In education, the term authentic learning refers to a wide variety of educational and instructional techniques focused on connecting what students are taught in school to real-world issues, problems, and applications. The basic idea is that students are more likely to be interested in what they are learning, more motivated to learn new concepts and …
Srinivasan Venkatarajan's insight:
In education, the term authentic learning refers to a wide variety of educational and instructional techniques focused on connecting what students are taught in school to real-world issues, problems, and applications. The basic idea is that students are more likely to be interested in what they are learning, more motivated to learn new concepts and skills, and better prepared to succeed in college, careers, and adulthood if what they are learning mirrors real-life contexts, equips them with practical and useful skills, and addresses topics that are relevant and applicable to their lives outside of school.
As a school-reform concept, authentic learning is related philosophically and pedagogically to strategies such as personalized learning, community-based learning, and project-based learning, among others. In addition, instructional strategies such as demonstrations of learning, capstone project, personal learning plans, and portfolios may be associated with authentic learning.
Where is e-learning heading? As we know, the e-learning market is evolving dynamically, witnessing newer horizons day after day. And, in the wake of this evolution, it brings about an immense growth opportunity for the entire fraternity (including vendors and tool publishers). Read on...
A criterion-referenced test is one that provides for translating test scores into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered criterion-referenced tests.
Many high-profile criterion-referenced tests are also high-stakes tests, where the results of the test have important implications for the individual examinee. Examples of this includehigh school graduation examinations and licensure testing where the test must be passed to work in a profession, such as to become a physician or attorney. However, being a high-stakes test is not specifically a feature of a criterion-referenced test. It is instead a feature of how an educational or government agency chooses to use the results of the test.Driving tests are criterion-referenced tests, because their goal is to see whether the test taker is skilled enough to be granted a driver's license, not to see whether one test taker is more skilled than another test taker.Citizenship tests are usually criterion-referenced tests, because their goal is to see whether the test taker is sufficiently familiar with the new country's history and government, not to see whether one test taker is more knowledgeable than another test taker.
Discover the benefits of this practical approach to learning... and find out how to make it part of your training and development efforts.
Srinivasan Venkatarajan's insight:
Some excerpts from this article
Case studies are a form of problem-based learning, where you present a situation that needs a resolution. A typical business case study is a detailed account, or story, of what happened in a particular company, industry, or project over a set period of time
When to Use a Case Study
Remember these tips:
Case studies tend to focus on why and how to apply a skill or concept, not on remembering facts and details. Use case studies when understanding the concept is more important than memorizing correct responses.Case studies are great team-building opportunities. When a team gets together to solve a case, they'll have to work through different opinions, methods, and perspectives.Use case studies to build problem-solving skills, particularly those that are valuable when applied, but are likely to be used infrequently. This helps people get practice with these skills that they might not otherwise get.Case studies can be used to evaluate past problem solving. People can be asked what they'd do in that situation, and think about what could have been done differently.
Here are some additional tips for how to approach a case study. Depending on the exact nature of the case, some tips will be more relevant than others.
Read the case at least three times before you start any analysis. Case studies usually have lots of details, and it's easy to miss something in your first, or even second, reading.Once you're thoroughly familiar with the case, note the facts. Identify which are relevant to the tasks you've been assigned. In a good case study, there are often many more facts than you need for your analysis.If the case contains large amounts of data, analyze this data for relevant trends. For example, have sales dropped steadily, or was there an unexpected high or low point?If the case involves a description of a company's history, find the key events, and consider how they may have impacted the current situation.Consider using techniques like SWOT analysis and Porter's Five Forces Analysis to understand the organization's strategic position.Stay with the facts when you draw conclusions. These include facts given in the case as well as established facts about the environmental context. Don't rely on personal opinions when you put together your answers.
Writing a Case Study
You may have to write a case study yourself. These are complex documents that take a while to research and compile. The quality of the case study influences the quality of the analysis. Here are some tips if you want to write your own:
Write your case study as a structured story. The goal is to capture an interesting situation or challenge, and then bring it to life with words and information. You want the reader to feel a part of what's happening.Present information so that a "right" answer isn't obvious. The goal is to develop the learner's ability to analyze and assess, not necessarily to make the same decision as the people in the actual case.Do background research to fully understand what happened and why. You may need to talk to key stakeholders to get their perspectives as well.Determine the key challenge. What needs to be resolved? The case study should focus on one main question or issue.Define the context. Talk about significant events leading up to the situation. What organizational factors are important for understanding the problem and assessing what should be done? Include cultural factors where possible.Identify key decision makers and stakeholders. Describe their roles and perspectives, as well as their motivations and interests.Make sure you provide the right data to allow people to reach appropriate conclusions.Make sure you have permission to use any information you include.
