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7. Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theories - PSYCH 484: Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence

7. Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theories - PSYCH 484: Work Attitudes and Job Motivation - Confluence | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Albert Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy was developed as part of a larger theory, the Social Learning Theory (Ashford & LeCroy, 2010), which has progressed into the Social Cognitive Theory (Levin, Culkin, & Perrotto, 2001). Social Cognitive Theory was presented by Bandura in response to his dissatisfaction with the principles of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.  In these two theories, the role of cognition in motivation and the role of the situation are largely ignored (Bandura, 1977; as cited in Redmond, 2010). "Unidirectional environmental determinism is carried to its extreme in the more radical forms of behaviorism... but humanists and existentialists, who stress the human capacity for conscious judgment and intentional action, contend that individuals determine what they become by their own free choices. Most psychologists find conceptions of human behavior in terms of unidirectional personal determinism as unsatisfying as those espousing unidirectional environmental determinism. To contend that mind creates reality fails to acknowledge that environmental influences partly determine what people attend to, perceive, and think" (Bandura, 1978, p.344-345).  

Nevid (2009) explains that Social Cognitive Theory illustrates the fact that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information. Individuals “function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences” (Bandura, 1999, p. 169). Although Social Cognitive Theory covers many topics such as moral judgment and physiological arousal, research that is primarily focused on self-efficacy, or the beliefs regarding one's capabilities of successfully completing tasks or goals (Locke & Latham, 2002). According to Bandura (2005), social cognitive theory takes on an agentic perspective to change, development and adaptation. Bandura describes an agent as someone who intentionally influences one’s functioning and life circumstances; “In this view, people are self organizing, proactive, self-regulating, and self reflecting. They are contributors to their life circumstances not just products of them” (Bandura, 2005, p. 1).  

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Grit and the Need for Achievement

Grit is best defined as a personality trait with two key components:

1) A passion for long-term goals

2) The powerful motivation to achieve these goals through the necessary work, practice, and time.

 

Recent studies show grit and a healthy need for achievement can have many psychological benefits.
Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "Lack of grit is the reason why incredibly talented people sometimes never reach success. Because no matter how smart or talented you are, you still need to put in the work and have the resilience to overcome obstacles and continue marching forward when things get tough."

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5 Powerful Exercises To Increase Your Mental Strength

5 Powerful Exercises To Increase Your Mental Strength | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Many exercises exist that can help you develop mental strength. But here are five that can get you started.
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Gazette » Dealing with Learned Helplessness

Gazette » Dealing with Learned Helplessness | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it

Learned helplessness is a process of conditioning where student seek help from others even when they have mastered information. See if this example looks familiar:

 
Sharrock's insight:

Learned Helplessness is the "opposite" of self-efficacy (as described by Bandura) also known as "Grit". These interventions and practices may help to develop grit/self-efficacy for students suffering from "learned helplessness" but may also be useful for developing self-efficacy when performing new jobs or to build expertise using new skills and approaches. It is a struggle to establish the positive aspects of these practices though. A few narratives may be needed to place this approach in a positive context. 

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Mentally Strong People: The 13 Things They Avoid

Mentally Strong People: The 13 Things They Avoid | Teacher Tools and Tips | Scoop.it
Editors' Note: Following the huge popularity of this post, article source Amy Morin has authored a Dec. 3 guest post on exercises to increase mental strength here.
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