Symbiotic root fungi
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Plants and Microbes
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Nature Genetics: A recently evolved hexose transporter variant confers resistance to multiple pathogens in wheat (2015)

Nature Genetics: A recently evolved hexose transporter variant confers resistance to multiple pathogens in wheat (2015) | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

As there are numerous pathogen species that cause disease and limit yields of crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), single genes that provide resistance to multiple pathogens are valuable in crop improvement1, 2. The mechanistic basis of multi-pathogen resistance is largely unknown. Here we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and transformation to isolate the wheat Lr67 gene, which confers partial resistance to all three wheat rust pathogen species and powdery mildew. The Lr67 resistance gene encodes a predicted hexose transporter (LR67res) that differs from the susceptible form of the same protein (LR67sus) by two amino acids that are conserved in orthologous hexose transporters. Sugar uptake assays show that LR67sus, and related proteins encoded by homeoalleles, function as high-affinity glucose transporters. LR67res exerts a dominant-negative effect through heterodimerization with these functional transporters to reduce glucose uptake. Alterations in hexose transport in infected leaves may explain its ability to reduce the growth of multiple biotrophic pathogen species.


News & Views at http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n12/full/ng.3456.html


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Plants and Microbes
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Mashable: Chinese Researchers Create Disease-Resistant Wheat by Deleting Genes (2014)

Mashable: Chinese Researchers Create Disease-Resistant Wheat by Deleting Genes (2014) | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Advanced genome-editing techniques have been used to create a strain of wheat resistant to a destructive fungal pathogen — called powdery mildew — that is a major bane to the world's top food source, according to scientists at one of China's leading centers for agricultural research.

 

To stop the mildew, researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences deleted genes that encode proteins that repress defenses against the mildew. The work promises to someday make wheat more resistant to the disease, which is typically controlled through the heavy use of fungicides. It also represents an important achievement in using genome editing tools to engineer food crops without inserting foreign genes — a flashpoint for opposition to genetically modified crops.

 

The gene-deletion trick is particularly tough to do in wheat because the plant has three genomes — with largely similar copies of the same genes — meaning all three must be deleted or the trait will not be changed. Using gene-editing tools known as TALENs and CRISPR, the researchers were able to do that without changing anything else or adding genes from other organisms.

 

"We now caught all three copies, and only by knocking out all three copies can we get this [mildew]-resistant phenotype," says Caixia Gao, who heads a gene-editing research group at the State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering at the Institute of Microbiology in Beijing.

 

A paper describing the results appears in Nature Biotechnology http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2969.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Plant microbe interactions
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Arabidopsis RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN30 and Receptor-Like Kinase SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1/EVERSHED Mediate Innate Immunity to Necrotrophic Fungi

Arabidopsis RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN30 and Receptor-Like Kinase SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1/EVERSHED Mediate Innate Immunity to Necrotrophic Fungi | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Effective plant defense strategies rely in part on the perception of non-self determinants, so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), by transmembrane pattern recognition receptors leading to MAMP-triggered immunity. Plant resistance against necrotrophic pathogens with a broad host range is complex and yet not well understood. Particularly, it is unclear if resistance to necrotrophs involves pattern recognition receptors. Here, we partially purified a novel proteinaceous elicitor called SCLEROTINIA CULTURE FILTRATE ELICITOR1 (SCFE1) from the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that induces typical MAMP-triggered immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of natural genetic variation revealed five Arabidopsis accessions (Mt-0, Lov-1, Lov-5, Br-0, and Sq-1) that are fully insensitive to the SCFE1-containing fraction. We used a forward genetics approach and mapped the locus determining SCFE1 sensitivity to RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN30 (RLP30). We also show that SCFE1-triggered immune responses engage a signaling pathway dependent on the regulatory receptor-like kinases BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) and SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1/EVERSHED (SOBIR1/EVR). Mutants of RLP30, BAK1, and SOBIR1 are more susceptible to S. sclerotiorum and the related fungus Botrytis cinerea. The presence of an elicitor in S. sclerotiorum evoking MAMP-triggered immune responses and sensed by RLP30/SOBIR1/BAK1 demonstrates the relevance of MAMP-triggered immunity in resistance to necrotrophic fungi.


