With more than 400,000 of its yellow robots already reigning on the world’s factory floors, Fanuc has a new goal for the digital era: connecting the brains of industrial robots. In a rare recent tour by the Financial Times of Fanuc’s annual robotics
When takes to the stage in Germany on Sunday for his first appearance at Hannover Messe, one of the main events in the manufacturing industry’s annual calendar, it will signal a significant change for Microsoft. The chief executive of the technology
(Phys.org)—Light behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time.
Quantum mechanics tells us that light can behave simultaneously as a particle or a wave. However, there has never been an experiment able to capture both natures of light at the same time; the closest we have come is seeing either wave or particle, but always at different times. Taking a radically different experimental approach, EPFL scientists have now been able to take the first ever snapshot of light behaving both as a wave and as a particle. The breakthrough work is published in Nature Communications.
When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time.
A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.
The experiment is set up like this: A pulse of laser light is fired at a tiny metallic nanowire. The laser adds energy to the charged particles in the nanowire, causing them to vibrate. Light travels along this tiny wire in two possible directions, like cars on a highway. When waves traveling in opposite directions meet each other they form a new wave that looks like it is standing in place. Here, this standing wave becomes the source of light for the experiment, radiating around the nanowire.
Can machines think? That's what renowned mathematician Alan Turing sought to understand back in the 1950s when he created an imitation game to find out if a human interrogator could tell a human from a machine based solely on conversation deprived of physical cues. The Turing test was introduced to determine a machine's ability to show intelligent behavior that is equivalent to or even indistinguishable from that of a human. Turing mainly cared about whether machines could match up to humans' intellectual capacities.
But there is more to being human than intellectual prowess, so researchers from the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences (CCSBS) in the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science at Florida Atlantic University set out to answer the question: "How does it 'feel' to interact behaviorally with a machine?"
They created the equivalent of an "emotional" Turing test, and developed a virtual partner that is able to elicit emotional responses from its human partner while the pair engages in behavioral coordination in real-time.
Results of the study, titled "Enhanced Emotional Responses during Social Coordination with a Virtual Partner," are recently published in the International Journal of Psychophysiology. The researchers designed the virtual partner so that its behavior is governed by mathematical models of human-to-human interactions in a way that enables humans to interact with the mathematical description of their social selves.
"Our study shows that humans exhibited greater emotional arousal when they thought the virtual partner was a human and not a machine, even though in all cases, it was a machine that they were interacting with," said Mengsen Zhang, lead author and a Ph.D. student in FAU's CCSBS. "Maybe we can think of intelligence in terms of coordinated motion within and between brains."
The virtual partner is a key part of a paradigm developed at FAU called the Human Dynamic Clamp -- a state-of-the-art human machine interface technology that allows humans to interact with a computational model that behaves very much like humans themselves. In simple experiments, the model -- on receiving input from human movement -- drives an image of a moving hand which is displayed on a video screen. To complete the reciprocal coupling, the subject sees and coordinates with the moving image as if it were a real person observed through a video circuit. This social "surrogate" can be precisely tuned and controlled -- both by the experimenter and by the input from the human subject.
"The behaviors that gave rise to that distinctive emotional arousal were simple finger movements, not events like facial expressions for example, known to convey emotion," said Emmanuelle Tognoli, Ph.D., co-author and associate research professor in FAU's CCSBS. "So the findings are rather startling at first."
Earlier this year, 100 million people watched a Google-owned computer beat a (human) champion at Go, the world’s most complicated board game. So how did the machine triumph, and what are the implications for the struggle between man and machine?
After years of development in increasingly fracturing sub-disciplines it seems that systems science as an integrated whole domain of knowledge is rising again. For those familiar with the history of systems science you will recall that in the earl
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