Medical implants, complex interfaces between brain and machine or remotely controlled insects: Recent developments combining machines and organisms have great potentials, but also give rise to major ethical concerns.
Why Is Machine Learning (CS 229) The Most Popular Course At Stanford? Forbes It turns out that artificial intelligence and the robotics that is tied to it, consists of two primary systems, control and perception.
General systems theory is a transdisciplinary approach that abstracts and considers a system as a set of independent and interacting parts. The main goal is to study the general principles of systems functioning, so that they can be applied to ...
Researchers in the UK, Japan and the Netherlands have fabricated the most functionally complex integrated quantum circuit ever from a single material, capable of generating photons and entangling them at the same time. The circuit consists of two photon sources on a silicon chip that interfere quantum mechanically. Its inventors say that it could be used in quantum information processing applications and in complex on-chip quantum optics experiments.
To challenge the limited understanding of the then-young quantum theory, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen constructed, in 1935, their EPR Gedankenexperiment, in which they introduced entangled states that exhibit strange correlations over macroscopic distances. By now we have learned that entangled states are an element of physical reality. They lie at the heart of quantum physics and can, in fact, be used as a powerful resource in emerging quantum technologies. Yet we find out in amazement that we have still not completely captured the full scope of the fascinating nature of entanglement. Three different international groups have now reported in Physical Review Letters experiments of distributing entanglement between two distant parties by sending a nonentangled carrier. These arrangements instead place the carrier in a “cheaper,” so-called separable state, which exhibit correlations that can be established remotely between separated parties.
Entanglement is typically characterized by anomalously strong correlations between presently noninteracting parties, typically called Alice and Bob, which have normally interacted in the past. A common setup uses a nonlinear crystal to create an entangled pair of orthogonally polarized photons that are then sent separately, one to Alice and the other to Bob. In the field of quantum information science, the remote establishment of entanglement is key for most applications because it introduces purely nonclassical correlations and the counterintuitive nature of quantum physics. It enables such remarkable tasks as quantum teleportation, efficient quantum communication, fundamental tests of quantum physics, and long-distance quantum cryptography.
There is mounting evidence that the heart is a system onto itself and that it is intimately intertwined with the nervous and endocrine system residing within its borders. The capacity of self-organized systems to adapt is embodied in the functional organization of the intrinsic control mechanisms. How these regulatory subsystems communicate and how uncoupling of the hierarchical organization results in loss of adaptive "fitness"remains a challenge in human biology. The principles by which "emergent properties" and functional order of a self-organizingsystem, such as the heart, achieve (homeo)dynamic stability provide a non-reductionist framework for understanding how biological system adapts to imposed internal and external stresses, e.g., ischemia, organ/tissue transplantation. In particular, the newly emergent dynamics of cardiac rhythm observed after the heart is transplanted may reflect a more stable,versatile and adaptive (as per "law of requisite variety") bipartite whole. The integrative action of the living organism can not be gotten from their concatenated fractions but is evolved "relationally", i.e., it emanates from emergent internal requirements of the constitutive parts.
J. Yasha Kresh, Igor Izrailtyan, Andrew S. Wechsler Depts. of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Medicine MCP-Hahnemann School of Medicine / Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA