of us.

 

Although the availability heuristic is a natural process in how we think, two Chicago scholars have explained how wrong it can be:

 

Yet reliable statistical evidence will outperform the availability heuristic every time.

The lesson here? Whenever possible, look at the facts. Examine the data. Don’t base a factual decision on your gut instinct without at least exploring the data objectively first.

 

8. We pay more attention to stereotypes than we think

 

The funny thing about lots of these thinking mistakes is that they’re so ingrained, I had to think long and hard about why they’re mistakes at all! This one is a good example—it took me a while to understand how illogical this pattern of thinking is.

It’s another one that explains how easily we ignore actual facts:

 

The human mind is so wedded to stereotypes and so distracted by vivid descriptions that it will seize upon them, even when they defy logic, rather than upon truly relevant facts.

Here’s an example to illustrate the mistake, from researchers Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky:

In 1983 Kahneman and Tversky tested how illogical human thinking is by describing the following imaginary person: Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations.

 

The researchers asked people to read this description, and then asked them to answer this question: Which alternative is more probable?

 

1. Linda is a bank teller.

2. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.

 

Here’s where it can get a bit tricky to understand (at least, it did for me!)—If answer #2 is true, #1 is also true. This means that #2 cannot be the answer to the question of probability.

 

Unfortunately, few of us realize this, because we’re so overcome by the more detailed description of #2. Plus, as the earlier quote pointed out, stereotypes are so deeply ingrained in our minds that subconsciously apply them to others.

 

Roughly 85% of people chose option #2 as the answer.

 

Again, we see here how irrational and illogical we can be, even when the facts are seemingly obvious.

 

I love this quote from researcher Daniel Kahneman on the differences between economics and psychology: I was astonished. My economic colleagues worked in the building next door, but I had not appreciated the profound difference between our intellectual worlds. To a psychologist, it is self-evident that people are neither fully rational nor completely selfish, and that their tastes are anything but stable.

 

Clearly, it’s normal for us to be irrational and to think illogically, even though we rarely realize we’re doing it. Still, being aware of the pitfalls we often fall into when making decisions can help us to at least recognize them, if not avoid them.


Via Jim Manske, Jone Johnson Lewis
Sharrock's insight:

I can always use more explanations about fallacies and cognitive bias

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Troy Crayton's curator insight, October 4, 2013 12:00 PM

Thank you for making us "aware" of this article, Duane....

donhornsby's curator insight, October 7, 2013 6:52 AM

(From the article): Clearly, it’s normal for us to be irrational and to think illogically, especially when language acts as a limitation to how we think, even though we rarely realize we’re doing it. Still, being aware of the pitfalls we often fall into when making decisions can help us to at least recognize them, if not avoid them.

Have you come across any other interesting mistakes we make in the way we think?

Lawrence Lanoff's curator insight, December 29, 2013 9:18 PM

This article is dense, but profound. Worth chomping on if you have some time. 

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One of the most frequent questions I get from coaches is about how to coach teachers in the Common Core (CCSS). While there's some content knowledge you'll need to have about the CCSS, there are many coaching skills that apply regardless of the content.

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You Just Had A Fight With A Coworker and Now What? - Fast Company | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Fast Company
You Just Had A Fight With A Coworker&&Now What?
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However, the beliefs you connect to that experience need to include your new understanding, what you just learned from your coworker.

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Eileen Easterly's curator insight, August 14, 5:35 AM

Great tips for the all important next step after a break in communications, and how best to approach it.

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It's hard to get a true sense of what a classroom is really like—especially from the adult who runs it.
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Educators at a Los Angeles-area high school believe teaching students to "fail productively" will equip them for success in the long run.
Sharrock's insight:

How do you track the changes you have made in yourself to promote problem solving behaviors in your students?

"Learning to Fail" is almost a cliche now, but do we really support learners in ways that they actually learn from failure?

In the article, it is shared that "students who were allowed to struggle with new problems on their own first were better at evaluating different variations of the problem and using different methods to solve it, and they showed deeper understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. In observations of the classes, Mr. Kapur said teachers "consistently underestimated" students' ability to muddle through to answers on their own." Saying platitudes after a student doesn't succeed is not support. There are practices and systems that need to be in place.  What are those practices and systems?

