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Systems Theory
theoretical aspects of (social) systems theory
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Synaptic Transistor Learns While it Computes

Synaptic Transistor Learns While it Computes | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

Materials scientists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have now created a new type of transistor that mimics the behavior of a synapse. The novel device simultaneously modulates the flow of information in a circuit and physically adapts to changing signals.

Exploiting unusual properties in modern materials, the synaptic transistor could mark the beginning of a new kind of artificial intelligence: one embedded not in smart algorithms but in the very architecture of a computer. 

 


Via Wildcat2030, Szabolcs Kósa
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As Machines Get Smarter, Evidence They Learn Like Us

As Machines Get Smarter, Evidence They Learn Like Us | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

The brain performs its canonical task — learning — by tweaking its myriad connections according to a secret set of rules. To unlock these secrets, scientists 30 years ago began developing computer models that try to replicate the learning process. Now, a growing number of experiments are revealing that these models behave strikingly similar to actual brains when performing certain tasks. Researchers say the similarities suggest a basic correspondence between the brains’ and computers’ underlying learning algorithms.


Via Szabolcs Kósa
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Brown University creates first wireless, implanted brain-computer interface

Brown University creates first wireless, implanted brain-computer interface | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

Brown’s wireless BCI, fashioned out of hermetically sealed titanium, looks a lot like a pacemaker. Inside there’s a li-ion battery, an inductive (wireless) charging loop, a chip that digitizes the signals from your brain, and an antenna for transmitting those neural spikes to a nearby computer. The BCI is connected to a small chip with 100 electrodes protruding from it, which, in this study, was embedded in the somatosensory cortex or motor cortex. These 100 electrodes produce a lot of data, which the BCI transmits at 24Mbps over the 3.2 and 3.8GHz bands to a receiver that is one meter away. The BCI’s battery takes two hours to charge via wireless inductive charging, and then has enough juice to last for six hours of use.


Via Szabolcs Kósa, Tania Kowritski, The Asymptotic Leap, Spaceweaver
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Nacho Vega's curator insight, March 5, 2013 5:10 AM

Where do we go?!!!

Gust MEES's curator insight, March 5, 2013 4:17 PM

 

These 100 electrodes produce a lot of data, which the BCI transmits at 24Mbps over the 3.2 and 3.8GHz bands to a receiver that is one meter away.

 

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Consciousness: The Black Hole of Neuroscience | Think Tank | Big Think

Consciousness: The Black Hole of Neuroscience | Think Tank | Big Think | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

By the word ‘thought’ (‘pensée’) I understand all that of which we are conscious as operating in us.” –Renee Descartes

The simplest description of a black hole is a region of space-time from which no light is reflected and nothing escapes. The simplest description of consciousness is a mind that absorbs many things and attends to a few of them. Neither of these concepts can be captured quantitatively. Together they suggest the appealing possibility that endlessness surrounds us and infinity is within.


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Biology Confronts Data Complexity

Biology Confronts Data Complexity | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

New technologies have launched the life sciences into the age of big data. Biologists must now make sense of their informational windfall.


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Gary Bamford's curator insight, October 21, 2013 1:53 AM

The very definition of 'complexity'!

Germán Morales's curator insight, October 22, 2013 11:26 AM

Tratar la vida como un cumulo de datos... qué se yo... estamos yendo a eso.

tatiyana fuentes's curator insight, October 24, 2013 8:49 AM

It was difficult to find sequence the human genome, but now it’s comparatively simple to compare genomes of the microorganisms living in our bodies, the ocean, the soil, and everywhere because of the new technologies. Life scientists are embarking on countless other big data projects, including efforts to analyze the genomes of many cancers, to map the human brain, and to develop better biofuels and other crops. Compared to fields like physics, astronomy and computer science that have been dealing with the challenges of massive datasets for decades, the big data revolution in biology has also been quick, leaving little time to adapt. Biologists must overcome a number of hurdles, from storing and moving data to integrating and analyzing it, which will require a substantial cultural shift.

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Roger Penrose: The Human Brain is More Complex than a Galaxy

Roger Penrose: The Human Brain is More Complex than a Galaxy | Systems Theory | Scoop.it

According to physicist, Roger Penrose, What’s in our head is orders of magnitude more complex than anything one sees in the Universe: "If you look at the entire physical cosmos," says Penrose, "our brains are a tiny, tiny part of it. But they're the most perfectly organized part. Compared to the complexity of a brain, a galaxy is just an inert lump." 

 

Each cubic millimeter of tissue in the neocortex, reports Michael Chorost in World Wide Mind, contains between 860 million and 1.3 billion synapses. Estimates of the total number of synapses in the neocortex range from 164 trillion to 200 trillion. The total number of synapses in the brain as a whole is much higher than that. The neocorex has the same number of neurons as a galaxy has stars: 100 billion.  "All stars can do is pull on each other with gravity," writes Chorost, and, if they are very close, exchange heat."

 

One researcher estimates that with current technology it would take 10,000 automated microscopes thirty years to map the connections between every neuron in a human brain, and 100 million terabytes of disk space to store the data.

 

Galaxies are ancient, but self-aware, language-using, tool-making brains are very new in the evolutionary timeline, some 200,000-years old. Most of the neurons in the neocortex have between 1,000 and 10,000 synaptic connections with other neurons. Elsewhere in the brain, in the cerebellum, one type of neuron has 150,000 to 200,000 synaptic connections with other neurons. Even the lowest of these numbers seems hard to believe. One tiny neuron can connect to 200,000 neurons.

 

"The universe could so easily have remained lifeless and simple -just physics and chemistry, just the scattered dust of the cosmic explosion that gave birth to time and space," says Richard Dawkins, the famed Oxford evolutionary biologist reflecting on the sheer wonder of the emergence of life on Earth and the evolutionary process in his classic The Ancestor's Tale.

 

"The fact that it did not -the fact that life evolved out of literally nothing, some 10 billion years after the universe evolved literally out of nothing -is a fact so staggering that I would be mad to attempt words to do it justice. And even that is not the end of the matter. Not only did evolution happen: it eventually led to beings capable of comprehending the process by which they comprehend it."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Consciousness: One of the last great mysteries of life

Consciousness: One of the last great mysteries of life | Systems Theory | Scoop.it
Alok Jha introduces a lecture by Christof Koch of the California Institute of Technology on how the brain creates the sensation of consciousness...

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