In his blog post on the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution,’ Reidel stated  that “The true wonder of the fourth industrial revolution won’t be the data produced; it will be intelligent machines’ capacity to analyze those data and communicate their findings within a network of similarly intelligent machines. Then, each connected machine will act, altering its processes to be more efficient and communicating those changes back to its network”. In this process of preparing and executing information transactions between distributed operating machines, Reidel sees a role for the blockchain. In his view, the blockchain can inspire mutual trust between the machines involved in the information transactions and their stakeholders.
A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory.
Physicists and mathematicians have long sought a Theory of Everything (ToE) that unifies general relativity and quantum mechanics. General relativity explains gravity and large-scale phenomena such as the dynamics of stars and galaxies in the universe, while quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena from the subatomic to molecular scales.
The holographic principle is widely regarded as an essential feature of a successful Theory of Everything. The holographic principle states that gravity in a three-dimensional volume can be described by quantum mechanics on a two-dimensional surface surrounding the volume. In particular, the three dimensions of the volume should emerge from the two dimensions of the surface. However, understanding the precise mechanics for the emergence of the volume from the surface has been elusive.
The paper announcing the discovery by Hirosi Ooguri, a Principal Investigator at the University of Tokyo's Kavli IPMU, with Caltech mathematician Matilde Marcolli and graduate students Jennifer Lin and Bogdan Stoica, will be published in Physical Review Letters as an Editors' Suggestion "for the potential interest in the results presented and on the success of the paper in communicating its message, in particular to readers from other fields."
Now, Ooguri and his collaborators have found that quantum entanglement is the key to solving this question. Using a quantum theory (that does not include gravity), they showed how to compute energy density, which is a source of gravitational interactions in three dimensions, using quantum entanglement data on the surface. This is analogous to diagnosing conditions inside of your body by looking at X-ray images on two-dimensional sheets. This allowed them to interpret universal properties of quantum entanglement as conditions on the energy density that should be satisfied by any consistent quantum theory of gravity, without actually explicitly including gravity in the theory. The importance of quantum entanglement has been suggested before, but its precise role in emergence of spacetime was not clear until the new paper by Ooguri and collaborators.
Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon whereby quantum states such as spin or polarization of particles at different locations cannot be described independently. Measuring (and hence acting on) one particle must also act on the other, something that Einstein called "spooky action at distance." The work of Ooguri and collaborators shows that this quantum entanglement generates the extra dimensions of the gravitational theory.
Technology can be awkward. Our pockets are weighed down with ever-larger smartphones that are a pain to pull out when we’re in a rush. And attempts to make our devices more easily accessible with smartwatches have so far fallen flat. But what if a part of your body could become your computer, with a screen on your arm and maybe even a direct link to your brain?
Artificial electronic skin (e-skin) could one day make this a possibility. Researchers are developing flexible, bendable and even stretchable electronic circuits that can be applied directly to the skin. As well as turning your skin into a touchscreen, this could also help replace feeling if you’ve suffered burns or problems with your nervous system.
The simplest version of this technology is essentially an electronic tattoo. In 2004, researchers in the US and Japan unveiled a pressure sensor circuit made from pre-stretched thinned silicon strips that could be applied to the forearm. But inorganic materials such as silicon are rigid and the skin is flexible and stretchy. So researchers are now looking to electronic circuits made from organic materials (usually special plastics or forms of carbon such as graphene that conduct electricity) as the basis of e-skin.
Typical e-skin consists of a matrix of different electronic components — flexible transistors, organic LEDs, sensors and organic photovoltaic (solar) cells — connected to each other by stretchable or flexible conductive wires. These devices are often built up from very thin layers of material that are sprayed or evaporated onto a flexible base, producing a large (up to tens of cm2) electronic circuit in a skin-like form.
John Smart, a prominent futurist and writer told WIRED that Moore’s law ending allows us to jump from artificial machine intelligence – a top down, human engineered approach; to natural machine intelligence
Never before has any open source project generated as much attention on the international stage as Bitcoin. But Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency platform void of allegiance to any nation or financial institution, is just the first of an expanding and more sophisticated class of open source blockchains expected to revolutionize the exchange of all digital assets -- money, real estate, music and intellectual property -- in future commerce.
John Holland was unusual in his ability to absorb the essence of other disciplines, articulate grand overarching principles, and then back them up with computational mechanisms and mathematics. Unlike most researchers, Holland moved seamlessly among these three modes of thinking, developing models that were years ahead of their time. A close reading of his work reveals the antecedents of many ideas prevalent in machine learning today (such as reinforcement learning in non-Markovian environments and active learning). His seminal genetic algorithm spawned the field of evolutionary computation, and his insights and wisdom helped define what are today referred to as the "sciences of complexity."
Adaptive Computation: The Multidisciplinary Legacy of John H. Holland By Stephanie Forrest, Melanie Mitchell Communications of the ACM, Vol. 59 No. 8, Pages 58-63 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2964342 ;
A team has used simple quantum processors to run “quantum walk” algorithms, showing that even primitive quantum computers can outperform the classical variety in certain scenarios—and suggesting that the age of quantum computing may be closer than we imagined.
Google’s DeepMind artificial intelligence (A.I.) technology has proven to be very smart. DeepMind’s AlphaGo system got worldwide attention for beating top-ranked Go player Lee Sedol earlier this year. Previously, it has played Breakout and navigated a Doom-like maze.
We propose a kind of Extended Intelligence (EI), understanding intelligence as a fundamentally distributed phenomenon. As we develop increasingly powerful tools to process information and network that processing, aren’t we just adding new pieces to the EI that every actor in the network is a part of?
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