Can teachers really change themselves to become the kinds of supporters students need so that they can learn through failure? What can you do to make those changes? What changes have you made so far? 

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What issues do you care most about? What topics do you find yourself discussing most passionately, whether online, at the dinner table, in the classroom or with your friends?


Via Deb Gardner, Lynnette Van Dyke
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Deb Gardner's curator insight, August 5, 5:05 AM

An oldie, but worth repeating.

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Study: You Really Can 'Work Smarter, Not Harder'

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Research shows that reflecting after learning something new makes it stick in your brain.
Sharrock's insight:

excerpt:

"Learning is more effective if a lesson or experience is deliberately coupled with time spent thinking about what was just presented, a new study shows. In “Learning by Thinking: How Reflection Aids Performance,” a team of researchers from HEC Paris, Harvard Business School, and the University of North Carolina describe what they call the first empirical test of the effect of reflection on learning. By “reflection,” they mean taking time after a lesson to synthesize, abstract, or articulate the important points."

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, July 30, 6:06 PM

An important aspect of reflecting and learning is getting beyond what went well and, even when we think we have succeeded, look for the things that were different about this learning.

 

@ivon_ehd1

Cindy Riley Klages's curator insight, July 31, 8:46 PM

Reflection is crucial.  If we don't take time to reflect, we don't take time to improve.

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Life of an Educator: 10 things I want all new teachers to know...

Life of an Educator: 10 things I want all new teachers to know... | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

So here is my list of what I want all new teachers to know:

 

1) - It's Ok to look and feel like this. If being scared wasn't supposed to happen from time to time, then we wouldn't be human. Don't be afraid of what you don't know and aren't sure about. Take everything in stride and accept that you are going to make mistakes. The key is making sure you learn from those mistakes.

2) - Find time during your off period to go observe other classrooms in your building. Even if the content and/or age group are different, there is still a lot you can learn via simple observation. If possible, see if that teacher would be willing to sit and talk with you about what you saw in their classroom. Even better, invite them to observe your classroom and get feedback/input on what they saw in your classroom.

3) - Focus on building relationships with your students from day one. Don't worry about your content at first, you most likely just spent the last four years of your life learning about it. Spend the first few weeks learning about the lives of the students you have in front of you. The more you learn about your students the more they will learn about your content.

4) - Don't worry about discipline and punishing kids; worry about how to provide strong instruction and an engaging classroom environment. This is basically being proactive rather than reactive. A classroom that is engaging with strong instructional practices is a classroom with few discipline problems.

5) - Learn the names and show the utmost respect to every administrative assistant, custodial/maintenance and food service employee in your building. They will help you more than you could ever imagine... trust me on this.

6) - Don't be afraid to speak up and share an idea. You most likely weren't hired because you were the worst candidate, so at some point in time somebody saw something great about you. You bring a new perspective and a fresh set of lenses to the table, so be sure to share your thoughts and insights in a collaborative and collegial manner.

7) - Don't try to do everything on your own. Don't simply shut your door and teach. Work with those who have more experience and know the system. Find a few people whom you can trust, and lean on them.

8) - Be careful of the teacher's lounge and watch out for 'that group.' The teacher's lounge can be the type of environment that just beats you down and makes you feel like the world is a terrible place. This is not always the case, but be aware that these black holes do exist from time to time. Also, every school has 'the group.' You might not notice the group at first because they are always looking for new members (specifically new teachers). Try to avoid this group at all costs.

9) - Having fun on the weekends is all good and is frankly healthy, but be sure to keep your image clean and professional. More employees get in trouble for the silly and not so smart things they do online than for most other reasons. Be safe and have a healthy career/life balance, but don't feel the need to take a picture of every second and then share those pictures with the world.

10) - Get connected and follow the #ntchat hashtag. There is whole world full of resources and information out there, so don't feel limited to just the colleagues in your hallway, in your school and in your district. Reach out and take control of your own learning and development.

