Teacher Tools and...
Follow
Find tag "self-efficacy"
2.6K views | +0 today
Teacher Tools and Tips
Tools, tips and practices to share with teachers
Curated by Sharrock
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Sharrock
Scoop.it!

Self-efficacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Self-efficacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This can be seen as the ability to persist and a person's ability to succeed with a task. As an example, self-efficacy directly relates to how long someone will stick to a workout regimen or a diet. High and low self-efficacy determine whether or not someone will choose to take on a challenging task or "write it off" as impossible.

Factors affecting self-efficacy[edit]

Bandura identifies four factors affecting self-efficacy.

1. Experience, or "Enactive Attainment"The experience of mastery is the most important factor determining a person's self-efficacy. Success raises self-efficacy, while failure lowers it.

"Children cannot be fooled by empty praise and condescending encouragement. They may have to accept artificial bolstering of their self-esteem in lieu of something better, but what I call their accruing ego identity gains real strength only from wholehearted and consistent recognition of real accomplishment, that is, achievement that has meaning in their culture." (Erik Erikson)

2. Modeling, or "Vicarious Experience"Modeling is experienced as, "If they can do it, I can do it as well." When we see someone succeeding, our own self-efficacy increases; where we see people failing, our self-efficacy decreases. This process is most effectual when we see ourselves as similar to the model. Although not as influential as direct experience, modeling is particularly useful for people who are particularly unsure of themselves.3. Social PersuasionSocial persuasion generally manifests as direct encouragement or discouragement from another person. Discouragement is generally more effective at decreasing a person's self-efficacy than encouragement is at increasing it.4. Physiological FactorsIn stressful situations, people commonly exhibit signs of distress: shakes, aches and pains, fatigue, fear, nausea, etc. Perceptions of these responses in oneself can markedly alter self-efficacy. Getting 'butterflies in the stomach' before public speaking will be interpreted by someone with low self-efficacy as a sign of inability, thus decreasing self-efficacy further, where high self-efficacy would lead to interpreting such physiological signs as normal and unrelated to ability. It is one's belief in the implications of physiological response that alters self-efficacy, rather than the physiological response itself.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sharrock
Scoop.it!

7. Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theories - PSYCH 484: Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence

7. Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theories - PSYCH 484: Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Albert Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy was developed as part of a larger theory, the Social Learning Theory (Ashford & LeCroy, 2010), which has progressed into the Social Cognitive Theory (Levin, Culkin, & Perrotto, 2001). Social Cognitive Theory was presented by Bandura in response to his dissatisfaction with the principles of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.  In these two theories, the role of cognition in motivation and the role of the situation are largely ignored (Bandura, 1977; as cited in Redmond, 2010). "Unidirectional environmental determinism is carried to its extreme in the more radical forms of behaviorism... but humanists and existentialists, who stress the human capacity for conscious judgment and intentional action, contend that individuals determine what they become by their own free choices. Most psychologists find conceptions of human behavior in terms of unidirectional personal determinism as unsatisfying as those espousing unidirectional environmental determinism. To contend that mind creates reality fails to acknowledge that environmental influences partly determine what people attend to, perceive, and think" (Bandura, 1978, p.344-345).  

Nevid (2009) explains that Social Cognitive Theory illustrates the fact that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information. Individuals “function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences” (Bandura, 1999, p. 169). Although Social Cognitive Theory covers many topics such as moral judgment and physiological arousal, research that is primarily focused on self-efficacy, or the beliefs regarding one's capabilities of successfully completing tasks or goals (Locke & Latham, 2002). According to Bandura (2005), social cognitive theory takes on an agentic perspective to change, development and adaptation. Bandura describes an agent as someone who intentionally influences one’s functioning and life circumstances; “In this view, people are self organizing, proactive, self-regulating, and self reflecting. They are contributors to their life circumstances not just products of them” (Bandura, 2005, p. 1).  

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sharrock
Scoop.it!

Gazette » Dealing with Learned Helplessness

Gazette » Dealing with Learned Helplessness | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Learned helplessness is a process of conditioning where student seek help from others even when they have mastered information. See if this example looks familiar:

 
Sharrock's insight:

Learned Helplessness is the "opposite" of self-efficacy (as described by Bandura) also known as "Grit". These interventions and practices may help to develop grit/self-efficacy for students suffering from "learned helplessness" but may also be useful for developing self-efficacy when performing new jobs or to build expertise using new skills and approaches. It is a struggle to establish the positive aspects of these practices though. A few narratives may be needed to place this approach in a positive context. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sharrock
Scoop.it!

The Secret of Self-Regulated Learning

The Secret of Self-Regulated Learning | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Self-regulated learning is like your own little secret. It stirs from within you, and is the voice in your head that asks you questions about your learning.

More formally, self-regulated learning is the conscious planning, monitoring, evaluation, and ultimately control of one’s learning in order to maximize it. It’s an ordered process that experts and seasoned learners like us practice automatically. It means being mindful, intentional, reflective, introspective, self-aware, self-controlled, and self-disciplined about learning, and it leads to becoming self-directed.
Sharrock's insight:

from the article:

Self-regulated learning also has meta-emotional and environmental dimensions, which involve asking oneself questions like these:

How motivated am I to do the learning task, and how can I increase my motivation if I need to?If my confidence in my ability to learn this material sags, how can I increase it without becoming overconfident?Am I resisting material that is challenging my preconceptions?How am I reacting to my evaluation of my learning?How can I create the best, most distraction-free physical environment for the task?

Metacognitive questions include these:

What is the best way to go about this task?How well are my learning strategies working? What changes should I make, if any?What am I still having trouble understanding?What can I recall and what should I review?How does this material relate to other things I’ve learned or experienced?
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sharrock
Scoop.it!

DIY Professional Development: Resource Roundup

DIY Professional Development: Resource Roundup | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Why wait for a formal workshop environment to start improving your teaching craft, when there are so many opportunities to build your network and learn new skills on your own? We've compiled a list of the best resources for do-it-yourself PD to get you started.
more...
No comment yet.