A typical case study structure includes these elements:
Executive summary – Define the objective, and state the key challenge.Opening paragraph – Capture the reader's interest.Scope – Describe the background, context, approach, and issues involved.Presentation of facts – Develop an objective picture of what's happening.Description of key issues – Present viewpoints, decisions, and interests of key parties
Need to use an image but not sure if you have the legal and ethical right to do so? Understanding the laws for using images can be a bit tricky, especially because there is wiggle room within the laws. And, with the mass distribution of images on the internet, it's no wonder we're all asking the the same question over and over again: can I use that picture? Whether for your business presentation, your school project, or your organization's brochure, you've likely placed in images to make your de
Skyrocketing tuition. $1 trillion in student debt. Coming in November, CNN Films' "Ivory Tower" questions higher education in the U.S. What's at risk? An entire generation of young Americans.
Srinivasan Venkatarajan's insight:
CNN Films presents, "Ivory Tower." Filmmaker Andrew Rossi questions the cost, value and methods of higher education in the United States. Is the nation doing enough to foster the development of tomorrow's leaders?
The following items are available for viewing and downloading.
Frequently asked questions. Responses to frequently asked questions about the ILS, including questions about its origin, reliability and validity, availability for use in teaching and research, and how businesses may license it. ILS questionnaire. A 44-item questionnaire that can be submitted and automatically scored on the Web.
Descriptions of the learning styles. A four-page handout that briefly explains the instrument results.
Descriptions and validation studies of the ILS. (1) "Applications, Reliability, and Validity of the Index of Learning Styles," by R. Felder and J. Spurlin. (2) "A Contribution to Validation of Score Meaning for Felder-Soloman's Index of Learning Styles," by M. Zywno. (3) "A Psychometric Study of the Index of Learning Styles," by T. Litzinger, S. Lee, J. Wise, and R. Felder. Adobe Acrobat Reader is needed to access these files. It can be downloaded free from www.adobe.com.
Peer review of the Index of Learning Styles in MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching).
"Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education," Engr. Education, 78(7), 674-681 (1988). The article that originally defined the Felder-Silverman model and identified teaching practices that should meet the needs of students with the full spectrum of styles. The paper is preceded by a 2002 preface that states and explains changes in the model that have been made since 1988.
"Understanding Student Differences." J. Engr. Education, 94(1), 57-72 (2005). An exploration of differences in student learning styles, approaches to learning (deep, surface, and strategic), and levels of intellectual development, with recommended teaching practices to address all three categories.
"Are Learning Styles Invalid? (Hint: No!)." On-Course Newsletter, September 27, 2010. A response to claims that no evidence justifies taking learning styles into account when designing instruction.
Additional information and references on learning styles.
Richard Felder's home page. Links to Dr. Felder's education-related papers, columns in Chemical Engineering Education, handouts for students, and information about workshops.
Learning and Forgetting Curves – In Depth: A brilliant video (from Dr. Will Thalheimer of Work-Learning Research, Inc.) that discusses how to design and deploy learning interventions drawing our understanding from forgetting curves.Key Concepts in Spacing Learning Over Time: A wonderful video (from Dr. Mark McDaniel, professor of Psychology and Education at Washington University) that discusses some of the key concepts in spacing learning over time.Repetition is the Mother of All Learning: An interesting video (from Ed Reiner) that explains the significance of repetition when changing paradigms, using a simple and illustrated analogy.
Memory Retention and the Forgetting Curve: This is a good infographic that illustrates the forgetting curve and the formula that it represents.
Why do Employees Forget?: This is a brilliant presentation based on a webinar (by Carol Leaman, CEO, Axonify) that discusses how soon employees start forgetting newly acquired information after a training session, and the reason behind this. The webinar also includes thoughts on how this could be changed.8 Reasons to Focus on Informal & Social Learning: Here is a presentation in which Charles Jennings (Founder, 70:20:10 Forum) briefly touches upon the forgetting curve, in the context of informal and social learning within workplaces, to prove his point about the ineffectiveness of formal learning.
Encouraging distributed practice through distributed testing: This is a good post (from Teaching Commons) on the benefits of using the Distributed Testing method for Distributed Practice.How We Learn – Ask the Cognitive Scientist: A good article (by Daniel T. Willingham, Associate Professor of Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of Virginia and the author of ‘Cognition: The Thinking Animal’) on how to allocate students’ practice time as they learn new material in classrooms. The author proves his points using research findings from the various experiments conducted in different parts of the world on this subject.Distributed Versus Blocked Practice: This is a short but interesting article on the benefits and effectiveness of distributed practice over blocked practice illustrated using a basketball scoring example.
The Gamification of Healthcare: Here’s an inspiring real-world story that proves the effectiveness of combining the powers of distributed practice with retrieval practice to increase retention benefits.
Anki: This is a popular spaced-learning (desktop & mobile) application that helps us put spaced repetition into practice. Anki’s algorithm helps us memorize things in the most efficient way.
Ipsative (; Latin: ipse, "of the self") is a descriptor used in psychology to indicate a specific type of measure in which respondents compare two or more desirable options and pick the one that is most preferred (sometimes called a "forced choice" scale).
Ipsative is a descriptor used in psychology to indicate a specific type of measure in which respondents compare two or more desirable options and pick the one that is most preferred (sometimes called a "forced choice" scale).
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