What would you add to this list?

Sharrock's insight:

Much of this is the same advice I had received many years ago preparing to become a new teacher (in an education program).

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, July 27, 7:22 PM

It is not just new teachers who benefit from building relationships with students, colleagues, and people outside their work.

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California man sentenced to 15 years for economic espionage

California man sentenced to 15 years for economic espionage | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Chemical engineer also fined $2.8 million for selling China DuPont Co.'s secret recipe for white pigment
Sharrock's insight:

When working on a unit about the uses of espionage in war, liberty, economics, or when exploring what the government "does" (in terms of departments and initiatives), stories like these can interest students in modern day espionage and the challenges to industry.

 

excerpt: "Federal officials say foreign governments' theft of U.S. technology is one of the biggest threats to the country's economy and national security.

"The battle against economic espionage has become one of the FBI's main fronts in its efforts to protect U.S. national security in the 21st century," said David Johnson, the FBI's special agent in charge of the San Francisco office."

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Donald Clark Plan B: When Big Data goes bad: 6 epic fails

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Data, in the wrong hands, whether malicious, manipulative or naïve can be downright dangerous. Indeed, when big data goes bad it can be lethal. Unfortunately the learning game is no stranger to both the abuse of data. Here’s six examples showing seven species of ‘bad data’. 
Sharrock's insight:

This excerpt kills me: 

1. Data subtraction: Ken RobinsonDon’t let the selective graphical representation of data, destroy the integrity of the data. A good example of blatant data editing is the memorable ‘ritalin’ image used by Sir Ken Robinson in his TED talk at 3.47. This image is taken from its RSA animation.Compare Robinson’s graph with the true source.His has no legend and he’s recalibrated states to look as if there’s zero prescriptions. To understand this data you have to look at its source to understand that the white areas represent states that did NOT participate in the study or did not have reported prescription data. It’s a distortion, an exaggeration to help make a point that the data doesn’t really supportIn fact, much of what passes for fact in Sir Ken Robinson’s TED talks are not supported by any research or data whatsoever.
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Deliberate Practice

Deliberate Practice | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Deliberate practice is what makes us better at something. Most people think practice is play. By not engaging in deliberate practice they don't get better.
Sharrock's insight:

instructive quotes "Teachers, or coaches, see what you miss and make you aware of where you’re falling short."

 

“You can work on technique all you like, but if you can’t see the effects, two things will happen: You won’t get any better, and you’ll stop caring.”

  

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10 free tools for creating infographics | Creative Bloq

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...The only problem is, infographics that look like they were simple to make are often anything but. Creating something beautiful and instantly understandable in Photoshop is often beyond the limits that time allows. Which is why it's occasionally useful to use a quick and dirty infographics tool to speed up the process.

 

We've selected our favourites here. They're all free, or offer free versions. Let us know which ones you get on best with...


Via Jeff Domansky
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Guillaume Decugis's curator insight, Today, 8:46 AM

A picture is worth 1,000 words, right? But not everyone is a designer and can make an impact with a nicely crafted infographics. That is unless you use some of these lean content tools to create an infographic from pre-defined, easily modifiable templates. Note that the premium version of these tools - we use PiktoChart at Scoop.it and shared some results here - is likely to be necessary to get a professional result. 

Barbara Hartzler's curator insight, Today, 12:43 PM

This is awesome! I was just trying to create my first infographic on Publisher and it was soooo not working.

JBass Learning's curator insight, Today, 3:50 PM

Some really useful looking tools 

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Book argues that mentoring programs should try to unveil colleges'

Book argues that mentoring programs should try to unveil colleges' | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

In her recent book Mentoring At-Risk Students through the Hidden Curriculum of Education (Lexington Books), Smith offers suggestions for how colleges and universities can guide at-risk students – low-income students, first-generation students and underrepresented minorities – through what she calls higher education’s “hidden curriculum.” The hidden curriculum, Smith writes, consists of the “norms, values, and expectations” that govern interactions among students, faculty, staff and administrators. To excel in college, at-risk students must navigate a world of new social norms – typically those of the white middle class, she argues.