Via Olivier ANDRE
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Plant microbe interactions
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Mycorrhiza-induced resistance: more than the sum of its parts? (TIP 2013)

Mycorrhiza-induced resistance: more than the sum of its parts? (TIP 2013) | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Via Olivier ANDRE
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Identification of volatile compounds produced by the bacterium Burkholderia tropica that inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens

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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Amazing Science
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Plants communicate with each other through fungus network of roots

Plants communicate with each other through fungus network of roots | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it
Researchers show that plants can communicate the need to protect themselves from attack by aphids by making use of an underground network of fungi.

 

Instances of plant communication through the air have been documented, in which chemicals emitted by a damaged plant can be picked up by a neighbour. But below ground, most land plants are connected by fungi called mycorrhizae.

 

Researchers from the University of Aberdeen, the James Hutton Institute and Rothamsted Research, all in the UK, devised a clever experiment to isolate the effects of these thread-like networks of mycorrhizae. The team concerned themselves with aphids, tiny insects that feed on and damage plants.

 

Many plants have a chemical armoury that they deploy when aphids attack, with chemicals that both repel the aphids and attract parasitic wasps that are aphids' natural predators.

 

The team grew sets of five broad bean plants, allowing three in each group to develop mycorrhizal networks, and preventing the networks' growth in the other two. To prevent any through-the-air chemical communication, the plants were covered with bags.

 

As the researchers allowed single plants in the sets to be infested with aphids, they found that if the infested plant was connected to another by the mycorrhizae, the un-infested plant began to mount its chemical defence.

 Those unconnected by the networks appeared not to receive the signal of attack, and showed no chemical response. 

"Mycorrhizal fungi need to get [products of photosynthesis] from the plant, and they have to do something for the plant," explained John Pickett of Rothamsted Research.

 

"In the past, we thought of them making nutrients available from the [roots and soil], but now we see another evolutionary role for them in which they pay the plant back by transmitting the signal efficiently," he told BBC News. Prof Pickett expressed his "abject surprise that it was just so powerful - just such a fantastic signalling system".

 

The finding could be put to use in many crops that suffer aphid damage, by arranging for a particular, "sacrificial" plant to be more susceptible to aphid infestation, so that when aphids threaten, the network can provide advance notice for the rest of the crop.

 

"Now we've got a chance in a really robust manner of switching on the defence when it is needed - not straining the plant to do it all the time - and to reduce the development of resistance (of the aphids to the plants' defences)," Prof Pickett said.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
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Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015)

Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015) | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Via The Sainsbury Lab
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, December 10, 2015 9:47 AM

Secreted peroxidases are well-known components of damage-induced defense responses in plants. A recent study in Nature ( Turrà et al., 2015) has revealed that these enzymes can inadvertently serve as reporters of wounded sites and constitute an “Achilles heel,” allowing adapted pathogens to track and enter host tissue.

Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Plants and Microbes
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Frontiers: Effector proteins of rust fungi (2014)

Frontiers: Effector proteins of rust fungi (2014) | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1 and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere

Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

The rhizosphere is the interface between plant roots and soil where interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and invertebrates affect biogeochemical cycling, plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. The rhizosphere is intriguingly complex and dynamic, and understanding its ecology and evolution is key to enhancing plant productivity and ecosystem functioning. Novel insights into key factors and evolutionary processes shaping the rhizosphere microbiome will greatly benefit from integrating reductionist and systems-based approaches in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. Here, we discuss recent developments in rhizosphere research in relation to assessing the contribution of the micro- and macroflora to sustainable agriculture, nature conservation, the development of bio-energy crops and the mitigation of climate change.


Via Francis Martin
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Suggested by Jared Broker
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Mycorrhizal Symbiosis - Short Video Depiction, Fungi and Roots

A quick depiction of how fungal root symbiotes can and do assist plant roots.  Nearly every plant uses fungi for minerals and moisture.  Most people are not aware of this fact.

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Rescooped by Jordan Brungardt from Rhizobium Research
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NatRevMicrobiol. Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants

NatRevMicrobiol. Speak, friend, and enter: signalling systems that promote beneficial symbiotic associations in plants | Symbiotic root fungi | Scoop.it

Subscription required, but worth it if you can get it!

I love this area of research - signaling between kingdoms, and the common roots of plant mutualisms with fungi and bacteria.


Via Mary Williams, IvanOresnik
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Sohini Guha's comment, April 11, 2013 10:07 AM
sohiniguha1985@gmail.com
Jennifer Mach's comment, April 11, 2013 10:54 AM
Dear Sohini, I generally have better luck asking for a reprint directly from the corresponding author. Good luck! I don't have library access either, so I feel your pain!
Sohini Guha's comment, April 11, 2013 1:14 PM
thanx jennifer....