 

Sharrock's insight:

mentoring and self-advocacy, relationship building, resilience

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George Will Confirms Nixon's Vietnam Treason

George Will Confirms Nixon's Vietnam Treason | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Richard Nixon was a traitor. The new release of extended versions of Nixon's papers now confirms this long-standing belief, usually dismissed as a "conspiracy theory" by Republican conservatives. Now it has been substantiated by none other than right-wing columnist George Will. Nixon's newly revealed records show for certain that in 1968, as a presidential candidate, he ordered Anna Chennault, his liaison to the South Vietnam government, to persuade them refuse a cease-fire being brokered by President Lyndon Johnson.
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Explore old maps of US cities

Explore old maps of US cities | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

"This cool new historic mapping app from the folks at esri and the U.S. Geological Survey is worth exploring.  What it does is take 100 years of USGS maps and lets you overlay them for just about any location in the nation. That allows users to see how a city – say Harrisburg – developed between 1895 and today.  The library behind the project includes more than 178,000 maps dating from 1884 to 2006."


Via Seth Dixon
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Seth Dixon's curator insight, August 5, 9:20 AM

For more ESRI maps that let you explore urban environmental change, the 'spyglass' feature gives these gorgeous vintage maps a modern facelift (but not available for as many places). The cities that are in this set of interactive maps are: 



Tags: cartography, mapping, visualization, urban, historical.

PIRatE Lab's curator insight, August 13, 9:25 AM

For more ESRI maps that let you explore urban environmental change, the 'spyglass' feature gives these gorgeous vintage maps a modern facelift (but not available for as many places). The cities that are in this set of interactive maps are: 

 

Chicago (1868)Denver (1879) Los Angeles (1880)Washington D.C.(1851)New York City (1836)San Francisco (1859)
Hongsheng Li's curator insight, August 13, 9:40 PM
古今地图对比
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10 Simple Truths Smart People Forget

10 Simple Truths Smart People Forget | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Some of the smartest people I know continuously struggle to get ahead because they forget to address a few simple truths that collectively govern our potential to make progress.  So here’s a quick reminder:

 

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How to Organize Daily Literacy Instruction | Center for Development and Learning

By Tim Shanahan Twice this week—from a NY teacher and an Illinois school administrator—I’ve been asked how to organize instructional time for literacy with
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What Differentiated Instruction Is--And Is Not: The Definition Of Differentiated Instruction

What Differentiated Instruction Is--And Is Not: The Definition Of Differentiated Instruction | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
What Differentiated Instruction Is--And Is Not: The Definition Of Differentiated Instruction

Via Grant Montgomery
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List of very useful websites - FunSubstance.com

List of very useful websites - FunSubstance.com | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
FunSubstance.com - Collection of the funniest, most awesome, & best entertaining pics on the web!
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Concept Fan - Toolkit For Thinking

Concept Fan - Toolkit For Thinking | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Toolkit of ideas and techniques to help your creative and critical thinking including problem solving, logical fallacies and decision making.

 

When trying to think of new ideas and solutions to problems it is very tempting to go with your first ideas. However, first ideas are not always the best. Edward de Bono developed the 'Concept Fan' technique for taking a step back to get a broader perspective and thereby a new view of the subject, what you want to achieve and new ways of solving the problem.
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How to Earn a Living as a Writer

How to Earn a Living as a Writer | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
We live in a new age for writers. The written word has never been as important as it is today since there is such a demand for it. The internet has created a new area for people to come and read ab...
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Use Google efficiently. - Imgur

Use Google efficiently. - Imgur | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Get More Out of Google: Tips and Tricks for Students Conducting Online Research

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A Comprehensive Checklist of The 21st Century Learning and Work Skills ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

A Comprehensive Checklist of The 21st Century Learning and Work Skills ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Via Grant Montgomery
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Create the perfect class website in 30 minutes or less

Create the perfect class website in 30 minutes or less | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Every teacher should have a class website to keep students and parents up-to-date. Even more important is keeping this website updated regularly - ideally on a daily or weekly basis. But don't worr...
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